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A COMPREHENSIVE

HISTORY OF INDIA.

Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2011 with funding from


University of Toronto

http://www.archive.org/details/comprehensivehis01beve

r.

^y

r
>A^^^'XV--

COMPEEHENSIVE

HISTORY OF INDIA,
CIVIL, MILITARY,

AND

SOCIAL,

FROM

THE FIRST LANDINa OF THE ENGLISH,


TO THE SUPPRESSION OF THE SEPOY REVOLT;
INCLUDING

an outline of the early history of hindoostan.

By

henry BEVERIDGE,

Esq,

ADVOCATE.

ILLUSTRATED BY ABOVE FIVE HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS.

VOLUME

lDi.*^cminamu.8:.<

LONDON:
BLACKIE AND SON, PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS,
AND GLASGOW AND EDINBURGH.

E.G.;

J
io
GLASGOW:
W.

G. BLACfeJE^^i^X) CO.,

V o^^o J

LL A FIELD,

^KT

PREFACE.
India, the most valuable de2)enclency of the British crown,

Even some

interesting portions of the globe.

its

physical features are on a scale of

The stupendous mountain chain along

unparalleled grandeui*.
rising gradually

of

from a plain of inexhaustible

one of the most

also

is

its

northern frontier

has snowy summits which tower

fertility,

nearly six thousand feet above the loftiest of any other country in either hemisphere

while over the vast expanse of

its

magnificently diversified surface almost every jiroduct

possessed of economical value grows indigenously, or ha\'ing been introduced

Nor

with success.

are

its

moral

less

remarkable than

nigged recesses and jungly forests various


inhabitants,

may

tribes,

though far advanced in


for ages lived

carried

most of the

civilization, at least in

supposed to represent

arts of

are subservient, shoidd be

common

life

new phase

full

of

and treated

as

That the dominant


is

class, to

deficient in natural acuteness,

culture.

Hindooism, though

not only counts


its votai-ies,

ledge,

its

that those

cities,

and

and slaves

which

all othei's

nothing more than might have been

mere outcasts whose very touch


is

aboriginal

The great

to high perfection, are yet the dupes

when

nature seems to be presented

submission the more extraordinary,

its

the ordinary sense of the term, since they

of religious zeal,

human

In

or rather aggi'egation of races, who,

is

those occupying

murmur

the lower grades of the social scale are seen submitting ^vithout a
over,

its

under regular government, dwelt in large and splendid

of a most childish and galling superstition.

expected, but a

I'ace,

cultivated

physical features.

be seen in a state bordering on absolute barbarism.

still

bulk of the pojiulation, howevei", consists of a

have

its

is

"What makes this

pollution.

who exemplify

to be lorded

it

are by no

means

and, on the contrary, often give proofs of intellectual

little

better than a tissue of obscene

and monstrous

fancies,

domination by thousands of years, but can boast of having had among

men who,

in the ages in

which they

lived,

extended the boundaries of know-

and earned some of the abstrusest of the sciences to a height Avhich they had

never i-eached before.


supei-stition,

nowhere

This remarkable combination of pure intellect and grovelling


dis})layed so strikingly

and unequiA'Ocally

as in

India,

gives a

peculiar value even to that part of its histoiy which, relating only to its social state,

is

necessarily the least fruitful in stirring incidents.

So long as the leading powei-s of Europe made India a kind of common

battle-field,

on which they met to contend for s\ipremacy, no one nation could be said to possess any
exclusive or peculiar intei-est in

its affairs;

but from the

forth, virtually if not formally recognized as the


tries

became in a manner

The

vast space which separates

identified,

them

moment when Great

paramoinit power, the history of both coun-

and ought therefore


is

Britain stood

to be studied as one gi'eat whole.

a mere circumstance which,

if it

have any weight

VI

J 'It

at nil, rm^^lit ratlicr to increase

to

new

iind sees tln-m in a


tlie

the int<;rcHtof the BritiHli

new modes

Hceues and

now

sjjirit,

given her

tlie

rca<ler,

who

is jiot

only intifxluced

of social existence, but follows his countrj'nien

same unrivalled

sjthere disjjlayin;;^ the

talents, civil

st<'p

and

by

military,

wiiich have placed Great Britain at the hea<l of nuxleni nations, and

and mightiest empire that the world has yet beheld.

largest

was placed under a kind of

and those intrusted with

tutelage,

Wliile India

administration, iiintcad

its

of encouraging, systematically repressed the public curiosity, there was doubtless

excuse for a feeling of apathy in regard to

its affairs

any adventitious

resources, as one of the

its

upon her loving

intervention, has called

welfare of all her dominions,

how can

most

some

but now that the anomalous fomi

own name without

of government has been abolished, and the Queen, ruling India in her

developing

Kt'ii,

and perseverance, the same eidightened, humane, and

sanu! in(l<jniitabl(r courage

generous

L FACE.

subjects to unite with her in

means of promoting the general

effectual

the call be properly resjx)nded

to,

unless the actual

circumstances of the country, and the whole course of events by which these have V>een

formed

are

in other words, all the details of its history

carefully studied ?

subject so impoi'tant and so attractive as that of India could not faU to engage

many

the pens of

writers,

and accordingly a number of works relating to

it

has appeared,

some of them by distinguished men, who bore no unimportant part in many of the
actions

which

To

tliey iian'ate.

all

these works, however, there

is

traas-

one serious objection,

which, without impugning their merits, goes to prove that so far from exhausting the

have

subject, they

Some

histories.

provinces

left

them

of

down

history, or after bringing it

very period when

work, which

it

differs

as far as

was practicable

from them in plan, and

at the time, stop short at the

is

it

due research, in a

ui-gency.

a Comprehensive History of IncUa, beginning with

its

it,

matei'ials as
it

eai'liest

much

as possible

from original and

official sources.

as its

period,

name

implies,

and continued,
In

The only part


is

of the

How far he has succeeded,

work on which he ventures

that of the maps, plans, and

which, independently of their merit as embeUishments, bring

the history

is,

the author has not trusted to previous compilations, but derived his

to anticipate the judgment of the public

its

campaigns,

most celebrated personages

much

It

felt,

omission of any transaction of importance, to the present time.

remains for his readers to decide.

tions,

pei'spicu-

might supply a want which had long been

and to which recent events had given much additional

composing

The present
more popular

also intended to be of a

in the belief that if written after

ous style, and with strict impartiality,

known

of the earlier

pai't

becomes at once most interesting and most instructive.

was undertaken

without the

comj)lete

are jjrofessedly confined to particular jjeriods or pailicular

while others of a more general description either omit

character,

them of the character of

imijortant blanks, which depiive

credit to those

perusal of the history

its

battle-fields, its

cities,

immediately before the

and other

eye, in a

employed upon them, but must


itself.

all

numerous

illustra-

the leading topics of

localities,

and even

its

manner which not only does

gi-eatly facilitate

the inteUigent

CONTENTS.
VOL. L
PAGE

Introduction,

BOOK
CHAPTER

I.

Ancient India

The pre-historic period Native sources of information Other accounts

Invasion
Great

I.

of India by Sesostris, Semiramis, Darius

Hystaspes, Alexander the

Subsequent state of India,

CHAPTER
Arab conquests First

Medieval India

of Scinde by

Sebektegiu

Mahomed

Casira

II.

Arabs

of the

House

of

Ghuznee
39

CHAPTER

III.

Altamsh Sultana
Rezia Mogul irruptions into India Gheias-u-diu Biilbun House of Khilji
Jelal-u-din Proceedings in the Deccan House of Toghlak House of Lodi,

Medieval India continued- The Slave

Kings Eibuk

or Kutb-u-din

Invasion of Tiraour or

Timour's deputy

CHAPTER IV.
Tamerlaue Battle of Delhi Sack

Independent

monarchy Proceedings

Syud

successor

Lody

Sikundur

of

Life

Khizr Khan

Mahomed Syud

Khizr

62

Khan,

His death Moobarik, his son and


Afghan Lody dynasty Bheilole

Ala-u-din

Lody Ibrahim Lody

and reign

of Delhi

kingdoms established on the ruins of the Delhi

and renewal of that of the Moguls

Mogul dynasty

15

appearance of Mahometans in India Conquest

Expulsion

Sultan Mahmood,

Extinction

of the

Lody Afghan dynasty,

in the person of Baber,

CHAPTER V.
of Baber Hoomayoon His

94

expulsion and return

State of India at his death,

105

CHAPTER VL
Reign of Akber

121

CHAPTER VIL
Modern India Changes
establisheil

of the

in

the

mode

of

intercourse

by the Venetians, the Genoese, and other

Cape of Good Hope

with the East Monopolies


Italian republics Doubling

Portuguese progress in India

U4

Mil

(JONTENTS.

CirAl'TER VIII.
Portuguese progress in the East

The viceroyrthips

of Fntucisco Ahneida and Alfonuo

....

Alljiiquenine,

CHAPTER
by other routes than

Att'iiipts to reach India


iini tli-\v(

sL

and north-east

Superiority of

tlie

The

IX,
of the Cape

tliat

Their

fiiilure Vjy

the

south-west passage practicable, but circuitous

passage by the Cape generally recognized

First voyages of the


lOO

English and Dutch by that route,

CHAPTER

X.

Association of merchant adventurers for a voyage to the East

Their memorial

The

first

Their

proceedings

224

English East India charter,

BOOK

II.

CHAPTER
The

1 S

I.

Localities selected Opposition from the Dutch and


the Portuguese First English factory on the continent of India Sir Thomas Roe's
embassy to the court of the Great Mogul State of that court Establishment of a
first

voyages of the

trade with Persia,

Company

.............
CHAPTER

238

II.

Proceedings in the Persian Gulf New joint stock


Arrangement with the Dutch The council of defence The massacre of Amboyna,

Progress of the Company's trade

CHAPTER

III.

Establishment of a rival
State of the Company under Cromwell,

Truce with the Portuguese

Dutch

CHAPTER

company

Settlement

wdth the
267

IV.

Reign of Shah Jehan His deposition by Aurungzebe

Mahrattas

258

Rise

and

progi-ess

ot

the

Reign of Aurungzebe,

251

CHAPTER

V.

New general charter by Charles


Company's proceedings Grant of the

Resumption of the history of the East India Company


II.

Constitutional

island of

question raised by the

Bombay,

309

CHAPTER VI.
Administration and progress of Bombay Difficulties State of the other settlements of
the Company,

324

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Marked change

the Company's policy ou

in

preparations

VII.

the accession

of

James

II.

Hostile

War with the Mogul Disastrous results,

CHAPTER
New

IX

crown charters

Hostile feeling of

scandalous disclosures Rival

Company

of

Coramons

established

BOOK

successors of

act of parliament,

state of India

The

and other native states

immediate

Tlie

invasion

382

of Nadir Shah,

CHAPTER
The

351

I.

Company Political

Aurungzebe Tlie Mahrattas

by

Wholesale bribery and

III.

CHAPTER
Actual position of the United

340

VIII.

House

tlie

PACE

])rogress of the

French

in

II.

India War between France and England

Naval

and

The capture of Madras,


CHAPTER III.
repulsed The
Proceedings of the French at Madras An attempt of the nabob upon
terms of capitulation shamefully violated Unsuccessful attempts of the French
David Proceedings of the English
under Admiral Boscawen
upon Fort
Siege of Pondicherry The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle,
military operations

407

it

fleet

St.

CHAPTER
The Carnatic

Its

political state

Transactions

IV.

in Tanjore

Early

career of Clive

Siege of Trichinopoly,

42'.)

CHAPTER
Intrigues of

Mahomed

Trichinopoly

Ali

Vacillating

Mahomed

All's

toriuous

Attempts at negotiation

ments

Arrival

of

proceedings
lost

Major Lawrence with a

1.

rein-

Discontent of his allies


Clive sails for England
471

of Dupleix,

superseded returns to France

of a British fleet Return of Clive

the French

New

Destruction

arrange-

of pirates at

Gheriah,

Vol.

453

ground

CHAPTER VI
Bussy Great accession of territory to

Dupleix

of

VI.

Arrival

Major Lawrence New intrigues

Proceedings of Salabut Jung and

Siege

..........

Capture of Arcot,
CHAPTER

Attempts of the French to recover their


Successes of

V.

conduct of the Madras government

Continuation of the Siege of Trichinopoly

forcement

418

oOl
I,

CONTENTS.

CirAPTEK VIM.
PAMK

State of
;iiiJ

Honi^'.il

All

-Ailmiiiiatnitiou ul

J.-illit-r

Kliau, Sliujah-u-din

Khau, Serferaz

Rlrtii,

Verdy Kliau,

.OK;

CITAPTER

IX.

His early career First acts of his government


against Piirneah His suHpicion and hatred of the
East India Company The factory of Cossimhazar seized and plundered Calcutta
besieged and taken The horrors of the Black Hole,

Stiijijah

Dowlah, N.bob of Bengal

rival claimant

His expedition

CHAPTER
Deliberations at

Madras

Armament

and military operations

factory at Chaudernagore

the nabob

sails for

Treaty of

X.

Bengal

Recapture

peace with the nabob

Recommencement

'/.iO

Naval

of Calcutta

Capture of the French

Conspiracy

of Iiostilities

to depose

The battle of Plassey,

547

CHAPTER

XI.

Desultory warfare Arrival of a French squadron


Lally, commander-in-chief of French forces Naval action Siege and capture of
Fort St. David Siege of Taujore Siege of Madras French reverses Forde in

Position of affairs in the Caruatic

the Northern Circars Battle of

Waudiwash Siege and capture

Destruction of Fz-ench interests in the Deccan,

CHAPTER
Meer

Jaffier nabob,

son

and Clive governor of Bengal

.......
of Pondicherry

594

XIT.

Attempt

upon

it

by the Mogul'-s

Hostilities with the Dutch Departure of Clive His successors, Holwell and
Meer Jaffier deposed, and Meer Cossim appointed nabob ^leer Cossim

Vansittart

deposed, and

second

Meer

Dewannee

Nugum-ud-Dowlah

titular

nabob Clive's

..............

government

Company,

Jaffier reinstated

of

Bengal, Behar, and Orissa granted

to

the

645

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
VOLUME
FRONTISPIECE.Openinq

up of direct European Trade with India Yasco de

Gama and the zamorin

fo

Calicut.

EXGRAVED TITLE.-The Rock

cut Temple of Kylas, at Ellora.

Sketch Mai' of India to illustrate the Uistory from the Earliest Period to the Battle of Pla.ssey.
Map to illustrate the Waks in Coromandel, 1744-178I).

Map to illustrate the Wars ix Mysore, 1707-1799.


Map of the Valley of the Ganges, from Caixjutta
Bbhar,

to Benabes, including the Provinces of noal,

iio.

Map of Malwah, includino Holkar's and Scindia'.s Dominions.


Map of the Maur.vtta Country and Adjacent Territories.

Map
Map

of the

....

Jummoodeep,

of India according to Ptolemy,

Interior of the Cave of Klephanta,


E.xterior of Great

Chaitya Cave, Salsotle,

Exterior of the Chaitya Cave, Adjiiuta,


Interior of the

Bisma Kiirm,

Ellora,

lUiius of Tyre,

of Alexander

the Great,

Silver Coin of Eucratidcs V.,

Ruins at Canouge,
Gates of the Temple at Somnautli,

Ghnznee,

Ajmeer, from near the Gogra Pass,

Tomb

Silver

and

Woman

Coin of Ala-u-din,

Huins of the Castle of Sehwan

.19

Mausoleum of Emperor Akber

24
25

....
.

Akber's Tombstone at Secuudra,

140

Palace of Akber, Futtipoor Sikra,

142

'Ihe Chalees Sitoon, Allahabad,

3-1

Portrait of Christopher Columbus,

38

Vievv of the

47
50

Portrait of Vasco de

Gama,

General View of Calicut,

Portrait of Alfonso de Albuquerque,

59

General View of Lisbon, a.d. 1574,

174

C3

Bird's-eye

175

View of Alexandria,

Thecity of Ormuz,

Baber, Cabool

Chunarghur, near Benares,


Bihistee, or
t-heer Shah's

....

Water Carrier of Bengal,

Mausoleum

at Sasseram, near

in the Persian Gulf, a.d.

1574,

General View of Din, A.D. 1574,


Portrait of Sebastian Cabut,

80

General View of Greenwich in 1662,

Portrait of Ferdinand Magellan,

93

now

in

178
190

.190

Greenwich Hospital,

201

206
208
208

Jewel presented to Drake by Queen Elizabeth, in


possession of Sir T. T. Elliott Fulke Drake,

209

Bait

Thomas Cavendish,

107

Portrait of

110

Cape Comorin, from uear Calead,


Portuguese Residents at Bantam, circ. A.D. 1600

113

172

.185

7-5

Bird's-eye

View of Bantam,

circ.

a.d. 1600,

209

217

219
213

11:^

Governor of Bantam and Attendants, eir. a.d. 1600 221

114

Portrait of George, third Earl of Cumberland,

232

Manchc

237

239

.115

Benares

1574,

A.I).

162

.168

71

102

General View of Aden, A.D. 1574,

The Snowy Range of the Himalayas, from Marma, 89

Emperor Baber, near Cabool,


White Marble Mosque at the Tomb of Emperor

65

Portrait of Sir Francis Drake,

of the

156

.161

53

Drake's Astrolabe,

Tomb

89

(Native Boat), circa 1598,

86

Usbeks of Khoondooz, and a Khojah of Usbek,


View of Kandahar,

.153

General View of Cananore, A. D. 1574,

...

152

An Almadia

A Brahmin,

52

Part of the Serai, Toghlakabad,

52

Bin Toghlak,

Ship of Spain, Fifteenth Century,

Mausoleum

Mahomed

1574,

A. D.

143

147
149

Cape of Good Hope,

82

Khosrow, near Allahabad,

140

of

136

Ruins of the Palace of Hana Bheum, Chittoor,

Copper Coiu of

at Secnnilra,

Constantinople, end of Seventeenth Century,

.03

(Afghanistan;,

136
(Sciiule),

27

...

Armed Afghan

Yoosoofzye,

of Sultan Altamsh, Delhi,

Group of Ancient Indian Armour,


Khilji Chieftain

Futtipoor Sikra,

18

Miliar, Delhi,

Gheughis Khan,

.135

at

19

Mahmood's Tomb, Oliuzncc,


Sultan Mahmood's Tomb, Ghuznec,

Interior of the

...
...
....51
.

Silver Coin of

Attock, from west bank of the Ganges,

Tomb

E.xlerior of Sultan

Kutb

133

18

Selini's

Gold and Silver Coins of Sultan Mahmood,

Interior of

Sheikh

General View of the Kuins of Palmyra,

Pillars,

131

from a Silver

Tetradrachina of Lysiinaciius,

.Mahmood's

liuins of Goor, the old capital of Bengal,

Distant View of Cabool,

rian of Soor, the Ancient Tyre,

Head

.121

.17

PAOB
.

......
...

Ancient Indian Zodiac,

PAOE

1 1

of Calicut (Native Boat),

General View of Woolwich

in

1602,

LIST

Xll

(>V

View of Amboyiia

(Jfiicral

.....

Tlic I'owii and Volcano of

Java Junk, circa 1000,

M cell

a,

View

of Pointdc-Galle,

Tematc,

in

from the Nortli,

Tomb

of

Anns

of East India

tlic

Company,

Castle of AinboyiKi,

Krnpcror Jchangir

1005,

lCOO-50,
.

General View of iMasulipatam,

Seal used by Sir William Courteen's Association,

Gateway

to

tlie

Fort of Agra,

Huins of Old Delhi

Mahal

Interior of the Tiije

Tomb

of

at Agra,

Emperor Shah Jehan

in the Taje

Itock und

Pagoda

240

Mahal,

....

Horseback, with Attendants,

Wagnuck, or Tiger's Claws,


Tower of Victory, Chittoor,

riie

200

The Fort of Dowjelabad,

209

A Graba

The English
Bird's-eye

Fort,

Bombay,

circa

1672,

290

Musjid at Cuttack,

294

Ganges

535
.

538

300

View of

543

Monument

William, Calcutta, a.d. 1754,

F'ort

to those

.....
....

who

Hole, Calcutta,
Portrait of

perished in the Black

Admiral Watson,

Mocrshedabad, on the Ganges,

Cutwah, on the Ganges,

325

Portrait of Lieutenant-General Sir

327

Gateway

at Rajmahal,

on the Ganges,

Portrait of

Patna, on the Ganges,

343
347

352
The Old Eait India House, circa a.d. 1650,
Portrait of Thomas Osborne, first Duke of Leeds, 364
,

Jhalledar

Palanquin

View of Boorhanpoor,
View of Joodpoor,

Portrait of Nadir Shah,

View

Emperor of

Persia,

Peons of ^Mysore,

Portrait of Major-General Stringer Lawrence,

Lord Clive,
Amboor, in ^lysore,

Portrait of Robert,

The

Hill-fort of

Plan of the Fort of Gingee,

Caparisoned Elephant with Howdah,

View

Fort of Madura,

607

.611

View of Conjeveram, near the Great Pagoda,

Sepoys of the Bengal Army,

395

Plau of Pondicherrj' and

395

Masula Boat of the Coromandel Coast,

398

The Chouk and Husseinee Delauu at Dacca,

047

401

Part of the City of Moorshedabad,

649

405

Feal Charra, or Elepliaut's-head State Boat,

Admiral

George Pococke,

Sir

its

022

625

.631

644

054

C54

Grain Boats of Calcutta,

Fort of Chunarghur, near Benares,


Palace, Allahabad,

Fort of Allahabad,

602

663

.671
.681

....
.....
....

Portrait of Sujah Dowlah,

Patile

619

View of Chinsurah, on the Hooghly,


Portrait of the Emperor Shah Alum,

455

Puukee, or Peacock's-head Pleasure Boat,

421

The

014

Wolacks

444

Environs, a.d. 1760, 639

Moor

423

415

.446
.451
.

gapatam,

409

.440
.

in the

Peer Musjid, and Hill near the Dolphins, Viza-

Plan of the Fort of Waudiwash iu 1759,

......
.

606

380

....

Eort St. George, Madras, a.d. 1754,

598

390
393

Afghans Mounted and on Foot,

Portrait of Labourdounais,

596

at Sattarah,

Dooranees

.589
.

Portrait of

577

381

.....

in the Deccan,

587

used by Rajahs,

Plan of the Fort of Masulipatam, a.d. 1759,

....

Rajpoots on i'oot and on Horseback,

Mahrattas on Horseback,

576

379
380

Earl of (iodolphin,

Garool.uh, a Boat of the Persian Gulf,

574

View of Gombroon, or Bender- Abbaz, a.d. 1676


first

Thomas Arthur, Co.rite de Lally,


Plan of Fort St. Dadd, near Cuddalore,
View of Mount St. Thome, near Madras,
View of the Black Town, Madras,

545

54S

Eyre Coote,

The Fort of Monghir, on the Gauges,

Portrait of Sidney,

523

.Map of the Territorj- of Calcutta, A.D. 1757,

at

295

at

485

489
500

531

338

481

.503
,510
.5)8

Ganges,

335

Street of the Fountains, Bejapoor,

472
4*9

Ruins of the Rajah's Palace, Rajmahal, on the

Fort of Eaje Ghur, Gingee,

General View of Canton,

Ghaut

Jumma

Ghaut

314

....
....
.....

View of Trincomalee,

Bombay,

.317

Najar Nultoo Sing's Mh'jot at Dacca, on the

.310

28y

Mackerey, or Ballot k Cart of Bengal,

View of the Island

the Adjacent Coast,

The

304

Bombay and

282

308

of

402

....

Tanjore,

Vessel of

284

General View of Surat,

hiiij;lcput,

201

Map

Gnat Pagoda,

.Map of the Environs of Trichiooiwly,

View of Aurungabad,
(

45'j

.....

Scringham,

at

250

of St. Helena,

Armed,

I'olyger coinpletely

Gateway of Pagoda

View of the Fort of

Aurungzebe's Burial-place at Rozah,

of the Kings, Golconda,

Temple of Tricbioopo^j,

at Conjcverarii,

2.07

Founder of the Mahratta Empire, on

Sevajce,

Tombs

242
2415

.251
.253

at Laliore,
circ.

JLMJSTRATIONS.

Boat of the Ganges,

692
693
702
707

o
o
1^

o
c
m

.,,.

KW,.U.1-

KHi;

f- ^-'^-it*f fr

ULACXII A iON. GLASCOK. SDIXBURfiS * LOKUOS.

E W#4].T

L<**ft^i

ft..-n

l.

r Wollrr

KRCS
SUCXtE &

SON.

(fLA.-!riW.

5DINB0IUIH H

WKDOH

rM,,,

I.,

rwnvi

iiii;

i^inmurit

BtAClUR A SON.aLASOOW.KDNBrRCA & LOSnOS.

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KW'JLrrJL->ii<ii-'i

THE

MAHRATTA COUNTRY, AND ADJACENT TERRITORIES

BUAOMB

t SON,

GLASGOW EBnTBTJKSH t LONDON

COMPREHENSIVE

HISTORY OF INDIA
INTRODUCTION.
dONG

after the

name

of India had become famiHar in the

uieas of In-

earliest seats of civilization in the Mediterranean, little

was known of the country designated by

was a region

more

than that

it,

'' seo-

it

of vast extent situated in the far East, near

known

the outermost verge of the

^a

Ancient

world.

From

the in-

habitants themselves no satisfactory information could be

Accustomed to

obtained.

everything in mystery, they

veil

divided the terrestrial globe into seven deeps or islands, each

ii>^

human

of the

lifjr^-'"

^1^

encompassed by

'

(.-onsists

most

and
his

own

Jummoodeep,

race in

above the

hiy-hly favoured localities.'

obscvu-ed

peculiar oce.an

and placing the habitation

whicli

is

nearest the centre, and Hmdooidea

partly of Meru, a mountain of gold of enormous height, reaching

as far beneath as

its

by

fancy to run

The notions of the Greeks,

were of a more definite description.

fable,
riot,

surface, appropriated to themselves

him, India was, as


consisted of

empire,

its

name

tliouffh disfirrured Greek

no-

Instead of allowing

result.

implies, the country drained

two great divisions

and formed the

siitrapies or

its

Herodotus diligently consulted the few sources of know-

within his reach, and honestly communicated the

leilge

one of

a western,

by the

Indus, and

which was included in the

largest, as well as the

provinces into which that empire

According to

Per.sian

most productive of the twenty

was then

divided;

and an

eastern,

which, stretching beyond the limits supposed to be habitable, terminated in a

sandy

desert.-'

them, that

Crude as these ideas

when Alexander, dm-ing

Indus, he mistook

means
it to

it

are, so httle

by

to correct or enlarge

his celebrated expedition, first reached the Alexanders

for the Nile.

to undeceive himself,

was done

Fortunately he took the most effectual

fitting out a fleet,

Nearchus, who, after descending the river to

and giving the command of


its

mouth

in

tlie

ocean, con-

tinued his coui-se westwards along the shores of the Arabian Sea, and finally
'

Gladwin's Aycen Akhery, vol.


Herodotus, book

--Vol.

I.

iii.

iii.

p. 23, et scq.,

with

its

curious map, illustrative of Hindoo geography.

97-106.
1

IIISTOTIY

arrived in

tli(!

Persian Gulf.

OF INDIA.

AlexaTuler, ulio

had acconipanicd

his de-scent, afterwarrlH acconiplisliod the rest of the rliHtance


'^'^^'^

suaoa""

o^'^'^t

routes to India

.Nearclius in

overland

had thu been simultaneously explored

latHZIItg

*f

An a

itDeO.liJt..

tASI

ST-

Map of the JrMMOODEEP.'

natural consequence, regular intercom-se with


figure
is

and dimensions began

furnished

that with

it

rapidly increased, and both

its

to be better understood.

Ample evidence of this


the works of Strabo and Ptolemy, and yet it cannot
be denied,
their industry and sagacity, they have ratlier
distorted than de-

by

all

lineated India.

The maritime

portion, in particular,

is miserably cm-tailed, and


characteristic projection, instead of forming the vertex
of a triangle, is' con-

its

'

This

map though

explanation.

sufficiently curious, could scarcely be

made more intelligible by any amount of


and all the attempts which have been made to find fixed localities
ranges of mountains, have failed. The ocean surrounding
Jummoodeep is

It is fanciful throughout,

for Its cardinal points,

and

its

only one which looks like reality, because it is


said to consist of salt water.
The other six oceai.s
beyond it consist
succession of milk, milk curds, ghee or clarified
butter, sugar-cane juice, wine, and
j
tlie

iresh water.

>

INTRODUCTION.
verted into the side of a square.'
blunder, which, indeed,

is

It

is

not

difficult to

many

only one of the

avoid, so long as the only accounts of the country

who

reached

it

by journeying

the infiincy of their

account for this serious

wliicii it

was impossible

to

were derived from travellers

across inhospitable deserts, or navigators who, in

art, effected

a long and perilous passage by following the

windino-s of the intervening shores

great advance

Portuguese doubled the Cape of Good Hope.

From

was made when the

that time, the Indian coast

Portuguese
ditx)vei'ie.

became

accessible in all directions,

out the interior was a


covdd be

No

made while

sooner, however,

work

tlie

and

its

outline

of greater difficulty

was

easily traced.

a work in which

little

To map
progress

struggle for supremacy in the East remained undecided.

were the foundations of

oiu-

Indian empu-e securely

laid,

India, ACCORDir^o to Ppolemt.

....

than the necessity of obtaining a tliorough


urgently

felt.

coimtry in

all

filled up,

tlie

its

surfiice

was

In

this

all

the aids which

tlie

refinements of modern

way, most of the blanks in Indian geogra])hy have been

advancing to completion.

course of the following work, the important })urposes to which the

by

Mo.iem geo
gniphj'.

length and breadth has been undertaken at the instance of

valuable materials accumulated


'

its

and a map, not unworthy of the vast and magnificent coimtry which

it delineate.s, is

In

knowledge of

Accordingly, in addition to district sm-veys, one embracing the

government, and carried on with


science supply.

these surveys are applicable will often be-

Forbiger's Ilandhuch dcr alien Geographic, particularly the illustrative majis in vol.

IflSTORV OF INTiTA.

come apparent; but

in the

meantime

it

Heems impossible to employ tliem to

the groundwork of a brief sketch, which, in

betttjr {iccount

than

exhibiting

leading features of the geography of India, will be at once an

tiie

in furnisiiing

appropriate introduction and a usefid guide to the study of


India:

it8

India, taken in its widest sense as a

ex-

I'uuudaiioa.

territories in Asia,

between

common name

for all the contiguous

which are directly or indirectly subject

and 37" north

latitude,

and

GQ''

to British rule, lies

and 99" east longitude.

which extend north and south from the Himalaya

limits,

its history.

to

Within these

Cape Comorin, and

west and east from Afghanistan and Beloochistan to the Burman empire,

it

covers an area of a million and a half of square miles, and contaiiLS one hundre<l

and eighty millions of inhabitants. As these enormous numbers are not ea.sily
comprehended, a more definite idea may be formed, by considering that the
space

is

about twelve times, and the population six times greater than those

The portion

of the British Islands.

of Bengal, consisting chiefly of acquisitions from the Burmese, are only

Bay

politically associated

with India

may

be

for the present

left

which the name of India

and
Divisions,

of these va.st dominions lying east of the

is,

for the

most

is

and, having few features in

out of view.

more properly

part, well defined

division of ancient date,

it

The other and

consists of

common with

far larger portion, to

applied, forms one

by natural

it,

compact whole,
According to a

boundaries.

Hindoostan and the Deccan

the former

meaning the Land of the Hindoo, and the latter the Land of the
The line of demarcation between the di\dsions is marked by the

desio-nation

South.

Vindhya Mountains, wliich stretch irregularly across the country from sea
sea, between the mouths of the Indus and the Ganges.
Hindoostan, thus defined, includes the whole of India which
to other parts of the Asiatic continent,

great river basins

and

lies

to

contiguous

consists almost entirely of

two

that of the Indus in the west, and that of the Ganges in the

Both basins have a common and magnificent boundary in the north,


where the Himalaya, by far the loftiest mountain system in the world, with
snowy summits which, measiu-ed from the level of the sea, have more than five
east.

miles of vertical height, diverges as from a central nucleus in opposite directions

on
Basin of the

the one hand, sloping north-west, and gi%'ing

ludus,

and on the

other, cm-ving

round toward the

its

waters chiefly to

east,

tlie

and supphing innu-

merable feeders to the Ganges. The basin of the Indus has its greate.st length
from north to south, and, with exception of the beautiful valley of Cashmere

and of the Punjab,

is

remarkable for a barrenness, which, in

becomes so great that cultivation

is

away

miles, has its occasional oases,

to the east

but

lower part,

confined to the breadth of a few miles on

either side of the river, while the adjacent country

This desert, stretching

its

is,

is

converted into a desert.

and north-east

for the

most

part, a

for several

hundred

sandy waste, mono-

tonous and dreary in the extreme.

On

entering the basin of the Ganges, a striking contrast

is

presented.

On

INTRODUCTION.
the north

by a

the Himalaya, descending

side,

5
series of magnificent terraces Basin

of the

with parallel or intersecting valleys, approaches the edge of an immense plain


of sm-passing beauty and fertility,

versed near

by a

centre

its

gently from west to east, and tra-

sl()[)ing

On

majestic river.

])oth

Himalaya, but partly also from the Vindhya range,

which so augment

tributaries,

bei'ed

with

and unable

its spoils,

volume that

its

to carry

Accordingly, in the lower part of

them along

its course, it

which form a kind of network across

little if

its delta.

The

at all inferior to its own.

from the

by numerous
a manner encum-

joined

in one amdivided channel.

throws off numerous branches,

municates with the Brahmapootra, coming from the


of water

it is

becomes in

it

chiefly

sides,

little

east,

down

lower

and carrying a volume

difficulty of discharge is

and can only be met by an additional number of

greatly increased,

com-

it

thus

outlet.s.

In the dry season, these flow witliin their banks, and have the appearance of

independent streams

but when the waters

and the whole country

A similar

tion.

consequence

is,

is

covered for

result is produced

rise,

many

a sudden overflow takes place,

miles around with one vast inunda-

on the lower

flats

of the Indus;

and one

that both rivers become far less available for navigation than

might be supposed from the volumes of water which they carry.

The channels

becoming shallow and attenuated in proportion to their number,

it

to find

any

which large vessels can safely

single one

is difficult

use.

The two great basins now described do not completely exhaust the whole
area included within the Himalaya and the Vindhya range; and therefore it is
.

central
ludia.

necessary to mention, that the ramifications of the range cover a considerable


tract of great

beauty and

Central India, and

is

fertility,

drained

the Taptee, which carry

its

but one, and

as a peninsula.

It

is

is

i^elongs to

by the independent

what has been

basins of the

called

Nerbudda and

waters west to the Gulf of Cambay.

The Deccan, the other great


all sides

which

division of India,

is

washed by the ocean on

The oeccin.

hence, though not with strict accuracy, usually described

an immense

in the form of

which

triangle,

rests

on the

and terminates in Cape Comorin as its vertex. Of


its two sides, one running S.S.E. in an almost unbroken line, faces the Arabian
Sea, the other, whose continuity is more broken, lies south-west, and faces the

Vindhya range

Bay

as its base,

of Bengal.

Names

so

common

as not to be

the lower halves of the sides

distinguish

that

imworthy of

notice serve to

on the west being usually

designated as the Malabar, and that on the east as the Coromandel coast.

The

structm-e of the

extremities of the

exceed 3000
tions nearly

Ghauts,

between
it

is

feet,

Deccan

Vindhya

is

range,

two mountain chains proceed, and

parallel

to

10'

and

the coasts.

15, rise to

far

whose greatest height

continued to Cape Comorin.

lat.

Not

very simple.

stretch

That on the west,

is

seldom recedes more than forty miles,

feet.

it

is

not supposed to

southward in
called the

Its loftiest summits,

about 6000

from the opposite

direc-

Western

which are situated

Towards the

sea.,

from which

very precipitous; towards the

westem

HISTORY OF INDIA.

6
land,

wliicli

in

nificent timbei-,

are not above 3000 feet,


tlie

descent

is

less

and

its

seldom abrupt.

is

li<;ight,

both sides

tinued to the extremity,

oeccan
table ir,id.

^^

^^^^^

^yi^j^jj^

Way

it

distance from the sea

In

its

stops about

and by which

feet,

ncw

Qf

j^\^^^

is

always

clothed with

is

it

elevated and tfimer ran^je.


'^

iiuig-

it

Its loftiest

so considerable that

Is

midway, and turning

gra^lually srjuth-we.st,

which have summits

Hills,

becomes linked with the Western Ghauts.

with sides composed of mountain

triangle,

summits

course sfjutliwards, instead of being con-

meets with a transverse range called the Neilgiieiry


exceeding 7000

slope

its

and displays much grand scenery.

Eastem Ghauts

"jj^g

Ohauts.

in

it

On

and occasionally imperceptible.

gradual,

i:a.<!terii

almost efjuals

parts,

ni;iii>

range.s, is

formed

Dcccau, and incloses an elevated table-land, which has a

\\^q

gradual but continuous slope eastward from the Western Ghauts to the

In accordance with this

slope, all the rivers of

any magnitude

sea.

the Mahanuddy,

the Godavery, the Krishna, the Pennar, the Pelar, and the Coleroon or Cavery,
carry the drainage to
fertility of the

scorching heat,

Bay

tlie

This table-land cannot

of Bengal.

basin of the Ganges, because, while


it

it

is

has no streams fed by pei-petual snow.

h>oast the

expo.sed to a

The

more

torrents of rain,

however, which periodically descend on the Western Ghauts, compensate in

some degree

for this defect,

which, carried on

by

and provide the means of a system of

collecting the supei-fluous

made many

the rainy season, at one time

water in immense tanks during

parts of the

Unfortunately, in too

beauty and productiveness.

many

and more especially in those where native misrule


tanks are in ruins, and

sterility

seems to show that

its

All

other countries.

is

tlie

districts of the countr}',

continues,

many

of these

fully investigated,

but what

is

known

great mountain ranges are composed of the rocks

In the stupendous heights of the Himalaya

particularly predominant,

blende-schist, chloride-slate,

sula the

f<jr

leading features are less complicated than those of mo.st

usually classified as granitic.


gneiss

still

Deccan proverbial

has returned.

The geology of India has not been

Geology.

irrigation,

same rocks prevail

and

is

associated with mica schist, horn-

and primitive limestone.

In the chains of the penin-

granite in the south-west and south, and

sienite in

the south-east, covering a considerable portion of the surface, and composing

some of the highest peaks.

and

its

One great exception to

accompanj'ing schists

is

spade,

predominance of gi'anite

in the southern portion of the

where these rocks disappear beneath the


species of iron clay, which, from its being

by the

this

and hardening on exposure

Western Ghauts,

and are overlaid by a peculiar


where it lies as to be easily cut

surface,

so soft

to the air so as to be

has received the name of laterite or brick-stone.

fit

for building,

This mineral, instead of being

a mere local deposit, almost assumes the dignity of a distinct formation, continuing with

little

interruption to the extremity of the continent, and even re-

appearing beyond

it

in the Island of Ceylon.

Another great exception

to the

predominance of granitic rocks

is

in the

INTRODUCTION.

upper part of the Western Ghauts, and the adjoining raniiiications of the

Vindhya range.

Hei*e basaltic

globular, tabular, porphyritic,


to

an extent

une(pialled,

it is

in its various forms of prismatic, columnar,

ti'ap,

and amygdaloid, spreads out as an overlying

rock,

very

believed, in

large portion of the table-land of the

in i)rcci})itous isolated

any other

Deccan

is

pai-t

of the world.

entirely covered

by

Not

it.

and the granite pierce the surface abruptly, and

unfreqiiently both the trap

Baiitic

rise

JMany of these standing

masses of considerable height.

out prominently from the surrounding plains and crowned with

hill- forts,

form

the most remarkable featm'es in the landscape.

The more

secondary and

regulfir
strata of the
*=

-^

tei-tiary iieriods are


"

larwly
"^
^

leveloped on the lower sides of the Himalaya, and occupy considerable tracts in

e:

various other

and

tertiary

strata.

and shales of the former period

i\Iany of the sandstones

localities.

secomiary

belong to the coal measm*es and coal has not only been fountl at several places,
;

actually worked, particularly in the valley

])ut is

of

Burdwan, where a

carefully explored,

this field to the capital,


facility of carriage

notice

Damooda

the

in the district

with a main seam 9 feet in thickness has been

coal field

and found

i)f

The proximity of

to extend over a large area.

from which

it is

by water, and now

about 150 miles north-west, and the

by

also

rail,

have brought

many

but there cannot be a doubt that there are

early into

it

other fields equally

demand about to
of railways. The teiliary

promising, and, at all events, productive enough to supply the

be created by the establishment of an extensive S3-stem


formation appears to obtain

greatest breadth in the north-west, towards

its

Scinde and the Punjab, from which, and the mountains of adjacent
fossil

districts,

remains of singular forms and gigantic dimensions have recently been

brought to enrich our maseums.


It nuist
title

be admitted

that, as

Though

to a pi'ominent place.

the Indian

a mineral country, India has not yet proved


in ancient times gold

was the oidy one of the Persian

that precious metal,


productive.

Its

it

has

now only a few

diamond mines

also,

satrapies

was

which paid

washings, wiiich are

its

tribute in

by no means

once so famous, have long been exhausted.

much economi-

value are copper, of which several mines are worked; iron, from which steel

of the finest quality


tant article of export

Of the
tropical,
it

^'"'erais.

so abundant, that

Besides the coal already mentioned, the only mineral products of


cal

its

is
;

manufactm-ed

and

\1\''

might be easy to give the theory of

how

case, as in

its

Taking

climate

many

intensely the sun during

its

but

it

its

would merely be

others, theory differs

from

climate

is

by which,

determined.

to

reality.

shows how long and

annual revolution will shine upon

gives no information as to the modifying causes

ciimate.

this fact only into view,

relatively to the equator, simply

than by degrees of latitude,

as to form an impur-

which India extends, 15^ are within the

within the tem])erate zone.

show how widely in this


The position of a country

abundant

said to exist in beds which are inexhaastible.

salt,

28 of north latitude over

and

nitre, so

it,

often far

but

more

In regard to India

HISTORY OF INDIA.

8
Mollifying

these causes are so numerous, and operate so differently in different

Ifxxilities,

ciiiiMes.

that

may Le

it

truly

.said

to

few degrees from the

tropic,

wanting; westwards,

it

have not one,

with the parclied

desei-t

of the African Sahara; eitstwards,

it

mean annual

Nortliwar<Ls a

climates.

j)lain

has a deep alluvial

moisture; and southwards, while the isothermal


tity of

many

a region in which snow and ice are never

it h}j.s

has a

Ijiit

and

scfjrching heats

overcharged with

Ija-sin

indicating the greatest quan-

line,

heat on the surface of the globe, crosses

the Coromandel to the Malabar coast, the Neilgheiry

Hill.s,

it

obliquely from

situated nearly in

the same latitude, enjoy the climate of the finest part of the temperate zone.

Where

many

so

adequate description,
therefore the utmost

which, though

would obviously be impo.ssible t^> give an


without entering into numero as complicated details; and

anomalies

much

exist,

it

which can here be done


diversified

by

to point out a

is

circumstances,

may

few features

be considered charac-

teristic of the climate of India.


Heat

The most prominent of tliese features are heat and humidity heat produced
chiefly by the direct action of the sun's rays, but intensified in many districts by

alow
iiiunidity.

and sultry winds from other countries and


humidity, not derived, as in Europe, from moderate showers occurring more or
level,

a natm-ally arid

soil,

less at all seasons,

but the result of rains which occm* regularly at stated periods,

and are

and incessant as often to pour

than

so copious

falls

in

any part of England

4935; in Calcutta

do%\Ti

more water in a month

In London, the mean annual tem

in a year.

79 37; in Bombay, 819; in Madras, Sii'.

perature

is

In order

to perceive the full effect of these differences, it is nece.ssar\'' to attend

it is

number

to the annual range of tempera|:,m-e, or the

greatest

mean heat and

the greatest

mean

cold.

of degi'ees

between the

In London, this range amounts

than 40 3 whereas in the above three cities it amounts respectively to


no more than to 11 -9 10, and 72 Inotlier words, heat is far more equally difto

no

less

fused in India than in our

which takes place in the

An

in the former.

The average annual


quantity has been

about 85 inches.

even

own

latter

e(T[ually
fall

island

fall is

and the complete cessation of vegetation

during the rigour of winter,

of rain in England

is

is

and the average has been estimated at 136


In Calcutta, the range of the

only a local extreme.

from 50 to 85 inches; and on the Coromandel

sn'eat

unknowTi

known to fall in twelve days, while the average of the year is


On the Malabar coast and many parts of the Western Ghauts,

This, however,

The

totally

In Bombay, as large a

32 inches.

hood of Madras, the annual average of England


Jlonsoons.

is

striking contrast appears in the degrees of himiidity.

this quantity is largely exceeded,

inches.

is

coast, in

the neighbom--

supposed not to be exceeded.

agents in reffulatino; the climate of India and fixing

are the periodical winds

its

known by the name of monsoons. With the

about a month, they divide the year between them

^the

character,

interval of

one blowing regularly

from the north-east from October to March, and the other from the south-west
from April to September. The noiih-east monsoon is, strictly speaking identical

INTRODUCTION.
with the north-east trade-wind, and would accordingly blow without inten-upmonsoons.

were

tion throughout the year,

This

counteracting cause.

is

not brought under the influence of a great

it

found on the central plains of Asia, which,

becoming immoderately heated while the sun

smTounding
it,

north of the equator, rarify the

is

and thereby disturb the atmospherical equilibrium.

air,

a current of colder air begins to rush in from the Indian Ocean.

struggle takes place

new

while the

tion,

the north-east monsoon endeavouring


current endeavours to establish

monsoon

struggle, the north-east

is

its

To

restore

kind of

to maintain its direc-

In the

ascendency.

placed at great disadvantage, for at the very

when it is engaged with its opponent, part of its own forces are diverted,
and drawn off to the regions where the equilibrium has been disturbed. After
a month of warfare, in which all the elements seem to mingle, and thunderstorms and hurricanes rage with the greatest fury, the new cuiTent prevails,
time

and becomes established as the south-west monsoon.

new

half a year, a

state of the atmosphere

Asiatic plains are cooled

with

struggle,

its

down by

accompanying thunder and hurricanes,

effects of the

its

is

renewed, and in about

superiority, begins again to blow.^

monsoons in determining the climate of India are very

The south-west monsoon,

remarkable.

The overheated

the sun's departure for the south, the aerial

a month the north-east monsoon, recovering

The

After blowing for nearly

superinduced.

is

Their causes

Their

blowing over the Indian Ocean,

in

becomes surcharged with vapour, which, being suddenly condensed on the heights
of the Western Ghauts,
as fast as
at the

is

anives on the Malabar

it

Coromandel coast

Thus deprived of

discharged in torrents.

cis

contents

blows across the country, and arrives

coast, it

a dry wind.

its

This

cotist,

accordingly,

and the eastern

part of the Deccan, generally at this time receive no direct supplies of rain,

become in conse(|uence
impossible,

were

it

so parched, that the culture of the

filled to

overflowing,

and thus

})lains

means of carryWestern

limits of the

near the mouths of the Indus, and the sandy desert to

any moistm-e from the mon.soon, which

the east and north, are unable to attract

arrives well charged with water on the heights of the Himalaya.

here deflected,
])lains

it

of Bengal.

The south-west monsoon having


process,

fore unable to supply

it

I.

derived,

scale,

because the

of less extent, and there-

is

in India will

now

l)e

easily undei-stood.

other,

and the year performs

its

Maury, The Sia,

sec.

474 to

In the

summer,

round of grateful

In India an entirely different aiTangement takes place


'

Vol.

is

the north-ea.st

in the temperate zone generally, Avinter, spring,

and autumn succeed each


vicissitudes.

its course,

so copiously.

The course of the seasons


and

nm

though on a somewhat minoi-

of Bengal, from which the moisture

British Islands,

Beinf>-

descends into the basin of the Ganges, and floods the lower

monsoon repeats the

Bay

fui-nish the

Beyond the

ing on an extensive system of irrigation.

now

gromid would become

not that most of the rivers, having their sources in the West-

ern Gliauts, become

Ghauts, the low

and

and the

sec. 470.

seasons.

niSTORY OF INDIA.

10
Ijoations.

only seasons
hot.

can

wliicli

l)oiindaries

'J'h(;

rains, wiiicli

may

prf)perly recognized are the rainy, the cool,

l^e

between them are not very exactly

coast, for instance,

continent, at the

tiie

they are retarded


lea,st

As India

north

tin!

proceeding northwards, and liave copi-

in

of the efjuator, the

side

seasons should correspond nearly with our

out entering too nmcli into


districts, it is

would not

detail,

and

own

winter and

The

best

to select a particular locality,

fall

in others.

and the hot

co<;l

summer

btit witli-

.specifying the peculiarities of different

make any statement, in general


mode of illustrating the seasons will

almost impossible to

mislead.

Vjeji^in,

Mahibar

CJn the

period.

a month before they begin Uy

ously flooded some districts at

wholly on

same

tl)e

defined, becaiwe the

be considered as the commencement of the year, do not

even on the same side of

lies

and

and give a short description of

tenns, which
therefore be

Calcutta

its year.

being adopted for this purpose, the cycle wiU be as follows.

After nearly a

montli of storms, connected with the setting in of the monsoon, the rains com-

mence about the beginning of June, and continue,


vals, till

the middle of October.

November, the
first

air

the weather

is fair

and

pleasant,

and the sky, generally

free

till

the morning sun disperses


47''

them

to 78',

Both in
but the

winds from the north and west doubtless contribute to


the thermometer begins to

is

rise,

and generally before

this

is

month and

this result.

it closes

greatly relieved

by winds and storms

this disagreeable

month the season

till

In February,

the hot season has


increase,

May, when an oppressive

body and depressing the mind

closes,

and the annual

than

Cold but bracing

During the three following months the heat continues to

ness prevails, at once unnerving the

Vegetable

from clouds,

air feels colder

the lower of these numbers might be expected to indicate.

but

in

At

having previously cleared up, the cool season begins.

in January, the thermometer ranges from

commenced.

and then,

brief stormy period eiLSues,

In December, fogs become frequent towards evening, and con-

of a deep blue.

tinue unbroken

witli occasional short inter-

still-

With

cycle again begins.

In heat and humidity, India possesses the two main agents of luxuriant

products.

vegetation.

On

its

lower plains the most valuable plants of the tropics are indi-

genous or acclimatized, and on


several of

them

its loftier

heights forests of the noblest trees,

of a peculiar ty^Q, furnish inexhaastible supplies of the finest

timber, including the teak, which covei-s the rugged terraces of the Western

Ghauts.

which

Equally deserving of notice are the magnificent woody amphitheatres

rise successively

are approached.

while possessed

on the Himalaya,

the limits of the vegetable

till

Among the plants winch belong


in common ^\ith other countries, are

as to form a leading featm-e in its botany, are the

a grass, shoots up in one season to the height of 60


so consolidated in its textui-e as to supply

the ornamental purposes to which timber


variety, including the cocoa-nut ]ialm

the

kingdom

exclusively to India,
so widely diffused over

bamboo, which, though


feet,

or,
it

tinily

and in another becomes

most of the ordinary, and some of

is

applied

palms in almost endless

most usefid of

its class

the

sago.

1;

INTRODUCTION.
the areca, and

tlu;

great fan-palm

ordinary dimensions that a dozen

a majestic
men

could take shelter under

one of the most beautiful and useful of acacias

tree,

with a leaf of such extra-

tree,

bearing plants and

among

trees,

including

among others

the babal

the sandal-wood tree, valued

East for the perfume, and in Europe for the dye which

in the

it

vegetaUou.

fields; spice-

it

the pepper- vine, which entwines

the cocoas and other palms of the Malabar coast, and forms a consider-

able article of export

the bread-fruit tree, the banana, and above

at once the finest

and the most widely

India can boast.

Among

diffused of all the fruit-trees of

which

the cultivated plants which are important as staple

wheat, millet, barley, varieties of pulse, yams,

articles of food, are rice, maize,

Among

sweet potatoes, &c.

the mango,

all

those most deserving of notice, from furnishing

raw materials of manufacture and export, are cotton, flax, hemp, indigo, and
various dyes cardamoms and other spices, sugar-cane, tobacco, and opium.
The zoology of India is no less rich and varied than its botany. Among
the

quadrupeds the

first

place

living wild in herds, has

(>mployed in

The

imquestionably due to the ele})hant, which, besides

from time immemorial been domesticated, and

numbers

employed to

also

been domesticated

in the west, particularly

traverse.

Among

and

for

usually

forms often humbling to

for swiftness, or

reared in

is

desert,

tiger,

human

size

and strength

is

the one-

leopard, panther, hyena,

lion,

pride,

some other property which

the argali, or wild sheep, the wild goat, the wild

numerous
singles

species of

them out

monkeys

for the chase,

stag,

nearly as

''arge

as a horse, the saumer, or black rusa of Bengal, the hog-deer, the

stag,

and many other

varieties of the cervine tribe.

and

and

the bear, the wild boar and

ass,

wild hog, the chickara, or four-horned antelope, the great rusa

species of the vidture

which

the animals which have not been subjected

horned rhinoceros; for ferocity, the


jackal

and the camel

on the borders of the

dominion of man, the most remarkable for

to the

is

labours in which strength and singular sagacity are required.

all

and yak have

buffalo

considerable
it is

is

The

eagle, wild peacocks, pheasants,

Nepal

birds include several

and in great profusion

and paroquets, of gorgeous plumage or singular articulating


powers.
Though not a permanent resident anywhere, the gigantic stork makes
its appearance in large flocks during the rains, and renders essential service by
cockatoos, parrots,

destroying snakes and other noxious reptiles, and


venger, for which nature evidently intended

of the animal kingdom, the transition

is

it.

by plying the trade

On

of sca-

passing to the lower orders

disagreeable, for

it

brings us to the

hideous alligators, abundant in most streams, and more especially in those of the

Indus and Ganges, and to large and venomous snakes which infest both the
land and the water, and are so numerous that forty-three varieties, including
the deadly cobra

Hastening

de

rapello,

have been described as of common occurrence.

li-om these to the fishes,

with numerous

varieties, often in

both the coasts and the rivers present us

unlimited abundance and excellent for food.

particularly distinguished in the latter respect,

it

As

may suffice to notice the leopard-

zuoiogy.

HISTORY OK INDIA.

12
inaitki'icl ;unl the,

4 feet in length.

iimn^o

fish,

Both frequently

of them

a place

on the

of Euroy)ean residentH.

tallies
;

mention that they consist mainly of two great

and Hindoos.

The

population, are far

otlier oc<:iiional)y

but a a

be interwoven in the course of the work,

will necessarily

suffice to

finfl

fi;et, Jirid tlic

would next claim attention

Tlu! inhabitants of India

IiiliabitaiiU.

the one rnwusuring 3

former,

more

classes

full accrjunt
it

may

liere

Mahometans

amounting only to about a tenth of the whole


than their numbers imply, because, having

influential

been the dominant race before European ascendency was established, they have
never entirely

most native

lost the

states are

wealth and power which this position gave them, and in

under the government of princes of their own

Hindoos, though classed under a


race,

but exhibit numerous

common name, by no meaas

varieties,

speaking the same language, have


the Sanscrit, which

is

even in physical form

dialects,

The

represent a single
and, instead of

founded indeed, for the most

part,

all

on

no longer spoken, but differing as much from each other

Europe which have the Latin

as those languages of

faith.

for their

common

basis.

In the preceding sketch, attention has been drawn only to the physical geo-

Political

geograpliy.

graphy of

upon

it,

India, or to the features

and the most remarkable

which

natiu-e herself has indeliVjly impressed

by

objects presented

its

mineral, vegetable,

and animal kingdoms. As yet nothing has been said of another department of
geography that which treats of the artificial divisions introduced for adminis-

These, though they

trative purposes, or in consequence of political changes.

necessarily partake of the instability

serve

many

important piu-poses, and, in

be used when particular

fact,

may

suffice,

arrangements,

furnish the vocabulary which mu.st

the events of which they

thorough knowledge of this vocabulary

only to be obtained by a diligent study of the

a more ciu^sory knowledge

human

to all

localities are referred to, or

have been the theatre are described.


is

which attaches

map but
;

for ordinary purposes

at least so far as to prevent the per-

by the frequent use of names of which no previous information had been given. With the \aew of fm-nishing such a knowledge,
and guarding against thLs perplexity, a summary of the political geography of
plexity which might be caused

India, in accordance with

actually subsisting arrangements,

within the narrowest possible compass,


Kuropean

At

present, not

much more than

rulei's in

India.

sion of Great Britain.


spots

Goa on

here subjoined.

the half of India

Two European

the Portuguese at

is

and compressed

nations

still

is

in the undi^'ided posses-

linger at a

the west coast and at

few

insignificant

Diu on the north-west

between the Gulfs of Cutch and Cambay; and the French at Pondicherry and
Carricall, on the east coast, at Mahe, on the south-west coast, and at Chandernagore on the Hooghl3^ above Calcutta.

Two

Nepal, situated on the southern slopes of the Himalaya


pendent.

Bhotan

native states

are

and

nominally inde-

All the other native states are under a British protectorate oi greater

or less stringency.

Of

these states in the upper and inland portion of India,

the most extensive are Scindia's dominions, capital Gwalior, stretching fi'om the

INTRODUCTION.

Taptee north to the banks of the Chmnbul; Holkars dominions, capital Indore,

much

intersected

by those

bound them on the north

of Scindia, which

and

xative
**

"
''

Rajpootana, consisting of a great number of states, which, though individually


small,
to

have a large aggregate

area,

and reach from

In the south-west of

the frontiers of Scinde.

Scindia's dominions west


tlie

country, are the Guicowar's territories, capital Baroda,

tlie

most extensive native

Hyderabad, area 95,337

states are

by

scjuare miles,

single native chief, consisting of a

sular plateau,

the

Nizam's dominions, capital

for the largest territory

imder any

compact and central portion of the penin-

bounded north by the Vindhya range, south by the Krishna, east

and north-east by the Godavery, and west by an


slopes of the

and the rajahship of

In the Deccan, or soutliern and maritime portion of

Cutch, capital Bhooj.


India,

same portion of the

indefinite line near the last

Western Ghauts; Mysore, the country of the famous Hyder Ali

and Tippoo Saib,

capital Seringa patam, area 30,886 square miles, consisting of

a lofty table-land within the angle which

Eastern and Western Ghauts

is

formed by the junction of the

and Travancore,

capital

Trivandrum, area 4722

square miles, forming the south-west portion of the extremity of the peninsula.

The whole of the native

states

and the Portuguese and French possessions

The

have an area of 631,470 square miles, and a population of 49,074,527.

whole of the remainder


British territory,
all

India,

and

is

area 824,232 square

which has the seat of

comprehended

The presidency

its

miles, population 130,897,195

government at Calcutta, the

in the presidencies of Bengal, Madras,

of Bengal

area

of the Burmese,
(^ast

It also includes

coast of the Deccan,

where

Circars, belonging to Maib'as.

it

them

is

Gantjes,

it

to the other.

i"^"^'^"^y-

territories

Ganjam, on the

far the largest

and most populous of

own

its

lieutenant-governor.

The

line

nearly in the direction of the meridian of 84,

the whole of the presidency east of that line belonging to the one, and
of

Bengal

subdivided into Bengal proper and the

is

North-western Provinces, each having


of demarcation between

and

bounds with what are called the Northern

Being by

the three, the presidency of Bengal

to

is

and Bombay.

Assam and the annexed

and the province of Cuttack, extending south

^^^.^^

capital of

517,839 miles, population 38,883,337

includes all the British territories witiiin the basins of the Indus

with exception of Scinde.

j,,^^

i"-eideucies.

all

west

the North-western Provinces include

Strictly speaking,

only the six great divisions of Benares, Allahabad, Agra, Rohilcund, Meerut,

and

Delhi.

The Punjab and Oude are thus

left out, because,

though they are

doubtless destined to be formally incorporated with this subdivision, they are


still,

in

consequence of their recent acquisition, under a separate administration.

The presidency of Madras

area 132,090 square miles, population 22,437,297

-^bounds with that of Bengal, near lai

and south-east coast of the peninsula

to

8^ and continues south, along the east

Cape Comorin, with no

interruption,

except from the interposed French districts of Pondicherry and Carricall.

Cape Comorin,

it

is

cut off from the sea

by

At

the interjected native states of

jia.inia
i"^"*''^"'=y

HISTORY OF INDIA.

14

Travancore and Coohin; hut beyoMd

M;ulnui

tliern

it

becomes maritime, and

again

protiidency.

continues north along the coast of Malabar,

Bombay, near the


wiien

At

hemmed

Circars, it is so

in

first,

between

of Bengal and the east frontiers of the Nizam's dominions, that

narrow

consists only of a comparatively

west,

meets the presidency of

has a very irregular shape.

It

commences with the Northern

it

Bay

the

of Uoa.

di.strict

it

till

where

is

it

hemmed

similarly

belt.

The same thing happens

in Vjetween the

it

in the

Arabian Gulf and the west

Near the middle, between the mouths of the Krishna and


widens out and stretches so far west between these two native

frontiers of Mysore.

the Pennar,
states as to

it

approach the Western Ghauts.

Madi-as and Palk's Strait,

extends across the whole peninsula, from sea

area 120,065 square

The presidency of Bombay

Bombay
prosidency.

it

Further south, between the city of

is,

sea.

population 14,109,067

from similar causes, as irregular in shape as the presidency of Ma/lras.

Beginning near Goa,


then widening
it

mile.s,

t^j

out,

continues northwards in a long and narrow

it

it,

Kurrachee,

is

its

and forms the three

by

and

becomes so intermingled with the native states as to make

almost impossible to define

added to

strip,

far its

The above sketch

boundaries.

Scinde,

which has recently been

collectorates of Sliikarpoor,

Hyderabad, and

most compact province.

of the physical and political geography of India seemed

necessary in order to furnish information which some might not possess, and

remove the

indistinct, if

in endeavouring to

and
is

not erroneous impressions which

it is difficult to

avoid,

form an acquaintance with a country so remote, so vast,

By

so extraordinary.

neither overpowered

exhibiting

by the

it

on a

scale so

reduced that the )nind

magnitiide, nor perplexed

singularity of its features, a kind of imity

is

given to

it,

by the

variety and

and

assumes the

it

appearance of a stage on which great actors are to appear, and wonderful

achievements are to be performed.


plicity

which

it

In this way, the history acquires a sim-

might not otherwise

possess,

a deeper interest

is

felt in

the

and the important lessons drawn from it become at once more


obvious, intelligible, and impressive.
an ancient, a
The History of India embraces tliree distinct periods

narrative,

Distinct

periods of

ludiau
tory.

his-

medieval, and a modern.

The ancient

period,

beginning with the earliest

authentic accounts, extends to the establishment of a ^Mahometan d\Tiasty.

The medieval period terminates with the doubling of the Cape of Good Hope,
and the consequent discovery of a continuovis oceanic route to the East. The
commencing with the great changes introduced by this discontinued down to the present time. The last of these periods,

modern

period,

covery,

is

forming the proper subject of the present history, will be treated with a
ness proportioned to
its

its

intrinsic importance,

and the

intimate connection with British history.

ful-

interest it derives from

The other two could not be

omitted without leaving the work incomplete, but being only subordinate, will
not occupy more than a few preliminary chapters.

BOOK

I.

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE YEAR

1600,

WIIKN THE FIRST CROWN CHARTER INCORPORATING

AN EAST INDIA COMPANY WAS GRANTED.

CHAPTER
Ancient India

Tiie

of

India

Invasion

Subsequent

pre-historic

by

period

Sesostris,

Native

I.

sources

Darius

Serairamis,

intormation

oi

Other

Hystaspes, Alexander

accounts

the

Great

statu of India.

)N tracing the early history of a country,

tlie

apply to the sources of information which


be able to furnish.

Long

In

this respect India

rich.

to

emerge from barbarism,

it

was in

remarkable for the completeness of

and

been written in

tlie

country

for the

it.

is

itself

to No

may

proper

toryofin-

might be presumed to

before the nations of Western Europe had

be

copiousness,

natural course

begun

possession of a language

its

number and variety

grammatical forms,
of the

fcjr

works which had

Several of these works were of a scientific and

metaphysical character, requiring talent of a higher order than would

have been neces.sary for

historical compilation

and

yet, strange to say,

while the more difficult intellectual effoit was successfully made, the less
difficult,

tive,

was

the more useful, and, as one would have imagined, the more attrac-

work on Cashmere

so entirely neglected, that with the exception of a

of no very ancient date, the literature of India has failed to furnish a single

production to which the

of history can in

any proper sense of the term

In dealing with the past, ages are heaped upon ages

be applied.

amount

name

to millions;

of the sun

human, and

and endless

details are given of

and moon, and creatures


bestial forms

but

men

still

short, the

more monstrous, combining

as they really hved;

had been moulded into some

subser\nent to an extravagant

and in many respects

if

they were unfit

fantastic shape.

mHhology,

skilfully framed, to secure their

own

divine,

and the events pro-

Brahmins, the only depositories of learning, abusing their

made everything

the years

gods and demigods, children

duced by their agency are entirely overlot)ked, or treated as


to be recorded until they

till

trust,

In

have

obviou-sly designed,

aggrandizement.

In the absence of direct information from historical records in India,


proper before abandoning the search there as hopeless, to in<|uire whether

it

it is sources of

may

not be possible to discover other native som'ces from which some amount of

tion.

TTTSTORY OF TXDIA.

16
DC.

may

authentic information

and

he ohtaincd indirectly hy meariH

In ancient W(jrkH, not jjroperly

timate deduction.

[Book

con.se(|uent degree of civilization at the period

for that special purpose;

the state of wK'iety,

when they were

often exhihited, not lens accurately, and perhaps far

had been composed

cautioiw and legi-

ol"

hiHt^jrical,

more

vividly,

and hence, provided

be fixed with any degree of certainty, much informati<jn of an

may be easily and

safely extracted

and

of aucicnt liymus

prayers,

known by

commentary upon them contained

in

written, are

than

they

if

their date can

nature

hist^jriwil

Of the writings which thas tend

from them.

to elucidate the primitive history of India, the


The vudaa.

I.

the

most valuable are the wjllectioas

name

of Vedas,

and the kind of

a compilation, which the translation of

made familiar to English readers under the title of the


The Vedas, four in number, prove by diversities both of

Sir William Jones has

Institutes of
style

and

Menu.

contents, that they are the productions of different periods,

which a considerable interval mvLst have


are a

little

elapsed.

more than 3000 years older than our

compared with that which

According to the Hindoos, they


era,

was able

tlie

is

short

it is

doubtless an

by a very ingenious and convincing

process,' has

cut off sixteen centuries from the Hindoo date.

antique form by which

but though this age

figures generally in their chronology,

Mr. Colebrooke,

exaggeration.

between

Founding on a calendar of

Vedas regulate the times of devotional

service,

he

to ascertain the exact position of the solstitial points in accordance

with which the calendar was regtdated and assuming, as he well might, that
;

the position was not hypothetical, he had only to compare


at present,

and

calculate

how many

The annual

the difference.

with the position

years must have elapsed in order to produce

precession of the equinoxes

and by counting backwards and deducting


whole amount of difference

it

is

an invariable quantity;

this quantity successively

exhausted, the true date appears.

is

till

the

In this way the

completion of the Vedas has been fixed in the fifteenth centm-y before the Chrisinstitutes

of Menu.

The Institutes of Menu, referring to the Vedas as productions venerable even then for antiquity, must be much more recent.
How much, is the important question and unfortunately a question which does not admit of a very
tian era.

definite answer.

The Institutes themselves give no

dates,

and any conclusion

which can be founded on internal evidence is little better than conjecture.

Still,

however, though a large margin must be allowed' as a kind of debatable ground

on which the

sticklers for

warfare, there

is

an earlier and a

later period

may carry on

their

wordy

enough, both in the comparatively pure and primitive form of

the religion inculcated, in the sanction of usages which are

known

to

have

become obsolete some centuries before the Cluistian era, and in the omission of
religious sects and controversies which would certainly have been mentioned if
they had then been in existence, to support the conclusion that the Institutes of
Menu must have appeared not later than the fifth, and probably as early as the
ninth century

B.C.

Either period would carry us back to a remote antiquity


'

Asiatic Researches, vol.

viii.

Chap.

KOCK-CUT TEMPLES.

I.]

IT

for it is

always to be remembered, that the laws and manners which the work

details,

and the coiTesponding

when

exist at the time


ages.

Every page of the

it

state of society

was

wiitten, but

which

it

able evidence that about 3000 years ago India

it

by

must be held

to furnish indubit-

was nearly

as far advanced in

scattered over the country in rural villages, but collected into large

was

gi-eatly

These, under the government of rulers

merely

towns and

extensively engaged in manufactures and trade, and forming a

of independent states.

several

civilization as in the present day, containing a dense population, not

cities,

c.

implies, did not begin to

must have preceded

Institutes, therefore,

number

whose despotism

modified by customs and laws, raised large revenues by a compli-

cated system of taxation, brought into the field powerful armies, and executed

many stupendous and

magnificent works.

Among

works are the

these

tem])les nock
temples.

of Elephanta, Salsette, Adjunta,


as the rocks out of
far short of that

and EUora, whose testimony,

which they have been hewn,'

tells of

an

as imperishable

age, which,

though

which was at one time extravagantly assigned, must

still

in

the most ancient be not less than 2000 years.

...m

Another testimony to the antiquity of Indian


its

astronomy.

mi

This testnnony,

consequence

civilization has

been found in
p

-I

oi the perverse attem})ts of

philosophers of the French revolutionary school to confront

it

aatrouorav.

some

with the Sacred

LvTERioR OK THE Cave OF Elephanta. Froiii Griiidlays Scenery of India.

Records, for the purpose of bringing

them

into discredit,

a very rigorous examination, and did not come out of


'

As

tlie

celebrated works mentioned in the text

as a collateral evidence of ancient civilization, will

afterwards be referred to, along with other works of


a similar nature, under the head of Indian architecture, it is sufficient to observe here that they belong
to two distinct classes, both hewn out of the solid
rock, but differin- essentially in this respect that the

one dass consists of pillared and sculptured caverns,


of which only the entrance is visible externally; whi'e

Vol.

I.

it

was justly subjected


unscathed.

The

to

astro-

the other consists of rock temples, properly so called,


because standing visible in the open air, and composed of masses of solid rock, which, fixed ininioveably in their original site, have been hewn down into
the form of temples (see view of the Kylas Tenijile
at EUora, on engraved title of vol.

i.), covered over


with sculptures and inscriptions, and accompanied

w itli numerous

statues, often of fantastic shapes

colossal dimensions.

niiuioo

and

18
B.C.

ov ixdfa.

insToj'.y

nomical

ward

tahles,

to a

[Boc

because fouiidcil on calcidationH wliich haxl been airried

very remote period, were erroneously atwumed to

Exterior of Great Chaitya Cave, Salsette.

and

bi

exliibit the rt

From Ferguseon's Rock-cut Temples of Indin.

was gravely maintained that the Hindoo

Hindoo

of actual observations,

astronomy

nomer must have been sittmg m his observator\', surrounded by his instrum
and patiently committing the results of his obsei'vations to writing, nearly 1
.

it
.

Exterior of the Chaitya Cave, Abjtjkta.

years before

Noah

a.

entered the ark.

From Fergusson's Rock-cut Temples of ludia.

As usual

in cases of similar extravaga

a reactionary feeling was produced, and many, running to the opposite extre
Siiidtobe

ijxsisted

that Indian astronomy had no independent existence, and

was

at be

borroweil.

rude plagiarism from the Chaldeans and the Greeks.

now

More moderate views

entertained on both sides- and those best quahfied to judge, agree in hole

Uhap.

that,

INDIAN ASTRONOMY.

I.]

19

while recorded actual observations by the astronomers of India cannot be

carried farther

back than the sixth century

A.D., their science

bc.

had prol)ably made

some progress 200 years before there was any mention of astronomy in Greece.

Interior of the Bisma Kurm, Elloua. From

One of the most pregnant

facts

Elliott's

Views in

In<lia

on which this conclusion

is

founded,

is

the

remarkable coincidence between the signs of the zodiac in the Indian and Ai-ab
systems

Indian
^<>^^-

a coincidence which, while

it

proves that they must have had

ii

common

cannot be ex-

origin,

plained without admitting that the

system has the better

Intlian
to

be regarded as the original.

While there

thus abundant

is

show that India must

evidence to

have received
at

title

its first

inhabitants

no distant period after the

I)ersion of

the

human

come one of the


civilization,

tained;
of the

no

race,

first

dis-

and be-

cradles

of

distinct dates are ob-

and consequently the history

country cannot be said to be-

gin tiU

we

qiut

its

own

soil,

and

apply for information to the WTiters


of the West,

_eyen

who

when they

for the

^^i^:^

Oriental Zodiac.

K,^?-*^^ ^

Maurice's Historvof Hindostan.'

most pait follow some sort of chronological

indulge in fable, have generally some foundation in

order,

and

fact.

The

Foreign

information.

^ Figa. 1-12 are the signs of the Zodiac, a, The


6, The Moon, r, Mars. (/.Mercury, e, Jupiter.
/.Venus. /, Saturn. A, Dragon's Head, or ascending
Sun.

node.
is

?',

Dragon's Tail, or descending node. Thecentre


marked with the

the earth, surrounded by the sea,

four carilinal i>oints, E. (w),

W.

(x).

N.

(y), S. (z).

20
n.c. 1500?

HISTORY OF INDIA.

first

Greek writers who throw

the father of
firook

exists;

and

liistory,

,'iiiy

[BrjoK

li^ht on tlio history of India are Herodotiw,

wliose immortal work, written in the fifth century

Ctesias, wlio,

though

lie

may have

been

for

B.c,, still

a short time c^^ntemfK^rary

writers.

Among

with Herodotus, properly belongs to the immefliately succeeding century.

His

other historical work.s, he wrote one expressly on India.

Having been taken

obtaining materials were considerable.

some other way carried


xerxes by his

years preceding

many

but

B.C.

398.

fragments

of

it,

script,

because

the

which,

it

is

court during the seventeen

have been preserved, paiticularly by Diodorus

it

was written

a compilation, and in

more ancient

of

of India,

by

liLs

in the first years of the Christian

but possesses far more value as an autliority than

give

writers,

many

whose -works are

The

lost.

the nature of the

details

earliest accounts

a gravity, however,
occasionally becomes

considered,

is

an exact tran-

these writers, and especially

are presented with aU the gravity of history

when

date might seem to

its

cases apparently

drawn from the materials furnished by

last,

prisoner, or been in

Unfortunately, his work as a whole has perished,

Siculus in his Bihliotheca, which


era,

opfioitunities for

to the Persian capital, he gained the favour of Artar

a phy.sician, and Uved at

skill as

I.

ludicrous.

An

Expedition

Egjq^tian king,

of Sesostris.

Sesostris,

and who

is

whom

now

Diodorus

calls Sesoosis

and most other writers

belonged to the nineteenth djTiasty, came into the world about 1500

happy omens which

who

generally believed to be identical with Rameses,

To prepare him

foretold his future greatness.

father caused all the male children

bom

B.C.,

for

after

his

it,

in Egj-pt on the same day to be

As they grew up they were


and formed a chosen band, bound to their j'oung

brought to court and educated along with him.


trained in
prince

all

by the

manly

exercises,

and prepared

strongest ties of affection,

com-age and fidelity wherever he might lead.

to follow with unflinching

During

his father's lifetime

he

began his military campaigns, and proceeding first into Arabia and then westward into Libya, subdued both. His ambition having been thus inflamed, he

had no sooner succeeded to the throne than he resolved on the subjugation of the
His first step was to conciliate the affections of his subjects his next to
world.

collect

an army adequate to the contemplated

infantry, 24,000 cavalry,

enterprise.

and 27,000 war-chariots.

It consisted of 600,000

The

commands were

chief

who had been brought up with him. The Ethiopians were


who were made to feel his power. Their country was adjacent to

given to the youths


the

first

Egypt, and could be reached by a land


necessity of a fleet

became apparent.

to maritime enterprise,

built the first ships of

400

sail.

He

but on turning to the east the

force,

Hitherto the Egj^^tians had been averse

but everji^hing pelded to the energy of

war which Egj^t

did not allow

it

to

remain

possessed,
idle

and

ere long

but setting

out,

the Ai'abian Gulf into the main ocean, which then bore the
raean Sea,

and then coasting along the shores continued

had a

who

fleet of

proceeded down

name

his

Sesostris,

of the Eryth-

voyage as

far as

Chap.

EXPEDITION OF SESOSTRIS.

I.]

India.

lead a

He

returned, but

was only

still

on

to the frontiers of India,

be erected in various

pillars to

and

his victorious career,

with

places,

new

inscri})tion3

and at the same time

lauthncj the courajje or stiifmatizinof

the cowardice of those

who had encountered

him.

narrative,

which Diodorus admits to be only the most probable

of several contradictory accounts circulated in Egypt, can'ies

on the face of

youths
tiiat

who

it.

One

of the most palatable of these

are said to have been born on the

monarch

more than a third of what


children born in Egy])t
and, consequently,

it

was

number
at

of the

When

Sesostris.

the

to

at forty years of age could not be

In other words, the number of male

fii'st.

on the same day with Sesostris must have been 5000,

At the

Founding on

which, besides being

would give Egypt a


a population so enormous as to be

usual rate of increase, this

bordering upon 40,000,000

utterly incredible.

somewhat

this discrepancy,

and some other

hypercritical, are stated

objections,

more strongly than

to justify, Dr. Robertson, in the first note to his Historical Disquisi-

tion concerning

Ancient India, labours

expedition of Sesostris to India


that,

same day with

number

adding female children, the whole number of births must

have been 10,000.

seem

the

Assuming that they were subject

sm*viving.

still

ordinary law of mortality, their

facts

some extravagances

and yet even then more than 1700 persons born on the

borders of forty,

population

Narrative of

on his Eastern expedition, he must have been on the

set out

same day were

is

imo?

ocean.

attestinij his victories,

The above

b.c.

but beyond the

he traversed the whole country and reached a

till

he caused

his return,

recommence

to

mighty army eastward, not only

Ganges, and

On

it

21

is

to prove that the

fabulous.

It

whole account of the

ought to be observed, however,

in this instance, Diodorus does not stand alone.

Herodotas,

whom

Dr.

Testimony of

Robertson not very fairly quotes against him, bears strong testimony in his
favour,

and

in fact confirms his statement in all that is essential to

distinctly refers

both to the maritime and the land expeditions of

He

it.

Se.sostris,

and

though he does not expressly use the word India, he says that in the one
Sesostris continued sailing

eastward

till

he came to a sea so shallow

a.s

to

be

no longer navigable, and that in the other he subdued every nation that came
in

his

way, and built

pillars

mentioned by Diodorus.

Haws

may

To

of the very kind and for the very piu'pose

reject a statement thus supported, because

be picked in particular parts of

it, is

some

to strike at the foundation of

luunan testimony, and countenance the captious quibbling process under which
all

ancient history, sacred as well as profane, runs some risk of being converted

into a mji,h.

The

fair conclusion

concerning the Indian expeditions of Sesostris

seems to be that they really took place, but that in the accounts given of them,
both the means which he emj^loyed and the extent of country which he

subdued or traversed are exasrcerated.

Of another Indian

expedition, also mentioned

authority of Ctesias, gi-eater doubt

may

by Diodorus Siculus on the

reasonably be entertained, notwith-

Expedition
amis.

IIISTOKV OV INDIA.

22
B.C. 1300?

[HfiOK

staiuling the minuteness witli vvhicli the 'letails are given.

India was the greatest and

country in the world, and wa.s ruled

riche.st

Kxpoilitinii

of

Suiiiir-

])owerful

iiiMiiJnch

(railed

Stauroljates,

who

and a great number of elephants trained


terror, slie

innumerable hosts of

re.st

till

m equipped as

and

}>y

wjldiers,

tfj

made proof

she had

that

insjtire

of her

She accordingly commenced preparations, and canied them

on uj)on so immense a

scale,

that tliough myriads of artificers were employefl,

three years were spent in completing them.


jire-

liad

to war,

determined to give herself no

j)roweas against him.

Great

Tle leafier of this

Having learned

expedition wivs the famoas Assyrian queen Seniirarnls

I.

All the country west of the Indus

but in order to cross that mighty

Avas already subject to her power,

river,

an

paratious.

immense number of ships was


sliip -builders

In order to provide them, she Ijrought

necessaiy.

no timber, she was obliged to procure

fiu-nislied

modem

Bactria, the

As

from Phoenicia, Syiia, and Cypms.

Here she

Bokhara.

it

the banks of the ln<las

in the adjacent territory of

and

establislied her building yards,

her ships in such a manner that she could afterwards transport them

fitted out

piece-meal on the backs of camels, and launch

them when they were

required.

In the number of her troops, which Diodorus, quoting Ctesias as his authority,
the fabulous

states at

number

of 3,000,000

500,000 cavalry, and

infantry,

100,000 war-chariots, each provided with a charioteer and carrpng a soldier

armed with a sword 6

more than a match

feet long, she considered herself

Staiu'obates; but she feared his elephants,

and

was a kind of

as this

which she had no means of coping with him, she had


HaAdnof collected 300,000 black

stratao;eni.

feed the countless

workmen employed

as to be readily

man

to guide

mistaken for

it.

it,

By

manner that

had not been

idle.

slaufjhtered

them

to

when a camel was

each,

bore such a resemblance to an elephant


this deAnce she

which they had imagined to be exclusively their own.


part,

recoiu-se to a singular

and

hoped that the Indians

would be ten'or-struck on seeing themselves opposed


on his

force in

in her vast arsenal in Bactria, she caused

skins to be sewe<:l together in such a

placed inside with a

cattle,

for

.to

a species of force

Meanwhile Stanrobates,

Besides a land force scarcely less nmnerous

than that of Semiramis, and headed by a formidable array of elephants, his


fleet,

composed of 4000 vessels constructed out of reeds or bamboos, covered

the river.
fought.

Here the

fii'st

encoimter took place, and a great naval battle was

Victory was long undecided, but at length,

superior naval skill of the Phoenician

the warlike queen.


EiicOTinter

with Staurobates.

and an immense

and

o\\'ing

mainly to the

C\'priot sailors, declared in favour of

Staurobates, with the loss of a large portion of his

carnasfe of his soldiers,

the passage of the river

free.

was obliged

to

fleet,

withdraw and leave

The queen immediately caused a bridge of

boats to be constructed, and crossing with her whole army, hastened fonvard,

with the hope of soon completing the conquest which she had so successfully
begun.

Staurobates, however,

for her approach.

At

first,

had no idea of submission, and stood prepared

in the general

engagement which ensued, the Indians

Chap.

EXPEDITION OF SEMIKAMIS.

I.]

were greatly disconcerted at the appearance of the


kind of panic took place

23

and a

fictitious elephants,

b.c. 520?

but the trick which had imposed upon them was

soon discovered, and the real elephants advancing to the charge, carried everything before them.

It

was now the tm-n of Semiramis

to

Most of her

flee.

army perished in the field, or in attempting to regain the right bank of the
She herself, severely wounded durinnj a personal encoimttr with Stauroriver.
bates, made her escape with difiiculty with a mere handful of troops, and retiring

01

''

into the interior

with humbled

by the conquest of

pride,

dreamed no more of crowning her fame

India.

Notwithstanding the circumstantiality with which the Indian expedition of

Semiramis

detailed, it is impossible to

is

and

colom'ed,

many

in

Semiramis
wounded.

doubt that the whole account

enormous army which she

is

have

said to

collected. Sir

highly

is

parts not less fictitious than her elephants.

xumiur

of

fabulous.

Of the

Walter Raleigh quaintly

and sln-ewdly observes, that no one place on the earth could have nourished so

"had every man and beast but fed on

vast a concourse of living creatm-es,


grass."

Similar exaggeration

'

apparent in other parts of the narrative

is

and

grave doubts have even been raised as to the individual existence of Semiramis,

whom some
others to

whom

maintain to have been a creation of Assyrian mythology, and

have been the common name of an Assyrian dynasty.

Diodorus borrowed the account,

records, it is

not improbable that

is

said to have extracted

its ba.sis

India

or west

right

is

Persian empire.

This position

it

figiu-es

of the

as a

when

Thus incorporated,

them

In

all.

it

than that which

is

by

assigned

felt in

satrapies,

and must,

more

if

not

rational

According to him, the Persian

Herodotus.-'

fitted out,

ivrsian
"'^"^-

regard to the Indus,

monarch was merely desirous to know where the river had


view caused some ships to be

'"'li'i"

paid nearly a third

this foct it is easy to find a

account of the curiosity which Darius Hystaspes

vScylax,

lying along the

be presumed to have been the wealthiest and most populous,

the most extensive of

tliis

it

the Ass}Tian empire

whole tribute which Darius levied from his twenty

therefore,

from Persian

satrapy or province of the

natm-ally assumed

was overthrown by Cyrus the Great.

from

tale.

next brought under notice, the portion of

bank of the Indus

it

Ctesias,

of fact has been overlaid with the

embellishments which usually adorn a Persian

When

As

its

mouth, and with

and gave the command of

a Greek of Caryanda, who, after sailing

down

tlieni to

the stream to the ocean,

turned west, and spent two years and a half in a tedious voyage along the

That Darius, when he

coast.

of enlarging his dominions


wl:
hich

fitted

out the expedition, entertained the thought

by new

conquests,

is

confirmed by the statement

Herodotus adds, that immediately after the voyage was comj)leted, he

maade himself master of the


ever, are so general, that

no

sea

and subdued the Indians.

definite limits can

These terms, how-

be assigned to the new territory

thus subjected to Persian nile.


'

Raleiiih's History of the

World,

p. 125.

Herodotus, b. iv.

c.

44.

xi>e<iition

24

OF INDIA.

llLSTOIiV

[li^XJK

Hitherto only a succession of ambitioas inonarchs has appeared on the scene,

B.C. 332.

and India has become the prey successively of devastating annies from
Assyria,

was

Plinmiiciaus.

i%

and

in the

been
The

I.

Persia.

An

intercourse of a

meantime carried on hoth

estaljlished,

more peaceful and pleasing

)>y luiid

by which the East and

VN'est

and

sea,

K<ry])i,

descrijjtion

and an active trade

hiul

exchanged their peculiar products

against each other, to the great advantage of both.

Tim

trade

was

chiefly in

the hands of the Phoenicians, who.se cajntal, T^tc, situated on the shores of the

Levant, had in consequence risen to be one of the richest, mightiest, and most

RiiNS OF Tyre.

splendid cities in the world. ^


Tyre.

vices,

and the day of

From Cassas, Voyage Pittoresque de la Syrie,

This unexampled prcsperity had engendered

retribution,

wliicli

Tyre had

its

original site

on the mainland, and

stretched along the Syrian coast, from the

mouth

of

the Leontes to the headland of Eas-el-Ain, a distance

from north tosouth of about seven miles. Immediately


opposite to the centre of the town, and separated from
it by a strait about 1200 yards or two-thirds of a mile
wide, was an island nearly three miles in circuit. It
is more than probable, that while the city on the
mainland was standing, the island also was partly
built upon; but it never became the proper site of
the city, which, in contradistinction to Old, was
called

New

Tyre,

till

the inhabitants, obliged to

flee

before the countless hosts of Assyrian conquerors,

found the necessity of placing the sea between them


and their enemies. They accordingly abandoned
the mainland and took up their abode on the island,
which, under the fostering influence of commerce,
soon rose to be one of the finest and wealthiest cities
Such was the Tyre to which Alexanin the world.
Nearly in the direction of a line
der laid siege.

drawn due north through the


already mentioned.
of the island, are

On

letter E,

was the

strait

the north and south sides

two curves which formed

liar-

many

prophets had been Divinel}' com-

missioned to denounce, was fast approaching.


1

ic.

"\Miile

Alexander the Great was

by a chain of rocky islets and seawalls or breakwaters from the surges of the Medibours, protected

terranean and the various prevailing winds.


The
north harbour, marked A, was the better and more
frequented of the two; but the commerce of Tyre

must have required the use of both, and additional


facilities were given by a canal a a, which established
a navigable communication between them.
Alexander having no ships, must have seen at once that there
was no possible way of taking a city thus situated, except by making a pathway across the strait. On both
shores the water was shallow; and near the centre,
where it was deepest, it did not exceed 6 fathoms.
With the immense force at his command, there could
be no want of labourers, while the materials necessary were within easy reach. The most formidable
obstacle to success was in the means of resistance
which the inhabitants possessed; and had Tyre been
having an Archimedes,
The mound of Alexander, once completed, formed a nucleus to which the
waves of the sea and the winds of the desert made
constant accretions, and hence, in coarse of time, the
as fortunate as Syracuse, in

Alexander must have

failed.

Cfi.vr.

THE SIEGE OF

I.]

making

his first

TYP.E.

'Zo

campaigns against the Persians, the inhabitants of Tyre had

taken part with the

and by

hitter,

B.C. 332.

their maritime superiority, kept the coast of

Macedonia and Greece in pei'petual ahirm.

Alexander, incensed, tm'ned back

from his Persian conquests, and after subduing several of the adjoining

The
riiu.iiic:iiri

cities,

To a mind capable of being repelled by ordinary obstacles,


the task would have been a sufficient dissuasive from attempt-

laid siege to Tyi'e.

difficulty of

tlie

To him it was only an additional incentive, because, if he succeeded,


It also appears from a speech which Arrian
liis fame would be the greater.
puts into his mouth,' that he was actuated as much by policy as by revenge.
ing

it.

While the Tyrians remained independent and maintained a hostile

he

attitude,

ventm-e

not

could

with safety to prosecute the am-

which

schemes

bitious

had

he

begun in the East, and was also

Hope-

contemplating in Egypt.
less,

as

therefore,

seemed for a

it

land

might have

army

to at-

tempt the captiu-e of a great mari-

by art,
stronger by its

time city strongly fortified

and rendered

still

natural position

on an

island,

and

the possession of a powerful fleet

commanding
it,

all

the approaches to

he at once commenced opera-

by constructing a mound,

tions

which, after the greatest difficulties

had been surmounted, connected


the island with the mainland,

B. Southern Harbour.
A. Northern Harbour.
C. Northern (or Sidonian) Roadstead.

and

D. Southern (or Eg.viitian) Roadstead.


E. Isthmus formed by Alexander the Great.
a a. Line of Ancient Canal, connecting the Northern and
Southern Harbours.

formed a highway for the passage


of his troops.
in

The

result

was

that,

about seven months. Tyre lay in

ruins

It

might have risen from them

acrain, for

the lucrative trade which

monopolized would soon have made wealth to flow in upon

means of repairing

I* was

not struck

till

its disaster.

fatal

blow which extinguished

its

greatness

The

site

was

so happily chosen that the

new city soon

features of the locality have undergone a re-

siderable depth of water, but are supposed to have

now

been originally built on the western shore.


Of the present condition of Tyre it is unnecessary

markable change.

What was

once an island

is

Other chan^'es have taken place; and


there is reason to believe that the island had at one
time a larger extent than now appears. In fact, the
encroachment of the sea is established by the appearance of walls, which are now coverea by a con-

a peninsula.

VoL.

and furnished the

Alexander, after a successful campaign in Egypt, laid the

foundation of Alexandi'ia.
pliy.-,ical

The

it,

it Fail of Tyre,

T.

to say

more than that it is little better than a fishing


composed of wretched hovels huddled together

village,

in narrow, crooked,
'

and

filthy streets.

Arrian's Anabasis Alcxandri, b.

ii. c.

17.

-<>

B.C.

s.'ii

JIISTOJtY

became the

central

was thus diverted


not be revived.

was

indirectly

because to

now

it

emporium

into a

of

OF INDIA,

tlie Eixnt

new channel, and

and

tlie

[liwK
tra/le

of the world

Plujenician i^rosjierity, once fallen,

amid

The downfall of Tyre has been dwelt upon here, both because it
the means of greatly extending the intercourse with India, and

proljaldy

be ascribed the determination which Alexander

to

is

While he was engaged

expressed to persevere in his E<istem conquests.

the siege of Tyre, Darius, humbled

by

told

him that

a decision by the sword.

spumed

his only alternative

is

all

in

the offer

ideas of compromi.se,

was imqualified submission, or

The war thus resumed,

within the limits of Persia,

made him

his previous defeats,

of a most advantageous peace, but he haughtily

and plainly

The

West.

I.

so long as

it

was

c<^>nfined

foreign to our subject, but the course which

subsequently took brings us at once to the most interesting period

it

in tlie

history of ancient India.


Flight of

After the battle of Arbela, which was fought

Darius.

B.C.

331,

and decided the

fate

of the Persian empire, Darias continued his flight eastwards into Bactria, through

by the name

a pass in the Elbm-z Mountains, kno^vn to the Greeks

Alexander, following in pursuit, was informed that Bessas, the

pian Gates.

satrap of Bactria, had not only thro\vn off

all

allegiance to the Persian monarch,

With mingled

but had made him his prisoner.

feelings of compassion for the

monarch, and indignation at the conduct of the satrap, he quickened hLs

fallen

and was

pace,

of the Cas-

flattering himself

with the hope of a speedy capture, when he

learned that Bessus, to increase his speed, and, at the same time, remove a great
obstacle to his ambition,

him on the

road,

L^m

spot,

Darius was breathing his

Determined to punish the


pm-sviit of

his royal ma.ster,

dying of woimds which he had treacherously

Alexander reached the


A]exander's

had disencumbered himself of

atrocity,

Alexander

A thorough

the perpetrator.

lost

his steps.

his escape,

no time in continuing the

him and

when Alexander was

Dm-ing the winter of

B.C.

AMien

inflicted.

knowledge of the coimtry gave

devastating, so as to interpose a desert between

left

last.

great advantages, and these he improved to the utmost,

seemed to favour

and

obliged,

by burning and

his piu^uer.

by a

Be-ssus

Fortime

revolt, to retrace

330, Bessus was, in consequence, left in

King of Persia. In the folloA\dng


spring, however, the pvirsuit was resumed, and the criminal having been
delivered up by his own associates, paid the forfeit of his crimes by a barbarous
imdistiirbed possession of the usurped title of

mutilation and an excruciating death.

In
seen a

aveno-ino- the

death of Darius, Alexander had advanced far to the

new world open

before him.

east,

and

For a time, however, sensuality seemed

to

have gained the mastery over him, and many months were wasted in Bactria in
Ambition did not re-assume its ascendency
ch-unken and licentious reveUings.

when he reached the banks of


with an army consistmg of 1 20,000 foot and
till B.C.

were

327,

Asiatics.

The point

at

which he

first

the Indus, and prepared to cross

it

About 70,000 of these


reached the Indus has been made a

15,000 horse.

Chap.

EXPEDITION OF ALEXANDER.

I.J

question

but

it is

admitted on

all hanels

now

Punjab, where the towTi of Attock

that he crossed
stands.

army

west monsoon had set

and the

in,

the passage been opposed,

whose

chief

territories lay

and

mission,

Uke

itself,

it

river

was

an enemy, proved a valuable

Ijetween the Indus and

hospitality, Taxiles received

its

Alexander

rains.

city,

crosses the

ludus.

Had

but Taxiles, the

in his sub-

In Taxila,

auxiliary.

unequalled by any situated,

nearest tributary, the Hydaspes or Jailum,

In return for this

an arbitrary grant of as much adjoining territory

he chose to ask.
If

Alexander expected that

moiis as Taxiles, he

bounded

tones

demand for
army on the

all

the Indian princes would prove as pusillani-

was soon undeceived.

those

of

Porus, a native

with

tribute

defiance,

bank of

left

it

he

materials,

Indus

the

to

be

more serious obstacle

taken

still

Hv.hili)es.

met a
his

On reaching

an undisputed
gi-eat

number

of

not furnishing the necessary


Alrxanuer the Great.'

the

caused

even

without a

The neighbom'hood

terri-

Passage

running broad, deep, and

that

passage could not be effected


boats.

whose

and lay with

the Hydaspes.

and inmiediately saw

rapid,

rulei',

Taxiles on the east,

_^_

the river, Alexander found

on

by the

could scarcely have been forced

Alexander and his army were hospitably entertained.

as

sent forward with

Alexander arrived, the south-

gi-eatly swollen

a populous and wealthy

3i

Here a bridge of boats had

on the eastern bank, had hastened to give

thus, instead of

his capital, described as

When

for that purpose.

^c

in the north of the

it

who had been

been constructed by Hephsestion and Perdiccas,


a division of the

27

to

and

pieces,

remained.

boats which he had used

transported

Porus kept

strict

overland.

The

watch on the bank.

His army appears to have been greatly outnumbered by that of Alexander,


for the

main body

consisted of only 30,000 infantry, with an inconsiderable

body of cavalry, 200 elephants, and 300 chariots; but placed as he was,
numl)ers counted as nothing against him, since he could easily, with a mere

handful of troops, overmatch any numl)er,


passage were

made

openly.

ceive this at a single glance,


to trust less to

open

force

provided the attempt to force a

Alexander was too

skilful

a tactician not to per-

and had, accordingly, from the very fii-st, determined

By

than to stratagem.

a series of movements and

comiter-movements, he distracted the attention of the enemy, and kept him in a


state of uncertainty as to the point

be made.
false

where the attempt at crossing was

likely to

Next, by selecting a number of stations along the bank, and making

alarms during the night, he obliged the troops of Porus to be always in

motion,

till

natm-e

itself

was completely exhausted by want of repose.

ordering provisions to be brought in from

all

that he

had abandoned the idea of crossing

sided.

Under

Silver tetradrachma of Lysimacbus.

by

quarters, he encouraged the belief

until the swollen waters

this impression, the vigilance of


'

Lastly,

Porus relaxed.

From Briti.sh Museum.

had sub-

Meanwhile,

in

Aiex.uuier-s

IILSTOKY OF INDIA.

28
B.C. 327.

the course of reconnoitring, Alexander luul di.scovered a

was greatly contracted by an


Alexander's

[Book

the stream, and, to

nj>

nonc of his troops were allowed to be seen near

lull suspicion,

stationed considerably below, with the main

ing that there


der, selecting

where the cliannel

Hj)ot

was a good way

It

island.

tlie

greatest danger lay,

Craterus was

it

body of the army; and

was encamped

I.

oji)Osite

Poru.s,

think-

Alexan-

to him.

a body of chosen troops, amounting U) about 6000 men, quitted the

banks of the river and marched back into the

away by some sudden emergency.

When

interior, as if

he ha/1 been called

out of sight he bent gradually round,

and in the course of the night arrived on the bank opposite the island. The
boats of the Indus were hastily launched, and he was steering his way among
the foremost to tlie opposite bank, when the enemy's sentinels discovered him
and gave the alarm.

Porus

first

sent forward one of his sons with a small body,

but these being speedily routed, he himself, leaving only a few troops to watch
the motions of Craterus, hastened to the encounter.

was too

Alexan-

late.

der,

with a large portion of his detachment, had effected a landing, and stood on

the

bank among marshes,

into which the elephants, to

He

trusted, could not venture.

therefore

field in

which the

soldiers of

As

all its

q^q]^ q^

and

is

the

first battle-

arrangements, and will justify a fuller

than might have been necessary under different circumstances.

Porus stationed his elephants in

Battle of the

this

solid

Europe were arrayed against those of India, a

deep interest naturally attaches to


detail

which Porus mainly

withdrew to the nearest spot of

ground, and calmly waited Alexander's approach.

Hydaspes.

It

them.

in such a

cavalry,

The infantry were placed

way

and of the

as to

fill

with an interval of 100

front,

up the

feet

between

in a second line behind the elephants,

intervals.

The two

"wings consisted of

beyond them.

chariots ranged on either side

Alexander

commenced the battle by attacking the enemy's left wing with his cavalry and
mounted archers.
He had anticipated that this attack would compel the
enemy's right wing to move forward in support of its left, and had ordered that,
in that case, a detachment of his cavalry under Ccenus should move round to the
rear, and thus place the enemy's cavalry, as it were, between two fir&s.
The
result was as he had foreseen and the enemy's cavalry was obliged, in order to
meet the double attack, to face about and form two fi-onts. Taking advantage
of the partial confusion thus produced, Alexander brought up his phalanx to the
charge, and the enemy's wing.s, totally imable to sustain it, sought .shelter by
;

rushing into the intervals between the elephants.

By

these powerful animals

the fortune of the day seemed for a short time to be retrieved, as they pressed

forward and trampled

down everything

was only momentary.


their ranks,

The advantage, however,

The Macedonians, imder thorough

and then, as the elephants

down

that opposed.

passed, attacked

discipline,

opened

them on flank and

rear,

wounds which, without being mortal,


so galled them that they became utterly unmanageable.
Thus hunied back
among the Indian ranks, they produced irremediable confusion. At this critical

shooting

their guides,

and

inflicting

Chap.

EXPEDITION OF ALEXANDEE.

I.]

moment

who had

Crateras,

made
exhausted by

succeeded in crossing the river,

His troops were perfectly fresh, while the Indians,

and thinned

in spirit,

29

had

in numbers,

slaughter ensued, and Porus

saw

power of

lost all

his troops falling

by

his appearance,
fatigue,

resistance.

He

thousands.

b.c.

.!27.

broken

ch'eadful

still,

how-

roms
defeated.

kept the

ever,

During the whole day he

field.

mingled in the thickest of

hatl

the fight, and performed prodigies of valour.

His

which was almost

stature,

and the elephant on which he was mounted, made him a

gigantic,

object for the

Macedonian archers

and he must have

worn a coat of mail which no arrow coidd


only part exposed, and in

spot, for

he was

and 9000 taken

right shoulder

was the

His determination

About 12,000 of

fuo^itives.

The Macedonian

prisoners.

had he not

almost alone before his atten-

left

dants could induce him to minfjle with the


troops were slain,

The

pierce.

he was severely wounded.

it

seemed to be to perish on the

fallen early

consi)icuous

loss

was

his

trifling,

amoimting, at the utmost, according to Diodorus, to 700 infantry and 230 cavalry.

According to AiTian, the

loss of infantry

was only

eighty.

Alexander, struck with admiration of the valour which Porus had

was anxious

him

to save his

The

to surrender.

life,

and sent Taxiles

choice

was unfortunate,

long been at deadly feud; and Porus,


sight

of.

enemy,

his old

whom

after

when

him

dis]:)layed, S'rrender
of Poms.
.

to endeavoiu* to induce

for the

two native

chiefs

had

overtaken, was so exasperated at the

he probably also regarded as a main cause of the

great disaster which

had just befallen him, that he aimed a blow which Taxiles

narrowly escaped.

second summons, by a more influential messenger, suc-

and Porus, finding escape impossible, yielded himself a

ceeded,

prisoner.

In the midst of his misfortunes, Porus displayed a manliness and dignity

which proved him worthy of a better

and seen three of

his sons fall in battle, b\it

of a suppliant, and,

how he wished

when

In one day he had

do for

lost his kingilom,

he disdained to assmne the attitude

Alexander, riding up at the head of his


"

to be treated, simply answered,

" I shall

Alexander,

ftite.

my own

sake, but

Royally."

what am

I to

do

officers,

aked

" That," rejoined

for youre?"

"

Do

was the reply. Soimd policy combined with Alexander's


natural magnanimity in making him desirous to secure the friendship of such a

just as I

have

He

man.

said,"

accordingly heaped favoiu's upon him, not only restoring his former

but enlarging them by

ungi-ateful,

and continued

territories,

many new

faithful to his

annexations.

Porus was not

Macedonian masters.

In commemoration of his victory, Alexander erected a city on the spot, and

Another city, which he erected on the site of


name of Nicrea.
his encampment on the right bank of the Hydaspes, he called Bucephala, in
honom* of his horse Bucephalus, which, after can-\dng him through all his cam-

gave

it

aigns,

ce

the

had recently died of old age or

been

identified.

in battle.

Neither of these

cities

has

After reposing for a time in the dominions of Porus, he

gain set out, and proceeded north-east into the territory of the Glaus?e, which
represented as densely peopled and covered with

cities,

many

of

them with

Alexander >
'""^'^"

30
BC.

327.

inSTOKV OF IM)IA.

more than lO.OOO

The

iiiliahitHiits,

the chiefs hastened to

make

fitted for the purpose,

and employed

in

Meanwhile

that, before quit-

for

on finding

down

cut

h>e

t^>

ambition urged him forward, and he arrived

banks of the Acesines or Chenaub.

at the

would weem

he caased innneiLse quantities to

his

1.

preceded him, and

building vessels, with which he proposed, at a later period,

descend the Indus.


Pa^aKoof

Jt

\iiu\

had been turned homewards;

ting the Hydaspes, his tliouglits

timber well

name

terror of his

their Hubmission.

[li'joK.

Thougli

much

l^roa/ler

impetuous than the Hydaspes, there was no enemy to dispute the

and more

pas.sage,

and

was crossed with comparative ea.se. It seems, however, that though no enemy
appeared, the country was in possession of one whose name, somewhat strange

it

to sa}^

was

He was

also Poras.

not only not related to the Poras of

whom

the

above account has been given, but was at open enmity with him, and, probably
under the influence of this enmity, had, prcAdously to the battle of the Hydaspes,
It appears, however, that the favour into

sent in his submission to Alexander.

which the other Porus had been received had offended or alarmed him
liim as a friend or oppose

cariying almost

all

him

as

fit

him

for

arms along with him.

Alex-

and in the course of the pursuit

arrived at another of the Punjab rivers, called the Hydraotes or Ravee.


it,

to

an enemy, he suddenly disappeared,

the youth of the country

ander, offended, endeavoured to overtake

crossing

and

on the news of Alexander's approach, instead of waiting either

therefore,

welcome

Before

he bestowed the tenitories of the fugitive Porus on his more deserving

The

namesake.

passage, which, according to Rennel,' took place near Lahore, he

appears to have effected without difficulty; but in the country beyond, he found a

formidable combination formed to resist him.

Three native

states,

of which that

was the most powerful, had united their forces agamst the invader.
In the campaign which followed, Alexander was di'awn far to the south, where a
strong city, which bore the name of Sangala or Sagala was situated, somewhere

of the Malli

Both from the description and the name of the

between Lahore and Mooltan.


inhabitants,

open

field

selves

it is

conjectured to have been nearer the

soon proved hopeless; and the confederates, as a last refuge, shut them-

up in Sangala, which occupied a commanding

as strono- as Indian art coiild


carried

it

resistance

Resistance in the

latter.

make

and was

position,

Alexander commenced the

it.

othei'wise
siecre,

and

much \ngour that the place soon feU into his hands. The
had exasperated him and forgetting the magnanimity which he had

on with

so

displayed in the case of Porus, he disgraced himself

by a

horrible massacre, in

which neither age nor sex was spared.


Anivai
'

sis.

at

From

tlus atrocity

Alexander tm-ned to make new conquests, and reached

Here he was met by an

the banks of the H3q)hasis or Beas.

His Em'opean

midable than any he had yet encountered.


long service, had become impatient

and,

when he

:'t

Eeune], Memoir of a

Map

troops,

more

for-

worn out with

formally intimated his inten-

tion to cross the river, broke out into loud murmurs.


'

obstacle

of Hindoostan.

In vain he harangued

EXPEDITION OF ALEXANDER.

Chap. L]

them, and pointed to the country beyond, where

new

victories

and

rich spoils

b.c. 327.

Their hearts were set on home, and they plainly declared their

awaited them.

Even

determination not to proceed.

Coenus, one of the generals

highest in his favom-, espoused the cause of the soldiers,

which,

31

if less rhetorical

own

if his

and delivered a speech

For a time Alexander was immoveable, and

countrjonen should abandon him, he would place

himself at the head of his Asiatic subjects.

and on finding that

stood

than that of his master, made a deeper impression, and

was received with acclamations.


declared that, even

who

his Greeks

This, however,

was mere bravado

were not to be worked upon, either by threats

or promises, he announced his intention to return.

Late in the autumn of

and found the

fleet

B.C.

327, he

had retraced

his steps to the Hydaspes, Alexanders

which he had ordered to be constructed, in readiness to carry

The voyage itself was not free from danger but the
greatest risk which Alexander ran, was during one of the frequent descents which
he made on land for the pm-pose of subjugating the adjoining territories. While
him down the

stream.

storming: one of the cities of the Malli, he found himself almost alone

He

on the

by a retrograde movement, but


di.sdaining to have it said that he had tiu-ned his back, he leaped inside, and
was for a time exposed to the whole fury of the defenders. Having gained a
tree and placed his back against it, he made almost superhuman exertions, and
kept his opponents at bay till an arrow pierced deep into his shoulder, and he
Another moment and his death was inevitable but the
fell down in a swoon.
rampart.

could easily have saved himself

time gained by his defence had been gallantly redeemed by his troops, and several of his officers
tirst

deemed

rushing

in,

placed their shields around him.

mortal, spread grief

and consternation among

The wound,

his followers;

but the

vigour of his constitution and the skill of his physicians prevailed, and he

make his appearance amid general rejoicings.


In proceeding down the river, Alexander formed his army

at

was

able ere long to

into three divi-

two of which marched along the opposite bank, while the third, under his
o^vn command, kept the stream.
He afterwards despatched Craterus with a

sions,

thii'd

of the

army by an inland

route across Arachosia and

Drangiana

Carmania or Kerman, and proceeded with the remainder down the Indus.

modern

arrival at Pattala, evidently the


delta,

he remained for some time

Tatta, situated near the

and, on departing, sent a

explore the adjoining coimtry, and afterwards join

rendezvous.

He

him

to serious danorer.

ing the estuary.


ranean,

what was

On

apex of the

body of troops

to

at a fixed place of

selected the west branch of the river for the remainder of his

voyage, during which his

him

to

want of

pilots

and ignorance of navigation exposed

This was not diminished but rather increased on reach-

Acciuainted only with


his astoni.shment

tlie

insignificant tides of the Meditei*-

and that of

his

magnificent tide of the Indian Ocean rushing

Greeks when they beheld the

in,

and, in consequence of the

sudden contraction of the opposite shores, moving rapidly along in one volume

Descent
*****

of

'"'*'

32
DC.

:i2o.

IIISTOIJV OP' INF^TA.

of water several feet

lii^^li!

'J'lii.s

by the name of the

niai'iuers

to portend the destruction of the

damage was sustained

the necessary precautions could

The

sea had

These he

dangers.

the

fleet,

ever

more

seemed

it

considerable

taken.

he luul seen of the

become better acquainted with

desire to

its

Nearchas to encounter, by giving him the command of

left

with injunctions to skirt and explore the shore from the Indas west-

He

ward.

him no

j)roljably left

fact,

)je

little

well

because

ten'or,

In point of

Heet.

Here Alexanders maritime adventures ended.

Voyage of
"^"^

Ijefore

whole

wonder but

I.

known to
Indas with many othei-

and common to the

bore,

now

|jlienoinenori,

.sin;;ular

similarly situated, produced not only

rivei"s

[Br>oK

himself with the main body of the army, took leave of India for

by an inland

though he was not aware of the

route, which,

periloas of the two, as

it

led through the heart of a

sandy

fact,

was the

desert,

which

almost without inteiruption, from the eastern edge of the basin of the

stretches,

Indas across the south of the Asiatic and the north of the African continent to
the Atlantic Ocean.

The Indian expedition of Alexander cannot be

K.Tecuof
expedition.

on moral grounds.

justified

was dictated by a wild and ung jvernable ambition and spread misery and
death among thousands and tens of thousands who had done nothing to offend
It

him, and were peacefully pursuing their different branches of industry,

he made his appearance among them like a destropng demon.


once deemed the only avenues to fame, are

now judged more

Such

wisely.

when

exploits,
Still it Ls

impossible to deny that conquerors were often in early times pioneers of ciWlization,

commerce following peacefully along

sating for their devastation

by the

and compendiffused.
Such was

their bloody track,

which

blessings

it

and

certainly the result of the Indian expedition of Alexander;

while reprobating the motives in which


that

it

was

so overrviled

and valuable

by Pro\ddence

it

originated,

rejoice

results.

nominal Macedonian empire, which


Nicator.

we cannot but

as to be productive of mo.st impoi-tant

The conquests of Alexander were never


Selenois

therefore,

to pieces

on

his death,

and was

parti-

was given to Seleucixs Nicator,


who established himself in Babylon, and became the foiinder of the d}Tiasty of
tlie SeleucidsB, which lasted for two centmies and a half
In the early part of
his reign, the stiiiggles which he had to maintain with powerful competitoi-s
tioned

by

his officers.

The most

fell

and foimed only a

consolidated,

eastern portion

completely engi-ossed his attention

he

felt

but when, by the overthrow of Antigonas,

firmly seated on the throne, he appeai-s to have become animated with

an ambition
East,

to imitate the exploits of Alexander,

and caiTv

India, indeed, he natvu'aUy regarded as fonning

]-)art

his

of

arms

Ms

far to the

tenitory, and,

on hearing that the natives had risen in insmTection, killed Alexander's

and thro^vn

off*

the Macedonian yoke, he resolved to treat them as rebels.

Accordingly, after ha\'ing

and entered the

prefects,

made himself master

territories of

of Bactria, he crossed the Indus,

which Taxiles and Ponis were

still ridel's.

Neither

Chap.

of

SANDRACOTTUS AND SELEUCUS.

I.]

them

and he continued

disptited his authority,

country of the

Prasii,

over

whom

who

Chandragupta,

his progress

till

he reached the

This usurper, whose identity with

tigures in the traditions

and

also in a

drama of the Hindoos,

has been established, was of low origin, and, according to Justin,' the chief
classical

authority for

first

that

known

is

of him,

owed

his rise to a pretended zeal

His countrymen, believing him, placed power

for liberty.

the

all

use he

made

of

was

it

B.C. aos?

Sandracottus had usurped the sovereignty,

he had murdered their lawful king.

after

JO
ti

in his hands,

Siimiracot-

c'lmiuira^"''*"*

and

to enslave them.

Unprincipled though Sandracottus had proved himself to be by the

mode

in

which he attained the throne, he soon showed by his talents that he was not

by force, fear, or persuasion, had extended his


dominions on every side, till he was able to bring into the field an army estimated
Such was the enemy with whom Seleucus was
by hundreds of thousands.
about to come into collision. We cannot wonder that the prospect made him
imworthy of

and

pause,

reigning, and,

that,

more

especially

on learning how much

his pre.sence

was required

s^n'iracottii3

in the

West, where

accommodation.

new wars were

was glad

Sandracottus, aware of his advantage,

that Seleucus obtained

all

raging, he

was 500

to propo.se terms of

made

elephants, in return for

the most of

it

and

Seieucus.

and

which he ceded

all

As a means of cementinfj the


The capital of the kingtreaty, Sandracottus married the daughter of Seleucus.
dom of the Px-asii, called by classical writers Palibothra, and by the Hindoos
Pataliputra, and believed to have stood on or near the site of the modern Patna,
formed a quadrangle of vast extent, inclosed by wooden walls loop-holed for
Indian territories on both sides of the Indus.

his

arrows.^

The

alliance

Meacasthenes,

between Seleucus and Sandracottus was not disturbed; and

who

Palibothra as ambassador from the former, wrote

loner lived at

work which, notwithstanding

its

excessive leaning to the marvellous,

great source from which ancient classical writers derived most of

knew concerning

the interior of India.

to the reign of Seleucus


light has

The period

been thrown upon

it

by the discovery

what they

of Indian history subsequent

very imperfectly known.

is

was the

Recently an unexpected

of large quantities of coins,

which show that the western portion of the country continued subject to the

Greek kings, who had the seat of their government


progress, also, has

iascriptions

seemed as

Lpuzzle posterity.

if

they had been designed not so

The key having

at length been found,

mation has already been obtained, and more

amount

lere

is,

lost

'

is

too scanty to justify

may

any attempt at

that after several of the Seleucid.B,

Justiu, IliMoriie I'lulippica; b. xv.


I.

c.

-1.

like the

much

Egyptian

to inform as to

some valuable

infor-

be expected; but as yet

detail.

All that need be said

among whom Antiochus

conspicuous, and several Kings of Bactria. which

Vol.

Con.siderable

been made in deciphering and interpreting certain monumental

which are written in an imknown alphabet, and,

liierogly|-)hics,

the

in Bactria

fii-st

the Great

is

became independent
''

Strabo,

.\v. 1,

35.

Cioek Kiiig

34
U.C.

20.

OF INDIA.

nT.ST()l;\'

under

Tlieo(l<>tus

about

B.C.

had

200,

fB'^OK

sovereignty to a greater or

li(;ld

les.s

I.

extent

in India, a horde of Scythiaii.s, driven }>y the Hun.s from the 8hore.s of the JaxHuns ami

made

aites,

their aj>])earance ab^ut a century l>efore the Chri.stian era,

and

Hcythians.

Here they fonned what

gained a firm footing in the lower basin of the Indas.

has been called the Indo-Scythic province of Scinde, and were endeavouring,
against a bold and often successful oj^position from the natives, to force their

way

into the fertile ba.sin of the

when another horde

Ganges,

-"f^^i^W N',^,
'//

rived from Persia about

^nmJM

B.C.

ar-

26

under the leadership of Yu-chi,

who gained

them a temporary ascendency, and became


for

the founder of an Indo-Scythian

About the same time

dynasty.
Silver Coin or Eucratides.'

From a specimen in British Hoseum.

a native prince called Vicramaditya,

Vicraina-

who

is

one of the greatest

heroes in Hindoo story, established an extensive sovereignty, which had the

ditya.

Nerbudda

for its southern

remarkable not only for

whom

boundary; and at Oojein, his

its

also, several

held a court,

number of learned men


the sovereign had drawn around him.
In

splendour, but for the

the enlightened liberality of

Southern India,

capital,

native sovereignties appear to have been estab-

Among

lished as early as the Christian era.

these the mo.st conspicuoas are

Pandya, which occupied a large tract in the south-west of the peninsula, and
one of whose kings, called Pandion,
to the

Roman emperor

is

said

by Strabo

to

have sent an ambas.sador

Augustus; and Chola, which, including the Camatic,

extended over a large portion of the south-east of the peninsula, and reached

They

north to the banks of the Godavery.

empty names,

as they do not furnish during their long duration

well authenticated as to entitle


Roman

in-

tercourse

with India.

are now, however, little better than

them

any

facts so

to a place in history.

somewhat remarkable that the Romans, though they boasted of being


the rulers of the world, never possessed an inch of ten*itoiy in India. On several
occasions during their wars in the East, they came into collision with sovereigns
It

is

whose dominions reached beyond the Indus, but the


invariably stopped, as
celebrated stream.

if it

It

had met an insuperable

was not ignorance

barrier, before it

On

^-ictoiy

reached that

Romans

the contrary, several of

most popular wTiters had made them well acquainted with the geography

and the leading physical features of


were exhibited for

enormous
'

Roman

or indifference that led the

thus to contract the limits of their eastern frontier.


their

tide of

prices.

Eucratides,

sale
The}'^

in their marts,

181)

was

Parthia,

many

of

its

peculiar products

and found eager pm-chasers, often

must often have longed

King of Bactria (about B.C.


I., King of

contemporary with Mitbridates

India, while

at

to be masters of a countr}-

and appears to Lave been one of the most powerful


of the Bactrian kings.

Chap.

ROUTES OF INDIAN COMMERCE.

l.J

3.">

which ministered so greatly to their luxury and comfort; and however much they

may have wished

had they believed that there was anything beyond to tempt

farther,

bition, it is sufficiently

obvious that India never

have carried their conquests

to be thought that they could

it

b.c.

felt

their

am-

the terror of their power,

merely because inhospitable deserts and warlike nations interposed to place

it

lieyond their reach.

While

impossible to give the

it is

from any attempt to conquer India,


illustration of the

carries

important

fact,

Romans
it

credit for moderation in refraining

pleasing to find in their conduct an

is

that the peaceful intercourse which commerce

on between distant nations, besides escaping


in

carries

train,

its

secures

and more than

all

all

war

the horrors which

all

the advantages

which

could have been hoped from the most absolute and least expensive form of con-

In

quest.

Rome and

all

dependencies, the rich products of the soil and the

its

looms of India arrived as surely, as abundantly, and as cheaply as they could

have done had the whole country from the Himalaya to Cape Comorin been
one vast

Roman

province.

Before leaving ancient India,

will not be out of ])lace to take a survey of Leading

it
_

by which,

the leading routes

routes of

at this early period, the traffic between the East

Overland the only practicable method of

and West was conducted.

by means of caravans, which,


ceeded directly to Bactria.

Indian com-

traffic w.is

after (quitting the western confines of India, pro-

made at Balkh, on
emporium was established. From Bactria

Here the

southern frontiers, and a great

first

great halt was

the
the

usual line of route

was toward Babylon, which,

great emporium.

In pursuing this line the shores of the Caspian were nearly

in like manner,

approached, and advantage was often taken of


carried north to a convenient spot,

it

to ship goods,

and then conveyed by land

by wiiich not only the countries adjacent

became another
which were

to the Black Sea,

to the coasts could be supplied,

but an

easy access could be had through the Dardanelles to the ports of the Mediter-

From Babylon

ranean.

the route westward led directly to Palmp-a, which, in imand

consequence of the mart thus

establislied,

situation in the heart of a desert,

much

difficidty,

and

ters of the globe,

! against

its

and became the

all

the di.sadvantages of

capital of

called its

its

a powerful and

the coast of the Levant was reached without

harbours became places of exchange for the three quar-

bartering the spices of India and the frankincense of Ai-abia

the peculiar products both of Europe and Africa.

overland route

tbe
which

From PalmjTa

kingdom.

oi)ulent

overcame

now

traced, there

main trunk.

were many

Besides the direct

lines of divergence

from what

may

These were chiefly intended to supj^ly the places

lay at a distance on either side of

it,

and thus furnished the means of

transport for a very extensive inland trade.

The overland
impracticable,
less

was

route, which,

but for the camel, would have been altogether

necessarily slow, toilsome,

and expensive, and was therefore

extensively used than the maritime route, especially after a knowled<Te of

IIIsroKV OF INDIA.

36
B.C.

[Ii<^OK

the monsoons in the Indian Ocean liad emboldened navigaU^rs, even before the

compass was discovered, to humch

<.ut int<j

way

the deep and steer their course directl}'

was accomplished
by the south-west, and the homeward by the north-east monswjn the fonner,

across from shore to shore.

In

tliis

the outward voyage

Maritime

consequently, in the summer, and the latter in

routes.

mode

a vast improvement on the earlier


discovered the trade

by

This was

winter months.

of navigation, but even }>efore

of Tyre princes, and a

it,

was

it

Mention ha already

sea obtained great importance.

been made of the Phoenicians, who, by means of

made the merchants

tlie

acquired an opulence which

power which

it

took

prowess, and perseverance of Alexander the Great to overthrow.

the

skill,

As they

could

all

not communicate directly with India, and were unwilling to depend for transport

on the Egyptian.s, who might at any time, by declining to perform their


it,

yjart

of

have extinguished the trade, they, by force or negotiation, made themselves

masters of some convenient harbours on the Arabian coast, near the entrance

Red Sea,
TjTe by a land

of the

distance

was

for the trade

them

and, using

which they had

route, of

still

as entrepots, formed a communication with

so great as to be very inconvenient;

were obtained when

colura, the nearest port in the

tlie

The

.secured the entire cfjntrol.

and

Phoenicians took

lience

new

pos.se.ssion

Mediterranean to the Red Sea.

facilities

of Rhino-

It is true that

before the goods could reach Tyre a double re-shipment thus became nece.sRouteused

sary

but the diminished land carriage more than compensated for this

dis-

hy the
pucenicians.

advantage, and enabled tliem, by the abundance and cheapness with which

they could supply other nations, to establish almost a complete monopoly of


the Indian trade.

On

the destruction of Tyre and the foundation of Alexandria, the trade with

India entered a

new channel,

Route by
Alexandria.

to

see

which

it

continued afterwards to flow for nearly

Alexander had the merit of selecting

eighteen centuries.
too soon

in

its

advantages

realized.

in the erection of

played, that

it

which

so

capital,

much

and provided

officer,

its

on becoming master of

harbour with a light-house,

magnificence and engineering skill were dis-

ranked as one of the seven wonders of the world.

were followed out by his son and


endeavouring, but without

succes.s,

successor,

to

form a canal

acro.ss

made

difficulties,

was

ea.sily

after

to Alexandria,

From

this

which great exertions were

to surmount, brought the products of India to Coptos.

distance to Alexandria

^'ievvs

the istlimus of Suez,

founded the new city of Berenice on the west coast of the Red Sea.
unattended with

His

Ptolemy Philadelphus, who,

which would have given a continuous water communication


city a land carriage, not

but died

So thoroughly, however, had he

imparted his ideas to Ptolemy Lagu.s, that that


Egypt, made Alexandria his

this channel,

Tlie

remaining

completed by a short canal and the Nile.

Through the channel thus opened, the wealth of India continued to flow into
Egypt so long as it remained an independent kingdom. Outward vessels
leaving Berenice with such articles of European and African export as were in

Chap.

ROUTES OF INDIAN COMMERCE.

I.]

demand

in the East, skirted the

Arabian and Persian

37
taking advantage

coasts,

B.C.

of sucli prominent head-lands as enabled tliem to steer direct without following

the windings of the shore, and thus reached the Indian coast near the mouths

How

of the Indus.

was no

there

they afterwards proceeded south

far

obstacle in the way,

country lay in that direction,

is

not known; but as

and some of the most prized products of the

it is

presumed

to be

that, instead of confining

themselves to a few isolated spots, they formed a general acquaintance with the

To

whole sea-bord.

secure the

kings maintained a large

command

fleet at sea,

of

Egyptian

lucrative trade, the

tliis

which, while

kept

it

down

piracy, deterred

The nation which

other nations from entering into competition with them.

could have done so with most effect was Persia, which possessed the obvious and

From

very im})ortant advantage of a far shorter sea passage.

the Persian Gulf

they could have reached India in about half the time which the Egyptians must

have taken.
prise

their

great, that

and Euphrates
it

had long an aversion to maritime enter-

Persians, however,

an aversion so

Tigris

may,

The

they are said to have erected barriers across the

Be

for the purpose of rendering it impossible.

this as it

Tiie Persians

maritime
'^"'*"i"''^*

seems established that the Indian produce which they obtained for

own

caravans.

use, or

the supply of adjacent countries, came mostly overland

by the

Another cause of the supineness of the Persians in regard to mari-

time intercom'se with India,

may

be found in the erroneous ideas generally

entertained respecting the proper limits of the Caspian Sea on the north, and
its

The Caspian was somewhat unaccount-

Black Sea.

relative position to the

ably imagined to be a branch of the great Northern Ocean, and


that

by means

of

it

was believed

a channel of communication might be opened up with

it

Europe, which might thus be

made

to receive the products of India

shorter route than the Indian Ocean,

and consequently at a

than they could be furnished by the Egyptians.

by a

far

Krrorein
^*^'"'*'"y-

far cheaper rate

Ideas of this kind seem to

have weighed particularly with some of Alexander's successors in the East.


Seleucus Nicator, the

first

and one of the

ablest of them,

is

even said to have

contemplated a canal which would have joined the Caspian and Black Seas, and
thereby secured a monopoly of European and Indian
After the
30, the

Romans conquered Egypt and converted

channels of

traffic

received an impulse unfelt before,

Hippalus conceived the idea of cutting


the.

Red Sea and

India,

iutervenins: shores,

whicli

suggested

it

off"

by abandoning

and steering boldlv

very middle of the ocean.


so

it

into a province, in B.C.

with the East continued unchanged, while

was enormously increased both by land and


tlie traffic

traffic.

sea.

By

when a

the

its

amount

latter, in particular,

navigator of the

name

of

nearly a half of the voyage between

HippaUis

the timid track ])ursued along the rlnugoof

far out of sioht of

The plan seems

so natural,

obvious, that one finds

some

land throucrh the

and the considerations

difficulty in

recognizing

Hippalus as the inventor, or in giving him miich credit for the invention.

He

*''^ '^''^'

38
B.C.

HISTOItV OF INDIA.

choosing the proper seasons,

tlie

[Book

1.

one would carry him out and the other bring

him home.
riin/8account of tlio
voyage to

'^''Ik;

course of the voyage,


and even the time occupied
hv
^ r>
l
j
'

detailed

by the elder

it,

is

>

minuUdv
J

1'he cargo destined for India being endjaiked

Pliny.'

on

India.

the Nile, was conveyed by

At Coptos

it

and a short canal

the land carriage commenced, and

on the west shore of the Red Sea.

midsummer, and
final

From

to Copto.s, a distance of

was continued 258 miles

ta Berenice,

after a short halt near the Straits of Bab-el- mandeb, took its

an average, from the Mediterranean

three months, or ninety-four days.

Of

to India

was a

The

wliole time

little

thirty,

and the voyage

more than

these, the inland navigation to

occupied twelve, the land transport to Berenice twelve, the voyage

Red Sea

mih-.s.

Berenice the vessel started aljout

departure usually for Musiris on the Malabar coast.

occupied, on

303

across the Indian

Ocean forty

day.s.

Coptos

down

the

The time

occupied by the

Red Sea voyage seems out of all proportion to the other, but
may be accounted for partly by the difficulty of navigating a sea notorious for

RliNS OF Tai

baffling

.mvea.

From Cassas,

Voyage Pittoresque

winds and storms, and perhaps partly

also

<le

la Syrie, &c.

by delays which may have

been occasioned by calling on both sides of the coast

for the pm-pose of

com-

The homeward voyage, commenced earl}'" in December,


appears to have been tlie far more tedious of the two.
Though the Persians had failed to take advantage of their maritime proximity to India, the Romans had no sooner carried their eastern frontier to the

pleting the cargo.

'

Plinii Historia Naturalis, b. vi.

c.

23.

Chap.

MEDIEVAL

II.]

39

INDIA.

banks of the Euphrates, than an important trade sprung up in the Persian Gulf,

and Indian produce was transported in large quantities up the

river,

west to Pahnyra, which reaijed the advantajije to such an extent


condescended at one time to com't
declined

and was tottering

which had been

to its

established,

expense of the Greeks,

fall,

even

Rome

I'x^'"" *<^

simiCuif.

the Persian monarchs continued the traffic

and by means of

who had made

and then

After this proud city had

alliance.

its

tliat

ad

it

enriched themselves at the

Constantinople the capital of their empire.

As we have now touched on medieval

times, it

may

suffice,

sketch of ancient India, to mention that the great staples of

in concluding the
its

trade were then

nearly the same as at present, and consisted chiefly of cotton and silk goods,
dyes, drugs, spices
stones.

and aromatics,

These were paid

woollen cloth, lead,

ciiietiy

tin, brass,

])assage in the Institutes of

pearls,

diamonds, emeralds, and other precious

in the precious metals, but partly also

Though a

wine, and a few foreign perfumes.

Menu, which

voyages as well as land

refers to sea

journeys, implies that the inhabitants of India

in

had begun at an early period

to

navigate the ocean, they seem to have confined themselves to coasting, and to

have
to

left

the external trade entirely in the hands of strangers.

commit themselves

still

to the open sea

had

its

This aversicm

origin in superstitious

feai-s,

which

contiime to operate.

CHAPTEIi
Medieval India Arab conquests

First

Mohamed Casim E.xpulsion

11.

appearance of Mahometans in India

of the Arabs

Conquest of

House of Ghuznee Sebektegin Sultan

'AHOMETANISM,

which had made

as persuasion only

was employed
sword than

little

to %vield the

side.

Before the death of Mahomet, in 632,


all Ai-abia,

it.

no sooner

spread rapidly on every

began
dued

Mahmood.

progress so long

to propagate
it

Scinde by

it

had sub-

and made a considerable impression both

on Syria and Persia; and iinder his successors

it

had, in the course of less

than a centmy, not only con-solidated these conquests, but established an empire
which stretched continuously from Arabia as a centre, west to the Atlantic,
engulfing

Spain and threatening the

fairest portion

of France

north

and

north-east through Pei"sia, to the vast region which extends between the

and the Jaxartes, from the Caspian to Mount Imaus and east
banks of the Indus. Its progress in this last direction must now be

IB
I

tlie

As

Oxus
beyond the
traced.

early as the calijihate of Omar, the Arabs, coasting along the shores of

Indian Ocean, had made predatory descents upon Scinde, chiefly for the

Rapui
Mahuiiiu
tniiisiu.

40
AD.

CGI.

OF INDIA,

IIISTOIIV

[Book

purpose of carrying ofF the wouu-n, whose beauty was in

iiigli

the Arabian liarems; but no land expedition deserving of


Kirstapiiear-

Aral* in

Arab

664, wlien i)art of an

and gained,

it is said,

force

2,000 converts, wfis despatched

wards figured as a wan*ior

command

and Arabia, forced

in Persia

and returned with numerous

t^>

it)

julorn

nr)tiai t^jok phice till

which had penetrated from Merv

This detachment, under the

of the Punjab.

repute,

I,

t<^>

Ca>K>o!,

explore the lower part

of Mohalib,
its

way

who

aft<;r-

into Mooltan,

The next expedition was on a greater


scale, and led to more permanent results.
An Arab siiip had been seized at
Dewal, a .seaport of Scinde. Restitution was demanded, but Rajah Dahir, who.se
territories are said to

captive.s.

have included Mooltan and

all

to

and 300

Mohame.1

^^"

The Arabs, thus refused redre.ss, determined


view, sent a body con.sisting only of 1000 infantry

subject to his authority.

compel

failiu-e,

some

by pretending that Dewal

adjacent plains, endeavoiired to evade compliance,

was not

Scinde, together with

it,

and, with this

horse.

It

was altogether inadequate, and

Exasperated at the

perished.

Hejaj, governor of Bussorah in 711, despatched a regular force of

mcu, uudcr the command of his nephew

Mohamed

youth of twenty, possessed great military

talents,

6000

Casim, who, though only a

and

The

after siuroounting all

commenced with an
attack on a celebrated pagoda contiguous to the town, and inclosed by a high
wall of hewn stone.
In addition to the Brahmins who XLSually occupied it, it
difficulties,

encamped under the walls of Dewal.

siege

The defence was

had a strong garrison of Rajpoots.

resolute,

and might have

had not Casim learned that the safety of the place was
conceived to depend on a flag which was flying from a tower. Acting on this

been

successful,

information, he directed all his engines against the

His capture

do\vn, than the resistance

struck

it

easy.

With barbarous

became

and on finding

seventeen to death, and

made

of

Dcwal

itsclf

all

it ineffectual,

slaves of the

and had no sooner

so feeble as to

fanaticism he circumcised

step to their conversion,

flag,

make

his entrance

the Brahmins, as a

put

women and

all

fir.^Jt

the males above

childreiL

The capture

soon foUowed, and Casim continued his victorious progress,

taking in succession, Nerun (the modern Hyderabad), Sehwan, and a fortress


called Salim.

A more

formidable resistance was, however, in preparation; and

the arrival of the rajah's eldest son at the head of a strong force, reduced
to the necessity of acting

on the defensive.

This continued,

till

him

the arrival of

2000 Persian horse gave him once more the superiority; and he began
advance on Alor, the
the
Hissubi^queiit coilquests.

capital,

to

which was situated in the north of Scinde, near

modern Bukkur.
The rajah himself being now,

make a

final stroke for his

50,000 men.

as

it

were, brought to bay, determined to

kingdom, and appeared at the head of an ai-my of

Casim again stood on the

defensive,

and

skilfully

compensated

for

numbers by the strength of his position. The rajah, advancing


boldly to the attack, was wounded by an arrow, and at the same time the
elephant on which he was mounted, being struck by a fireball, rushed oflT in

inferiority of

MOHAMED

CiiAP. II.]

CART^f.

41

The occurrence completely disconcerted the Indians and though Dahir mounted a horse, and displayed both
skill and courage in endeavouring to rally them, it was too late.
The fortune
and plunged with

terror

into the river.

liini

a.d.

714.

was

of the day

decided,

and

his gallant effort to retrieve

it

only cost him his

life.

The remains of the Indian army took refuge

in the city of

Brahmanabad.

neroic
ilefence of

Casim advanced against

The

anticipated.

rajah's

good while provisions

became

and met a

it,

widow

heroically

When

lasted.

they

Many

of

assumed the defence, and made

and

failed,

it

resistance in consequence

met

garrison, equally prepared for death,

tlie

Brahmana

and committed herself and children

hopeless, she erected a funeral pile,

to the flames.

which probably he had not

resistance

it

by

throwing open the gates and rushing out to perish by the swords of the

Those who remained had no better

besiegers.

were slaughtered; the

which had belonged to Rajah

would seem

It

in

the assault,

all in

arms

Casim, in pursuing his

were carried into bondage.

rest

conquests, took Mooltan without resistance,


tories

On

fate.

and became master of

all

the terri-

Dahii-.

that, beside the chikh-en

who

perished with their mother

singular

Brahmanabad, the rajah had two daughters possessed of great personal

They were among the

attractions.

captives

and seeming

fit

to grace the cali2)h's

harem, were accordingly conveyed to Damascus, which was at this time the

On

capital of the caliphate.

their arrival, Walid, the caliph,

On

had been excited, ordered the elder to be brought to him.


burst into tears, exclaiming,

"How

can

whose

cui'iosity

entering, she

be worthy of your notice, after having

been dishonoiu-ed by Casim?" Walid, consulting only his indignation, sent orders

him

forthwith to sew up Casim in a raw hide, and send

body

arrived, it

"Now

am

was produced

satisfied;

was the ruin of

my

to the rajah's daughter,

and

have had

After Casim's death in 714, the Arabs

Even those which he had

Ommeiad dynasty
all

in 7oO,

effected

when

my

the

who, overjoyed, exclaimed,

Casim was innocent of the crime

family,

When

forward.

imputed to him, but he

revenge."

made no new conquests

were maintained only

till

in India.

the downfall of the

the Hindoos rose in insurrection, and recovered

that had been wrested from them.

made to the Ai-ab conquest of the territory between the


Oxus and the Jaxartes. From its po.sition it is usually called by classical
writers Transoxiana, and by Arab writers Mawar ul Nahr, words literally
Reference has been

meaning beyond

the river.

fixed habitations,

and nomadic

Its inhabitants

Pei"sians,

the course of the eight following years,

first

entered in 706, and overran in

became

finally dissevered

empire about 820, and was ruled successively by the Tahirites


Sof\u-ides

till

iteresting,

Vol.

I.

892,

and the Somanis

because during

it,

living in

Tartars, the latter forming apparently the great

This territory, which the Arabs

majority.

were mostly

till

and owing

1004.
to

The

one of

its

last

from their

till

872, the

dynasty becomes

princes, the house of


6

^\''

conquest

ofxians

42
AD.

970.

If'

[Book

Glmznce, wliich plays a most important part in

of India, was

hist^jry

tlie

I.

founded.
Alptcgin,

Aiptegin,

tho h.MHo of

Ghuznee.

tlie

founder of the hoase of Ghuznee, wa-s originally a Tinki

Abdulmelek, the

to

|.jj.^jj

was

^j^^^^

.slave

and had no higher

office

^^ amusing his master hy tumbling and tricks of legerdemain.

He

prince of the

fifth

capable, however, of

On

Khorasan.

much

better,

Somani

line,

and gradually

rose

be governor of

t^j

the death of Abdulmelek, in 961, he lost the favour of his

Mansur, by recommending that another member of the family should

successor,

be selected for the throne, was deprived of his government, and ran great
of losing both his liberty and his

life.

death,

in

976.

He was

been originally a Tm-ki

him
Sebektegin:
anecdote of

him.

slave,

and made him

him.self,

his

had

while a private horseman, he hunted

his heir.

said to have been early foretold.

is

.,

its

who, like

till

but had risen so much in his favour that he gave

his daughter in marriage,

he looked behind and saw

in maintaining it

succeeded by Sebektegin,

Scbcktegin's futurc Sovereignty


,

the mountains of Soliman.

and .succeeded

his independence,

he found an asylum with

talent,

among

a body of faithful followers at Ghuznee,

Here he declared

ri.sk

After a variety of narrow escapes, in

which he displayed much courage and military

down

fawn and was carrying

mother foUowino- with such sicms of

he was moved with compassion and

set

the fawn at

it

One day,
off, when

distress,

that

The joy and

libei-ty.

apparent gratitude expressed by the mother made so strong an impression upon


him, that

when he went

Mahomet appeared

to sleep

to him,

been

fulfilled,

it

The

prediction, if

it

for his

left

bank

of the Indus

had

of the

cruelty

and oppression which

their

filled

they saw a new Mahometan kingdom established on their


federation
agaiiiathim.

f^j.^

but they

forefathers

while subjected to an Arab yoke, and were naturally


Native con-

it fruitless.

for nearly three centuries

been living in the enjoyment of their recovered independence

enough

humanity

was made, had no sooner

than an event took place which threatened to render

The inhabitants on the

knew

had endured

with alarm when

frontiei"s.

It there-

or./

sccmcd to them good policy not to wait tiU the threatened calamity
J over-

took them, but to cndcavour by anticipating to prevent

it.

The

initiative in

was undertaken by Rajah Jeipal, who ruled over a large


Crossing the Indus, he
extent of territory, and kept his court at Lahore.
advanced till he came up with the troops of Sebektegin, who commanded
in person, and was accompanied by his son, who, then only a boy, gave proof of
the talents which afterwards made him celebrated under the name of Sultan
this bold enterprise

Mahmood.

After some time spent in skirmishing, the annies were on the eve of

fighting a great battle,

when

Both armies suffered

gi'eatly,

a fearful storm of wind, thunder, and hail occurred-

but not to the same extent.

Ghuznee soon recovered from the


at once less hardy

and more

became the subject of a dream, in which

and announced that as a reward

he was destined to be a king.

li[

^1

OF INDIA.

IIISTOItV

disaster,

The troops of

whereas those of Hindoostan, being

superstitiou.s,

were so dispirited that Jeipal was

Chap.

SEBEKTEGIN SULTAN MAHMOOD.

II.]

Mahmood

glad to propose terms of accommodation.

43

stood out, and would be

a.d.

997.

with nothing short of a decisive victory; but his father, more prudent

satisfied

and moderate, was

the promise of a certain


to Lahore,

with a present payment in elephants and gold, and

satisfied

amount

and endeavoured

of annual tribute.

to hide his

Jeipal returned humiliated

shame by breaking

When

his promise.

the messengers of Sebektegin arrived to receive the tribute, he not only refused
it,

but threw them into prison.

Warlike preparations on a grander

scale

than before again commenced

bektegin advanced to take revenge; and Jeipal, aware

provoke

endeavoured to ward

it,

Se- war between

how much he had done to

by means of a confederacy, in which,


importance, he was joined by those of Delhi,
it off

in addition to other rajahs of less

amujiljah
"^'"''"''

Thus supported, he advanced at the head of


an army composed of an innumerable host of foot and 100,000 horse. In his
Ajmeer, Callinger, and Canouge.

when Sebektegin

Oriental phraseology Ferishta says,^ that

view the
in

forces of Jeipal, they

number

mayed

"appeared in extent like

like the ants or locusts of the wilderness

tlie

;"

a.scended a hill to

boundless ocean, and

but instead of beinsr

dis-

at his vast inferiority in point of numbers, "he considered himself as a

wolf about to attack a flock of sheep."

So

confident, indeed,

daining to act on the defensive, he commenced the attack


certain point in the enemy's line,

When

500 men.

in this

way

and charging

he had tlirown

assault,

and carried everything before him

only of

flight,

and

suffered

immense

The more permanent

plunder.

was acknowledged king of


and sent one of

all

it

by

was

by

singling out a

successive squadrons of

into disorder, he

it

he, that, dis-

made

a general

Tiie Hindoos, panic-struck, thought

The Indian camp yielded a

slaughter.

results of the victory were, that

the territory west of the Neelab or

his officers with 10,000 horse to

rich

Sebektegin

Upper Indus,

govern Peshawer.

Sebektegin died in 997, after a reign of twenty years distinguished by

His death was sudden, but during his

prudence, equity, and moderation.

Sebektegins

last

moments he named his son Ismael his heir. He appears, indeed, to have had a
better title than Mahmood, who, though elder, was illegitimate.
Ultimately,
however, after a war of succession, in whicli Ismael was worsted and imprisoned for

of sultan, which, though well

known

had not previously been borne by any prince of Turkish

origin,

life,

in Arabia,

Mahmood, assuming the

title

seated himself firmly on his father's throne.

Mahmood was

of an athletic form, but

pox,

and

glass,

was strongly marked with the

so deficient in personal beauty, that one day, on

he exclaimed,

"

The

sight of a

beholders, but nature has been so

unkind

forbidding."

This defect probably

ful pleasures,

and concurred with

fame by military

exploits.

He

small- smtan

iiii'i.
ic
beholding himself

in

king should brighten the eyes of the


to

me

made him

that

less

my appearance

positively

disposed to indulge in youth-

temper

his natural

is

in inducing

him

to seek

has already been seen ui-ging his father to reject

Brigg's FerislUa, vol.

i.

p. 18.

Mahmood.

HISTORY OF INDIA.

441

AD.

inoi.

[Book

the terms of accommodation ofl'eied l>y llajali Jeipal, and

prepared to see him enter


struggles,

which ended

a career of Indian conquest.

in the extinction of the

attention, but no sooner

His

(jn

/.

we are therefore
At first a series of

Somani dynasty,

engro.ssed his

were these settled than he turned his eye to India

expedition took phice in 1001, wlien, at Peshawer with only 10,000

first

enemy Rajah Jeipal at the heaxl of 1 2,000


horse, 30,000 foot, and 300 elephants.
The field was keenly contested, but at
hist Jeipal, witli fifteen of his chiefs, was taken pri.soner.
Mahmood, whose
avarice was at least equal to his ambition, was able to gi'atify l)oth pa.ssions by
the victory, which, in addition to its fame, yielded him a rich spoil, partly in
Jeipal's jewelled necklaces, one of which was valued at 180,000 dinars, or about
81,000.
The value of tlie spoil was largely increased by the large ransom
chosen horse, he encountered his old

Defeat and
death of
Jeipal.

which he obtained
freedom.

for the prisoners.

Dispirited

by

his

two

Jeipal did not long avail himself of his

by them,
he resigned the crown

defeats, or, it is said, disqualified

according to a Hindoo custom, from any longer reigning,


to his son,

and placing himself on a funeral

Jn lOOl, ou

Defeat of

failure of the tribute

pile, set fire

to

it

own hand.s.
Sultan Mahmood

with his

promised by the Hindoo.s,

again set out, and passing through the province of Mooltan arrived at a city
called Bhateea.

Its position is

not ascertained

but

it

was surrounded by a very

high wall and a deep and broad ditch, and belonged to a Rajah Beejy Ray, who,
trusting both to its fortifications
country,

had

was not

and the

difficult

nature of the suiTOundincf

so skilfully seized the strong posts, that for three days he not only

Mahometans

He

afraid to mea.sure his strength against that of the sultan.

at bay, but inflicted

on them such severe

the point of abandoning the enterprise.

In

this

losses that

kept the

they were on

emergency. Sultan

Mahmood

displayed his wonted inflexibility of purpose, and in announcing his intention


to lead the

conquest or

main attack in person, added, " To-day I have devoted myself to


Both armies, indeed, had worked themselves up to the
death."

highest pitch of enthusiasm; Beejy Ray, on his side, performing religious services

by which he was

believed

by

his followers to

have propitiated the gods; while

the sultan, after turning his face to Mecca, and prostrating himself in sight of his
troops, started

suddenly up, exclaiming, "Advance! advance! our prayers have

found favour with God!"

An

obstinate struggle took place, but

Mahometan

prowess prevailed, and the Indians were pursued to the gates of the town.
Here, though a stand of a few days took place, resistance was found to be hopeless;

and the rajah being overtaken during an attempt

night, only escaped

and eighty

elephants,

which with
Sultan

Mahmood
encountered

its

numerous

captains,

Abul

had thrown

sword.

Two

hundi'ed

dependencies was annexed to Ghuznee.


'^

to chastisc

own

by

and a large spoil were taken in Bhateea,

Mahmood's next Indian expedition


took place
'

by Anangpal.

imprisonment by rushing on his

to lead off his troops

in 1005.

Its

main

object
"

was

Fattcli Lodi, the chief of 3*Iooltan, who, though a Mu.ssulman,


ii
it
i
i
off his allegiance and leagued with Anangpal, the son and succes.sor
i

p
chap.

mmf

sultan mahmood's wars.

ii.j

Not deterred by

the unfortunate Rajah Jeipal.

encountered

him

Mahmood

The

to take refu<xe in Cashmere.

its

He would

chief

doubtless have

made Anangpal

to repel the formidable invasion of a Tartar prince of the

make an

Khan, who had hoped to

feel

the

had he not been under the necessity of hastening

weiglit of his vengeance,

forces

a.d. 1005.

march to

victorious sultan continued his

exacted more rigorous terms than submission, and also

home

Anangpal

his father's fate,

near Peshawer, and sustained a defeat which compelled

Mooltan, and obtained the submission of

full

45

were beyond the Indus.

name

of Elik

easy comjuest of Khorasan while the Ghuznee

He had

miscalculated

and on the

sultan's arrival,

Oxus with only a few attendants.


On this occasion the sultan's victory was greatly aided by 500 elephants which
The Tartar horses would not face them and the
he had brought from India.
soldiers, who had never seen them before, were overawed by their huge bulk and
defeat, to recross the

was obliged, after a signal

strange appearance, especially after they had seen the one on which the sultan

himself was mounted seize Elik Khan's standard-bearer and toss


air

him

into the

with his trunk.


Anangpal's escape was only temporary, for

Mahmood was no

sooner lid of

coalition of
rajalis.

the Tartar invader than he hastened Ixick to India at the head of a formidable

army.

Anangpal meanwhile, anticipating the return of the

exertions,

and succeeded

common enemy
into the

in forming a powerful coalition of rajahs against the

of their freedom and their

faith.

Their united forces brought

Punjab a larger army than had ever been seen in

sultan seemed to hesitate

it

Even the

before.

and instead of advancing with the headlong courage

which he usually displayed, began


Peshawer.

had made

sultan,

to

entrench himself in the vicinity of

This sign of weakness added greatly to the strength of the confede-

who were daily joined by new auxiliaries, and received large supplies of
money from all quarters, even the Hindoo women selling their jewels and
meltinof down the gold of their other ornaments to assist in what was regarded
rates,

as a holy war.

Mahmood

kept within his entrenchments, well aware that

attacked, his position

would give him a decided advantage; and

Indians, through fear of this, refrained from attacking, their


force could not

if

be long kept together.

The

first

they were
tliat

if

the

immense tumultuary

skirmishes were not to his

advantage, for the Gukkurs, and other mountaineer tribes, rushing impetuously

among

the

knives that

Mahometan
hoi-se

and

cavalry,

riders

made such dexterous

tumbled

to the ground, and, to the

thousands, were despatched in a twinkling.'


'The Gukkurs, Guckers, Gakkars, Guikkers, or
Kahkares (for the name is spelled in all these different
ways, and not always in the same way by the same
author), are first mentioned in the history of the Arab
coiiquests in India, as forming a league with the Afghans, and, in union with them, wrestinij; a tract of
territory from the Rajah of Lahore.
Their e.\|iloit

use of their swords

Mahmood

still

number

and

of several

remained motionless,

mentioned in the text seems to indicate that, as their


mode of warfare bore a considerable resemblance to
that for which the Ghorkas of Nepanl have recently
distinguished themselves, they may have had a conimon origin. This, however, is improbable, as their
localities are very remote from each other. The Gukkurs, according to Elphiustone (Cabul, Introduction,

Defeat of

HISTORY OF INDIA.

4G
x.D. :oo5

watching

liis

opportunity.

came

It

arrows and frightened by the

fireballs,

The Hindoos, thinking themselves


and

resistance,

and

hy

deserted

dead upon the

field.

field.

their general, slackened their

time was given them to

The

rest

to his avaricioas

rally,

were so complet<dy

nothing more to do than gather the

The one most gratifying

victory.

turned round and hurried him off the

No

Mahmood had

I.

AnangfjaVs elephant, galled hy the

Ijust.

turned their backs.

ere long 20,000 lay

dispersed that

Tenii)le of

finally

at

[Book

fruits of his

temper was the capture of

the fortified temple of Nagarcote, situated on one of the lower ranges of the

NaKiircoto.

Himalaya.

ground
of

its

It

owed

its

sanctity to

a natural flame which issued from the

and, from the veneration in which

position,

was not only

it

was

held, as well as the strength

rich in votive offerings, but

To

depository of the wealth of the adjacent country.

it,

assist

the recent

in

had been withdrawn, and when Sultan Mahmood arrived

struggle, its garrison

before

was the common

he was met only by a crowd of defenceless Brahmins clamorou.sly

The inventory of its treasures was, according to Feri.shta,


700,000 golden dinars, 700 maunds of gold and silver plate, 200 maunds of
pxire gold in ingots, 2000 maunds of un wrought silver, and 20 maunds of pearl
The value mast have been fabuloas, and justifies
corals, diamonds, and rubies.
Ferishta's assertion, that it was greater than ever was collected before into any

imploring mercy.

s,

The

royal treasury.^
Splendid
banquet.

on his return to Ghuznee, gave a triumphal

sultan,

banquet, which was spread out on a spacious plain, and lasted three days.

The

spoils of India, exhibited

made a

on thrones of

gold,

and

and

tables of gold

silver,

display rivalling the utmost that has been told of Oriental wealth

i. p. 100) " once possessed the whole country between the Indus and the Hydaspes ( Jailum), but have
been driven out by the Siks." In his map, they are represented as occupying a considerable tract of the
Punjab east of the town of Attock, in the direction of
On his homeward journey lie passed
Cashmere.
through their country, in consequence of a letter of
invitation which he received from the .sultan, accompanied by a vast quantity of grapes, which tlieregrow
Shortly after passing Rawil Plndee, lie made
wild.
a circuit of about forty miles, and saw "the ruins of
some Gucker towns destroyed by the Siks, and those
of some others, still more ancient, which had suffered
the same fate from the Mussulmans." The only other

vol.

information he gives respecting them

is,

that they

"have still a high military reputation." Ferishta,


in narrating the exploit of the Gukkurs in their encounter with Mahmood, says, that they "repulsed
and followed them ko closely, that
no less than 30,000 Gukkurs, with their heads and
feet bare, and armed with various weapons, pene-

his light troops,

trated into the

Mahometan

lines,

when

a dreadful

carnage ensued, and 5000 Mahometans in a few


minutes were slain." Price, in his Chronological Retrospect, or

Memoirs of

hommedan

Historji, vol.

the
ii.

Principal Events in

borrowini,'from Ferishta, improvesupon his narrative,


it

still

of

more

Mahmood, and

"In

spite of the circmnspection

in the heat of the action, a

body

of 1000 Kahkares or Guikkers, bareheaded and barefooted, variously and strangely armed, passed the

entrenchments on both flanks


astonishing fury

among the

and

falling in

with

cavalry, proceeded with

the desperation of savages, and with their swords

and knives, to cut down and maim both the horse


and his rider, until almost in the twinkling of an
eye, between 3000 and 4000 men had fallen victims
to the rage of these infuriated maniacs."'
That
the}' had the cunning and vindictiveness of savages
will become apparent in the coufse of the narrative,
from an assassination which some of them committed
under singular circumstances; but that they were
under regular government, and ruled by princes
who occupied no mean place among their contemporaries, may be inferred from the fact that they
were recognized by the title of sultan, and that the
daughter of one of them was considered a fit match
for the celebrated Jelalu-din, son of the King of
Kharism, and the only prince in whom Gheniihis
Khan found a formidable opponent. See Bri^'g's

Ferishta, vol. iv. p. 415-418.

Ma-

p. 284, while professedly

apparently for the purpose of making

graphic, and says,

and

'

ling.

The value of the

only 11
is

about 9. sterand the Persian


The latter seems to be the one which

Tlie Indian
lbs.

here intended.

.;olden dinar is

maund weighs

80,

Chap.

SULTAN MAHMOOD'S CONQUESTS.

II.]

Mahmood

splendoiu'.

forgot his avarice on the occasion

47

and while mjTiads

a.d.

loio.

of spectators were luxuriously feasted, splendid presents were bestowed on merit,

and

liberal

alms given to the poor.

The beginning of the year 1010 was employed by Sultan Mahmood


conquest of Ghor, situated among the branches of the Hindoo Koosh
Herat, but before the year closed he

For some succeeding

India.

is

in the

east of

again found pursuing his conquests in

years, his operations there

and interrupted by an important expedition

Suitan
comiuests
"' ^"'^'^^

were somewhat desultory

to Transoxiana, dm-ing

which he

extended his west frontier to the Caspian; but in 1017, determined no longer

he set out at the head of an army of 100,000

to confine himself to the Punjab,


foot

and 20,000

horse, for the purpose of penetrating into the basin of the

Ganges, and thus opening up a

way

into the very heart of Hindoostan.

ing from Peshawer, he kept close to the mountains

and then turning suddenly south, made

explained, took precedence of


writers,

at present, as

all

the other Rajahs of Hindoostan,

Hindoo and Mahometan,

magnificent of Indian

cities,

but

his family

most ffimous
diflferent

Mahometan

seats of

him.self

He

Hindoo

outrage on humanity

acknowledged

have been the largest and most


submission of the rajah,

upon

his mercy, left

it

it

who

uninjured,

next bent his steps towards Aluttra, one

The treatment it experienced


During twenty days of plunder,

superstition.

and licentiousness had their

was

is

unnecessary to give any description of

from that of Canouge.

fixnaticism

to

witli the abject

and threw

after a short stay of three days.'

was very

it is

Mahmood, delighted

came out with


of the

unexpected appearance before

From Daniell's Oriental Sceiiorv.

Ruins at Canouoe.

all

he passed the Jumna,

This great capital, the rajah of which, for some reason not well

Canouge.

by

his

till

March-

perpetrated.

full

swing, and every kind of

In the midst of these horrors, Mahmood,

while struck with the maijnificence of the buildings, divided his thoughts between

them and the immense sums which


to the
'

governor of Ghuznee a

letter,

it

Its ruins are

now surrounded with

cost to erect them,

and

Nvi'ote

of which the following very characteristic

This once magnificent city has long since fallen

to decay.

must have

jungle,

and once formed a place of retreat for desperadoes


of all kinds.

jrttra

plundered.

A.D. 1022.

OF INDIA.

11IS'|-()|;V

t'S

passage has been preserved:

"Here there are a thfjusand

millions of dinars; nor could such another

two

M.iiionietan
'"

luOia""

is

spoil

and above 5000

respectively in 1022 and 102-3, the second only

a Mahometan garrison was, for the

it

beyond the Indus.

whose

several other

captives.

the two next Indian expeditions of Sultan

<Jiii'hig

coastructed und<'r a jxM'iod

waste a large extent of country, and then returned to Ghuznee, with

an incalculable am')unt of

Of

he

Mahmood stormed

After leaving Muttra,

centuries."'

town.s, laid

riist

as finn as the

likely that this city has attained its present condition but at the expense of

many
of

elifices

I.

innumerable temples; nor

faith of the faitliful, inost of thcin iiiarhle, besides


it

flJooK

Mahmood and

place

is

deserving of notice, becau.se

first

time, permanently stationed

This unenviable distinction belongs to the city of Lahore,

Jeipal

rajah,

Mahmood, which took

the

II.,

Anangpal,

of

submitting

after

to

some time on friendly terms with him, was tempted

living for

in an evil hour to

throw

have been

was the

foreseen,

successor

The

off his allegiance.

which might

result,

easily

were forthwith

loss of all his territories, whicii

annexed to Ghuznee.
Capture and
somtiauth.

We

liave

now

arrived at Sultan

Mahmood's

generally reckoned as his twelfth, and has

though

its political results

last expedition to India.

made more

were not important.

noise than

Its destined goal

all

It is

the

rest,

was Somnauth,

one of the most celebrated seats of Hindoo superstition, situated near the shore

To

of the Arabian Sea, in the south of the peninsula of Gujerat.

this expedi-

fanaticism and the love of plunder appear to have been the actuating

tion,

The way from Ghuznee to Somnauth lay for hundreds of miles


through a parched sandy desert. The army, whose numbers are not stated, set
motives.

out in Septembei',

1024<,

and reached Mooltan

camels had been provided

and

expedition

For

transport, 20,000

had moreover been ordered

as the soldiers

carry as large a supply as possible


difficulties of

in October.

of provisions,

and

water,

forage,

to

the

the desert were surmounted without any serioas disaster, and the

made

its

The

appearance in the cultivated country around Ajmeer.

Hindoos, though aware of the threatened attack upon their temple, had calcu
lated on a different route,
resistance, that their

and the

city of

Mahmood
easily

and were, in consequence,

only safety was in

Ajmeer was given up

have made himself master of

reached.

It

was

with the mainland.

it,

unprepared

for

The usual devastation

followed,

Continuing his

progi-ess,

to plunder.

entered Gujerat, and arrived at Anhulwara,

on higher game, and refused

was

flight.

so totally

for the rajah

to be turned aside

had

from

He might

its capital.

fled

At

it.

but he was intent


lencrth

Somnauth

situated on a peninsula, which a fortified isthmus connected

Here he was met by a

of the god, and menaced

him with

herald,

who

'

it

and implore

Brigg's Ferishta, vol.

its help.

him

in the

name

]\Iahmood only answered with

destruction.

a shower of arrows, and cleared the walls of defenders,


to prostrate themselves before

defied

p.

who

hastened to the idol

Meantime the

besiegers

.53.

Chap.

SOMNAUTH SACKED.

II.]

4.9

when the defenders returned and


unable to make good a footing, were forced

advanced, and had nearly effected an entrance,


fouglit so furiously, that their enemies,

The next day the attack was

to retire.

repeated,

The

was the same.

more

propitiously for the defenders, for several native chiefs having vuiited

tiieir

had advanced

forces,

new enemy was


and seemed

The

disposed of

day opened

third

Tiie attack could not be continued

to the rescue.

battle

1024.

and assumed the form of a


still

general assault, but the result

ad.

till

this Somnautu

which ensued was furiously contested,

at one time about to be decided in favour of the

Hindoos by the

sudden arrival of the Rajah of Anhulwara with a large body of fresh troops.

The Mahometans, who had previously been unable

now began

their ground,

sultan, recm-ring to

do more than maintain

to

and a general route was imminent, when the


a device which had succeeded with him on other occasion.s,
to waver,

prostrated himself in presence of his army, and then, as if confident that his

prayer had been heard, leaped to his horse, raised the war cry, and rushed into
tlie

thickest of the fight.

His

ashamed not

troops,

to follow

master would lead, followed close upon his track, and bore

down

before

all

moment was passed, and they had gained a com[)lete


No further attempt was made to defend the temple, and the defenders,

The

them.

where such a

victory.

critical

number

Mahmood, in the com\se of his


plunderings, had seen the interior of many Hindoo temples, but the magnificence
of Somnauth was so surpassing that it filled him with wonder.
The interior,
whose lofty roof was supported by fifty-six pillars curiou.sly carved and glittering
with precious stones, received its light, not from the sun, but from a lamp which
was suspended in its centre by a golden chain. The real object of worship at
Somnauth was simply a cylinder of stone, but Ferishta takes no notice of it,
to the

of 4000, took to their boats.

and says that the

idol,

15 feet in height, but six of them .sunk beneath the

Mahmood

sm-face, stood opposite the entrance.

when

but hesitated
to

spare

and

it,

offering

an immense ransom.

known

he struck the idol with his mace.

the blow,

till

at once ordered its destruction,

the Brahmins threw themselves at his feet imploring

exclaiming that he would rather be


idols,

the idol broke a.sunder.

It

and

The

delighted.

ransom which the

had

priests

as a breaker than as a seller of

His followers

in.stantly followed

was hollow, and

disclosed

and was regarded by him and

up

diamonds

Mahmood was

it.

treasure obtained far exceeded the

offered,

him

After a momentary pause,

and other jewels of immense value hidden within


surprised

its ceiebrat-

equally

amount of

his followei-s

from the Prophet in return for the zeal which they had displayed in

as a gift
his cause.

Two
1^
^r ^

pieces of the idol

One of the

latter

sixteenth century,

was

were sent to

in the palace

when

]\Iecca

and Medina, and two to Ghuznee.


1

and another

Ferishta wi'ote his history.

at the

grand mosque in the

It is

somewhat remarkable

that he says nothing of the gates of the tem})le, which, according to a prevalent tradition,

were

also carried to

Ghuznee, and ultimately formed one of the

'

Vol.

I.

Tradition as
tothegatesof

somnauth.

HISTORY OF INDIA.

50
AD.

1024.

trophies placed on Sultan Mahinood's


consid(;rable

Tlie Rllence of Ferislita

douht on the authenticity of the tradition;

been there in his time, and

tfjrnb.

[Book

if there,

1.

throws

for the gates should liave

he certainly would have mentioned them.

Be

it

may, the

was

so fiiTnly

this as

tradition

when the
army
finally

believed, that
J

-k-

British

quitted Cabool, in 1842,

the gates were brought

away
;

triumph,

in

and

Lord Ellenboroujfh, then


Governor-general of India,

made them the

ject of a very

unchristian,

sub-

pompous,

and impolitic

proclamation.'

Mahmood, on
turn,

his re-

stopped for some

time at Anhulwara, with


which,

as

well

as

the

surrounding countrv", he

was
he

so
is

much

pleased that

said to have

had

some thoughts of adopting


Gates of Somnavth.

it

Many

From Hart's Afghan Scenery.

as a

MahmooiVs
projects.

his mind,

but they

new

setting up a

all

capital.

other magnificent

projects
Sultan

new

passed tlirough

vanished in smoke, and he contented himself with

The person

rajah in Gujerat.

selected

was an anchoret of

the ancient royal stock, and seems to have recommended himself to ^lahmood
as the person

most likely to yield him implicit submission.

Another member

of the royal stock thought himself better entitled to the rajahship, and, to

prevent a disputed succession, his person was secured.

AMien Mahmood was

leaving Gujerftt, the anchoret rajah requested that his competitor might be
delivered up to

him

request was granted.

holy a

man

and, on the assiu-ance that his

The

hj-pocrite

life

woiild be spared, the

kept his promise to the

to be guilty of shedding the blood of

any

ear.

He was

living creature.

too

He

only dug a hole, in which he meant to have immured his prisoner, and regaled
'

Fergusson, in his

Hand-Book of

says that these gates are

the

wood

7iot

Architecture,

of sandal wood, but of

of the deodar pine tree;

therefore the

having been the gates of the


The decorations
temple at Somnaiith is wrong.
tradition of

tlieir

bear no resemblance to Hindoo work; and as the


ornaments are similar to those of the mosque of Ebn

Touloun at Cairo, they show the same date of conand that the like ornamentation was used
at the e.xtreme ends of the Moslem empire.
struction,

HAP.

SULTAN MAHMOOD.

II.]

By

ear with his groans.

lis

wliirl of fortune the position of the parties

and the anchoret, deposed from

reversed;

51

his rajahship,

was consigned

was

A D

1030.

to the

while the throne was occupied by his intended victim.

hole,

Though Mahmood had made his first passage across the desert without loss,
He had employed Hindoo guides, who kept
he was less fortunate in returning.
the army wandering for three days and nights over desolate tracts, where
Numbers of the troops died raving
neither forage nor water could be found.
mad, from the intolerable heat and

Mahmood, suspecting that

thirst.

had not erred, but led him wilfully astray,

him a

wrunof from

confession that he

])ut

Passage of
the desert.

the guides

one of them to the torture, and

was

one of the priests of Somnauth, and had

by misleading the army, to


destruction, and thereby obtain

sought,

insm-e

its

a rich

revenue.

On

the

homeward march, Mahmood was

greatly harassed

by a

tribe of Juts,

who

are

described as occupying a district intersected

by

rivers,

which form numerous

He determined

to chastise

islands.

them; and with

view took up a position at Mooltan,

this

where he ordered 1400 boats to be

S!^i

built,

and armed with iron spikes projecting from

bows and

tiie

them against

sides, to secure

being boarded, as the Juts were particularly


dexterous at this species of warfjire.
series of

naval enoragements were fought in


Mahmood's

Pii.i.aks,

Ghlzsee.'

neighbom-hood of the locality where

tlie

Alexander equipped his

fleet

thirteen

struggle the Juts were overpowered,

were carried

off"

Mahmood

After a desperate

centuries before.

and those who had not

fallen in battle

into slavery.

returned in triumph to Ghuznee, but had ceased to

l)e

capable of

Mabmood's
death

enjoying
l>im

off",

for

it,

he was suffering under an excruciating disease, which carried

April 29, 1030, in the sixty-third year of his age, and the thirty-fifth

of his reign.

Two

days before his death, he ordered

stones

which he possessed to be placed before him.

think

how

soon he must part with them for ever

The two minars or pillara outside the city of


Ghuznee were erected, aa appears from inscrii)tion8
in Kufic cliaractera upon them, the one nearest the
village of Kozah by Mahmood, the other (nearest
Ghuznee) by Masaood, son of Mahmood. The inscription on Mahmood's pillar is as follows:
" In the name
of God the most merciful
the liigh and mighty Sul'

the melic of Islam, the right

arm

of the state,

all

the gold and precious

He wept

with regret to

but he had not the heart to

trustee of the faith, the victory crowned, the patron

of Moslems, the aid of the destitute, the munificence

endowed Malimood (may God glorify


son of Sabaktageen, the champion

his testimony),

of champions,

the emir of Moslems, ordered the construction of

monuments; and of a cerhas been happily and prosperously comJownaJ of Asiatic Society of Beugnl, 1843.

this lofty of loftiest of


taintj- it

jdeted."

IIISTOIIV
A.D. loso.

bestcnv

any of tliem

OF

as fiirewell presents,

[liOOK

1NI>IA.

and

sirnply caused

them

1.

to be taken

The next day he ordered a review of the anny, and,


travellin;^ throne, saw all his elephants, camels, horses, and

back to the treasury.


seated on his

chariots pass before him.

and once more burst


corpse,

fesisted his eyes,

The day

into tears.

but could not witisfy his heart,

after, he-

lay on his bed a

lifeless

and an impressive example of the vanity of human wishes.

Avarice, which

Mahraood's
character.

He

was one of

his ruling pa.ssion.s,

incompatible with true greatness

and yet

is

generally supixj.sed to be

impossible to deny that Sultan

it is

Malimood, the founder of the Mahometan Indian empire, po.ssessed in a high

many

degree

procured for

He

Great.

otlier

gained signal

ability of his govern-

ment retained them,


with

name of
victories, made

sovereigns the

and by the

conquests,

have

of the qualities which

magnificent

adorned

buildings,

capital

his

and

ke]jt

splendid court, to which he attracted

many

of the most distinguished writers of his time.

He must

thus have been a munificent patron

of literature
greatest

and

on his reputation

blots

GoLD AND Silver Coins of Mahmood.'

treatment of Ferdusi.
His

treat-

ment of
Ferdusi.

though one of the

art,

was

his

That celebrated poet

long lived at his court, and was commissioned to write a poem, for which he

was promised

at the rate of a dinar a line.

There can be no doubt that a

golden dinar was understood; but Mahmood, on making pajTnent, had the

meanness to take advantage of the ambiguity in the term, and gave only
silver.

at

its

Ferdusi quitted the court in disgust, and took his revenge by launching
sovereign a stinging
_.
""

satire.

=^s^^^i^

s^

.-d

Mahmood was magnanimous enough

not

only to forgive him, but to endea-

vour to make amends for the

by sending him a
was,

past,

rich present.

imfortunately,

It

too late, for

while Mahmood's messencrer enter-

ed at one door, Ferdusi was beinor


carried out on his bier at another.

Mahmood
legislator,
told,
Exterior of Sultan Mahmood's Tomb. Hart's Afghan Scenery.

ally

made

but several anecdotes are

Avhich

show that he had a

high sense of justice, and occasion-

great sacrifices of personal feeling in administering

anecdotes will bear repetition.

An

it.

One

of these

inhabitant of Ghuznee, unhappy in a hand-

Gold coin of Malimood -weight, 76'8 grains.


On reverse, "MahoA.H. 33-5, British Museum.
'

does not figure as a

med, the apostle of God whom he sent with instruction and the true faith, that he might exalt it above

Chap.

SULTAN MAHMOOD.

II.]

53

1^

lome wife, complained to the king that one of his courtiers,

who had

conceived ad,

io3o.

a passion for her, took forcible possession of his house every night, and turned

him

where he was obliged

into the street,

He had

take his departure.


to

obtain

The

it.

hasten back to
long to wait.

to

remain

till

the intruder chose to

sought redress from the proper judges, and failed summary

sultan, indignant, ordered the

him the first time the


The sultan, on

1*1

man

gross outrage

justice

to say nothing, but to

was

He had

repeated.

not

being informed, wi'apped a loose

and was con-

cloak about him,

On

ducted to the house.

enter-

ing the chamber he found the

guilty parties asleep.

He

was bm-ning.
it;

light

extinguished

and then, going up

to the

bed, cut off the adulterer's

at

This

stroke.

called for a light,

amining

the

done,

he

and on

ex-

of

the

features

threw himself pros-

adulterer,

trate

head

on the ground, and gave

Interior of Sultan Mahmood's Tomb.' iiiirt's

Al'ghaii Scenery.

utterance to his joy in thanks-

The audacious manner in which the offence was committed had convinced him that the offender must be one of his sons, or near relatives.
He
had extinguished the light lest natural affection might stay his hand from

giving.

doing justice; and


suspicions

now

that

it

was done, he was

were unfounded, and that he had not been under the necessity of

staining his hands with the blood of one of the

Sultan

Another

rejoiced to find that his

Mahmood

left

members

a will appointing his son

of his o^vn family.

Mahomed

his successor. Musaood

Musaood, Mahomed's twin brother, but born some hours

son,

conceived he had as good a


father's death,

title.

Both sons were absent at the time of

but Mahomed, on his arrival in Ghuznee, was crowned.

later,

their

JMusaood,

however, was the favourite both of soldiers and people, and the household troops

marched

off in a

body

to join him.

large force, headed

and composed principally of Hindoo cavalry, was sent in


encounter which took place, the king's party was defeated.

was hastening on to assert


Nishapoor.
all

his claim,

pursuit,

chief,

but in the

Meanwhile Musaood

and was met by the household troops

at

Before actually appealing to arms, he offered to divide the empire,

other creeds, even though unbelievers be adverse

and Ixi. 9). On the


obverse, " Dominion both past and future is of God,
and in that day the Faithful shall rejoice in the aid
of the Lord" (Koran, Surah xxx. 4, 5).
Silver coin

thereto" {Koran, Surah

ix. 33,

Mahmood weight, 50 grains. On the Coins of


the Kings of Ohuzni, by Edward Thomas. Lon. 1848.

of

by an Indian

The inscription, in Kufic characters, on the sarcophagus of Mahmood'a tomb is to the following
efTect
" Jlay there be forgiveness of God, upon
liini who is the great lord, the noble Nizam-u-din
'

Abul Casim Mahmood, the son of Sebektegin. May


God have mercy upon him." Journal of the Asiatic
Society of Bengal, 1843.

54
A.D. 1030.

hy

ictaininj^ iiien;ly the portions wliich

condition he added
liis

name

sliould

Wcos,

be read

consent; and a civil

In-

[Br^oK

liiin.self

li;ul

I.

The only

conquered.

that in the Khootlja, or puljHc prayer for the soverei^,

within his

first

war broke

out,

own

Mahomed

dominions.

refused to

which tenninated in his overthrow and

According to the barljarous practice of the times, he wa deprived

capture.

of sight, and imjtrisoned.


Miiaaood's

OF IXniA.

IIIS'I'OKV

able for personal strength.

Musa/jod mounted the throne.

He was

Ferishta says

" his

(vol.

i.

that

p. 98;,

remai'k-

arrow, after

l)er8onal
qualities.

piercing

tiie

mace was

He was

so {)onderou.s, that

distinguished

also

offended his father

The

by

man

no

of his time could

by valour and

his bold

liberality,

and independent

which here we have alone

among

situated

the hills of Cashmere,

It offered to submit,

garrison.

He

palace

at Ghuznee.

and not unfrequently

Of these

relating

took the route for Soorsooty,

summoned

the

di.sposed to grant easy terms,

till

and on arriving at

and he was

it,

seized,

and were then

Enraged at the information, he caused the ditch to be

up with sugar-canes from the adjoining

plantation.s,

planted scaling

The garrison to a man were put to


by storm.
the sword, and all the women and children were enslaved.
In 1036, when a new palace was finished at Ghuznee, containing a golden
throne, studded with jewels, and surmounted with a canopy, in which was a
golden crown, seventy maunds in weight, suspended by a golden chain, and
glistening with jewels, Musaood again set out for India, mainly with the
view of reducing the fort of Hansi, the ancient capital of Sewalik.
The
Indians believed it impregnable; and were confirmed in this belief by their
soothsayers, who assured them that it was not destined ever to fall into
Mahometan hands.
The result falsified their predictions, for in the coiu'se
The treasure found in it was immense.
of six days it was taken by storm.
Musaood next proceeded to Sonput, which he found abandoned. Lea^'ing an
ladders,

New

fort.

with one hand"

Vjearing.

he learned that some Mahometan merchants had been


captives in the

his iron

to do, the first de.serving of notice

an expedition to that country in 1033.

filled

rai.se it

transactions of Musaood's reign are not important.

to India, with
is

and

strongest mail, penetrated the hide of an elepliant;

and took the

ojSicer in

tries

charge of

he had

it,

place

he retraced his

left in his rear,

steps,

taking possession of

all

the coun-

and arrived at Lahore, the government of which

he conferred on his son Modood.


Defeat by

Musaood on

his return

found

occupation in repelling the Seljuks, who,

full

the Seljuks
iinder Togli-

rul Beg.

after passing to the left

bank of the

Jaxartes,

and residing

for

some time

in

Transoxiana, had settled and acquired considerable influence in Khorasan.

While they professed the utmost submission to


stantly

waning with

his lieutenants

his authority,

and ravaging

they were con-

his tenitories.

At

length,

in 1039, Toghrul Beg, a celebrated Seljuk warrior, mustered so strongly, that

Musaood fomid

was fought

it

necessary to take the field in person.

at Zendecan, near Merv,

The

decisive battle

and ended, in consequence of the desertion

Chap.

of

SULTANS MODOOD, AND MUSAOOD

II.]

After endeavouring to

Turkish followers, in Musaood's complete defeat.

liis

collect the

wreck of

awaited him

and, unable to repress the mutinous spirit of his troops, he began

to look to India as a place of refuge,

being able to retrieve his

No

ca})ital.

and

finally

withdrew

to

in the

it

hope of

Anarchy now reigned uncontrolled

affairs.

in his

own guards attempted to


army immediately followed,

sooner had he crossed the Indus than his

plunder the treasury

a general insui'rection of the

and Musaood, being formally


in prison,

was

restored.

depo.sed, his brother

Mahomed, whom he had kept


was

sovereign deprived of sight

totally unfitted to

rule in such troublous times,

and he devolved the administration on

Ahmed, one of whose

was

acts

first

to put

Musaood

Modood, son of Musaood, had, as we have


Lahore, but was at Balkh

moment he hastened

when

his father

east with his army,

seen,

his son

to death in lO+O.

been appointed governor of

was murdered.

and crushed

Ghuznee

his rivals.

of Delhi,

working on the

exertions.

At the head

in

i9,

He

in

had

Ghuznee and recovered

his absence;

and the Rajah

them

feelings of the Hindoos, roased

unwonted

to

army he recovered Nagarcote, overran


siege to Lahore, which, however, made good

of a powerful

great part of the Punjab, and Laid


defence.

still

who had married Toghrul

turned their attention more to the west, and Modood,

Begs grand-daughter, both maintained himself


Transoxiana.
In India advantage was taken of

Modood

Without losing a

lay open to the inroads of the Seljuks, but these formidable intruders

its

a.d. iiu.

Here new troubles

army, he returned to Gliuznee.

his

55

II.

Modood, meanwhile, was imable personally

to interfere

and died

without again visiting India.

left

an infant

son, wiio

was murdered by

his uncle

Abul

Has.san.

Musaood u.

by great crimes, now took place, and no


when Musaood II. ascended the throne. Durins:

series of usurpations, usually effected

name

of note occurs

till

1098,

the sixteen years of his reign, which ended with his death in 1114', he distin-

guished himself more as a legislator than a warrior, though his generals carried
his

arms beyond the Ganges.

On

the death of

Musaood

For some years


II.,

his court resided at Lahore.

another usurpation took

j)lace

in the person

The

of his son Arslan, who, to secure the throne, imprisoned his brothers.

unnatural act did not avail him; and he was, in his turn, deposed

by Behram,

Behrama
reign.

the only brother

who had

thirty-four years,

Behram's

e.scaped imprisonment.

was not more long than

brilliant,

reign,

which lasted

and he might have

trans-

mitted his power unimpaired, had he not been guilty of a crime which brought
its

pimishment along with

It will

it,

and

led to the extinction of the Gliuznee dyna.sty.

be necessary to go back a few years in order to explain the circumstances.

The

territory of Ghor, situated, as has already

northern ramifications of the Hindoo Koosh,


their original seat.

^ Arabs, and a

At a comparatively
it

regarded by the Afghans as

early period

large ])ortion of its inhabitants

the Arab dynasties were overthrown,

is

been mentioned, among the

it

was invaded by the

embraced Mahometanism.

resumed

its

When

independence, and

pi*e-

HISTORY OF INIMA.

5G
A.I). ni'<

servcfl

it

even while Sulbiii Muliiiiood was extending

Two

side.

generations

was

It

lii.s

I.

eonqueHts on every

was treacherously seized by Modood, and became

after, it

a dependency of Ghuznee.

who

[Book

still,

however, governed by

its

own

princes,

One

lived almost on terms of equality with the Sultans of Ghuznee.

of

these princes, called Kutb-u-din Sur, had married a daugliter of Sultan Behram.
Uehram'.s

This affinity might have been supposed to bring the houses of Ghuznee and

treaoliery to
tlif

houxo

of Ghor.

Ghor

most friendly

into the

It turned out otherwise.

relations.

and Behram, having obtained poaseasion of the person of

arose;

which he had acquired

sullied the reputation

brothers, Seif-u-din

death

among
His

The}'^ at

Kutb-u-din Sur had two

once flew

arms

t^j

avenge his

to

advancing upon Ghuznee, obliged Behram to seek an asylum

and,

and Ala-u-din.

his son-in-law,

and humanity by

for jastice

poisoning him, or putting him to an open death.

Differences

the mountains of Kerman.

Ghuznee, and

Seif-u-din, the elder brother, established him.self in

.sent

back

exinilsion.

most of

his army,

He

vmder Ala-u-din, to Feruz Coh, his former capital

thought he had gained the affections of the inhabitants, and only learned his
mistake when
to the

it

was

too late to

remedy

it.

dynasty to which Ghuznee owed

and, as soon as the winter


tion with Ghor,

Behram made

u-din, totally unprepared,

support from

had

tlie

strong attachment was

all its

prosperity and

prevent

set in so severely as to

his appearance at the

was about

inhabitants induced

to retire,

him

to

its
all

still

splendour;

communica-

head of an army.

when

felt

Seif-

treacherous promises of

march out and

risk a battle.

It

was no sooner commenced than the greater part of his troops passed over to
his enemy.
For a time he was able, by the aid of a small body of his o^vn
people

who remained

stanch, to

maintain an unequal contest, but was at

length wounded, overpowered, and taken prisoner.


!

Behram, instead of availing

himself of the opportunity to wipe off the stain which he had brought on his
reputation

by the murder of the

eldest brother, acted

Seif-u-din, after being ignominiously

paraded round the

more

still

city,

atrociously.

and subjected

to

every species of indignity, was put to death by torture.


Ala-u-din, the third brother,

His
defeat 1)y

Ala

u-diii.

geance.

still

remained, and set out burning for ven-

In his eagerness, his preparations were imperfect

in insult or because the blood already shed

had

and Behram,

satiated him,

made an

either

offer of

was indignantly rejected, and the battle immediately began to rage.


Behram's superiority of numbers made the issue for some time doubtful, but
at last, when left almost alone, he turned his back and fled from the field.

peace.

Extinction
of

The

It

victor immediately advanced on Ghuznee,

Ghuzna-

vide dyuasty

ance.

Its

doom was

sealed.

which cordd

For three or seven days

(for

offer

no

resist-

accounts varj")

fire

and sword continued the work of destruction, and all the proud monuments
which attested the power, wealth, and splendour of the Ghuznavide kings were
laid in ruins.

had found

it.

Behram hastened to seek an asylum in India, but


His son Khosru was more fortunate, and reached

died before he
Lahore, where

iAP.

AND

ALA-U-DIN

IT.]

SUCCESSORS.

he was received with acclamations, and fixed the seat of


reigned

till

1160,

and was succeeded by

his son

liis

He

government.

\ d

iivs.

Khosru Melik, at whose death,

wreck of the Ghuznavide empire passed to the house of Ghor,


and the Ghuznavide dynasty became extinct.
in

186, the last

The two
resume

to

it,

last reigns
is

it

have anticipated the course of the narrative.

In order

necessary to return to Ala-u-din, and trace the history of the

house of Ghor through him and his successors.


After the signal vengeance taken for the murder of his two brothers, Ala-udin acted as

if

the heroic part of his

life

had been played out; and,

retiring to

the old Ghorite capital of Feruz Cob, he followed his natural bent

by giving
himself up to pleasure.
He found it even more perilous than war would have
been, for the Seljuks, under Sultan Sanjar, during an invasion of Ghor and
Ghuznee, made him prisoner.
He was soon, however, set at liberty, and
reinstated in his dominions, which he held for four years,
Sliortly before,
u-din,

confidence

set

them

was not

at liberty,

and replaced them

misplaced, but he
a.ssassin.

had reigned

He was

little

His

more than a year when he

succeeded, in 1157,

by the above

cousins,

ruled jointly and, contrary to the general rule in such cases, harmoniously.

attention to the east; and, from consolidating the

sometimes been thought to have a better

title

Shahab-u-din

Mahometan power

gave

his

there,

has

even than Sultan Mahmood,

be regarded as the true founder of the Mahometan empire in India.

In 1176, he took the town of Ooch, situated at the point where the rivers
of the Punjab, united into one stream under the

bank

left
it

(^l^uliL

""'"'"'

but this

in their governments.

Gheias-u-din superintended the territories in the west

to

by

he had imprisoned his two nephews, Gheias-u-din and Shahab-

by the hand of an

who

udin

his death in 11.56.

with the view of securing the succession to Seif-u-din, his son

young prince

fell

till

.\ia

of the Indus.

proved disastrous.

name

of the Punjnud, join the

In 1178 he undertook an expedition to Gujerat, but

His next expedition, after he had marched twice to

Lahore, and obliged Khosru Melik, the last of the Ghuznavides, to submit to a

disadvantageous treaty, and give his son as a hostage, was to Scinde.


completely overrun

it,

he once more attacked Kho.sru Melik.

Having

This prince,

assuming the courage of despair, made an alliance with the Gukkm's, and opened
the

campaign with the capture of one of

diu, niuler the

pretext that he

his

was about

enemy's strongest

to

march

for

forts.

Shahab-u-

Khorasan, where

affairs

nad assumed an alarming appearance, increased his army, and at the same
time

made

overtures of peace to Khosru Melik, sending back his son,

whom

he

The stratagem succeeded. Khosru


Melik, thrown completely off" his guard, set out to welcome his returning son,
and was surpi'ised by Shaliab-u-din, who surrounded his camp with a strong
body of cavalry, and took him prisoner. The last of the Ghuznavides and his
held as a hostage, in proof of his sincerity.

family were sent to Gheias-u-din,


after

a long confinement, they were

Vol.

I.

who imprisoned them


all.

in a castle.

Here,

put to death.
8

Exploits of
"
di'n.'^

HISTORY OF

r^s

AD,

[Book

INI>I.\.

Sh;iliab-u-din, being tlius left in India witliout a

ll'.il.

mined

to extend his conquests.

difficulty,

It

as his army, diviwn Irom the warlike province of the west,

have been considered more than a match


to

The

it.

cessfully

rival, deter-

he did not anticipate much

prol^aljle

is

Mahometan

struggle, however,

was

for

I.

must

any that the Hindoos could oppose


Several of the Indian rajahs suc-

severe.

maintained their ground, while few of them yielded without a manful

resistance.

In this war of independence the Rajpoots particularly distinguished them-

Hindoo
struggle
for iiulo-

paiulence.

Belonging to the military

selves.

bom

were

soldiers,

and lived under a kind of military feudal system, not unlike

that of the clans in the

While

had

eacli chief

rajah as their

Highlands of Scotland and some other

common

some disadvantages.

head,

and were thus in the

At

most favourable

for

same time they laboured under

tiie

them

made

again.st political wile.s,

it difficult

and an indolence and love

keep them under regular

to

di.scipline.

Near the time of Shahab-u-din,' Hindoostan was mainly composed

Dissensions

among the
rajahs.

po.sition

Living almost secluded, they had a simplicity of manners

to protect

of freedom which

countrie.s.

his hereditary territory, all the chiefs held under the

united action and individual exertion.

little fitted

Hindoo system, they

class in the original

leading sovereignties

Delhi, Canouge, Ajmeer, and

On

Callinjer.

of four

a failure of

heirs in the third, the heir-apparent of the first

had been adopted, and thus

Delhi and Ajmeer were united under one head.

This arrangement had given

who thought he ought to have been


when cordial union among the rajahs

great offence to the Rajah of Callinjer,

adoption; and thus,

preferred in the

The

constituted their only safety, considerable dissension prevailed.

disunion,

thus dangex'ous to them, was most opportune for Shahab-u-din, who, taking

advantage of

it,

made

on the newly amalgamated, but by no

his first attack

means firmly cemented rajahships of Delhi and Ajmeer.

He

1191, with the capture of Batinda.


scarcely left

when he

confederation,

the
Their victory over

Shahab-u-

enemy on

commenced

placed a garrison in

it;

in

but had

learned that the Rajah of Delhi, at the head of a powerful

was advancing against

with an army of 200,000 horse and

it

In retracing his steps to relieve the garrison, he was met by

3000 elephants.

Il

It

the banks of the Soorsooty, about eighty

immediately joined

battle,

mUes from

Delhi.

He

but with forces so inferior that both wings, being

outflanked, bent backwards tiU they

met

in the rear,

and gave

his

army

the

din.

form of a
that he
cut

was advised

down

lines,

While standing within

circle.

to provide for his safety.

This so enraged him that he

the messenger sent with the advice, and rushed into the enemy's

making

terrible slaughter.

The

smote, drove his elephant right against

time to frustrate
'

centre, affair's looked so desperate

its

it,

Ferishta gives his full

Mahomed. Ghoory, and

Rajali of Delhi, observing

him

and struck a blow with


name

speak.s of

as Moiz - n - din
him under the name

of

where he

but Shahab saw his intention in


his lance

Mahomed Ghoory,

which knocked out a


not as joint sovereign, but

onlv as the general of Gheias-u-din.

CnAP.

number of

The rajah returned the thrust by

his teeth,

He was

which pierced Shahab's right arm.


which his army had
at Lahore,

now

with

he returned to Ghor, and disgraced the

filled

them

of his

whose

officers to

to

walk round the

with barley, about their necks.

After a year, spent partly in pleasure and festivity, and partly in preparation
for

new campaign, Shahab

from Ghuznee at the head of 120,000

set out

shahab-a
veugeanco.

chosen horse, and took the road to India without disclosing his intentions.

At Peshawer an aged
trust

ill

much

sage, prostrating himself before him, said

the time of

among

my defeat

in

us."

On

my

Shahab

Hindoostan

but in sorrow and anxiety


recover

king,

"

we

thy conduct and wisdom, but as yet thy design has been a subject of

speculation

replied

"Know,

old man, that since

have never slumbered

I Jiave, therefore,

honour from those

lost

in ease,

nor waked

determined with this army to

idolaters, or die in the attempt."

arriving at Lahore, he sent an ambassador to Ajmeer, offering, as the New

only alternative,

war or

conversion.

The rajah returned an indignant answer,

.\JMEER, from near the Gogra Pass.' From Dixon's Sketch of Mairwara.

and immediately applied for succour to


readily granted

victory again
l)rinces,

their

and an army equal

all

to that

encamped on the same

"who had sworn by

1192.

off the field,

Having recovered

almost wholly deserted.

mouth-bags,

horses'

an arrow, ad.

on the point of falUng, when one

desertion he attributed his discomfiture, com])elling


city

letting tiy

up behind him and bore him

of his faithful attendants leaped

wound

59

SHAHAB-U-DIN,

II.]

the neighbouring princes.

It

was

which had recently given them the


In this army were 150 Rajpoot

field.

the water of the Ganges that they would concpicr

enemies or die mart}Ts to their

While the camps were separated

faith."

'
Ajmeer was occasionally the resilience of the
emperor, .Jehan>;eer, who was here visited, in IGIO,

by Sir Thomas Roe, the En;;lish ambassador.


In
1818 it was ceded to the British, and was then in a
ruinous state, from which, however, it soon recovered,

and

is

India.

now one

On

of the liandsonie.st cities in British

thesuniniit of the

stands a fortress,

named

in circumference,

hill,

in the back ground,

two miles
capable of containing 12U0 men,
Taraglinr, nearly

but fast going to decay. /?n/f;'ia/ Gazetteer,

60
AD.

lur.

by

insTOIlY OF INDI.x.
Soorsooty, the Indian princes sent a measage to

tlie

if

in safety.

He was

humble

so

and, in the midst of

in

surprise; and,

tlifir joy,

gave themselves up to revelry.

confusion, they

tlie least

managed

continued the contest

till

near sunset,

to

to

Shahab,

in

when Shahab,
steel

Notwithstanding

and had

placing hiraself at the

armour,

The Indians were

do but slaughter them.

for a

in the camj) of

to bring their line into tolerable order,

which carried the day.

Mahometans had nothing

was

river,

notice of his approach.

head of 12,000 chosen horsemen, covered with


charge,

liini

it

would produce, prepared

by the early dawn, having forded the

the Indians before they had

HiiMioo

warning

answer that they at once attributed

his

anticipation of the effect wliich his mes,sage

tlie

Slialial>,

I.

he persisted, but at the same time offering to allow him to retreat

of his fate

fear,

fBooK

made a

and the

panic-struck,

Many

rajahs

furious

fell

on the

the Rajah of Delhi and Ajmeer was taken prisoner, and aftenvards

field;

The immediate

put to death in cold blood.

were the

results of the victory

surrender of the forts Soorsooty, Samana, Koram, and Hansi, and the capture
of Ajmeer, where

all

in arms were put to the sword,

and the

rest reserved for

slavery.

Shahab next turned

On

sents.

his

arms towards Delhi, but was propitiated by pre-

his return to Ghuznee, he

marched north to the Sewalik Mountairts,

plundering and destroying wherever he went.


Exi)ioits

Eibuk, the

officer

whom

he had

left

with a strong detachment in Koram, took

the fort of Meerut and the city of Delhi.

We

Indian

The

In the

shall afterwards see

1193, he fixed the

latter, in

and compelled the surrounding

seat of his government,

Mahometanism.

After he had reached home,

districts to

him make a prominent

embrace
figure in

affairs.

restless

spirit

Ghuznee, and he

is

of

Shahab would not allow him

to remain

His proceedings were not

soon again found in India.

unimportant, but the personal share which he had in them


of in consequence of the prominence given to Eibuk,

Viceroy of India, and to


are mainly ascribed.

whom

During

his future military

this visit to his

long at

is

whom

almost lost sight

he had

now made

achievements in this country

Indian dominions, he defeated

the Rajah of Canouge and Benares, took the fort of A.sny, where the rajah had

up

laid

idols in

with

his treasure;

and afterwards, entering the

more than a thousand

spoil, his

city of Benares,

broke the

After his return to Ghuznee, laden

temples.

conquests and \dctories were continued

by Eibuk. who,

in

194,

defeated and slew the Rajah of Hemraj, and took revenge in the capital of

Gujerat for the defeat which his master had there sustained.

In 1195 Shahab, retui'ning once more to Hindoostan, took Byana, and sent
the
His dfMt
tena."'^'

new governor whom he

after a long siege.

appointed against Gwalior, which

The following year

Eibiik sustained in Rajpootana

is

chiefly

a defeat

shut himself up in the fort of Ajmeer

;y-ielded

only

remarkable for a defeat which

so severe that he

Having again

was compelled

to

recruited his strength

CiiAP.

lie

SHAHAB-U-DIN.

ir.]

assumed the

offensive,

and took the

dencies,

During these

reduced the capital of Gujerat, with

Shahab received

Gheias-u-din, and returned to Ghuznee,

all its

depen- ad

intelligence of the death of his brother

where he was crowned

sole sovereign.

Y\'iien

he attained this additional elevation, his good fortune seemed to forsake

liiia

During a struggle with the King of Kharism, he sustained a defeat

wliich cost

him the

loss of all his

army

annihilation of a noble

Dn

was

left

treasure,

and

siege,

and was not

Gliuznee, he found

allow him to enter

fort,

of Samarcand.

in possession of one of his

it

the King of
'^'"*"'

but had no

suffered to return to his dominions

Khan

he had paid a large ransom to the

an

so complete

simhabde-

with scarcely a hundred men.

escaping from the field of battle, he shut himself up in a

means of sustaining a
till

elephants and

that he

i.'Oj

and Budaoon.

forts of CaUinjer, Kalpi,

events,

61

own

officers,

and he was, in consequence, obliged

On amving
who would

at

not

to continue his route to

Having here been reinforced, he retm'ned to Ghuznee, and regained


possession.
Meanwhile, the Gukkurs had been laying waste the country around
Lahore.
They continued to ravage with impunity, for Shahab's disasters
left him without the means of chastising them, till a treaty which he had
concluded wnth the King of Kharism left him fully at leisure to bring all
Mooltan.

into

his forces

the field

against

He

them.

accordingly again set out for

and placed the Gukkurs between two

India,

Eibuk marched against them from the

west, while

fallen into their hands,

dispersed.

It

was

rescued,

and

engaging them on the

fires,

Lahore, which had

east.

their plundering hordes

would seem, however, that they, not long

after,

were entirely

again collected in

Ravages
of the

great

numbers at the

minating war

again.st the

and cut

crueltie.s,

and Mooltan.

off the

to
his

mountains of Sewalik, carried on an exter-

Mahometans, on

whom

cukkuw.

they exercised unheard-of

communication between the provinces of Peshawer

Their incm'sions continued

captive, con.sented to

much

foot of the

till

embrace Mahometanism.

influence with his people, that

many

their king,

On

who had been made

being sent home, he had so

of them, to

whom

religion appeai-s

have been very much a matter of indifference, were easily induced to adopt

new

Many

creed.

others,

not so easily pereuaded, yielded to

force,

and

Islamism became the prevailing religion of the mountaineers both east and

west of the Indus.

The

affairs

of India being settled, Shahab, in the end of 1205, set out from

Lahore to return to Ghuznee.

He was

meditating an expedition beyond the

Oxus, and had given orders to throw a bridge across


its

banks.

Meanwhile he had only advanced on

his

it,

and

collect

an ami}' on

homeward journey

as far

body of twenty Gukkurs, who had lost some of their relatives


during the war, and had entered into a conspiracy to avenge their death
by assassinating him, had been tracking his footsteps, and watching their
as the Indus.

opportunity.

Owing

to the excessive heat,

he had ordered the screens which

surrounded the royal tents in the form of a square to be struck, in order to

Assassina

hab-u-ain.

HISTORY OF IXniA.

62
A.D. 1200.

obtain a IVccr circulation of

a view of the interior so far

In the dead of

ment.

was

asleep,

tiie

fanned by two

Gukkur consjiirators had


know tlie position of Shahab's

;iif,

fis

fliooK

'I'Iil-

to

night they crept stealthily up

olttained

tliu.s

private apart-

the tent door.

and before any alarm could ha given they

slaves,

had done the bloody deed so

tfj

f.

that

effectually,

his lifeless

body

la,y

pierced

with twenty-two wounds.


This tragical termination of Shahab's eventful

Disputed

took place on the 14th

life

sucoos-sioii

His

of March, 1206.

reign, including that of the joint sovereignty with hLs

The succession was disputed. The chiefs of


Baha-u-din, who was Shahab's cousin, and had been ap-

brother, lasted thirty-two years.

Ghor claimed it for


pointed by him governor of Bainian; the

vizier

and

officers

of the Turkish

mercenaries supported the claim of Shaliab's nepliew, the son of his brother

The

Gheias-n-din.

claimants, however,

decision, for Shahab's

had comparatively

little interest

in the

death was the signal for internal commotions, which were

by the dismemberment of his dominions. His nephew Mahmood was indeed proclaimed king, and held a nominal supremacy; but the
Eldoz at Ghuznee, and Eibuk,
real power was in the hands of two individuals
shortly followed

HI
Eidoz and

or,

as

he

is

often called, Kutb-u-din, in India.

have now to do

for

It is

with the latter that

we

vmder him India, dissevered from the governments beyond

the Indus, assumed the form of a distinct and independent kingdom.


first

heads of this kingdom were originally

slaves, their d3Tiasty is

As the
known as

that of the Slave Kings.

CHAPTETl
Medieval India continued

The Slave

Kings

Eibuk

Altamsh Sultana Eezia Mogul


Khilji Jelal-u-din Proceedings in tie

or Kutb-u-din

Gheias-u-din Bulbun House


House of Lodi.
Toghlak
of

House
Deccan

irruptions into India

ijIBUK had been

III.

of

carried off in infancy,

and was brought

to

Nishapoor, where a wealthy citizen purchased him, and spent

some pains on

his education.

sold to a merchant,

who

On

presented

the citizen's death, he was

him

to Shahab-u-din.

the prince he became so great a favourite that he


into his confldence,
Eibiik or

Kutb-u-din.

talents

made him

and lived with him as

a friend.

at once his royal master's

His

fidelity

With

was taken

and military

most trusted and most successful

and he was ultimately dignified with the title of Viceroy of India. In


this character, he fixed his government at DeUii, which thus began the course
The longer.
of prosperity wliich it was destined to rmi under Mahometan nile.

general,

EIBUK OK KUTB-U-DIN.

CiiAr. III.]

and by

more

far the

became independent,

He
He

iiad

G3

brilliant part of Eibuk's career

finished before he

for he afterwards reigned only fom- years,

and died

in 1210.

displayed considerable tact in strengthening his position by

affinity.

ad.

1210.

Married the
'|;'"K''t'-

""

himself married the daughter

who

of Eldoz,

Ghuznee

ruled supreme in

gave in

his sister he

:a-

marriage to Nasir-u-din Kubachi,

who

was

held a delegated sovereignty

Ctcmcie
Scindt

and

his

daughter he

gave in marriage to Altamsh, who,

though purchased with his money,


held

tlie

place in his esteem,

first

and possessed talents which

ulti-

mately made liim his successor.


Eibuk's
di<l

pated.

with

Eldoz

produce the cordiality

not

wliich

affinity

might have been

They not only

antici-

quarrelled,

but proceeded to open war, and


carri(Hl

it

on with a virulence

which brought each of them


ternately to the

al-

brink of ruin.

Nasir-u-din never thought

t)f

puting Eibuk's authority

and so

dis-

long as his brother-in-law lived,

was

KfTB

perfectly

with

satisfied

He was

delegated sovereignty.
deference to Altamsh,

lIiNAR, Ueliii.' After

Diiiiiell.

not

dispo.sed,

however, to yield the same

and made himself independent

ruler of

Mooltan and

Scinde.

Shortly after Altamsii had secured his position as Eibuk's successor, the

whole of Asia was thrown into consternation by the appearance of Ghenghis


Khan."'

Originally a })etty

sovereign of

all

Mogul

Tartary, and, at

burst through

its

mountain passes

of Kharism,

at

whom

the treachery

the

first

and barbarity of

ys3aigtv

^Jil^^
l^^^MW
^^^SZ^^*^

murdering the ambjvssadors of Ghenghis


the crime,

when he

fled

to die

^^^^

head of

with

its

countless hordes,

ii-resistible fury.

blow was

The Sultan

struck, deserved it for

which he had been

guilty,

in

and the penalty was not more than

broken - hearted on

The Kutb Minar is a column of victory, built by


Kutb-udiu, to celebrate his conquest of the Hindoos.
It is 4S feet 4 inches diameter at the base, and when
nieasuied in U'M, was 242 feet in height. The base.
'

he had become the acknowledged

chief,

solitary island of the

which is circular, forms a polygon of 27 sides, and


there are four balconies running round the pillar.
- Silver coin of Ghenghis Khan ;
weight, 47 grains,

From Thomas's

Coinn of the Kings of Ghuznt.

Aitamsiihi.s
successor

HISTORY OF INDIA.

T)!'

AD

i2.il),

Caspian.

His son Jdal-u din

Itore

ii])

iiioic inanl'iilly

[TV>ok

but

seemed to have no power either to intimidate or weaken

I.

after victf>ry

vicfc<')ry

his fearful a/lversary,

.\ppoaraiico

..ffihenghiH

and he only saved


showered

by swimmin;^ the Indu.s, while the enemy's arrow.i


him
Tlie Motfuls threatenirif; to cro.ss the river in

him.self

tliick ai'ound

Altamsh,

pm'suit, he continued his fliglit to Delhi.


for

t^j

wlwm

he here

applierl

an asylum, feared to expose himself to Mogul vengeance, and gave an answer

with whicii Jelal-u-din was

.so

dissatisfied, that

he

made a party

for him.self,

and, in alliance with the Gukkurs, roamed the country, plundering and devas-

and even making himself master of Scinde, while Nasir-u-din Kubachi


was glad to take refuge in Mooltan. To all appearance he might have ma/Ie
good his footing, if he had not been lured away by a brighter pro.spect, which
tating,

seemed opening in

army

crossed the Indus,

provisions compelled
Nasir-u-din,

Before he quitted Scinde a detaehment of the Mogul

Persia.

and commenced

them

who had

their barbarous warfare

but want of

to depart, after slaughtering 10,000 Indian prisoners.

detachment when

repulsed the Mogul

Mooltan, was less fortunate

when he was

it

attacked a second time

laid siege to

by Altamsh.

After retreating to Bukkur, he had, with the view of proceeding to Scinde,

embarked with
and

all

family on the Indus,

all his

on board perished.

Altamsh was thus

when

a sudden squall upset the boat,

This tragical event happened in 1225.

rid of a fonnidable competitor,

Another competitor, however, remained, in the person

accession of territory.

of Bakhtiar Khilji, the governor of Behar

and Bengal.

instrumental in conquering these provinces

acknowledging any supremacy in Altamsh.

Deiiii

the

Mahometan

to force,

He had

been mainly

and though he was contented to

hold them under Eibuk, one of whose sisters he had

had recourse

and obtained a large

The

mamed, he had no

latter, after

and Bakhtiar was not only worsted, but

Altamsh, throned in his capital at Delhi,

now swayed

idea of

persuasion failed,
lost his

life.

his sceptre over all

Mahometans had conquered in India. They were


enough to satisfy any reasonable ambition, but he was

the territories which the

empire.

j^rge
still

euough and

rich

bent on conquests, which, being wholly his own, might form the most solid

basis of his fame.

Six years, from 1226 to 1232, were spent in executing these

ambitious schemes; and in the end, after the conquest of Malwah, with

its

famous

had been completed, all Hindoostan proper, with a few isolated


and unimportant exceptions, did homage to Altamsh. The additional greatness
thus conferred on him was not enjoyed long, for he died fom' years after, in
capital Oojein,

Ap-'i,

1236.

It

may

Ilahometans of India

be mentioned, as a proof of the anxiety which the


still

felt

to

keep up their connection with the central

authority of Islamlsm in the west, that Altamsh, in the com-se of his reign,

LI

received his investitm-e from the Caliph of Bagdad.


'

Rnkn
unuorthy
reign.

Rukn-u-din, the son and successor of Altamsh, was a very unworthy represeutative of his talents.

women, and

buffoons,

was thronged with musicians, dancinghe was too indolent and effeminate to support the
Wliile his coiu-t

THE SULTANA

ITT.]

CiiAP.

government, and devolved them on

cares of

enough to undertake the task, but performed

assumed

make way for

the

She was not


father,

of

title

Sultana

l^is

"Rezia

so capriciously

and

ad.

viss.

tp'annically,

who

__^

__

..___

for her

his campaigns,

the administration

intrusted her with


in preference to

who was ambitious

mother,

Rezia.

new to government,

when absent on

Ferishta,

his sister,

it

liis

end of seven months, Kukn-u-din was

that a rebellion broke out, and, at the


de[)0,sed to

Go

KEZIA.

According to

sons.

Begum was endowed

with every princely virtue; and those

who

scrutinize her actions

most severely,

her no fault but that she

will find in

was a woman."

The circumstances under which she


assumed the government were difficult.
The two most powerful
state

i.r.Hr-.'l-

parties in the

were cordially united in deposing

them

her brother, but only one of

con-

The malcon-

curred in her elevation.

tent faction, lieaded by the vizier of the

two previous

reigns, at once appealed to

the sword, and, appearing before Delhi,

IXTKRIOR OK

From

defeated an
to its relief

army which was advancing


But though Rezia was weak

THfc;

ToMU OK ALTAMSH.

Lviiiril's

Views in India.

was powerful

in arms, she

in intrigue, uei

and succeeded so well in sowing dissensions, that the confederacy formed against
her melted

away of its own

Equal

accord.

Seated daily on her

administration.

skill

and

tin-one, she

success

was

marked her

accessible to

and

her reputation,

impartially.

Unfortunately, she had one failing which affected

and lowered her

in the estimation of her subjects.

a strong and undisguised favour for her master of the horse,


originally

appointing

an Abyssinian

slave,

she raised above

him commander-in-chief

It does

to

lift

her up

when

to excite a rebellion,

sinian

she

it

successful.

Here her blandishments again availed


he

fell

who had been


her,

1.

At

V>y

is,

that she allowed

was enough, however,

After a short struggle, the Abys-

and she

de.sperately in love with her, married her,

to the throne.
Vci,

It

She was confided

was murdered, and Sultana Rezia was deposed.

charge of a Turki chief called Altunia,

nol)ilitv,

not seem that her honour was

mounted on horseback.

and make

Sbe showed

whom, though

her other

all

compromised; for the utmost said against her in this respect

him

gave a

and dispensed

patient ear to complaints, redressed grievances, reformed abuses,


justice firmly

all,

internal

to the

the leader in the rebellion.


so

won upon

Altunia that

and attempted to

restore her

the head of an army, she advanced to Delhi, fought


9

two

skiii in

U. 1260.

OF IVDTA.

IITSTOJIV

6t)

bloody

with

She had reigned three years and a

half.

them,

.'ind

when Uczia was

In 1239,

Miiiz ii-din

t;iken jtrLsoner

Kittles, lo.st

put to death.

was

[BofK

lier

Both were

hiwhand.

Behnim was

brother Moiz-u-din

deposed, her

I.

Itelintm

Kucceeds
liezia.

He was

placed on the throne.

alto<:^etlier

unworthy of

rid himself of the importunities of tho.se to

He was

treachery and assas.sination.

reigned

was an
and

more than two

years.

The

to

he owed his elevation, by

imprisoned and put to death after he had

The only event of importance


Another

irruption of the Moguls into the Punjab.

in his reign

reign, equally short

was Ala-u-din Masaood, a son of Ilukn-uHis crimes were soon terminated by a violent death. During his reign

worthless, followed.

din.

two

little

whom

and endeavoured

it;

irruptions of the

niler

Moguls took place

the one into the north-west, and the

by a route which they had not previously attempted

other

through

Thibet

into Bengal.
Reign of

Nasir-u-din

Mahmood, grandson

of Altam.sh, after a short

was

interval,

Nasir-\i-din

Mahmood.

He was

raised to the throne in 1246.

of retired

and studious

habits,

and

rid

himself of the cares of government by devolving them on his vizier Gheia.s-u-din

Bulbun.

The Moguls were now the great enemies

of Herat, Balkh, Kandahar, Cabool, and

Ghuznee were

as India

was constantly threatened by them,

standing

army along

the frontier.

to be feared.

it

was

portant.

generally.

pro\'inces

in their posse&sion;

and

keep up

nece.ssary to

a.

Several of the earlier years of this reign

were employed in suppressing disturbances which had

and the Punjab

The

The events

arisen, chiefly in ilooltan

of the latter years are, generally, unim-

In 1259, the Rajpoots of Meerut, ha\'ing risen in insurrection, the

Bulbun led an army against them; and, having obliged them to take
refuge among the mountainous districts, continued for four months to ravage
Vizier

by

the country

The

and sword.

fire

barbarities thus committed, however,

the Rajpoots desperate, and they nished


plain, attacking the

difficulty in

Mahometans

keeping his

men

down with aU

so suddenly

together.

and

their forces into the

fiercely that

Bulbun had great

Superior discipline finally prevailed,

and the Rajpoots were driven back to their fastnesses with great
Above 10,000 fell on the field; 200 chiefs, taken prisoners, were put
and the great body of
Embassy
from the
King of

their followers

made

were condemned to

slavery.

slaughter.

to death;

Shortly

before this formidable outbreak, an ambassador arrived at Delhi from Hoolakoo,

King

went out

in state to

these last were

is

fights

uncertain.

They may have been merely

style.

fii-e,

were then well acquainted.

then in the

for display,

with which the Mahometans,

series of

reviews and sham

and the ambassador was thep led through the city to


where everything was arranged for his ^'eception in the most gorAmong those who graced the ceremony, and stood next the throne,

were performed

the palace,

geous

east,

horse,

2000 elephants, and 3000 carriages of fireworks.

but more probably consisted of the Greek

even of the far

his approach, the vizier

meet him, with a train of 50.000 foreign

service of the Delhi government,

What

On

of Persia, and grandson of Ghenghis Khan.

Persia.

GHEIAS-U-DIN BULBUN.

Chap

TTT

were

many

67

There were present,

tributary Indian princes.

also,

twenty-five princes of Irak-Ajemi, Khorasan, and Transoxiana,


])rotection at Delhi

no fewer than ad.

who had sought

from the devastating hordes of Ghenghis Khan.

Nasir-u-din died of a lingering disease in 1266, after a reign of twenty years,

"abitaof
Naair

He makes

on the page of history; and was, both by nature and

figure

little

Though

adapted for a private than for a public

])arentage,

he had acquired parsimonious habits, and lived in the utmost sim-

When

imprisoned in early

of his pen; and,


as

much

as

when seated on

would

an-angements

is

the throne, he

made

it

his daily practice to wi'ite

Ferishta's account of his domestic

"Contrary to the custom of other

He had but one wife, whom


of housewifery.
When she complained one

concubines

in

not to burden

was only a

m her duty with

kept no

day, that she had burned her fingers


assist her,

trustee for the state,

with needless expenses.

it

princes, he

he obliged to do every homely part

baking his bread, and desired he would allow a maid to

her request, saying that he

of royal

he maintained himself by the labours

purchase his food.

suffice to

curious:

life,

station.

u-(Jiii.

habit,

far better

plicity.

)2<>t)

He

he rejected

and was determined

therefore exhorted her to persevere

and God would reward her on the day of judgment."

patience,

by European writers Balin, had long


been virtual, and on his master's death, became actual sovereign.
He was the
son of a powerfid Turki chief, but, when a youth, had been carried off" by the
Moguls and sold to a merchant, who took him to Bagdad. Here he was bought
Gheias-u-din Bulbun, usually called

iJuiimn

by an inhabitant of Bussorah, who, on learning that he belonged to the same


Altamsh, toolc

tribe as

him

liberally that his previous

His

first

in

when

paid for him so

that monarch

master returned with an independent fortune.

emplo}Tnent wjis as falconer, because he was ])articularly

hawking;

the art of

to Delhi,

but,

by the

influence of a brother,

whom

skilful in

he found living

high favom' at court, he obtained a higher position and became a noble.

the reign of Rukn-u-diu, he


to return,

commanded

in the Punjab.

On

that remained,

life.

He

t_yTant,

and declared himself independent.

and was taken

prisoner.

who,

therefore took the only alternative

Wlien the Sultana Rezia

mounted the throne, he joined the confederacy which marched to Delhi


her,

In

receiving an order

he refused to place himself in the power of that worthless

he learned, had a design upon his

iiiseaiiy

to depose

After a time he effected his escape, and became

a leading supporter of Behram, during whose reign he held the government of

Hansi and Rewaree, and distinguished himself in suppressing the insun-ections


in

Meerut.

In the reign of Ala-u-din Musaood, he held the

Hajib; and at

last,

as has been seen, exercised

all

office

of

Ameer

the powei-s of sovereign,

though nominally only the \nzier of Nasir-u-din.

Bulbun began

his reign

with some acts of what he deemed necessary severity;

and having thus made his position secm'e, acquired a high reputation for justice

seems
Bidom.

He was

a liberal rewarder of merit, and a rigid coirector of crime;

to have attached

more imiiortance

to birth than mii^ht have been

"'"

i>at""n-

literature

OS
A.D.

1206.

HTSTOP.Y

expected in so wise a man; and,

Hindoo

to a place of trust

and power.

many

found

was the most

INDIA.

in i^articular, rnfule

of the most distinguished wiiters of


credit Ferishta,

<<V

polite

t<^>

apfK>int

and kissagoes or

tiie

period to his court, which,

and magnificent

in the

Khan Shaheed, another

Various other

societies,

story-tellers,

I.

any

His jjatronage of literature brought srnne

laneous but not less attractive descrijjtion, as


actors,

a rule never

world

met

society, of

we may

if

His example

imitators in the cajutal; and, while a society of learned

at the house of a prince called

Hook

men

a more miscel-

consisted of masiciarLS, dancers,

it

at the hoase of the king's seajnd

were formed

for similar purj)Oses,

inet

in

s^ni.

every quarter of

Not merely the literary tastes of the king, but his love of show wa.s
sedulously imitated and splendid palaces, equipages, and liveries became quite
Delhi.

a rage amonfj the courtiers.


love

warms

Ferishta

Unlbnii's

as he describes the

pomp and

i)f

l)oinp.

surrounded

and proceeds

him.self,

monies of introduction to

tlie

throne without a mixture of

Bulbun

less

as follows:

with which the monarch


imposing were the cere-

royal pre.sence, that none could approach the

awe and

splendid in his procession.s.

purple and gold tra])pings.

state

"So

admiration.

Nor was Gheias-u-din

His state elephants were covered with

His horse -guards, consisting of 1000 Tartars,

appeared in glittering armour, mounted on the finest steeds of Persia and


Arabia, with silver

bits,

foot, in rich liveries,

and housings of

rich embroidery.

Five hundred chosen

with drawn swords, preceded him, proclaiming

his

approach

His nobles followed according to their rank, wuth their

and clearing the way.

various equipages and attendants."


His

zeal for

is

not unworthy of notice, that Bulbun took a very marked interest in

is

now known

It

temperance.

what

An

as the temperance cause.

officer

of rank, son of the

keeper of the royal wardrobe, and governor of the pro\'ince of Budaoon, had,
while in a state of drunkenness, slain one of his personal dependants, and, on the

complaint of the widow, was sent

Another

the whole court.


guilty of the

higli officer, the

and beaten to death in presence of


governor of Oude,

same crime under the influence of

whipping of 500
he had

for, tried,

lashes,

who had been

intoxication, received a public

and was given over as a slave to the widow of the man

These are not to be regarded as solitary instances of rigid

killed.

justice,

but rather part of a general system adopted for the purpose of putting

In the following statement of Ferishta, there

drunkenness.

an enactment of the

like

was addicted
a great

Maine-law: "Gheias-u-din

to the use of wine, but

enemy

is

down

something very

Bulbun in

his

youth

on his accession to the throne he became

to the luxury, prohibiting the use

and manufacture of fermented

liquors throughout his dominions, under the severest penalties.'"'

Though fond of

Fits of

splendour, and

by no means

niggardly,

of economy.

During one of

Bulbun seems some-

economy

times to have been seized with

list

and

of

all

fits

these,

the veterans wdio had served in the preceding reigns to be

settled half-pay,

with exeni|)tion from active duty, on

all

he caused

made

who were

out,

reported

MOOUL INCURSIONS.

Chap. III.]

as

worn

of

modern times have adopted, gave great

til)

The arrangement, though one which the most enlightened

out.

dissatisfaction;

states

a.d.

1-270.

sheer

Khan

and the veterans

induced a magistrate of Delhi, venerable for years and character, and high in

He

favour, to represent their case to the king.

put on a face of great dejection.

to court, and, while standing in the presence,

The king observing

it,

magistrate, " that

in the presence of

if,

was

inquired the cause: "I

God,

accordingly went the next day

all

just thinking," replied

men were

the old

tlie

what

rejected,

The device succeeded, and the veterans were again

would become of me."


placed on full pay.

In the year 1270 the king's nei)hew. Sheer Khan,


Mooltan,

of Lahore,

Mogul

incursions.

ance.

It

them

Sirhind,

These

Batinda,

restless

&;c.,

and

all

He was

died.

governor

the districts exposed to

depredators immediately

made

their appear-

seems that several of the subordinate governors were in league with

and owing

to this cause, as well as to

mutual jealousies and

dis.sensions

made such head that Bulbun was obliged to


appoint his eldest son. Prince Mahmood, viceroy of the frontier provinces.
At
the same time he caused him to be proclaimed his successor.
The Moguls had hitherto been the only enemy against whom it was thought
in

other cpiarters, the Moguls

necessary to provide, but in 1279 a formidable insurrection broke out in a dif-

During a serious

ferent quarter.
liad died,

illness,

which led to a rumour that Bulbun

Toghrul Kiian, the governor of Bengal,

irregularities,

revolted, but,

for

which he feared he might be

assuming the

declared himself

King

scarlet

of Bengal.

who had been


called

army

At

Khan advanced

loghmi

" ''"'

to account, not only


roj^alty,

Bulbun immediately gave the government of

Ameer Khan, and

.sur-

the same time, he sent several generals with a large

Aluptujeen, thus reinforced, crossed the Gogi-a, and

to his assistance.

Toghrul

i.y

guilty of some

canopy along with other insignia of

Bengal to the governor of Oude, Aluptujeen, entitled


nametl the Hairy.

insunectiou

to

meet him.

This he did with the more confidence,

was aware that many of the Turki

army had
been gained by his largesses.
The consequence was that the royal army sustained a total overtlu'ow.
When the news reached Bulbun, he bit his own Hi'sh
with vexation, hung Aluptujeen at the gate of Oude, and sent Mullik Tirmuny
Toork with another army against the rebel. Not more successful than his prehecause he

decessor, he

was

Bulbun now

defeated, lost all his baggage,

and roads, however, occiisioned so


a large army, though

the risk of
all

and with

set out in pei-son, crossed the

dry season, and proceeded to Bengal

collect

chiefs in Aluptujeen's

an encounter

it

in the

his elephants, trejisure,

and

b}^

the public treasure.

Ganges without waiting

forced marche.s.

much

it

The

delay, that Toglirul

for the Ruibmrs

state of the river

Khan had time

to

did not seem to have been large enough to justif}'

open

field.

effects

king should return to his capitid.

He

therefore evacuated Bengal with

intending to keep out of sight

till

This .scheme he followed out with so

dexterity, that Bulbun, following close

tlie

much

upon the route which he was understood

,[,

Uengai.

70
A

I)

1270

to

OF

IIISTOI'.V

liJive

taken, could not obtain a inum

TNT)TA

(jf liini

The

saw some bullocks with pack -saddles.

when

last

Mullik

drivere were seized, but in aiLswer

to all inquiries, obstinately pretended ignorance,


off,

At

for several days.

Kolc, l;eing out witli a small ieconnoiti'ing party,

Mookudur, the governor of

was struck

[Book

the rest

the head of one of them

till

on their faces and confessed that they had

fell

jast left Toghrul Khan's camp, which

was four miles

Mullik going

farther on.

forward climbed a rising ground, from which he saw the whole encampment
spread over a plain, with the ele[)hants and cavalry picketted, and everything
in apparent security.
exploit,

Having

s tents, situated

camp, because

men
it

he had with him at

full speed,

he was allowed to enter the

was never doubted that he belonged


and ordering

for head-quarters,

"

tent of audience, shouting

his

men

to

draw

near

Advancing

the centre of the camp, he determined on a very daring enterprise.

with the forty

Toghrul

on Toghrul

fixed his eye

to

it.

He made

directly

their swords, rushed into the

Victory to Sultan Bulljun!"

Toghrul thought he had been surprised by the royal army, and leaped from

make way

his throne to

mounted

it,

and

fled

sight of him, pursued,

in

Finding a horse without a saddle, he

to the rear.

direction of the river.

tlie

Mullik, having cauglit

and shot him with an arrow while he was

in the act of

swimming the stream. Toglnail fell from his horee, and was seized by Mullik.
who di-agged him out by the hair, and cut off his head, leaving the body to be
carried down the stream.
He had just time to hide the head in the .sand when
They found Mullik bathing, and neveisome of Toghrul's people came up.
suspecting how matters stood, left him after asking a few questions.
The
confusion produced by the supposed surprise spread into a general panic, and
Mullik
the whole camp dispersed, every one thinking only of his own safety.
ever after bore the surname of Toghrul Koosh, or the Slayer of Toghnil.

Bulbun arrived next day, and finding that no enemy remained, returned
execute vengeance on the rebel's family, every

member of which he put

Before returning from this expedition, on which he


years, he appointed his son,

is

to

to death.

said to have spent three

Khurra Khan, King of Bengal, and gave him

all

the spoils of Toghrul, except the elephants and treasure, which he removed to
Delhi.

As soon

from Mooltan to

iiLvasion of

visit him,

of his father's ariival, he hastened

and was received with the greatest

affection.

The

two were almost inseparable; but they had not been three months together
when an event occui'red which was to part them for ever. The Moguls had

Mooltau by
tiieMogiuJ

Mahmood heard

as Prince

The prince made

invaded Mooltan.

on the borders of eighty, bitterly


probably was

tliat

The

i-r-.ii

haste to oppose them, and Bulbun,

the pang of sejiaration.

now

His presentiment

he himself was about to be gathered to his fathers, and that

the prince would survive him.


in counselling

felt

ii

all

him

Accordingly he spent much of the

as to the conduct he should pui-sue

counsels were wise,

and the

doubtless have acted upon

them

if

prince,

who had given

last interxdew

when on

the throne.

great promise, would

the succession had opened to him.

It

was

WARS WITH THE MOGULS.

Chap. III.]

As soon

otherwise determined.

Moguls, recovered

tlie

Cia.

as the prince arrived in Mooltan, he attiicked

had

the territories which tliey

all

71

seized,

A.D. 1285.

and expelled

them with great slaughter. These Moguls were subjects of Timour Khan, of
different
the house of Ghenghis Khan; and though not unknown to fame, a very
person from the still more ftimous Timour or Tamerlane, who did not make his
appearance

till

a century

after.

Khorasan to

of Persia, from

The present Timour ruled the eastern provinces


the Indus, and with the view of avenging the

expulsion of his Moguls, appeared next year in Hindoostan, at the head of

20,000 chosen horse.


in

After ravaging the country around Laliore, he advanced


Prince

the direction of Mooltan.

lay between them,

river
easily

hastened to meet him.

Mahmood

Defeat of the
Moguls,

and might

have been converted

an

into

inseparable barrier against the further


progress of the Moguls, but the prince

disdained to avail himself of this advantage,

and

left

passage

the

free.

After Timour had crossed, the armies

drew up and a great

battle

was

fought.

Both leaders distinguished themselves


but after contesting the
three hours, the

victory

foi-

Moguls were obliged

and the Indians followed hotly


pursuit.
Prince Mahmood, worn

to flee,

in

out with fatigue, halted on the banks


of a stream to qiiench his thirst.
iiad

He

only 500 attendants, and was spied


Groi'p of Indian Armoi'r.'

who lay concealed in


an adjoining wood with 2000 horse.
The prince had barely time
before the IMoguls were upon him.
With his small band he thrice

by a Mogul

chief,

repulsed his assailants

but at

la,st,

overpowered by numbers, he

wounded, and almost instantly expired.


of the

troops,

to wailing,

mortally

in pvu-suit

The voice of triumph was immediately turned

and every eye was in

and he only lingered

When

on,

a\

tears.
ishi

The dismal news broke

the old king's

for death to release him.

he found his end approaching, he recalled his son, Khurra Khan,

from Bengal, and nominated him his successor.

He

should appoint a deputy in Bengal, and remain with


'The suits of mail are in the Meyrick Collection
Goodrich Court, as also the battle-a.\e, paiscash,
and khanjar iu the foreground.
The rest of the
at

heroically

fell

who had gone

mount

flpng enemy, on returning with the shouts of victory, found their

prince weltering in his blood.

heart,

His

to

only sti))ulated that he

him

at Delhi

till

his death.

weapons are from Lan^les, Mnniimrnit Ancieps el


Mmlerncx ile 1' Thrtilnriatan, taken from an ancient
MS. of the Ayeen Akbery.

neatiiof

lili

72
A

I)

I2S0.

niSTOUV OF INDIA.

This event not

enough
Dentil of

Uulbuii.

so .soon

liappi'iiiiifj

a.s

for

Bengal without announcing

BuUxni, both grieved and indignant, went for

intention.

I.

Kliurra Kliaii oxpftcted, he wa-s unnatunil

become impatient, and depart

to

[Book

hi.s

his

Kei

gi-and.wn,

Khosru, Prince Mahmood's son, from Mooltan, settled the succeHsion on him,

and a few

day.s

aftei-,

for twenty-one years.


effect to

Delhi,

Bulbun's

1286.

Tliough

all

the officens of the court had swoni to give

no sooner was he dead than the chief magistrate of

will,

at variance with Kei

young prince with such

influence against the

Khosru s

effect,

father, exerted

was

that he

Keikobad, the son of Khun-a Khan.

for his cousin,

glad to escape with his

reigned with great succeh-

in

who had always been

make way

He had

exjjired,

life,

set aside

He was

of Moiz-u-din.

returned to his government.

remarkably handsome

mild in temper, of a literary

taste,

own master

and well informed.

and on Vjreaking

his

which

had kept upon him, he passed

Unfortunately he

from

loose

tlie

tight rein

to the opposite extreme,

His example was soon followed by his

became a debauchee.

title

in person, affable in his manners,

became too soon


his father

i/)

Kei Kho.sru,

Keikobad, on mounting the throne in his eighteenth year, assumed the

Keikobail
succeeds.

liLs

courtiers,

and
and

once more, to borrow the description of Ferishta, "every shady gi'ove was
filled

with

tumult

women and

parties of pleasure,

and every

rung with

sti'eet

At Kelookery, on the banks of the Jumna, he

fitted

players, musicians,

dill's

treacherous
(le.sigiis.

and

up a

palace where he might revel undisturbed amidst his only companion;?

and

even the magistrates were seen drunk in public, and music was heard

in every house."

singei-s,

buffoons.

Nizam-u-din, the chief secretary of Keikobad, seeing

Nizaiii-

riot

how

completely his

master was engrossed by pleasure, conceived the idea of usurping the throne

and having no

scruples as to the means,

he conceived to be the greatest obstacle.


to Ghuznee,

and

solicited

began by endeavouring to remove what


This was Kei Khosru,

Timour Khan, the Mogul

who had gone

viceroy, to aid

him with

troops for the purpose of driving Keikobad from the throne, which,

by the

will of his grandfather Bulbun, belonged of right to himself

He

attempt, but returned, notwithstanding, to his government.

Either thinking

that his attempt


enticed to

pay a

was unknown,
visit

to Delhi,

murdered by the hired

was

or hoping tliat

had been forgiven, he was

and before he reached

assassins of Nizam-u-din.

to procure the disgrace of Keikobad's \izier,

of the late King Bulbun.

it

They disappeared one

failed in the

was

w^aylaid

and

The next part of the

plot

and cut

it,

off all the old serv^ants

after another

by some kind

mysterious agency, and a general feeling of dismay was produced.

of

Nizam-u-din,

the real instigator, though not the actual perpetrator of the murdei-s, was not

even suspected.

Though the Moguls on the other side of the Indus were constantly crossing
it, and making predatory incursions into India, it is a remarkable fact that vast
numbers of their countrymen had voluntarily enlisted in the army of Delhi as

SULTAN KEIKOBAD.

Chap. Ill]
soldiers of fortune,

and were even understood

73

have done good and

to

Nizam-u-din, anxious to get quit of the Mogul mercenaries

service.

feared, mifjlit refuse to

be the instruments of his designs

took

faitliful

A.D. 1287.

who, he

advantage of a

Massacre of
tlie

recent

Mogul

inciu'sion, to

persuade Keikobad that

it

was impolitic

to retain

them, as in the event of a general invasion, they would certainly join their

countrymen.

was

It

atrocious.

Nizam-u-din was thus clearing away

was equally busy in the

them by any means,


assemble the Mogul chiefs, and

officers

connection

While

imaginary

obstacles, his wife

inmates at her devotion.

all its

who had

father,

who had any

off to distant garrisons.

real or

all

and had

seraglio,

Khurra Kiian, Keikobad's

hitherto been contented with

warn his son of his


No attention was paid to his advice and Khurra Khan, seeing the
danger.
crisis approaching, determined to anticipate it, by marching with a large army
upon Delhi. Keikobad advanced with a still larger army to oppose his progress.
Bengal, hearing of the state of affairs at Delhi, wrote to
;

The

father, feeling his inferiority,

proposed negotiation, but the son assumed a

liaughty tone, and would appeal to nothing but the sword.

Before mattere

were allowed to come to this extremity, Khurra Kiian made a

last effort,

wi'ote

a letter in the most tender and affectionate terms,

beijffinof

he

and

mifflit

be

Keikobad was melted, and a reconciliation


of which
~ ~r ~^^-r
his trea-

blessed with one sight of his son.

took place, the ultimate effect


was, that Nizam-ii-din

saw

all

cherous designs frustrated, and was shortly


after cut

oft"

by

poison.

For a time Keikobad seemed about


to reform

and

character,

new

but he had no decision of

facticms

his old habits returning,

were formed, and a kind of

anarchy prevailed.
fusion,

To

dissipation

his

constituticm,

increa.se

the con-

undermined

and he became

his

paralytic.

Every noble now began to intrigue

for

power, and two great parties were formed

the
name

one headed by a Khilji of the


of JVIullik Jelal-u-din Feroze,

and
.iV-

the other

bv two

hijjh court oflicei's.

-.^

who,
Khiuti Chieftain- and

more loyally disposed, wished to secure

Afglian

the

crown

The Khiljies
were in former times by far the
most
celebrated of the Afghans and though now
f

li

I,

Woman 'From

Hart's

Scoiier}-.

to Keikobad's only son, Prince

Keiomoors, an infant of three vears of age.

Vol.

aries.

therefore resolved to get quit of

The plan adopted was to


Even all other
massacre them by the guards.
with them were first imprisoned, and then sent
however

Mugul

mercen-

The

Khiljies, almost to a

among the races of their


fondly cherish a remembrance of

holding only the second rank


country, they

still

man,

10

Intervifiw of

Keikobad
with his
father,

Khurra
Kliaii.

w
A.D. 1288.

or

JiisToity

71-

took part with their countryman

whom

of the prince,

[Book

iNi^iA.

the Moguls were equally unanimous in favour

they canied off from the harem, for the

IiItu

upon the throne.

bed,

might continue

It

for

which the contending

was not yet vaamt,

a time to linger
{Kirties

I,

on.

purj-K^se

for Keikoba/1,

of seating

though on a sick-

This was a state of uncertainty

could not endure;

and

after

mutual attempts

at assas.sination, the emissaries of Jelal-u-din, having forced their

way

into the

palace of Kelookery, where they found Keikobad lying in a dying state, deserted
Keikobad's
death.

by all liis attendants, they beat out his braias with bludgeons, rolled up the
body in the bed-clothes, and threw it out of the window into the river. The
young prince was shortly after put to death; and Jelal-u-din having been proclaimed king, became the founder of the Khilji d_ynasty.

pened in

288.

Jelal-u-din Feroze

Jelal-ii-diu

had reached the age of seventy when he usurped the

succeeds.

The

throne.

This revolution hap-

footsteps to it he

had stained with

either remoi"se or policy induced

him

to

was seated,
Having no great

blood, but after he

become humane.

confidence in the people of Delhi, he fixed his residence at Kelookery, which he

and

fortified,

adorned with

also

gardens and terraced walls along the river.

fine

Numerous other buildings rapidly sprung up; and Kelookery, having thus
assumed the appearance of a city, was known for a time by the name of Xew
The year

Delhi.

after Jelal-u-din's usurpation, a competitor for the

crown

appeared in the person of Mullik Juhoo, one of the late Bulbun's nephews,
instigated

chiefly

by Ameer

Ally, governor of Oude.

After

an obstinate

engagement, Juhoo was defeated, and Ameer Ally and several other leaders

were taken

They were immediately sent off to Kelookery but


he saw them, ordered them to be unbound, and gave

prisoners.

Jelal-u-din, as soon as

them a

free pardon, while (quoting

a verse of which the purport

but he only

evil is easily returned,

great

is

who

Khilji chiefs could not understand this humanity,

sight, to deter

down

Ind '.X'*'
taken lenity

returns good for evil"

The

which they condemned as at

At all events," they observed, " the rebels should


them from further mischief, and as an example to

If this

the ordinary rules of policy

His humane

Evil for

was not done, treason would soon raise its head in every quarter
The king answered, " What you say is certainly according to
the empire."

others.

of

"

"

variance with sound policy.

be deprived of

is

but,

my

to the grave without shedding

fiiends, I

more

^q^^^ partaking

so

much

old,

and

wish to go

blood."

It is refreshing to be able to turn aside

in the course of the narrative

am now

from the massacres which we have

been compelled to witness, and

of the spirit of Christianity.

listen to senti-

It seems, however, that

the Khiljies were not altogether wrong, for the king's lenity was often mistaken,
their former greatness, ere the

Dooraunee dynasty

succeeded in wre.sting from them the sovereignty.


In the beginning of last century this tribe alone
After a hard struggle, the
conquered all Persia.
third Khilji

Shah.

The

King

of Persia was expelled by Nadir

territory occupied

by them

is

situated in

the north of Afghanistan, and forms a parallelogram


of about 180 miles in length, by 8.5 miles in breadth.
It is comprised more especially in the valley of the
Cabool River, from its source to the town of Jelalabad, and also in the valleys which descend from tha
Hindoo Koosh.

REIGN OF JELAL-U-DIN.

Chap. Ill]

and the hope of impunity produced numeroas


"

breaking, robbery, murder,

and every

The

streets

and

a.d. 1291.

House-

was committed by many

species of crime

Insurrections prevailed in every

subsistence.

numerous gangs of freebooters interrupted commerce, and even

province;

common

means of

as a

"

disorders.

were infested by thieves and banditti.

highways," says Ferishta,

who adopted them

io

Add

intercourse.

to this, the king's governors neglected to render

any account either of their revenues or their administration."


Crime, thus encouraged, did not stop shoit of treason, and two plots were

formed against the king's


conspirators,

One, in which some Khilji chiefs were the

life.

was no sooner detected than forgiven;

coiispiraciee

X.'"**

which was

the other,

headed by a celebrated dervis, called Siddy Mollah, wixs visited more severely.
Tins dervis, originally from Persia, after visiting various countries in the west,
arrived at Delhi, where his reputation for sanctity, joined to the liberality of
his alms,

made him a

great favourite, especially with the populace,

For a time he appeared to have no

constantly crowded around his gates.

higher aspiration than popularity


soul,

and an

intriguer, to

whom
him

that the people looked on


Khilji misrule,

and

bless

but at

who were

ambition took possession of his

last,

he had given his confidence, persuaded him

as sent from

God

to deliver the

kingdom from

Hindoostan with a wise and just government.

The throne having thus become

his object, he

determined to take the nearest

Piopoaed
trial

road to

it,

and sent two of

his followers to assassinate the

One

ceeding to the public mosque.


remorse,

and disclosed the

of the two, however,

Siddy Mollah and

plot.

by

king as he was pro-

was

seized with

his confidential intriguer

were apprehended; but as they persisted in their innocence, and no witness


appeared against them,

it

was determined

to

have recourse to the

that they might purge themselves of their guilt.

fiery ordeal,

Everything was ready, and

the accused having said their prayers, were about to plunge into the
Jelal-u-din,

who had come

to his ministers,

to witness the ceremony, stopped them,

put the question,

" Is it lawful to try

fire,

when

and turning

Mussulmans by the

fiery

They unanimously answered that the practice was heathenish, and


contrary to the Mahometan law as well as to reason, inasmuch as it was the
ordeal?"

consume, paying no respect to the righteous more than to the

nature of

fire to

wicked.

Siddy Mollah was ordered to

before he reached

it.

but was barbarously murdered

prison,

This murder was associated in the minds of the populace

with a series of public calamities which ensued, and particularly with two
the one a dreadful famine in the com*se of the

same year

(1291),

and the other

a Mogul invasion in the year following.

The invading force, headed by a kinsman of Hoolakoo Khan, Ghenghis Khan's

^'"^'i'

invasion

grandson, consisted of

100,000

advanced 'against them.

For

with a stream between them.

hoi-se.

five

On

Jelal-u-din collected his anny, and

days the amiies lay in sight of each other,


the sixth morning, as

if

by mutual

they drew up on an extensive plain, to fight a })itched battle.

consent,

After an

iei>eiie<i

fire.

HISTORY OF TNniA.

/^

AD.

i2fl3.

obstinate conflict, the Moguls were defcHted.

was not

gave

decisive, for Jelal-u-din

from his dominions, and excljanged

On

this occasion,

had

who were

rising

among

with them

in

withdraw
of amity.

t<jken

induced 3000 of his countrymen to remain in the service

who gave him

daughter in mairiage.

his

of Kurra, obtained in addition to

it

who had

pieviously V>een governor

the government of Oude, and began to

One

entertain schemes of conquest, with a view to ultimate independence.


his expeditions

Deccan.

who

is

is

was

It

directed against

after reaching the

Mahometans maxle to the


Dew, Rajah of Dewghur or Dowletabad,

Ram

Deccan

force,

Mahometans about

was

easily repulsed,

forward towards the

frontier, pressed

rajah happened to be absent, and hastened

the

composed

home

feet,

defence

Tlie

Having sud-

in great alarm.

chiefly of citizens

Ala-u-din,

capital.

and domestics, he encountered

four miles from the city; but, though he behaved gallantly,

and driven back into the

Its ditch,

fort.

now one
many places

which

of the most remarkaVjle sights of the Deccan, the scarp being in

100

of

interesting as the first which the

described as possessing the wealth of a long line of kings.

denly collected a

he

tliat

the numerous relations of that warrior

In 1293 Ala-u-diu, the king's ne[>hew,

Invasion of

by Ala-

of

still alive,

of Jelal-u-din,

j^resents

free permission Uj

Oghloo Kiian, a grandson of Ghenghis Klian, aware

chance

little

I.

It is prolable that the vict^jry

Moguls

tlie

[Ik.oK

is

excavated in the solid rock, was not then in existence, and the chief

was a bare

The

wall.

city

was taken

at once,

and

Many

pillaged.

of

the inhabitants, after hea-vy contributions had been levied from them, were

The

cruelly tortured for the discovery of their property.

but

Ram Dew

present force

fort

still

held out,

began to despond, as the Mahometans had given out that their

was only the advanced guard

therefore offered a large ransom,


difficulties of his position in

of the

King

which Ala-u-din, who had begun to

feel

the

the centre of a hostile country, was fain to accept.

The terms had just been concluded when Shunkul Dew, the rajahs
son,

He

of Delhi's army.

was seen advancing with a numerous army.

eldest

His father sent a message to

him, intimating that peace was concluded, and ordering him to desist from

The youth

hostilities.

in

which he

said, " If

refused,

and sent messengers

you have any love

for

life,

and

to Ala-u-din with a letter,


desire safety, restore

you have plundered, and proceed quietly homeward,

rejoicing at

your happy

The Mahometan indignation was so roused that the messengers,


having their faces blackened with soot, were hooted out of the camp.

escape."

Defeat of the

Dowieta-

Ala-u-din immediately

moved out

to

meet the approaching enemy,

Only Mullik Noosroot, with 1000 horse, to


sally.

what
after

lea\Tiig

invest the foit and prevent a

In the contest which ensued, the j\Iahometans were overpowered by

numbers, and falling back on


Noosroot,

who had

sides,

when

the sudden aiTival of Mullik

station at the fort without orders, changed the fortune

The Hindoos, supposing that the royal army, of which they had
much, was actually arrived, were seized with a panic, and fled in all

of the day.

heard so

left his

all

TREACHERY OF ALA-U-DIN.

Chap. III.]
directions.

Ala-u-din returned to the

pressed for provisions,

77

the besiegers of which were

fort,

now

a. d. 1295

number of bags,
Ram Dew was obliged to sub-

liaving been ascertained that a great

it

supposed to contain grain, were

filled

with

salt.

mit to any terms; and Ala-u-din, besides obtaining the cession of Elliciij)Oor and

He had many

immense ransom.

dependencies, retired with an

its

difficulties

to

contend with, as his route lay through the hostile and powerful kingdoms

of

Malwah, Gundwana, and Candeish

safely at Kurra, where,

but he siu-mounted them

and arrived

all,

from the interruption of the communications, nothing

had been heard of him for several months.


Jelal-u-din,

on hearing of the immense booty which

nephew was

liis

was overjoyed, because he had no doubt that the greater


part of it would go to enrich the royal treasury at Delhi.
His more sagacious
servants thought otherwise, and hinted that Ala-u-din had ultimate designs
of a treasonable nature, and would use the booty as a means of accomplishing
them.
The king refused to entertain suspicions which might prove unfounded;
bringing with him,

and,

on receiving a

letter

KuiTa, and partly

crisis

When

him of his continued

was approaching.

fatal resolution of

ffivour.

Partly by flattering letters from

by the treacherous advice

was inveighled into the

aI^u jinf
^*'"'"^'

from his nephew, couched in the most submissive

terms, felt only anxious to assure

Meanwhile, the

Jeiain.iia

of counsellors at Delhi, the king

paying a

visit to his

nephew

visits .\ia""' '"'

in 1295.

the royal canopy appeared in sight, Ala-u-din di-ew out his troops under

pretence of doing honour to his majesty,

Almas was deep

forward to arrange for his reception.


suggested that
feared he

had

if

and sent

his brother

in the plot,

the king advanced with a large retinue,

incui-red the royal displeasure,

Almas Beg
and artfully

Ala-u-din,

might be alarmed.

So

who

plausible

was the tongue of Almas Beg, that the king embarked in his own solitary barge
with only a few select attendants, and, as

if this

had not been enough, ordered

them to unbuckle their armour, and lay their swords


state,

aside.

In this defenceless

he reached the landing-place, and ordered his attendants to

walked forward to meet


trate at his feet.

familiarly

The

his

nephew,

while he

who advanced alone, and threw himself proshim

old king raised

on the cheek, exclaimed,

halt,

"How

up,

embraced him, and, tapping him

could you be suspicious of me,

who

have brought you up from yom- childhood, and cherished you with a fatherly
affection,

holding you dearer in

my

sight, if possible, tlian

my own

oflspring?"

by the nephew by a .signal to his soldiers,


one of whom made a cut "with his sword, and wounded Jelal-u-din in the
shoulder.
He immediately ran to regain his barge, crying, "Ah! thou villain,
Ala-u-din I" but, before he reached it, was overtaken by another of the soldiers,
who threw him on the ground, and cut off his head, which was fixed on a
spear, and carried in triumph through the cam]).
The A\Tetch whose sword
This kind-hearted appeal was answered

completed the bloody deed

nation before he died.

is

said to have suffereil a thousand deaths in imagi-

He became

mad, and expired, screaming incessantly

is

murdered.

78

AD

12.10.

HISTORY OF TXDIA.

but

la.sted

When

din
UBurim tlio

AI;i

11

throuo.

Jelal-u-din Feroze wa,s cutting off his head.

tliat

murder reached

tidings of Jelal-u-din's

Kuddur Khan, a mere


tiien

This reign

is full

of incident,

only for the comparatively short period of seven years.

own accord, without

of her

[Book

con.sulting the chiefs, placed her

boy, on the throne.

He had

governor of Mooltan.

all

The

queen-dowager,

the

Dellii,

youngest son, Prince

real lieir

was Arkally

Klian,

the qualities of a king, but the queen's

proceedings disconcerted him, and he resolved, in the meantime, to take no


active steps to secure his right.
uncle,

aimed not at the throne of

pendent kingdom.

Ala-u-din,
Dellii,

new

inde-

he began

state of matters,

t<>

of the rainy season, set out at once

.spite

There was nothing to oppose his progress; and the queen-mother,

for the capital.


son,

atrociously murdered his

but at the e.stabli.shment of a

However, on learning the

entertain higher aspirations; and, in

with her

when he

having

with the treasure to Mooltan, he made a triumphal

fled

entry into the city in the end of 1296.


Ala-u-din began his reign with splendid shows and

Courts
popularity

festivities,

by which he

made them forget, or overlook, the enormity which


had placed him on the throne. At the same time, he conciliated tiie great by
titles, and the venal and avaricious by gifts.
The army, also, ha\'ing V>een
gained by six months' pay, he turned his thoughts to the rival claimants in
dazzled the populace, and

Mooltan, and sent thither his brother, Aluf Khan, at the head of 40,000 horse.

The

citizens, to

save themselves, betrayed the princes, and delivered up Arkally

Khan and Kuddm- Khan, on an


spared.

It

is

assurance that the lives of both would be

almost needless to say that the promise was not kept.

While the

princes were being conveyed to Delhi, a messenger arrived with orders from
Ala-u-din, that they should be deprived of sight.

was done, they were imprisoned

After this barbarous deed

in the fort of Hansi,

and shortly

after a.ssas-

sinated.

A Mogul

In

296, after Ala-u-din

inviision
defeateil

ling intelligence arrived that

had

finished the first year of his reign, the start-

Ameer Dawood, King of

an army of 100,000 Moguls, with a design

Transoxiana, had prepared

to conquer the

Punjab and Scinde,

and was actually on the way, carrying everything before him with fij'e and
Aluf Khan was sent against them and, after a bloody conflict on the
sword.
;

plains of Lahore, defeated

them with the

loss of

the numerous prisoners, not excepting the

12,000 men.

women and

Some days

childi'en,

after,

found in the

Mogid camp, were inhumanly butchered.


In the beginning of the following year, Aluf

Reduction of
Gujerat.

Khan, were sent to reduce Gujerat.


Rajah Ray Kurrun escaped into the

On

Khan and

the Vizier Noosroot

their approach to the capital, the

territories of

Ram

Dew, Rajah of Dewghur,

in the Deccan, but not without the capture of his "wives, childi-en, elephants,

baggage, and treasure.


to

Noosroot

Cambay, which, being a

booty.

With

this,

Khan

then proceeded with part of the army

rich country full of merchants, jdelded a prodigious

the whole troops were retm-ning to Delhi,

when

the two

Chap.

REIGN OF ALA-U-DIN.

III.]

by demanding a

generals,

fifth

of the spoil

79

among

they had already obtained, caused a wide-spread mutiny, especially

Mogul mercenaries.

who was

Aluf Khan narrowly escaped with

sleeping in his tent,

When

was mistaken

which ad.

in addition to the shares

for

his

1207.

the

His nephew,

life.

him by the mutineers, and

army reached Delhi, Ala-u-din gratified his passion by


taking into his harem Kowla Devy, one of the captive wives of the Rajah of
Gujerat, so celebrated for beauty, wit, and accomplishments, that she was styled
and his blood-thirsty revenge, by an indiscriminate
the "Flower of India"
massacre of all the families of those who had been concerned in the late mutiny.
murdered.

the

About

who had

Kootloogh Khan, son of the Ameer Dawood,


Their

Moguls took

this time, another great invasion of the

army

consisted of 200,000 horse,

entire comiuest of Hindoostan.

under

place,

led the former expedition.

and contemplated nothing

Kootloogh Khan, after

less

than the

Mogul inva-

Kootwgh
'^'""*

cro.ssing the Indus, pro-

ceeded direct for Delhi, and encamped, without opposition, on the banks of the

Zuffur Khan, the chief secretary and governor of the adjoining pro-

Jumna.

The

gradually retired as the Moguls advanced.

vinces,

dismay, crowded into the capital

inhabitants, fieeing in

and the supply of provisions being cut

Dismay

while the consumption was immensely increased, famine began to rage.

and despair were painted on every countenance.

In

this

emergency, Ala-u-din

a council of nobles, but, on finding them opposed to action, took his

called

way, and determined to attack the enemy.

With

off,

this view,

own

he marched out

by the Budaoon gate with 300,000 horse and 2700 elephants, and, proceeding

beyond the suburbs, drew up in order of

into the plains

Khan drew up

Kootloogh
in

to receive him.

Two

such armies had not mustered

Hindoostan since the Mahometans appeared in

the

it.

wing of the Delhi army was commanded by


greatest general of the age, and the left by Aluf

The

|)ost

right

in the centre, with

by the
front,

vizier,

Here, too,

battle.

Zufi'ur

Khan, considered

Kiian.

Ala-u-din took

12,000 volunteers, mostly of noble family, and headed

The

Noosroot Khan.

choicest of the elephants occupied a line in

Khan began the


which he l)ore away before

and a body of chosen cavalry guarded the

rear.

Zuffur

by impetuously charging the enemy's left,


him, breaking up the line by his elephants, and thus committing dreadful
slaughter.
The enemy's left flank, thus turned back, was di'iven upon his centre,
battle

and considerable confusion ensued.


to advance,
to Zufi'ur

but

he, dissatisfied

up

his

advantage as he could.

contimiing the pureuit for


of 10,000 horse,

him

Khan

because the place of honour had been given

Khan, of whose fame he was envious, meanly kept

rival to follow

to attack

Ala-u-din, seeing this, ordered Aluf

many mile.s.

aloof,

and

left his

This he did almost heedlessly,

Mogul

chief,

whose toman, or division

had not been engaged, seeing Zuffur Khan un.supported, resolved


and, at the same time, sent information to Kootloogh Khan,

who hastened forward with another toman.


attacked in front and rear.

Thus

Zuffur

Khan was

placed, he .saw his danger;

con.sequently

but as

it

was too

Pitched

HISTORY OF TXDIA.

80
A.D.

1299.

liite

to retreat,

drew up

he,

liis

having been cut through by a sabre, he

bow and

seized a

Most of his

})ut

liis

conflict.

The

leg of his horse

to the ground, but rose instantly,

fell

quiver, and, being a dexterous archer, dealt death around liim

soldiers

admiration of

were now

slain or di.spersed,

and Kootloogh Khan

would have saved him

valour,

called

him

to take

alive,

but

who,

fioni

upon him to surrender,

On

he persisted in discharging his arrows, and refused quarter.

Mogul attempted

nuiuher not half those of the enemy,

forces, in

two squadrons, and continued the unequal

in

[BfjOK

thi.s,

the

could not be done, and he was at

it

last cut in pieces.

Notwithstanding

tliis

advantage, the Moguls did not venture to continue

the contest; and, abandoning

all

hopes of

evacuated India as fast as

succes.s,

Their departure was celebrated at Delhi with great

they could.

Ala-u-din, in consequence of the success which

Ala-ii din's

rejoicino-.

had attended

his

arms,

projects.

One

in-ojects.

became
of

so elated, that he

them was

to imitate

began to entertain some extraordinary

Mahomet, and become,

religion; another, to leave a viceroy in India,

Alexander the Great, to conquer the world.


he was so

illiterate,

new

like him, the founder of a

and

set out, in the

manner of

While meditating such schemes,

that he could neither read nor write.

The only part which

he executed, was to assume the

and

issue coinage impressed

name

of Alexander II.

ticable coui-se of action

when he

1299,

with the

more

prac-

was adopted

resolved to attempt

conquests in India.
Silver Coin- of Ala-u-din.' From Thomas's Coins
of the Patan Sultans.

title,

With

in

new

this view,

he sent his brother, Aluf Klian, and the


vizier,

Noosroot Khan, on an expedition

against the Rajah of Runtunbhore, or Rintimbore, a strong fortress in the

Rajpoot state of Jeypoor.


killed

stone thrown from an engine.

Tlie rajah,

marched out from the

fort,

hastily collected, drove

Aluf Khan back with great

Avail,

was

Humber Dew, immediately

and, placing himself at the head of a large army,


loss.

On

Ala-u-din, informed of the defeat, resolved to take the field in person.

Attempts on
his

by a

Noosroot Khan, going too near to the

life.

the way, he one day engaged in hunting, and having wandered far from the

camp, spent the night in a


his

nephew and

forest, witli

only a few attendants.

brother-in-law, tempted l)y the opportunity, thought he could

not do better than gain the throne in the same


assassinating his predecessor.

way

as Ala-u-din

had done,

b}-

Accordingly, having communicated his design

some Moguls, on whose co-operation and

to

Rukn Khan,

at suni'ise to the place whei*e the king was,

On obverse The

fidelity

and

he could

rely,

he rode up

dischai'ged a flight of arrows.

most mighty
Ahul Muzafar

der the second, right hand of the khalifat, Biipporter


This
of the commander of the faithful. On margin

Mahomed Shah, the Sultan. On reverse, area Sekun-

silver (was) struck at the capital, Delhi, in the year 712,

'

Weight, 170

sovereign,

grs.

Ala-ud-diinia-wa-iid-din,

REIGN OF ALA-U-DIN.

Chap. Ill]

Two

them took

of

sword to cut

effect,

and he

head

off his

and time was precious, he

fell,

Rukn

apparently dead.

but, as the deed

81

seemed already

desisted, and, hastening to the

Klian drew his

a.d. 1299.

effectually done,

camp, was proclaimed

king.

wounds were not mortal; and he was

Ala-u-din's

up, to reach the

able, after

camp, where, to the astonisliment of

Rukn Khan was

on an eminence.

all,

holdinfj his court

he suddenly appeared

when

news reached him, and had only time to mount his horse and
in pursuit, speedily

the {istounding

flee.

party sent

overtook him, and, returning with his head, laid

who

feet of the king,

they were bound

shortly after continued his

march

at the

it

and

to Rintimbore,

capture of
Hiiitimbore.

renewed the

The

was obstinately defended; and, after standing out


was only taken at List by stratagem. Humber Dew, his family,

siege.

a whole year,

phice

and the garrison were put to the sword.


turned traitor, and gone over to the

He no

the siege.

It seems that the rajah's minister

had

Mahometans with a strong party during

doubt anticipated a splendid reward; but met the fate he

deserved, wlien, with

all

justified the sentence

by

was ordered

his followers, he

observing, that "those

Ala-u-din

to execution.

who have betrayed

their natural

sovereign will never be true to another."


Ala-u-din, alarmed at the frequency of conspiracies against his

...
preventing

anxious to adopt some effectual means 01

life,

became

their recurrence.

tiT.

With

summoned his nobles, and commanded them to give their opinions


without reserve.
They spoke more freely than might have been expected and
mentioned, among other causes of treason, his own inattention to business, and
this view,

he

the consequent difficulty of obtaining redress of grievances


intoxictxtion

the power of aristocratical

and

the

prevalence of

families in connection with the abuse

The opinion thus given


made a deep impression upon him, and he immediately began to act upon it,
though in a manner which left as much room for censure as for approbation.

of patronage

He

the unequal division of property.

applied himself to reform the administration of justice, and

first

intpiiry into the private as well as public characters of all officials.

made

strict

He

next

adopted a kind of universal spy system, by which he obtained a knowledge of


all

that

was said or done

the country.

Crime,

in ftxmilies of distinction in the capital, or throughout

also,

was

so rigorously punished, that robbery

and

theft,

common, became almost unknown; "the traveller slept secure on the


highway, and the merchant carried his commodities in safety, from the Sea of
Bengal to the Mountains of Cabool, and from Tulingana to Cashmere."
These
are Ferishta's words; but the description must be taken with considerable

formerly

allowance, as a portion of the territories within these limits


the jurisdiction of the

King

edict similar to that of


ctipital

offence.

pm])tied his
T.

own

of Delhi.

To

was not yet under

repress drunkenness, he issued

an

Bulbun, making the use of wine and strong liquors a

To prove

his sincerity

and determination on the

cellars into the streets,

and was imitated

subject, he

in this respect to

Aiau dins
a<lmini.str.iI

tive i-efonn

82
A.i).

imi.

OF

JllWTUitV

Huch

extent,

ail

\>y

classeH of jtcojilc,

;ill

1N1;1A.

tliiit

[I'AXJK

lor

Hcveral

I.

days the comiaou

sewers ran wine.


'rvTiiiiiiy

Al

1-11

As

of

too often happens under despotiHins,

radical refonns of Ala-u-din

tlie

din.

degenerated into unmitigated tyranny and rapacity.


the nobility in check, he emicUtd that they should

Vje

As a means

of keeping

incapable of contnicting

marriage without the previous consent of the crown, and prohibited them from

To such a

holding private meetings, or engaging in political discuasions.

was

this prohibition carried, that

written permission from the


private

no

man

vizier.

durst entertain his friends without a

His rapacity he gratified by seizing the

property and confiscating the estates of Mussulmans and Hindoos,

without distinction, and cutting down the salaries of public

were

filled

offices, till

the}'

only by needy men, ready to act as his servile instruments.

did he confine himself to

officials

for all classes

minute and vexatious regulations.

to

length

Noi-

and employments were subjected

His views in regard to

ecclesiastical

matters are evinced by a

common

no connection with

government, but was only the basiness, or rather the

civil

amusement of private

life."

In 1303, Ala-u-din having

Chittoor

saying attributed to him, "that religion had

set out to attack the strong fort of Chittoor, in

attacked.

Rajpootana, Toorghay Khan, a Mogul

chief,

took advantage of his

ab.sence, to

prepare a

new

ex-

pedition into Hindoo.stan.

He

cordingly

entered

at the

head of

it

ac-

twelve tomans of
horse

(120,000)

and,

proceeding

towards

directly

Delhi,

encamped

on the banks of
the Jumna.
u-din,
Ruins of the Palace of Rana Bheum, Chittoor.'

having been

made aware

From Tod's Annals of Rajastlian.

intention,
Delhi
blockaded
by the

Moguls.

tened home by forced marches, and arrived before him.


ever, to take the

open

field,

as great part of his

He was

anny had been

Ala-

had has-

unable,
left

of his

how-

behind

was to entrench himself on a plain beyond the suburbs,


where he remained two months; wliile the Mogul, in possession of the surrounding country, cut off all suppUes, and phmdered up to the very suburbs of
From some cause never understood, and therefore ascribed to the
the capital.
All he could do

was also taken by Akbcr (1507); by Azim


of Aurungzebe (IGSO), by whom it was
son
Ushaun,
'

Cbittooi-

pluiiclered,

and

(1700),

by Sindia, from Blieum Singh,


Rana of Odeypoor.

the rebellious subject of the

Chap.

REIGN OF ALA-U-DIN.

III.)

miraculous intervention of a saint,

and never halted

panic,

Moguls were one night seized with a

tlie

own

they had regained their

till

83

The extreme danger which he thus

country.

so singularly escaped, convinced Ala- Minute nnu

u-din of the necessity of greatly increasing his forces, but the expense seemed

army on

could not support an

the scale proposed, for more than six years.

Retrenchment then became the order of the day, and

His

devised for that purpose.

many

curious plans were

resolution was, to lower the pay, but

first

own

according to the custom of that period, the soldiers furnished their

and provisions, a reduced pay was impossible, unless these

were lowered in

This, therefore,

price.

By an

to pursue.

reguiationa.

Large as his treasures and revenues were, he found that he

beyond his means.

arm.s,

a.d. 1304.

as,

horses,

articles also

was the course which Ala-u-din resolved

edict to be strictly enforced throughout the empire, he fixed

the price of every article of consumption or use, grain of every kind, horses, asses,

oxen and cows, sheep and goats, cloths coarse and

camels,

sugar and sugar-candy, onions, and garlic.

butter, salt,

ofjened a loan to furni.sh

fine,

ghee or

clarified

The treasury *Viven

merchants with ready money, with which they could

import manufactured goods from the cheaper markets of adjoining countries.


It is said that

"Very

prostitution.
classes,

a court favourite proposed, by

About

well," said the king, "that shall

scheme of

new irruption
make the conquest
a

40,000 horse and 100,000 foot; but

who

confinement at Delhi.

Amid

An

was

defeated,
so

joy, that the capital

was

the general rejoicings, there was one poor

imprison-

This was the Rajah of Chittoor,

Rajah of

had been kept

in close

made

a daughter celebrated for her beauty and accomplishments, and

inmate of his harem.

Be

much

insulting otter of liberty had, indeed, been

Ala-u-din wsis willing to give

consent.

a sample of

The rajah met him with


and his capital, Oojein, with

Sein, who, ever since the capture of his fort,

He had

is

of Malwah.

sat solitary in his prison, mourning.

Ray Ruttun

Such

of Moguls had been chastised, Ein-ool-

The news gave

were taken.

cities,

illuminated for seven days.

him.

be fixed also;" and three

finance.

1304j, after

Moolk was sent to

lajah

of joke, to fix a price for

with fixed prices for each, were actually formed.

Ala-u-din's

other

way

this as it

him

his release, provided she

It is said that

may, he sent

he consented

would become an

perhaps he only seemed to

for his daughter,

but his family determined

sooner to poison her, than subject her to the degradation intendeil.

took the matter into her

own hands; and adopted

The

princess

a scheme which, happily,

proved successful in both saving her ovn\ honour and procuring her father's
freedom.

Every arrangement having been made


to say that

for the proposed exchange, she

on a certain day she would arrive at Delhi with her attendants.

royal passport w<is inunediately sent her,

and her cavalcade, proceeding by slow

marches, reached the capital as the evening closed.


the litters

wrote

By

the king's special orders

were carried directly into the prison, without being subjected to

nis escape,

I'

84
An.

iiioit.

iriSTOHY OV INDIA.

any

inspecti(jn.

not then;, but in

jtrinceHs wa.s

I'lie

dependants of her family

[Book

comj)l(it(iIy arrned,

i.

several trusty

lier stea<J

who, as 80on as they were admitted

within the prison, cut


escape to the

hills,

down

the sentinels, and set the rajah

He made

free.

liis

from which he continued to make frequent desaints, and

avenge himself on the Mahometans

for the insults

and

sufferings

which he

harl

endured.
A new Mogul
invaBion dofeated

In 1305,

tlic

Moguls again, under the leadership of an

the namt^

officer of

ol

Elbuk Khan, crossed the Indus, and

after i-avaging Mooltan, proceeded to

Ghazy Beg Toghlak, aware of the route by which they would


placed himself in ambush near the banks of the Indus, and rusliing out

Sewalik.
return,

suddenly, defeated the invaders with great slaughter.


off,

Seeing their return cut

the survivors had no alternative but to return into the desert.

hot season, and, in a short time, out of 57,000 cavalry, and

outnumbered them, only 3000 remained

alive.

were trodden to death by elephants, and a

pillar

to pass in

followers

who

taken to Delhi, they

raised before the


after

was the

Budaoon

having met with no

Moguls were so discouraged, as well as exhausted, that they

not only desisted for


selves placed

was

Another invasion shortly

gate with their skulls.


better success, the

When

camp

It

many

years from entering Hindoostan, but found them-

on the defensive, Ghazy Beg Toghlak scarcely allowing a season

which he did not

cross to the

west bank of the Indus, and plunder

the provinces of Cabool, Ghuznee, and Kandahar.


Ala-u-din,

Conquest of

now

rid of his

conquests in the Deccan

most formidable enemies, had time to resume

and with

had been originally purchased

this

Rajah of Dewghur, who had neglected

The army, when

tribute.

view despatched Mullik Kafoor, who

a slave, with an

as

it set out,

army

for three years to

Ram Dew,

against

pay

his stipulated

mustered 100,000 horse, and was reinforced

on the way by the troops of the governors of Malwah and Gujerat.


Kafoor, after encamping on the frontiers of the Deccan,
opposed, that for a time he

made

his

little

progress,

was

Mullik

so strenuously

and had nothing

himself upon except the capture of a daughter of the beautiful

to

plume

Kowla Dey>%

who, from being the wife of a Hindoo rajah, as already mentioned, had become

The daughter had a similar fate, for she was


on the way to become the bride of a rajah when she was captured and afterwards, on being brought to Delhi, was married to Khizr Khan, Ala-u-din's son.

the favourite of the Delhi harem.

On

a second expedition to the Deccan, in 1309, Mullik Kafoor proceeded

way of Dewghur towards Wurvmgole,

a place of great strength.

at Indoor, about ninety miles north of

by

After appearing

Hyderabad, and causing great conster-

among the inhabitants, wdio had never seen the Mahometans before, he
down before Wui'ungole, which made a valiant defence, but was ultimately

nation
sat

taken by

assault.

In the following year he proceeded

still

further south,

reached the Malabar coast, and then, turning inland, continued his victorious
career to the frontiers of Mysore.

Much

of his time

was employed

in plundering

Chap

REIGN OF ALA-U-DIN.

III.]

the temples,

and the

which he brought back to

spoil

85
Dellii

was enonnous.

not mentioned as fonning any part of

curious that silver

is

seems to have been

tlie

It

is

a.v. i3io.

Gold, indeed,

it.

precious metal chietiy used at this time in India, as coin,

ornament, or plate.
Ala-u-din had

now

Though he had been


guilty of many crimes, fortune had never ceased to favour him, and his territories had extended on every side, till tliey assumed the magnitude and s})lenThe period of decline, however, had now arrived. Mullik
dour of an empire.
Kafoor, who possessed his utmost confidence, and used it for the promotion of
reached the zenith of his power.

among

treasonable designs, disgusted the nobles, and spread discontent

liis

His own health,

people.

gence,

too,

i\lullika

foTtu""'''

the

undermined by intemperance and vicious indul-

gave way; and his family, to whose training he

entirely neglected him,

Aia u ain-s

and spent

time in revelry.

tlieir

Jehan, was equally indifferent

and he found

liad

never attended,

His principal

him.self in tlie

wife,

midst of

a palace, glittering with gold and jewels, destitute of every domestic comfort.

He made

his complaints to Mullik

who turned them to good account,


sons Khizr Khan and Shady Khan,

Kafoor,

by insinuating that the queen and her


together with his brother Aluf Khan,
his

The brother was accordingly

life.

had entered into a conspiracy against

seized

and put to death, while the queen

and her sons were imprisoned.

During these domestic


various quarters.
it

Gujerat took the lead, and defeated the general sent against

with great slaughter.

metan

officers,

calamities, the flames of insurrection burst forth in

The Rajpoots of

Chittoor, rising against their

hurled them from the walls, and resumed their independence

Dew, the son-in-law of Ram Dew,


The
several of the Mahometan garrisons.

while Hurpal

stirred

>ixpelled

tidings

with rage, and so increased his

him

off in 1316, after

illness,

that

after the death,

son,

his

late

up the Deccan, and


made Ala-u-din mad

It

doubtful

is

if his

death was

Mullik Kafoor,

fiivourite,

was employed.

Mullik Kafoor produced a

will, said to

be spurious,

king gave the crown to Prince Oomor Khan, his youngest

and made Mullik regent during

his minority.

The young

prince, then in

seventh year, was placed upon the throne, while Mullik u.sed him as a

and proceeded to carry out his


out the eyes of Khizr
sultana's confinement.

own

wife.

He

schemes.

One

Khan and Shady Khan, and

of his

fii-st

acts

was

tool,

to put

increase the rigour of the

somewhat singular, as he was an eunuch,


mother, who had ranked as Ala-u-din's third

Anotlier act,

was to marry the young king's

meant, for additional security, to have put out the eyes of Prince

Moobarik Khan, the son of the second wife of Ala-u-din, and had even pro-

more atrocious step of sending assassins to murder him. The


prince succeeded in buying them off; and a lieutenant of the guards, on hearing
ceeded to the

still

uis death.

took a fotal form, and earned

conduct of his worthless

tends to confirm the suspicion that poison

by which the

it

a reign of twenty years.

natural, for the subsequent

The day

Maho-

>J>uiik

Ka-

sonabie pro
'^'^'^

"^

|l

8G
A.D.

1321.

of

IlISTORV
tlie

Ivliail

liiiii,

and several of

Prince Moobarik

d(!ath.

Hook

I.

soldiers to Mullik Kafoor's

lii.s

tiie princijjal

eunuchs in his

Khan immediately ascended

interest, to

the throne, and Prrnwi

Hlli:

ceodH.

Oomor, who had occupied

and imprisoned
FT is

iNlJJA.

attempt, proceeded at once with Heveral of

apartment, and put


Mootmrik

()!

wicked

for

it

nominally for three montliH, was deprived of

sight,

life.

Moobarik's reign, which lasted four years,

a mere tissue of vices and

is

roigii.

The

crimes.

officer

his elevation,

upon

who had saved

was put

to

and been the main instrument of


death, merely because it was said that he j)resumed
his

life,

After this most ungi-ateful

his services.

act,

he began to show some

little

activity; and, besides sending Ein-ool-Moolk, a general of great abilities, into

and recovered the country of the


favourite, Mullik Khosrow, to whom he

Gujerat, proceeded in person into the Deccan,

Mahrattas.

On

returning, he sent his

had given the ensigns of royalty, as far as the Malabar coast. Here he remained
about a year, and acquired immense wealth by plunder. His ambition being
thus excited, he proposed to

make

With

himself sovereign of the Deccan.

He

view, he endeavoured to gain over the chief officers of his army.

succeed

and a formal charge of treason was made agaiast him

this

did not

who

to the king,

was, however, so blinded in his favour, that he punished his accusers, and trusted

him still more than before.


Moobarik no sooner found himself in quiet

possession of Gujerat, the Deccan,

and most parts of Northern India, than the little activity wliich he had begun
to display ceased, and he gave himself up to unbounded and shameless excesses.
Universal
Indecencies which cannot be mentioned, were his daily amusements.
discontent and disgust were in consequence excited

but the

first

attempt on

life

was made by

his favourite,

Khos-

He had

row.

liis

been

repeatedly warned
that

conspu-acy

was being hatched,


and the proofs of it
were
that
the

so
it

evident,

had become

common

talk.

StiU, his infatuation

was continued; and


he was not roused
from

it

tni the con-

spii-ators

Mausoleum of Khosrow. From

He is

Daniell's Oriental Scenery.

were

ac-

tually on the stairs

endeavom-ed to make his escape by a private passage but


Khosrow, who knew of it, intercepted him, and a deadl}' struggle took place.
of the palace.

He

SULTAN GHEIAS-U-DIN TOGHLAK.

Ciur. III.]

87

Moobarik, being the stronger of the two, threw Khosrow on


could not disentangle himself from his grasp, as his hair

The other

enemy's hand.
barik's

conspirators

to

ground, but

a.d. 1321.

was twisted in his


come up, and Moo-

head was severed from his body by a scimitar.

Khosrow was not allowed long


throne in 1321, under the

tlie

had thus time

tlie

to profit

title

by

He, indeed, a.scended

his crime.

of Nasir-u-din, but a confederation of the

usun)ation
"

"**'""

was immediately fomied against him. It was headed by Ghazy Beg


Toghlak, who had acquired gi-eat renown by his expedition against the Mogui.s.
In the battle which ensued, Khosrow was defeated, captured, and slain; and
nobility

mounted the throne amid


universiil acclamations.
Tlie people saluted him Shah Jehan, " The King of the
Universe;" but he assmued the more modest title of Gheias-u-din, "The Aid
Ghazy Beg Toghlak, with some degree of

reluctance,

of Religion."

Gheias-u-din Toghlak reigned

wjis

resumed

his

fame as a warrior, and secured

the Rajah Luddur

themselves,

and the

who not only

losses

failed to

Dew

were

tlie

the defence.

severe, particularly

make a

his Reign

of

^in''''^g",.
'''''

king's eldest son, conducted

Both

sides greatly exerted

on the part of the besiegers,

practicable breach, but, in consequence of the

siege of

winds and severe weather, were seized with a malignant distemper, which

daily swept off hundreds.

home

to return

and

The

sm'vivoi"s,

suddenly during the night,

deserted,

completely

di.spirited,

were anxious

by the disaffected, caused


of which, a number of ofticers moved

sinister rumours, circulated

general consternation, under the influence


off

He owed

it

Prince Aluf Khan,

independence.

its

the siege;

iiot

j-ears.

by the better fame of a wise and


ruler.
The incidents of his reign are few. One of the mo.st important
the siege of Wurungole, which had thrown off the Mahometan yoke, and

crown to
just

more than four

little

with

had no alternative but to

all

Aluf Khan, thus

their followers.

raise the siege.

In the haste and

dis-

was pursued by the enemy with great slaughter. The


One died in a Hindoo prison, another
officers who deseiied suffered equally.
was cut off by the IMahrattas, and their whole baggage was captured. One

order of his retreat, he

of the

authors of
alive,

bm-ied

was the death of the king. The


the rumour having been discovered, were condemned to be buried

rumours which had been

circulated,

king jocularly but barbarously remarking,

the

him

alive

in jest,

"

that as they

had

new

he would bury them alive in earaest."

{u-my having been collected,

Aluf Khan renewed the siege of Wurungole,

and obliged

The news were

it

to suiTender.

new citadel of Delhi, which had


name of Toghlakabad.

in the

the

celebrated with great rejoieing-s

just been finished, and

had received

In 1325 Gheias-u-din Toghlak, after a journey to Bengal to inquire uito


complaints
his return.

made

against the governors hi that quarter, reached Afghanpoor on

His son Aluf Khan, who had previously arrived with the nobles of

the com-t to offer their congratidations,

had hastily erected a wooden building

T,.ghiak
'^

j^'th"

88
A.D. 1327.

OF INDIA.

JIISTOliy

Here a sj>k;ndid

for his recei)tion.

eritei'taininent ha<l

having ordered his equipage, was in the act of


1

lis

The cause

bute

some even

to accident:

it

been given; and the

liirn,

One

to design.

kinj^,

}m

with five of

Most

been variously explained

lias

I.

(quitting the building to wjiitinue

way and cnwhed

journey, wlien the roof suddenly gave

attendants, in the ruins.

[Book

attri-

author, not satinfied with either

explanation, offers one of his own, and asserts, " that the building had been

by magic, and

raised
solved,
Toghlak's
Hon succuods
iiiuler tlie

title

Mahomed

was

it

dis-

it fell."

Aluf Klian, the

He

Toghlak.

late king's eldest son, succeeded,

said to

is

of

Toglilak.

the instant the magical cliarm which upheld

title

of

Mahomed

have been the most learned, eloquent, and accomplished

He was

prince of his time.

under the

well versed in history, having a memorj'^ so reten-

tive that every date or event of

which he once

wrote good poetry; and had made

read,

remained treasured up in

it;

mathematics, astronomy, and medicine

logic,

The philosophy of the Greek schools was well known to him.


literary accomplishments, he was a skilful and valiant warrior,

his special study.

With aU

these

and thus united

qualities so opposite that his contemporaries describe

They

of the wonders of the age.

also extol

him

for his piety,

him

which he

as one

e\'inced

by a careful observance of the rites enjoined, and strict abstinence from drunkenThis is the fair side of his
ness and other vices forbidden by the Koran.
He was stem, cruel, and vindiccharacter for it had also its darker features.
:

tive.

Gods

As Ferishta

expresses

creatm-es, that

"

it,

So

when anything

little

did he hesitate to

occuiTed which excited

extremity, one might have supposed his object

was

spill

him

the blood of

to that horrid

to extinguish the

human

species altogether."
Mogul
incursions

resumed.

In

327 the Moguls, who

Ijad ceased their incursions for

many

years, resimied

them; and a celebrated leader, called Toormooshreen Khan, belonging to the tribe
of Choghtay,

made

his appearance in

Hindoostan at the head of a

va.st

Province after province was overrun, and he advanced rapidly towards

Mahomed

Toghlak, unable to meet him in the

field,

army.
Dellii.

saved his capital by the

and humiliating expedient of bujdng him ofi" by a ransom so large as to


be almost equal to the price of his kingdom. The Mogul withdrew by way of
Gujerat and Scinde, but plundered both, and carried off an immense number

fatal

of captives.
Mahomed 's
grinding
taxation

and cruelty.

To compensate

for

what he had thus

Deccan, the greater part of which he

is

with his dominions as the villages in the

lost,

Mahomed

turned his eyes to the

said to have as effectually incoi^orated


vicinitj^ of Delhi.

All these conquests,

however, were destined to be wrested from him in consequence of


taxation, cruelty,
levied

and inordinate ambition.

on the necessaries of

life,

vinces

fruits,

by rapine and
were desolated by famine.
;

gidnding

So heavy were the duties rigorously

that the industrious, having no security that they

would be permitted to reap the


the woods, lived

liis

ceased to labour.

The

farmers, flying to

the fields remaining uncultivated, whole pro-

The currency,

too,

was tampered with; and

MAHOMED

Chap. III.]

TOGIILAK.

89
Cm.

Mahomed

struck a copper coin, which, becaase

liis

name

wiis inij)ressed

ordered to be received at an extravagant imaginary value.

lie

said

by Ferishta

to

with the royal

of ready money."

lieu

A.D. 1330.

is

He

em-

tlie

seal aj)pended, in

shrewdly adds:

"The great calamity consequent upon


basement of the

This idea, he

it,

have borrowed "from a

Chinese custom of issuing paper on


peror's credit,

upon

this de-

from the known

coin, arose

inCorPER CoiK OF Mahomed bin Togiii.ak.'

stability of the

government.

Public credit could

not lonof subsist in a state so liable to revolutions as Hindoostan


the people in the remote provinces receive for

money

tlie

for

how

could

base representative of

a treasury that so often changed its master?"

In the midst of the discontent and ruin produced by these wretched financial

MalKHiiml'H
project of

devices,

Mahomed

conceived the idea of enriching himself by the concjuest of the

As a first
nephew Khosrow MuUik,

China

empire of China.

step to the realization of this idea, he despatched

his

at the head of 100,000 horse, to subdue Nepaul,

and the mountainous region on both

TiiF.

frontiers.

and

Snowy Range of the

sides of tlie

IIimalayas, from Marin.i

From

This done, he was to follow in person.

faithfid counsellors assure

Himalaya, as for as the Chinese

G. F. White's Views in Him.ilay.is.

In vain did

his

him that the whole scheme was

more sagacious
visionary.

He

had made up his mind, and was not to be dissuaded.


'

ill

On tlie obverse Struck as a piece of fifty kniii',


the time of the servant, hopeful (of Divine mercy),

iMahomed To^hlak.

Vol.

I.

On

the reverse

conquering

He who obeys

tlio

king, truly

lie

obeys the Merciful (God).

13S grs.

H, Dowletabad. Thoiuaa's Coins of the Patau


Svltans of Hindustan.

7^?-

12

^'^

^"-

HISTORY OF INDIA.
Kho.srow MuUik miulc

"''s-

way with

lii.s

[Book

gi(;at difficulty aoros,s tlni inountains,

buiifliug foits as he proceeded, in order to secure the road.

boundary

at the Chinese
Disartn.uH

tothe
fron"tIer

I.

witli forces fearfully reduced,

On

arriving, in 1337,

he found

liiin.self

in front

anny prepared to oppose his further progress. The sight struck


Indian army with dismay, and a precipitate retreat wa commenced. 'J'hc

of a numerous
t'^6

ChinesB followcd

closely,

while the mountaineers occupied the parses in the rear

and plundered the baggage.


ous position, suffering

The

in torrents.

fall

For seven days the Indians remained

the liorrors of famine.

all

first effect

and Khosrow began

distance,

was

At length the

in this peril-

rain began to

to oblige the Chinese to retire to a greater

to conceive hopes of

making good

liLs

He

retreat.

was soon undeceived.

The low grounds became inundated, while the mountains


continued impervious. The result is easily told.
The wliole army melted awa}-,
and scarcely a man returned to relate the particulars.

Ouo

Tiarbanms
of a traitor,

of

tlic

king's ncphcws,

who was

called Khoorshasip,

and held a goveni-

luent in the Deccan,

was tempted by the general discontent which prevailed

to

aspire to the throne,

and

He

at

in

1338 openly raised the standard of

revolt.

gained some advantages, but was afterwards captured and carried to Delhi,

first

where he was flayed

and then paraded a horrid

alive,

spectacle

around the

city,

the executioner going before and proclaiming aloud, " Thus shall aU traitors

t<j

their king perish."

Bcfore this rebellion was suppressed, the king had taken the

Attempted
thTcIpitri
to

Dowle

tabad.

Dewghur.

fixed his head-quarters at

'^'^^

field in person,

and strength

Its situation

so pleased

him that he determined to make it his capital. His resolution once announced
was inflexible, and orders were forthwith issued that Delhi should be evacuated,
and all its inhabitants, men, women, and children, with aU their property, should
migrate to Dewghirr, the name of which was changed to Dovjletabad.
The
abandonment of Delhi, which was styled, in the hyperbolical style of the East,
" The Envy of the World," was productive of great misery and discontent, and

Mahomed began
his

was an exploit w^hich even all


energy and despotism could hardly accomplish. Having been led in the
to feel that the change of capital

course of an expedition to the proximity of the old capital, those of his

who

originally belonged to

army

were seized with such a longing to return, that

it,

they deserted in great numbers and took refuge in the woods, detenniued to
i-emain

till

army should have

the rest of the

were so thinned by

this desertion, that the

his residence at Delhi,

and

tluis lure

however, was not abandoned

left.

The numbers of the troops

king had no alternative but to

the deserters back.

polis of Delhi

Before he
occasion,

left,

"

ofi"

the

leaving the noble metro-

a resort for owls, and a dwelling-place for the beasts of the desert."
he was guilty of barbarities which are almost incredible.

having

district of

His original prnpose,

and at the end of two years he carried

whole of the inhabitants a second time to the Deccan,

fix

set out

On one

with an immense himting party, on arriving at the

Behram, he made the startling announcement that he had come

to

III.]

FEROZE TOGHLAK.

liunt not beasts

but men, and began to massacre the inhabitants.

Chap.

by carrying back some


and hanging them over the city

91

He

the barbarity

tliousands of the heads of

Deliii,

walls.

These atrocities were more than


on a greater or

less scale,

These two

Dowletabad.

capital,

seem to have somewhat cooled the king's partiality


permission was given to those

whom

Thousands made the attempt

Delhi.

only to die in
south.

It

was the

tiLs.

and

free

but a general famine w.is then raging,

many more

The most formidable

it.

various

rebellions

last

Deccan

for the

vm.

he had forced to migrate, to return to


;

and while many perished by the way,

on the Malabar

in Bengal,

.\.n.

slain to

tlie

nature could endure, and rebellion,

broke out in every quarter

and even in the new

coast,

human

com])leted

reached their beloved Delhi,

insurrection of

result of a confederacy

broke out

all

in the

formed for the express ])urpose of

Mahometans from the Deccan.


Tiie principal leaders were
Krishn Naig, son of Luddur Dew, who live<l near Wurungole, and Belal Dew,
Rajah of the Carnatic. So extensive and so successful was the confederacy,
that, in a short time, Dowletabad was the only place within the Deccan which

extirpating the

Mahometans could

the

was

portion of the lost territory


as before, into four

Ultimately, however, a considerable

their own.

call

Mahometan

recovered,

and the whole Deccan was divided,

Though

provinces.

scarcely a

month now passed

without a revolt, and everything seemed ripe for a general revolution,

Toghlak kept his throne, and at

last

descended to the grave by a death which

was not

violent,

number

of boats to be collected at Tatta,

to chastise the

Mahomed

and yet cannot well be

called natural.

He had

ordered a large

and proceeded thither across the Indus,

Soomara Prince of Scinde, who had given protection

to

MuUik

Toghan, when heading a formidable revolt of Mogul mercenaries in Gujerat.

When within

sixty miles of Tatta, he wjis seized with fever, attributed

l)hysicians to a surfeit of fish.


spirit

would not allow him

ensued.

to

The symptoms were


remain to complete

by

his

favom'able, but his restless

his recovery,

and a

fatal relapse

His death took place in 1351, after a reign of twenty-seven years.

After a short struggle, in which a re])uted son of the late king, a mere child,

was put forward and immediately


title

of Feroze Toghlak,

set aside, his cousin Feroze,

mounted the

tin-one.

known by

the

Considering the troubled state

two of the most remarkable facts of


years, and its termination, by a peacefid

of the country,

his reign are, its length of

thirty-eight

death, at the age ot ninety.

The empire of Delhi, however, was

The
and Bengal was so

evidcTitly in a rapid state of decline.

Deccan could hardly be said to be incorporated with

it;

completely dissevered, that in 1356 Feroze consented to receive an ambassador

from

its

king, Avith proposals of peace;

acknowledged
however,
as

of

it

<is

and thus

an independent kingdom.

virtualh',

if

not formally,

Both Bengal and the Deccjin,

Though Feroze does not figiu-e


a warrior, he obtained a high name for wise legislation, and a large number
public works, in which, while magnificence was not forgotten, utilitv was
still

continued to i)ay a small tribute.

nui-i. of

92
AD. vm.

OF

IITSTOJtY

Kpeciully

One

(-onsultfiil.

of

INI>IA.

works,

iIk^w;

tlie

I.

50,000 lahourers were

wliidi

in

a winal, iMtended to connect

enii)loye(l, wsis

[BrjoK

Soorsooty or Soorsa, a hiduII

tributary of the Sutlej, witli a small stream, called the Sulima or Khanjioor,

and thereby obtain a perennial stream


poor.

Tlie canal, if ever completed,

the remarkable

fact,

to flow through Sirhind

no longer

that in the digging of

exiHts

but

it

and Murisur-

deserves notice for

aVjout five centuries ago, fossil

it,

remains of a gigantic size were discovered and attracted much attentioiL

It Is

not easy to say to what animals they belonged; but Ferishta, adopting the
opinion which appears to have been formed at the time of the discovery, says

they were the bones of elephants and


fore

arm measured

men

and

some of

three gaz (5 feet 2 inches);

human

adds, "the bones of the


tlie

bones were

petrifiefl,

and some retained the appearance of bone."

Among

Public

FerozV'^

the other works of Feroze are enumerated

40 mosques,

30

20 palaces, 100 hospitals, 100 caravansaries, 100 public baths, loO


50 dams across

have been

rivers,

and 30

reservoirs or lakes for irrigation.

sufficiently conscious of his

some of them

to be inscribed

He

colleges,

bridges,

appears to

good deeds and rather pharisaically


;

causerl

on the mosque of Ferozabad, a city which he had

The following may be taken as a sample:


"It has been usual in former times to spill Mahometan blood on trivial
occasions and, for small crimes, to mutilate and torture them, by cutting oft'
the hands and feet, and noses and ears, by putting out eyes, by pulverizing the
built in the vicinity of Delhi,

bones of the living criminal with mallets, by burning the body with
crucifixion,

and by nailing the hands and

of hamstringing, and

feet,

by

by cutting human beings

goodness, having been pleased to confer on

me

flaying alive,

to pieces.

fire,

by

by the operation

God, in his infinite

the power, has also inspired

me

with the disposition to put an end to these practices."


Reign of
Gheias u-

Glieias-u-diu,

whom

his grandftither Feroze

government a year before he

unworthy of

reigning,

for the succession

died,

now became

and within

six

had associated with him in the

sole sovereign,

but proved utterly

months was assassinated

contest

took place between Abubekr, a grandson, and Mahomed, a

The former had been placed on the throne by the


as.sassins of Gheias- u- din; but in the coiu-se of eighteen months the latter
displaced him, and assumed the title of Nasir-u-din Mahomed Toghlak.
He
died in 1394, after a reign of six years and seven months, entirely barren of
son of the late Feroze.

great events, and fruitful only in intestine dissensions; and

was succeeded by his


son Hoomayoon, who assumed the name of Sikundur, and died suddenly, in
the course of forty-five days.
disorder,

These constant changes threw everji^hing into

and a kind of anarchy ensued

enough making no scruple of throwing


independent.

each chief

ofi"

who thought

his allegiance,

In Delhi alone there were two

parties, each

the one occupying Delhi proper, and the other Ferozabad.

pying the

citadel,

professed neutrality, but this only

himself strong

and declaring himself


with a separate king,

A third

party, occu-

meant that they were

Chap.

PEER MAHOMED JEIIANGIR.

III.]

93

endeavouring to hold the balance, with the view of ultimately selling themselves to the

and the

city,

During

most advantage.

Civil

streets freciuently ran

war thus raged

with blood.

this confusion, intelligence arrived, in 1396, that Prince

tan

by a bridge

was preparing

Peer Ma- New

The governor of Moolwhen Peer Mahomed, anticipating his

of boats, and laid siege to Ooch.

for the relief of it

movements, amved, just in time to surpnse the Mooltanies immediately after


they had crossed the Beas.
those

who

Their show of resistance was useless

escaped the sword perished in the river.

retreat to Mooltan,

but the victor was close at their

retire into the fort.

months, want of provisions obliged

him

fearfully

enemy

new

and the governor,

After a siege of six

to sun-ender at discretion.

The

pre-

Mahomed Jehangir was a dire calamity. H(jw


have been increased when lie proved to be only the

must the calamity

The event

is

of sufficient importance to

demand

(;hapter.

Ri'iss OF TooHr.AKABAT).

From

Uucoii'

Vint

Toglilakabad wa.s named after its foiuuler, tlie


En\peror Glieias-ii-din Toghlak, who <lied A.n. l'i'2Ct.
A faw miserable huts contain all its present inhabi'

and most of

as Peer

forerunner of his grandfather.


a

few made good their

heels,

Sarung Khan, had barely time to


sence of such an

^^^\

in the very heart of the

liomed Jehangir, grandson of the celebrated Timour or Tamerlane, had crossed


the Indus

^^

Part of the Serai.'

linpresitoiis of India

taiits;

iiia.<!sy, and stiipendous ruins of


and subterranean apartments still

but the nule,

its walla,

palaces,

attract the notice of travellers.

M.>gia

91.

HISTORY OF INDIA.

CHAPTER

[Book

I.

IV.

Invasion of Tiinour or Tamerlane Battle of Delhi Sack of Delhi Khizr Khan, Timour's deputy
In(le[ien(lent

kingdoms established on the ruins of the Delhi monarchy Proceedings of Khizr

Khan His death Moobarik, his son and successor Syud Mahorned Syud Ala-udin Afghan
Lody dynasty Bheilole Lody Sikundur Lody Ibrahim Lody ilxtinction of the L<idy Afghan
dynasty, and renewal of that of the Moguls in the person of Baber.

IMOUR,

or

Timour Beg, usually

by the

called

Asiatics

Ameer

Teimoor, and by Europeans Tamerlane or Tamerlan, evidently

Lame Timour, an

a corruption for Timour Leng, or

epitliet

applied to liim on account of a certain degree of lameness,

was

born about 1336, in a village in the vicinity of Samarcand.


A.D.

139S.

According to some, he was only the son of a herdsman


accoimt

is,

that he

was the son

liimself traced his descent

Samarcand

his capital.

or grandson of a Tartar or

managed

He

Mogul chief

the downfall of the Moijul

to obtain the

supremacy, and

made

Possessing the ambition as well as the ttilents of a

and extended

conqueror, he had overrun Persia,

TamerLane

On

from Ghenghis Khan.

Dschaggatai, he

d}Tiasty of

but a more probable

his

dominions over Central Asia,

from the wall of China west to the frontiers of Europe, and even beyond, to
Moscow.
He was not yet satisfied; and in 1398, when his age miLst have

approaclies

the Indus.

exceeded sixty, he made his appearance on the west bank of the Indus, at the

The convulsed state of the country promising an easy


and the immense plunder which would necessarily follow, were his

head of a mighty
conquest,

host.

His grandson had, as we have

great inducements.

apparently to feel the way.

He

himself

now

seen,

been sent before,

crossed the river,

and commenced

Having arrived at
the junction of the Chenab and Ravee, where the town and strong fort of
Tulumba are situated, he crossed by a bridge and, entering the town, plundered it, and slaughtered the inhabitants without mercy. The fort was too
He therefore left it, and proceeded to a to^vn
strong to be taken by assaidt.
called Shahnowaz, where, finding more grain than his own troops required, he
a course of almost unparalleled massacre and devastation.

caused the rest to be burned.


tiful country.
His
ison

graiiil-

more

On

crossing the Beas, he entered a rich

Meanwhile, his grandson, Peer

obstruction.

Mahomed

Jehangu", had

and plen-

met with

After taking Mooltan, the rainy season commenced, and so

takes

Jlooltan.

many

of the cavalry encamped in the open country were destroyed, that he

under the necessity of lodging

became

so completely

hemmed

his

in

whole army within the walla

and cut

greatest danger of losing his whole army,

oif

from

supplies, that

when Tamerlane,

was

Here he

he was in the

after sending for-^ard

a detachment of 30,000 select horse, joined him with his whole army.

Chap.

INVASION OF TAMERLANE.

V.J

95

Tamerlane now marched to Bhatneer, which was crowded with

On

in terror from the siurounding districts.

driven out of the town,

their

his api)roach half of

to take shelter

under the

their lives as dearly as

fire to

After a

walls.

Tamoriane'a
tioiw.

the place, and, rushing out, sold

they could, by killing some thousands of the iloguls.

Tamerlane, in revenge, laid Bhatneer in ashes, after causing every soul in


to

1393.

which awaited them, killed

cruelties that the garrison, seeing the fate

wives and children in despair, set

ad

them were

from the governor, he forced his entrance, and committed so

short resistance

many

and obliged

j^eople flying

it

Soorsooty, Futtehabad, Rajpoor, and other towns, were sub-

be massacred.

These, however, were merely preludes to a

jected to similar barbarities.

more

general extermination.

Tamerlane's great object was Delhi, towards which he kept steadily advancing.

Having

at length

advanced opposite to

horse, to reconnoitre.
his minister,

Mahmood

he crossed the river with only 700

it,

Toghlak, then the pageant King of Delhi, and

Mulloo Yekbal Khan, tempted by the smallness of his attendants,

out with 5000 horse, and twenty-seven elephants.

sallied

Notwithstanding their

were repidsed.

superiority in numbers, the Delhi troops

siege of

number of

vast

were in the Mogul camp, and some of them, on seeing Tamerlane

prisoners

attacked at a disadvantage, could not refrain from expressing their joy.

The

by

order-

circumstance being reported to this cruel barbarian, he took his revenge

ing that all the prisoners above the age of fifteen shoiild be put to the sword.
In this horrid massacre, nearly 100,000 men, almost all Hindoos, are said to

have perished.

Having now forded the


on the plain of Ferozabad.
the encounter, but with the

river with his whole army,

The King of Delhi and


same

they mainly trusted, being, at


drivel's,

I'll-

king,
lleil

the

The

elephants, on

own

which

of most of their

ranks.

Tamerlane gave

!!

and, following the fugitives u}) to the very gates of Delhi,

fixed his head- (quarters.

Consternation

instead of attein])ting to allny


in

his minister again risked

charge, depriv^ed

first

turned back, and spread confusion in their

no time to rally
thei'e

result as before.

Tamerlane encamped

the direction of Gujerat.

it,

now

spread over the city; and the

thought only of his

own

safety,

and

All idea of resistance being abandoned, the

chief

men

lane

was formally proclaimed emperor.

of the city, crowding to the camp,

made

their submission,

and Tamer-

heavy contribution having been

was found in levying it. On this pretext, a body of


soldiers were sent into the city, and immediately commenced an indisci'iminate
plunder.
It had continued for five days before Tamerlane was even aware of it.

ordered,

some

difiiculty

He had remained
victory,

he saw

and the
it

outside in the cjimp to celebrate a festival in honour of his

first

in flames

intimaticm of the proceedings in Delhi was given him


fi)r

the Hindoos, in despair, had murdered their wives and

children, set fire to their houses,

when

general massacre ensued,

and then rushed out

and some

streets

to perish

by the sword.

became impassable from heaps of

ooiin
flicked

HISTORY OF INDIA.

no
A.D.

(lead.

1308.

Jiinount of pluixler

'I'lu;

own

hi.s

share of the

great Tinnil)er of curious animals

He

Toglilak had formed.

is

120

spoil,

return home, carrying with him,

elejihants,

twelve rljinoceroses, and a

menagerie which Feroze

h(;Ionging

also said to

ration at the mo.sque which that

hi.s

I.

Tamerlane remained

Ixjyond wilculation.

v\';us

at Delhi fifteen days, and then comm(;need


as part of

[Book

to

have heen so much struck with admi-

monarch had

and on the walls of which

built,

he had inscribed the history of his reign, that he took back the architects and

masons to Samarcand to build one on a similar


captuic of

He

plaiL

gan'ison, confiding in its strength, ridiculed the very idea of capture,

tained before

who

it.

The

officer,

seemed too slow to


scaling-ladders

his

sus-

without attempting anything, returned to Tamer-

it

and many other

modern

commenced running mines with


ultimate success was certain.
The process, however,
Moguls, who, haAnng filled up the ditch, applied their

and grappling-irons

put every soul within

as in

insult-

forthwith ap2)eared in person, and

such rapidity that his

in this

and

Mogul general had

ingly reminded the officer of the defeat which another

lane,

The

halted at Paniput, and sent a detachment to besiege Meerut.

first

by assault, and
The mines employed by Tamerlane

to the walls, carried the place

to the sword.

sieges,

were not intended to be

filled

with gunpowder,

warfare, but merely to sap the foundations of the

wall.s,

which,

while the process was being earned on, were supported by wooden frames.

When

walls, thus left

were

fi-ames

without support, necessarily tiimbled.

Mogul conqueror,
mines

wooden

the process was finished, the

wreak

to

after the place

his

vengeance more

set

on

fire,

and the

In this iiLstance the

effectually,

had been taken without them, and thus

completed Ids

entirely destroyed

its defences.
Tamerlane's
return.

Continuing
^ lus marcli, Tamerlane skirted the mountains of Sewahk, cros.sed
the Ganges, and laid waste the whole country with fire and sword along its
jj^

banks up

to the point

repassed

the river, and ultimately

Before he

left,

where

a Gukkur

bursts from

it

chief,

reached

city,

rocky gorges.

He

afterwards

Samarcand by way of CabooL

taking advantage of his absence, got possession

of Lahore, and refused to acknowledge

tachment against that

its

which

fell

liis

in a

He

therefore sent a de-

"NMiile

he halted at Jamoo,

authority.

few days.

Khizr Khan, who had submitted to him and become a favourite, was appointed

by him viceroy
Dismemberi)!u!i

^"^

kuig^

of Mooltan, Lahore,

For two montlis

and Depalpoor.

was a prey

after Tamerlane's departure, Delhi

to anarchy,

and was at the same time ravaged by pestilence and famine. After a series of
sanguinary struggles, Mulloo Yekbal Khan, the old Mahometan ^'izier, gained
the ascendency, and something like regular govermnent was re-established.

This return to order induced

and the

city,

many

of the inhabitants

which had recently been a smoking

who had

ruin,

fled to retm'n

began to recover.

In

addition to a small district around the city, Mulloo Yekbal obtained possession
of the Doab, or the tract lying between the

Jumna and

Ganges.

Tliis

was now

MULLOO YEKBAL, AND KHIZR KHAN.

CiiAP. IV.]

all

that remaiued of

what had recently been a

own names

All the other ad.

gi-eat empire.

by the governors, who continued

provinces were seized

97

them in

to hold

1421.

theii'

as independent kingdom.s.

Khan was

Mulloo Yekbal

not contented that Delhi should be thus shorn of

usurpation
of Mill loo

its

He

greatness.

added considerably to

neighbouring governors

and made

Mahmood

that the ex-king,

atfau'S to

Toghlak,

territory

its

by

successfid attacks

still

who had found an asylum

first
1

ill

at ease,

was provided

for

by being put

at Gujerat,

Mulloo

401.

continued to retain the sovereign power in his

and Mahmood, feeling

Vekbai.

assume an appearance so promising

and then at Malwah, was induced, by his invitation, to return in


Yekbal, however,

on

own

hands;

in possession

Mulloo Yekbal, having thus got quit of him, ai)pears soon to have

of Canouge.

forgotten all the deference


victory wliich filled

which he used to show him;

him with ambitious

an army against his old sovereign.


Mulloo, unable to reduce
against Khizr

Khan, but

it,

in 140-i, after

longings, he did not hesitate to lead

Mahmood

raised the siege.

his

for,

sliut

He

himself up in Canouge

and

shortly after tm-ned his arms

good fortune forsook him, and he was defeated and

slain in 1405.

On this event, the officers who had been left in Delhi gave an invitation
to Mahmood Toghlak, who, leaving Canouge, came with a small retinue, and
was re-seated on his throne.
Mahmood had neither the sense nor courage
necessary to maintain his positions;

and

Rotumof
Mainnoixi
^''''''''

after various vicissitudes, shut himself

up in Ferozabad, where he was besieged by Khizr Khan, who was, however, obliged
to raise the siege

from want of forage and pro\asions.

The

release

temporary, for having obtained supplies, he immediately returned.

was only

Meanwhile,

Mahmood had removed to Siry, the old citadel of Delhi. A similar cause
l>ligt' d Khizr Khan to retire as before
but the deliverance proved as fatal to
Mahmood as the captm*e of the citadel would have been. The transition from

fear to joy,

and immoderate exertion during a hunting excursion, brought on a

fever, of wliich

he died in

slaves of SiUtan
liisted,

41

2.

With him ended

Shahab-u-din Ghoory.

His inglorious and disastrous reign had

with interruptions, twenty years.

Afghan, of the
for fifteen

Khizr

name

of

the race of Toorks, the adopted

The nobles immediately placed an

Dowlut Khan Lody, on the

throne.

He held

it

nominally

months, and Wfis then deposed by Khizr Khan, in 1416.

Khan had gained

and been appointed, a.s


already mentioned, governor of Lahore, Mooltan, and Depalpoor.
Hence,
thougli on the deposition of Dowlut Khan Lody, he assumed the reins of
the favour of Tamerlane,

government at Delhi, he refused to appropriate regal


himself as only the deputy of Tamerlane, in
tlie

Khootba was

Khizr

Khan

to

read.

Even

titles,

affecting to regard

whose name money was coined, and

after Tamerlane's death, the

acknowledge the supremacy of

same policy induced

his successor,

Shahrokh Mirza,

and even send tribute occasionally to Samarcand. His reign or regency, which
was terminated by his death in 1421, after it had lasted little more than seven
Vol.

I.

13

loiizr

KUan.

deputy.

HISTOliY OK INI>IA.

98
years, presents

(!iu.

few

imi)Oi'tant events;

but

liis

[Hook

I.

conduct contrawts favourably with

A.I). 14 K).

that of his predecessors, and the inliabitants of Delhi showed their respect ior

memory by wearing

liis

Khizr Khan's eldest

Mo()l)arik,

Mo()l)!irik

black, their garb of mourning, during three days.


son, succeeded him, in virtue of a

nomination

Bucoeoils

Kliizr

by

when he

his father,

Kh;i[i.

felt

his

end approaching.

in the Punjab,

were carried on

repeatedly defeated,

managed always

some other quarter as strong as

by forming an

in his favour

first

military (jperati'^ns

where he succeeded, but not without

The

suppressing a serious insurrection.

in

His

He

ever.

alliance

Jusrut Gukkur,

rebel,

to escape,

and

even succeeded

in creating a divei-sion

with Ameer Sheikh Ally, a Mogul chief

The King of Malwah,

ances, invested Gwalior, in the

him

in

make an

to

takinj; a^lvantajje of these di.sturb-

hope of adding

Moobariks

to his dominions.

it

was thus fully occupied and liis whole reign of thirteen years furnothing more important than a succession of revolts. HLs temper, said tf)

attention
nishes

though

to a|)pear unexpectedly in

the service of Shahrokh Mirza, governor of Cabool. and inducing


incursion into Scinde.

difficulty,

have been so equable that he never spoke in anger during his


iU fitted for the times in

which he

lived.

life,

was probably

A conspiracy, in which some

of

liLs

own

family were implicated, was formed against him, and he was basely assassinated
in the

new

city of Delhi, while at worship in a mosque.

Prince Mahomed, Moobarik's son, though not one of the actual perpetiu-

Uinvortliy
reign of

Mahomed,

tors of his father's mui-der,

his son.

turn

it

was

perfectly cogniztmt of

it,

and endeavoured

to

by immediately mounting the throne. His fu"st act was to


own shame and guilt, by rewarding the conspirators. The appoint-

to account

proclaim his

ment of the ringleader, Survui"-ool-Moolk, to the office of vizier, produced general


inchgnation; and a confederacy was formed, which soon broke out into open rebellion.
The malcontents marched at once upon Delhi; and Mahomed, seeing that
his vizier

him

was

chiefly

aimed

The

vizier,

to his fate.

at,

thought he might save himself by abandoning

however, was too crafty to be thus caught

and no

sooner learned that the king was in communication with his enemies, than he

formed a band of
He,

master.

who
Bheilole

into

fell

too,
it

assassins,

and broke into the palace

had been put on

and was cut to

his guard,

and had

in order to mui'der his

laid a trap for the vizier,

pieces.

Mahomed, now apparently on good terms

Avith the confederates

who had

laid

Lody aim3
at the

throne.

siege to Delhi, thought himself safe

and, throwing

ofi"

all restraint,

spent his time

The administration of affairs, thas neglected, fell into


disorder discontent prevailed, and an insiurection broke out in Mooltan among
Bheilole Lody, who had placed himself at their head, had previthe Afghans.
in sensual indidgence.
;

ously usurped the government of Sirhind, and


Lahore, Depalpoor, and
to cope with the royal
hills,

all

now made

himself master of

the country as far south as Panipiit.

army which was

sent against him,

Bheilole, unable

was driven

into the

and, abandoning open force, determined to try the effect of intrigue.

he managed so dexterously that the king, on his suggestion,

]iut

This

one of

bis

REIGN OF ALA-U-DIN.

Chap. IV.]
ablest

and most

(U.sturbances

faitliful

which

99

servants to death; and then, in order to suppress the

this imbecile

and

The

inic^uitous act

Afghan

had produced, had

summons,

and marched to Delhi with 20,000 horsemen iUTayed in armour.

'J'hough

this

made the

reinforcement

crafty

army

royal

superior to that of the insurgents,

refused to take the Held, and, like a coward, shut himself

lie

The brunt of the action which ensued


manfully

self

fell

upon

now

Matters seemed

which Bheilole had

all

up

in his ])alace.

who acquitted liimthat Mahomed adopted

Bheilole,

and, in consequence, rose into such ftivour

liim as his son.

ms.

recoiu-se

at once obeyed the

to Bheilole for assistance.

.\.i).

schemes

ripe for the execution of the

along contemplated.

He

accordingly strengthened his

army by numerous bodies of Afghans, and, throwing off the mask, marched
upon Delhi. The siege which he commenced proved more formidable than he
had anticipated, and he determined to wait a little longer.
Meantime the
weak and dissolute Mahomed was permitted, notwithstanding his crime of
to die a natm-al death, in 14-10, after a reign of twelve years.

jtarricide,

Ala-u-din,

Mahomed's

son,

mounted the

throne,

and immediately received

-Ma-w-diirs
feeble reign.

homage of all the

tlie

chiefs except Bheilole,

provoke a contest in which he

felt

who was

jn-obably not

unwillmg

to

confident that he would prove the victor.

Ala-u-din was too j)owerless or too mean-spirited to resent the insult,

and soon

into general contempt, the people not hesitating to say openly that

he was a

tell

man than

weaker

shadow of

its

(iujerat,
<tll

posses.sed scarcely a

former greatness; for the whole that could be considered as pro-

perly belonging to it

the rest of

The kingdom of Delhi now

his father.

was the

Hindoostan

wtis

city of Delhi

and a small

broken up into separate

Malwah, Jounpoor, and Bengal had each

})rincipalities.
its

All

tract in its vicinity.

The Deccan.

independent king

while

the other territories, though nominally subordinate to Delhi, were in the

At

hands of chiefs e(pially independent.

the head of these was,

tis

a.ii ions

kingdoms.

has been

already seen, Bheilole Lody, whose designs on the ca})ital had been re})eatedly
declared

by overt

acts, ;ind

were only postponed

to a fitting opportunity.

This

op])ortuuity soon arrived.

Ala-u-din had early taken a great ftmcy for Budaoon, where he had spent

He

some time in building pleasiu-e-houses and laying out gardens.


its

air

agreed better with his health than Delhi, and wished to

The remonstrances of

dence.

him

for a

time; but crafty

into disgrace,
of

him

thought
reeling,

corn-tiers,

and

having succeeded

at Delhi.

set off to enjoy him.self at

The

vizier,

The order to that

made

ett'ect

in

it

his lesi-

bringing the vizier

own

wi.shes, regardless

Budaoon, leaving a deputy to


still

alive.

The very

of his comisellors. tfiking advantage of the


policy

would

])e

to take the vizier's

was accordingly given; but the

his escape to Delhi,

make

the danger, dissuaded

though disgraced, was

made him uneasy; and some


persuaded him that his best

guard, and

who showed him

he immediately proceeded to follow out his

the consequences,

act for

his vizier,

thought that

Mas put on his


enough to obtain

vizier

where he had intiucnce

life.

Ai,iu<iiii'

ii,i;,.H,n.

100
A.D.

m:;1.

HISTORY OF INDIA.

possession of
capital

and

all tiio

The king

royul effects.

[JiooK

wsts urg(;(l

strike a decisive blow, but he only

made

to

to

baxrk

li}iHt<;n

I.

lii.s

frivoloas excas^jH for ihJay.

One day it was tlie weather, which made it fli.sagreeable to travel another day
it was the stars, whicli pronounced it unlucky.
The vizier made better ukc of
;

the time, and invited Bheilole

out at once, but gave a

Lody

assume the government.

to

new specimen

din that his only object in going was to expel the

even for the imbecile monarch to believe

which he saw he would soon be


Bheilole's favour,

He had

founds
the Lody

Afghan
dynasty.

his

to

by formally abdicating the throne

in

previoasly reigned seven years at Delhi.

The circumstances of

Lody Afghan dynasty, began

his reign in 1450.

were extraordinary, and being interpreted

his birth

portend his future greatness, very probably contributed to realize

was

bom

his

much

extending to nearly twenty-eight years, was

life,

Bheilole, the founder of the

Bheilole

This wa.s too

vizier.

and he voluntarily took the step

forced,

wi-iting to Ala-u-

on condition of being permitted to reside quietly at Budaoon.

Here the remainder of


spent.

by

of his Afghan craft

Bheilole set

mother was killed by the

fall

t<>

Before he

it.

Her husband, Mullik

of her hoase.

Kaly, governor of a district in Sirhind, immediately ordered her body to be


opened, and, strange to say, the

of the infant

who had been appointed governor

Sultan,

Khan, rewarded

him

life

his valour

by giving him

was

His

saved.

of Sirhind with the

uncle, Mullik
title

his daughter in marriage,

and making

Khan had

Islam

his heir, to the exclusion of his o^vn full-grown sons.

of Islam

The

usually retained 12,000 Afghans, mostly of his owii tribe, in his service.

The King of Delhi

greater part of these joined Bheilole.

by inducing Jusrut

roused as to the ultimate objects of the Afghans; and,

Gukkur

to take the field against them, drove

headed them, made

many

which he divided the

spoil,

Hissam Khan,
result, as

whom

them

to the

harl his suspicions

hills.

Here Bheilole

predatory incursions, and, by the liberality with


attracted great

numbers

The

to his standard

vizier,

The

the kinsr sent against him, was signallv defeated

has been ah*eady related, was that Bheilole foimd means to ingi'atiate

himself with the king, was adopted as his son, and at last succeeded in displac-

ing Moobarik,

who

retired into private

life,

and went to

reside, despised or

forgotten, at his favourite residence of Budaoon.


Aftei'

whom

Bheilole succeeded, he continued for a time to treat the vizier, to

he was mainly indebted for his elevation, with

wards, thinking he presumed too


his servants to seize him.

The

much on what he had

vizier,

had given, expected nothing but death


for past services,

\I

but

done, he caused

after-

some of

though not aware of the offence which he


;

but Bheilole told him

he had a security for his

life

that, in gratitude

the only thing necessary

that he should cease to intermeddle with public


insuiTection

gi-eat respect

affairs,

now

and spend the

was,

rest of

In 1451, during
o an absence of Bheilole in Mooltan. a formidable insuiTection broke out, headed by Mahmood Shah Shui'ky, King of

his life in retirement.

'

It

Jounpoor,

who advanced with

a large army, and laid siege to Delhi.

Bheilole

BHEILOLE AND HIS SUCCESSOES.

CnAP. IV.]

returned with precipitation

power on a firmer basis than

by putting down the

and,

began to think of
obliged to
tories

make a

new

rebellion, placed his

a.d. 1499.

then was, could not satisfy

FomiiiiHbie

before.

The kingdom of Delhi, contracted

who no

the ambition of Bheilole,

101

in extent as

sooner found himself firmly seated than he

conquests.

He was

bound him

treaty which

it

not very successful

for

he was

'""
j,"^'
|^f

^^^^-^^

to limit his possession to the terri-

which had belonfjed to Delhi in the time of Moobarik.

His most form id-

members of the Shurky family. Among them,


Hoossein Shah Shurky took the lead.
At one time he advanced against Dellii
with 100,000 horse and 1000 elephants; at another he obliged him to make a
able enemies

were the

by which he

treaty,

difierent

reliniiuished all right to

Ultimately, however, Bheilole gained so

Shurky

part of the

Bheilole,

any

many

territory east of the Ganges.

decided advantages, that a great

was incorporated with his own.


when he mounted the throne, had a family of nine
territory

advanced in years, and

felt

As he

sons.

the cares of government weighing heavily upon him,

he adopted the very injudicious measure of partitioning his territory

way

In this

them.

great object of his

among

Biieiioie'

pnrtition

territories

the amalgamation of the conquests, which had been the

life,

was completely

arrangement he was seized with

illness,

Shortly after making this

frastrated.

and died in

488, after a reign of nearly

thirty-nine years.

He had

previously declared that his son

whom he had allotted


his successor.
He was not the

Nizam Khan,

Delhi and several districts in the Doab, should be

to

lawful heir; for the eldest son of Bheilole, though dead,

according to the ordinary rules of succession,

title,

Nizam Khan owed


of a goldsmith,

title

all o])position

His

of Sikundur.

at least

was

left

a son, whose

certainly preferaljle.

this preference to the influence of his mother, the

whose beauty had given her the

a short contest,

had

to the

daughter

place in the harem.

After

appointment ceased, and he assumed the

which lasted twenty-eight years,

reign,

compared with that of

first

neiiin nf

his predecessoi*s

able alike for the comeliness of his person

and he

is

wsis peaceful,

described as remark-

and the excellence of

his character.

In general, justice was administered impartially, but some remarkable instances


of intolerance

have

left

a stain (m his reputation.

One

of these desei^ves to be

recorded.

About

\4i99,

a Brahmin of the name of Boodlum, an inhabitant of a village

near Lucknow, being upbraided


defentled himself

Hindoos,

if

by some Mahometans on account of

by maintaining

" that the religions,

was

was publicly discussed before the cazis of Lucknow.


.agi-ee

excited,

He

argued

and the subject

These judges did not

and the governor, as the best way of settling the


sent the Brahmin and all the other parties to Sumbuhl, where the court

in their conclusion

matter,

both of the Moslems and

acted on with sincerity, were equally acceptable to God."

the point so ingeniously that considerable attention

his faith,

then happened to be.

The

king,

who was

well informed on religious subjects,

Mahometan
anTintoiCTaiice.

102
Cm.

AD.

1600.

HISTOIIV or INDfA.

and was fond of


to assemble

and

licaiiii;^ tlit^iu

deljate with

iiis('u.s.s(;(i,

tli(;

oidercd

[Book
luoHt learned of

t\u-

At the very

Braliniin.

liis

I.

subjects

outset of the pro;ed-

ing then; was thus a considerable want of fairness, as the lirahnjin wa>* uiiKupported, while no fewer than nine of the al>lest

The

against him.

result

Mahometan

doctfjrs

were arrayed

was that the chosen nine found themselves perfectly


and the Brahmin altogether

in the right,

As a

the wrong.

natural consequence, they

were rewarded with


Iteen well if these

gifts;

had

and

satisfied

had allowed their opponent

Uj

it

would have

them, and they

The Brah-

maintaining that the Hindofj faith

in

was

go his way.

very different course was followed


min,

in

rank on a footing of equality

entitled to

with the Mahometan, wa.s


sulted the Pro])het;

to have in-

lield

and the only alternative

left

was

Mahometan

or suffer death.

He

prefeired the latter, and

was accordingly

to turn

executed.

The king appears


-=r" "II

to liave been as fond of

and often

as of religious questions,

judicial

Some

sat in ])ei'son in tlie coui-ts of law.


A Brah.min. Friira
Sikuiiclur

Belnos' Smidhva.

the decisions which

brated.

Two

brothers,

during a

siege,

become possessed of

private

had,

soldiers,

lie

among

of
i

i)ronounced are celeother booty obtained

celebrate<l

as a juilge.

One

tw(j large i-ubies of different shapes.

of the brothers having determined to

qviit

the service and retui'n to his family

him with his share of the plunder, including


one of the rubies, and told him to deliver it to his wife. The soldier who had
continued to serve, on returning after the war was ended, asked his wife
for the ruby, and was told that she had never seen it
The brother, (jn the
at Delhi,

the other intrusted

was brought
before the court, produced a number of witnesses who swore that they had seen
hiiu deliver it.
The judge, acting on this testimony, decided against the woman,
telling her to go home and give the ruby to her hiLsband.
Her home was thus
contrary, declared that he

had delivered

it;

and

vrheii the case

rendered so uncomfortable that, as a last resource, she laid her complaint before
the king.
})arties

He

listened patiently to her statement,

strengthen

it,

wax

all

the

%vitnesses repeated their e\-idence; and, in order to

affirmed that they perfectly recollected the size and shape of the

ruby, which they


piece of

The

before him.

and then summoned

had seen given.

On

this the witnesses

were separated, and a

being given to each of them, as well as to each of the

were told to mould

it

into the form of the gem.

On

the soldiers agreed, but that of all the othei-s differed.

soldiers,

they

examination, the models of

The king drew the

infer-

ence that the soldiers alone had seen the ruby, and the witnesses had been

REIGN OF IBRAHIM.

Chap. IV. ]

suborned to

perjiu*e themselves.

103

added that a confession

It is

to this effect wits a.d.

isiz.

afterwards extorted from them.

Sikundur was succeeded iu 1517 by


and

father, the

Afghans had regarded them.selves as a dominant

besides monopolizing

chiefs,

presence, while all others

them mortal

all

his grandfather
race,

and

their

were constrained to stand.

make no

sikiuIaMr.

Ibrahim accordingly gave

between

distinction

his

They did

the weight of their indignation.

and

officei-s,

his

said publicly,

He was

soon made

not, indeed,

attempt to

have no relations nor clansmen."

that "kings should

ibrai.im

the great offices of the state, sat in the royal

when, at the connnencement of his reign, he announced

offence,

determination to

to feel

Under

his son Ibrahim.

dethrone him; but endeavoured to partition his temtories by placing his brother,
Julal

Khan, on the throne of Jounpoor.

king, appointed his

own

eastern provinces.

The Afghan

and was acknowledged by

vizier,

their followers

the officers of the

all

themselves as against Ibrahim.

again.st

formed a small minority of the population, and nothing

but perfect union could enable them to maintain their ascendency.

by

they would fain have retraced their

this consideration,

steps,

the

Influenced

but Julal

Khan

war ensued. In
end, Ibrahim, having regained the confidence of the Afghan chiefs, crushed
rebelHon of Julal Khan, who, having fallen into his brother's hand.s, was by

had no idea of resigning his newly-acquired honom-s, and a


the

Afgimn

began to discover that the revenge

chiefs soon

which thev had taken told as much

They and

J\dal accoi'dingly assiuned the title of

civil

his private orders assassinated.

This rebellion was no sooner suppressed than another,

vizier,

whom

Islam Khan, brother of Futteh Khan,

broke out.

believing that Ibrahim had

of his influence as governor

vowed

and

The

first

suffered a very severe

and

The

loss.

man

in

fell

insurgents, in conse-

so reinforced that they mustered

in sight of each other, but, instead of fighting,

Sheikh Rajoo Bokhar}', a

his

imme-

detachment sent against him

The armies arrived

40,000 cavalry, 500 elephants, and a large body of infantry.

came

to a i)arley,

on the sugges-

universal esteem for his reputed

Terras of accommodation were proposed and agreed to; but the king-

sanctity.

was only

He had

plaj'ing a part.

the governor of Oude, to advance,

amu-sed

till

when

it

was too

terras,

chose the latter.

Ibrahim

sent orders to the collector of Ghazipoor, and

and

his object

he should be able to ovei'power them.

dictated rather

respite.

made

Julal had

the ruin of his family, availed himself

quence, advanced, flushed with victory,

tion of

more formidable,

of Kurra, to form a strong party, and

diately raised the standard of revolt.


into an ambuscade,

still

late

The

issue

himself secure

keep the insurgents

flee

was not long doubtful.

by despair than by any ho]ie

now thought

to

They discovered

and having no alternative but to

Bahadur Khan, on the death of

inunediately

was

their error

or fight on unequal

After a resistance,

of victory, they fled in

all directions.

but he had only obtained a short

his father,

declared himself independent,

and

who was governor


a.'^sumed

the

title

of Behar,
of king.

civii

war.

HISTORY OF INDIA.

101
AD.

1626.

Keiwiii..!.

govoniors

ami Lahore

[Book

I.

Numeroas malcontent cluefs joined him; and, at tlie head (;f 100,000 horw^, he
made himself master of all the country as far {is Sumbuhl, defeating the Delhi
army in several engagements. A still more fatal step wa taken by Dowlut
Klian Lody, the governor of Lahore.
'^^^^

He

had at

first

bccame alamicd at the repeated instances of

taken part with the king,

his pei-fidy.

Not

seeing

any

seemity for his family in any temis of accommodation which Ibrahim might
induced to
in the

gi'ant,

open

field,

and

conscious, at the

same time, of

his inability to

he entered into a communication with Baber,

That prince had long kept

reigning in Cabool.

his eye fixed

)>('

meet him

who was

then

on Hindoostan,

which, as a direct descendant of Tamerlane, he regarded as part of his inheritance.

Nothing, therefore, could be more in accordance with his wishes than Dowlut

Khan's invitation.

He was

country

very time Ala-u-din, the brother of Ibrahim, was living in

for at this

exile at his com-t.


])rince,

well acquainted with the convulsed state of the

Before taking the field in person, Baber sent forward this

who was immediately joined by Dowlut Khan.

distinction also rallied around his standard,

Delhi, with the intention of laying siege to

and

lie

Many

other officers of

continued his march towards

His army mustered 40,000

it.

Ibrahim went out to oppose him, but suffered himself to be surprised

when

night, and, after a tumultuous conflict, found,

the day dawTied,

hor.se.

in the

tliat

most

The troops, however, had remained


faithful, and an opportunity of regaining more than he had lost immediately
presented itself.
The troops of Ala-u-din, thinking they had secured the
victory, had dispersed to plunder.
Ibrahim, before they were aware, w^as on
them with his elephants and as many of his soldiers as he had rallied, and
of his officers had deserted to the enemy.

drove them from the


lost,

made a

Invitation

with great slaughter.

precipitate retreat to the Punjab,

Delhi in triumph.
to

field

discomfitm'e was to

Ala-u-din, giving

up

all for

and Ibraliim once more entered

was of .short dm-ation for the only effect of Ala-u-din'


bring Baber across the Indus in the end of 1525. As the

It

Baber

must be left for another chapter, it is sufficient here to mention the


result.
The kings met in the beginning of the following year, on the plain of
Paniput, and a sanguinary battle was fought, which teiininated the life of
Ibrahim, and extinguished the Lody Afghan dvTiasty.
On its ruins the far
details

more celebrated dynasty of the Great Mogul was

erected.

Chap V.]

OF BABER.

ItEIGN

CHAPTER
Mogul dynasty -Life

Y.

-Hoomayoon Ilis

aiul reign of Ilaber

10^

expuUiuii and return State of India at

his death.

ABER

was the

Abu

fathei',

Said Mirza,

was

among wliom

eleven sons,

left

Omar Sheikh

extensive dominions were divided.


fom*th son,

His grand- ad

sixth in descent from Tamerhine.

uss.

his

Mirza, the

some time i^overnor of Cabool, but was

for

transferred to Fergliana, situated on the upper course of the

This province, of wliich he was in possession

Jaxartes

was afterwards

lield

l)y liim

Jis

an independent sovereignty.

Mahmood Khan,

ried the sister of

He had

a descendant of Dschaggatai

Baber was

him connected with CJhenghis Khan.

tlu-ougl

when Abu Said

lier

died, unVw, bom

mar-

lusorifrin

Khan, and

"i""^,'".'^

son,

and was,

somewhat singular that, in


Ills own Memoirs, lie always speaks with contempt of the Mogul race, though the
tlvnasty which he was about to e.stablisii in India was destined to take its name
from it.
Tiie exphmation is, that the title Great Mogul was not chosen by
liini, but was applied, in accordance with the Hindoo ciustom of giving the name
by

conseciuently,

Moguls to

(f

the

all

mother's side, a Mogul.

tlie

Mahometans

When

the Afghans

It is

of the north-west, with the single excei)tion of

his father died,

Baber was only twelve years of

was thus de])rive(lof

his natural protector before he could

to act for himself

To add

enough

position.

liis

On

room

learning his father's death,

As the

the succession

eldest son, he

It Wiis necessary,

for tUs])ute.

Mirza, ruler of

to re.sent a (piarrel

But Baber had

command

servant

if

you

ap]>oint me,

toiy manner."

'i'his

answer was returned


to

your purpose
])lain

The uncle

lie

had had

took immediate steps to secure

whom

to

title to

it,

and there was no

you must place one of your

;un at once

your son and your

answered

in the mo.st satisfac-

will be

dealing gave

wius, in fa<:t,

Ahmed

the .suiu'emac}' belonged; and

plain

is

of this country;

honest but

tliey

however, to consult his uncle. Sultan

Baber sent an embassy to him. to say, "It


servants in the

which

have

talents equal to the difliculties of

had the best

Samarcand and Bokhara,

He

be expecteil to be able

to the misfortune, his uncles, wh(^ ought to

befriended him, were \ingenerous

with the father, on the son

age.

dis.sati.sfaction.

and a

hostile

already on the marcli, determined

complete the conquest which he had begun while Baber's father was alive, and

make himself

sole

friendless youth.
unele's troops,
Thi.s

I.

On

this occasion fortune favoured the

In crossing a river, the bridge, which was crowded with his

gave way, and great numbers of men,

was regarded

Vol.

master of Fertrhana

as ominous, particularly

jus

hoi-ses.

a defeat

and camels

])erished.

had been sustained at the


14

iiis mes-sagfi

106
At)

iifli;

OF INDIA.

TIFSTOIJV

snmo spot
struck,

tliree

The anny,

or four years before.

and showed the utmost reluctance to

r.

in consequence, Ixicarne panic-

While they were

axlvance.

tating, the horses

were seized with a

fatal di.sease,

appearance.

these circumstances

made

All

[iiooK

hesi-

and Baber's arrny marie

its

the invaders disposed to listen to

terms of accommodation, and patch up a hasty peace, when a resolute a/lvance


of a few miles would probably have put them in possession of Indijan, Baber's
capital.

No

Raber'H

sooner was this danger escaped, than another, of an equally formidaljle

(lilfilMllt

positiuu.

The Sultan Mahmood Khan made

nature, thrcatejied him.

and

north,

his af)[earance in the

After re[)eated

laid siege to Baber's fortress of Akhsi.

which

ftssaidts,

were repulsed with great valour, he abandoned the attempt as hopeless, and
the best of his

way home.

and devastating

He

as he came.

enemy advanced from

third

was, however,

more

still

the

jilundering

efist,

easily disposed of than

the others, having brought himself into a position out of which,

had been taken, he could not have extricated himself

ma<^Ie

Balder,

if full

advantage

thus freed from

the perils wliich had environed him, turned his leism-e to good account, and

Alteniate
success

many important internal


He had hitherto been

made

improvements.
contented to act on the defensive, but in 1495 he found

and

himself strong enough to change his

defeat.

It

had at one time belonged

self entitled to

take

he

it if

on Uratuppa
vender, thus

was about

to hLs father,

it

and on

ground he thought him-

this

The task proved

could.

and he gained possession of

and attempt the conquest of Kliojend.

tactics,

His next attempt was

almost without resistance.

but as the inhabitants had canied home

making

it

to set in, he

Samarcand having been


the country in

tloi-ee

him

impossible for

was obliged to

disputed, three

their grain

all

to obtain s\ipphes,

In

retreat.

diff'ei'ent

different directions.

than he anticipated,

easier

and

and pro-

as the winter

1496, the succession to

claimants appeared, and invaded

Baber was one of them

but as none

them was able to establish an ascendency, they all three retired. In the following year Baber renewed the attempt, and conducted his operations with so
much skill and valour, that, before the year expired, both the city and teiritory
of

of Samarcand

were in

his

possession.

acknowledged by most of the nobles

was anxious

He

this,

His serious
illne-a

went

off in a body,

who was

and

this time,

dispei-se.

Others, not satisfied

offered their ser\-ices to Jehangir Mu-za,

treacherous enough to listen to their overtm-es, and

on Indijan, one of the leading

At

The troops

to conciliate the inhabitants, he forbade all plunder.

Baber's brother,
seize

accordingly crowned, and

but as the city had capitulated, and he

were gi-ievously (Usappointed, and began to


with

wjis

when aU

districts of

Ferghana.

the talents which Baber possessed would scarceh^

and

luisfortuiies

have

sufficed,

verge of ruin.

he was seized with a dangerous

and foimd

his affairs

Samarcand was held by a most precarious tenure

obvious that the

would

illness,

moment he

lose it altogether.

He

ceased to overawe

it

by

liis

and

on the
it

was

personal presence, he

resolved, notwithstanding, to

make

this sacrifice

FORTUNi:S OF BABEH.

Chap. V.]
for his paternal

domiuions were dearer to hini than any new conquest, however M)

HO!)

and he could not brook the idea of having them dismembered by the

valuable,

He

perfidy of a brother.

oidy in time enough


intrusted,

accordingly set out towards Indijan, but he arrived

had been induced, by a rumour of

lost.

Baber

wiis

maternal uncle, Sultan

the defence of

his death, to surrender,

it

wa

and that

Both Samarcand and Indijan were

now in the utmost distress, and applied


Mahmood Klian. His brother Jehangir

same time, and Mahmood, unwilling


gave no assistance to

whom

learn that the officers to

t(^

Jehangir had actually mounted the throne.


thus

107

for aid to his

applied at the

to interfere in the quarrels of his nephews,

Ultimately, however, he departed so far from this

either.

MaliiiKMMl
8\l|>I><>l'ts

resolution as to take open ]>art with

Baber, who, after various vicissitudes,

recovered his paternal kingdom in 1499.

He

recovery of Samarcand, but was only on the

way when he

H.ilicr.

even set out to attempt the


received the morti-

fying intelligence that the Usbeks had anticipated him, and

made themselves

masters both of Samarcand and Bokhara.

The consequence was, that he was not


only

frustrated

Samarcand,

in

again

but

which had been oveiTun

hope of taking

the

lost

Ferghana,

in his absence.

His only resource was to betake himself to the

mountains, and wait there

should

fortune

again

smile

upon

While almost disconsolate at the

him.

disasters

which had Wallen him, he lay down


grove to

sleep,

He

in a

and dreamed that AbdoUah,

a dervis of grwit
iiou.se.

till

invited

re])ute,

him

cjxlled

to sit

at

his

down, and

ordered a table-cloth to be spread for him;

but the dervis, apjiarently offended, rose


to

go away.

While Baber endeavoured

to

Usbeks of Khoondooz, and a Kiiojaii ok Usbf.k


Taktarv. From Rattmy's AfKh&ni5tan &iid Klpliiiistoiie's Cabool.

detain him, the dervis took hold of his

arm, and lifled him up towards the sky.


.significant;

fortune,

The ch'eam

but Baber and his followers regarded

and determined,

The captm'e

in consequence, to

of the city

was one of the

it

is

neither striking nor

as a promise of future good

make another attempt on Samarcand.


exploits on which

Baber particularly

neniarkal)l8
rv covery of

j)hnned himself, and he dwells on


Here,

it

with evident exultation in his ^femoils.

His small

however, only the leading facts can be mentioned.

])arty

mustered only 320 men, and yet with these he succeeded in making himself
master of a large

ca])ital,

occupied by warlike Usbeks,

a veteran general of high rej)utation, commanded.

whom

Having

Sheebani Khan,

secretly arrived in

the vicinity at midnight, he sent forward <-ighty of his party to a low part of
the wall, which they immediately scaled

by means

of a gi-ap})ling-rope.

Going

Sainarcaiid

108
Tin.

A.D.

1000.

HLST(;JiV

OF INDIA.

[lirjoK

afterwards round, they surjiriHed and over[)owor<id the guard


of the gates, opened

They immediately
immediately

let in

a charm with

rallied

place, ignorant

and

it

charge of

Baber with the 240 wlio were with

i-ushed along the .streets, proclaiming Baber's

It carried

passed.

it,

in

to the ears of

many

name

on<;
hiin.

as they

who

of the inhabitants,

around him, while the Usbeks ran c^mfasedly from

plH/;e to

When

both of the position and numbers of their assailants.

I.

the

alarm reached the head-quarters, Sheebani Khan, who occupied the fort with

7000 men,

set out

with a small body to reconnoitre, and on finding that Babei'

had gained some thousands of the inhabitants, who were rending the

was

acclamations,

so frightened that he took the opposite gate,

Baber obtained quiet

Bokhara.

and

fled

with

air

towards

possession.

Baber was aware that the victory was only half won so long as the Usljeks

Baber
defeated

hy the
Uabeks.

maintained

theii*

footing in the country, and he laboured to unite the neighbour-

Owing

ing chiefs in a general coalition for the pm'pose of expelling them.


dissensions

and

jealousies,

tight single-handed

for

him

liis

exertions were unavailing, and he

the walls.

Here he defended himself

and saw no resource but


100 faithful attendants.

foes.

till

Here

and escape with about

This flight took place in the beginning of loOl, and

Mahmood Khan, who gave him

his relentless

he suffered aU the horrors of famine,

to take advantage of the night,

He

he was once more a homeless wanderer.


Sultan

left to

They proved more than a match


which obliged him to shut himself up within

with his formidable

and he sustained a defeat

was

the

foTind

town

an asylum with his

uncle.

of Aratiba for his residence.

enemy, Sheebani Khan, found him

out,

and he removed to

At

Tashkend, where he remained for some time in a state of despondency.


length an opening appeared in his hereditary kingdom, and

two uncles he obtained

to

by the

aid of his

possession of Akhsi, one of its strongest forts.

only a gleam of sunshine before the coming storm.


appeared, and conquered as before.

In addition to

his

Sheebani

own

It

Khan

was

again

misfortune, Baber

had the misery to see his imcles involved in his fate. They were both taken
prisoners, and released only at the expense of their kingdoms.
Sultan Mahmood

Khan was
One

unable to bear up imder the stroke, and his health began to decHne.

of his friends, hinting that Sheebani

tiriak of Khutta, a medicine

The sultan

replied,

taken away

Khutta
Becomes
master of
Cabool and
Kandahar.

my

Khan had

which was then in high repute as an antidote.

"Yes! Sheebani Khan has poisoned

kingdom, which

it is

me

indeed!

He

has

not in the power of yom- tiriak of

to restore."

Baber had at one time some thoughts of trying

own

poisoned him, offered some

liis

fortune in China.

country, at all events, seemed shut against him, and he qmtted

HLs

it for ever.

Though he had seen much of the


world, and experienced many reverses, he had only attained the age when most
men begin to make their appearance in the public stage of life. He was httle
more than twenty, and was borne up by tlie behef, which conscious talent and
But he had no intention of

closing his career.

BABER INVADES INDIA.

Chap. V.J

great natural buoyancy of

s})irits

suggested, that

In 150i he took the direction of the

east,

109

some great destiny awaited him

where he saw no

ad.

ists.

field of enterprise so

promising as Cabool, which had fallen into a state of anarchy.

had once

It

been ruled by his father, and subsef^uently by his uncle, Ulugh Beg, who had
died in 1501, leaving an infant son.
into his

own

The minister took the whole government

convulsions followed, and Cabool became a

and

invcision

He

arrived.

from without.
found

and ruled

it

in his

common

foreign usurper

alive,

still

own name.

pi-ey to dissensions within,

him and though his cousin, the


he regarded the kingdom as a la\\i"ul
His ambition was n(jt yet satisfied,
;

and, taking advantage of favourable circmnstances, he

Kandahar.

It

would seem that at

Hindoostan, and the invasion of


court.

made himself master

this early period his thoughts

it

Groat

assa-ssinated.

was on the throne when Baber

in displacing

little ditiiculty

above son of Ulugh Beg, was


conquest,

was

hands, but soon disgusted the nobles, and

of

were turned to

was openly talked of and discussed

in his

Various circum.stances, however, concurred to po.stpone any actual

preparations.

The

earliest of these

Sheebani Khan,

was the appeai'ance of the

who drove Baber from Kandahar, and

Siieebani Khan, having ultimately


Persia,

was defeated and

met

his

and

restless

re-seated the former ruler.

master in Shah Ismael Sophi of

Baber immediately proposed an

slain.

alliance

the shah, Ijy whose aid he hoped to regain his former dominions.
disappointed.

With an army

of 60,000

im[)lacable

hoi-se,

partly furnished

n;i'>- '"'"^

itii tiie

perel,,'

with

Nor was he

by the Persian

monarch, he took Khoondooz, subdued Bokhara, and in 1511 was seated for the
third time on the throne of Samarcand.

Here he fixed

his residence,

Cabool to be governed under him by his brother, Nasir Mirza.


prosperity

was

short-lived;

for he

and

left

This return of

was inmiediately engaged

in a series of

sanguinary struggles with the Usbeks.

These were generally to his disad-

vantage; and in 1518 he arrived, shorn of

all

government of Cabool.

his

new

conquests, to resume the

His brother Nasir Mirza returned to

his

government

of Glniznee.

Baber had now been nearly twenty

yeai's

King

long period had often turned a wistful eye to India.

had rejieatedly started up and tempted him to try


the ditticulties had proved insurmountable,
\ipon him, that if his

name was

of Cabool,

and during that

Other objects of ambition


his fortune in the

of

Afghan

chiefs,

to descend to posterity as a great conqueror


iiis

the affections of the people,

While thus requiring

all

series

the aid which union could give,

much by

by court intrigue, ftxction, and assassination.


wretched system the kingdom had been broken up into fragments,

the ordinary rules of relationship, as


this

and

and ruled

interminable feuds prevailed, and the succession was regulated not so

Under

but

laurels.

The throne of Delhi had been occupied by a

who had never gained

only by the sword.

and the conviction had been forced

mighty monarch, the east was the quarter in which he must gain

The times were favourable.

west

Pie|vir.

imUa.

10

A.D. 1824.

IIISTOlty

and

Dell)i exhibited

merely a sliadow of

sible not to pereeive that

facilities

furnish

and

and the only wonder

inroad into
first

Baber's

former

grasiUieHH.

and

fairest,

It

I.

was impos-

richest regioiLs of the globe, pre-

attractioius to the con(jueror far greater

Baber should have remained


Baber-s

its

[Book

a country thus ruled, and acknowledged at the same

time to be one of the grandest,


sented

OF INDIA.

is,

than the west could

that a }>rince so talented and w) ambitious as

so Ion;; on its fiontiers without makiiiir

an actual

it.

first

Indian cami)aign took place in 1519.

On

that occasion, after

overrunning the territory between Cabool and the Indas, he crossed over into
the Punjab, and advanced as far as Bhira.
to

From

this place

he sent a mes.sage

Ibrahim Lody, the King of Delhi, reminding him that the Punjab had been

frequently possessed

by the house of Tamerlane, and demanding that

as a branch of that house,

it

should be voluntarily resigned, miless he was pre-

pared to see the war carried farther into India.


the Chenaub, and then returned to Cabool.

made

in the course of the

to him,

same

In this cainj>aign he reached

His second Indian campaign

Avas

His main object was to reduce Lahore,

year.

but after reaching Peshawer, and advancing to the Indus, intelhgence of an


invasion of Budukshan

by

the

King

of Cashgar compelled

him

to retmii.

He

marched a third time against India in 1520, and had reached Sealkote when he
learned that his presence was immediately required to defend hLs capital against

an invasion from Kandahar.

He had

not only repulsed the invader, but pur-

sued him to Kandahar,

-^^^

^^^=^^

^^d captured
in 1524,

it,

when,

Dowlut Khan

sent the tempting in-

menIn compHance

vitation formerly
tioned.

with it, Baber advanced


to

the neighbourhood

of Lahore, which he en-

tered in triumph, after

gaining a signal victory.

Dowlut Khan having


.,..-,.,r--<5.

Kandahar.

From Sale's Defence of Jelalabad.

afterwards

turned

acrainst him,

he found

his prospects of success


so

seriously

affected,

that he rested satisfied with app(jinting governors over the districts \\hich he

had conquered, and again


Defeat

retvu*ned home.

Ala-u-din Lody, the brother of Ibrahim Lody, King of Delhi, had been

i>f

Ala-u-iliii

in

command

of the Cabool forces,

pushed forward to the vicinity of

and

for

Dellii.

left

a time was so successful, that he

Here he seemed

to

have gained a

BABER'S SUCCESSES.

Chap. V.]
victory,

own

his

till

carelessness

and obliged him

plete defeat,

and the want of

disci[)line

turned

into a

it

com- ad.

1526.

Baber, on

to retire })recipitately into the Punjab.

hearing of the disaster, immediately bestirred himself, ami made his appearance

This was his

in India.

His

fifth,

and proved

was comparatively

force

After crossing the Indus on the

small.

horse.

considerable reinforcement.

Dowlut Khan, and

King

of the

oth

Hater's

his

it,

The fii'st ajipearance of opposition was on the part


son Ghazy Khan, who had again espoused the ciiuse
encamped on the banks of the Ravee,

of Delhi, and were

army

Lahore, with an

They were

of 40,000.

Baber advanced, retreated

the former

to

neiir

afraid to risk an action, and, as

Malwat, and the

Baber immediately invested Malwat, and obliged

On

and found that he had only 10,000 chosen


At Sealkote, however, he was joined by Ala-u-din, and thus obtained a

of December, 1525, he mustered

of

most decisive Indian cam})aign.

his

latter to the

hilLs.

to capitulate in a few (hiys.

it

Dowlut Khan, and exerted himself

this occasion he generously forgave

in

restraining the rapacity of his troops, who, as soon as the gates were openeil,

broke

and commenced an indiscriminate plunder.

in,

Rushing

among them,

in

he at great ]>ersonal risk rescued a lady belonging to Dowlut Khan's family,

whom

a ruffian had seized, and saved a

fine library

Ghazy Khan, who was a poet and a man


The dissensions which prevailed at

Delhi,

received from

him

experienced

the malcontents, induced


serious opposition

little

at the head of 10,000 horse

of this

number

but every

and resolved

to his chief,

man

in

it

of learning.

and the invitations wliich he

elephants.

was a

Babers army was not a

whereas the Delhi force was a

to conquer or die;

among

not long doubtful, and Ibrahim him.self was


wjis fought

Baber did not


his son

tail

on the 20th of
to

Hoomayoon

on Delhi,

wliile

make
to

The

result wjus

This battle,

the slain.

April, 1526, decided the fate of Hindoostan.

the most of his victory.

occupy

fifth

soldier highly discii)lined, attached

hetei'ogeneous mass, composed of the most discordant materials.

which

He

to advance without delay.

Ibrahim himself advanced to meet him,

till

and 1000

which had been collected by

Agi-a,

He

inmiediately despatched

and another detachment

he followed with the main body.

to

march rapidly

His entrance wjis unopposed,

The fort of Agra offered some


Mogul arms was now so general, that the

and he took formal possession as sovereign.


resistance

Rajpoots

but the terror of the

who defended

it

offered to capitulate.

Instead of levying a ransom

from individuals, Baber consented to accept of a diamond, weighing 672

which he presented to

his son

On

Hoomayoon.

carats,

entering the Delhi treasur}',

he appears to have been a,stonished at the amount, and immediately began to


distribute

Not

satisfied

chants

who

countries,

the

with the greatest profusion, as

it

with making rich presents to

followed his camp, he

made

if

he had imagined

all

his chiefs,

it

inexhaustible.

and even

to the

mer-

large donations to holy places in various

and caused a skarokh to be given to every man, woman, and child

kingdom of Cabool, without

distinction of slave or free.

The

in

gift to eiich

capture
Deii.i.

..r

"

IILSTOKY OF JNIHA.

112
A.D. 1630

was rather

less

than a

His prodigality on

,sliilliii<^,

this occasion

a religious order whose rule


iiaber

Had Babcr

makes

pennaiient

oi the trcasurv

might

^^j.

^jj^ folly

i^^j^

that he from the

make

is

procured

smallness of his

must have been enormoufi.

kuiii

the nickname of "Callender," after

])rovision

Tamerlane,

tf)

f<jr

([uit

the morrow.
India, this wjuandering

of the proceeding seems extreme,

regarded

it

as a

when

it is

considered

permanent conquest, and determined

The question had midergone formal

Delhi his future capital.

and many of

after the capture,

I.

have been explained, and even jastined, on grounds

easily

first

liini

make no

to

becii intending, like

lusK tnoo

pQjj^,^,

hut the a<^gregate

fUooK

most expeiieuced

his

di.scassion

contrasting the

officers,

army with the threatening appearance which

to

the Afghans

still

continued to present in various quarters, were urgent for his return to Cabool,
or at least retreat to the Punjab; but he at once put an end to
strances,

by

exclaiming, "

whom

say of a monarch
Hisdiffitni-

lUmgers.

What would

all

the

all

Mahometan kings

their

remonworld

in the

the fear of death obliged to abandon such a kingdom

The idea of departure being abandoned, it required all Baber's skill and
eiicrgy to make good his position
Several Afghan competitors connected with
the late i-oyal family were set np against him and sanguinary l:)attles were
fought, generally, however, to his advantage.
As a necessary consequence, liis
cause advanced, while that of his enemies rapidly declined

and many who had

made

stood aloof with the intention of ultimately joining the winning side,

But

their submission.

who feared

to encounter

to be successful.

were not in the

his gi*eatest dangers

him

there, cUd not scruple at

any means

most flagrant attempts made on

(>ne of the

mother of Ibrahim Lody, the

field

he had treated her with great respect and kindness

for tho.se

wliich promised

his life

She had become

late .sovereign.

was by the

his captive,

and

but the destruction which

he liad brought on her family was not to be forgiven, and she bribed Baber's
taster

and cook

took of

it,

to poison

some hare-soup intended

<ieath.

him

He

but the poisoning having been overdone, affected the

desisted in time to save his


Preiaatuve
old age and

for

Baber was

still

taste,

and he

life.

in the full vigour of

have been expected to have

actually par-

and might,

life,

a long career before

him

in the course of nature,

but he had crowded the

events of a lifetime into a comparativ^el}' short period and began to exhibit

symptoms

of a premature old age.

Fever after fever attacked him

lieginning to feel his end approaching, he sent for his son

appointed him his successor.


1530, he breathed his

last.

few months

He had

it

is

wonderful

new

Hoomayoon, and

on the 21th of December,

how much had been

Considering the .shortness of the

Not only had


whole Mahometan population

accomplislied in

Afghan insurrections been put down, and the


reconcileil to the

and,

reigned thirty-eight years, but of the.se

only five were spent on the throne of Delhi.


period,

after,

it.

dynasty, Init great battles had been fought, and great

victories gained over in.surgent Hindoos.

had been subdued, Behar, on both

After Mewar, M;ilwah, and

sides of the Ganges, w;is overrun,

Mewat
and the

BABER'S CHARACTEIL

Chap. V.]

King of Bengal barely saved


be fu"mly

The
and

independence by submitting to an ignominious

liis

The throne of the Great Mogul was thus not only

|:)eace.

to

113
wo.

I.

but seemed

establislied.

love of natm-e, which Baber retained in

all its

freshness to the very

last,

which

of

many

set up,

A.n.

touching

instances are re-

corded by himself,

a[)peared in

his

selection of

final

was

It

place.

the

restingin

of

vicinity

on

the

banks of a

clear

Cabool,

running stream,
at the foot of a
liill

commanding

Tomb of Kmperor Babkr From

Atkinson's SketcJies in Afghauittiin.

a noble prospect.

There his tomb

still

stands,

and

His character

white marble.

but chaste mosque

in front of it a small
is

Memoirs

best learned from his

or

ol' nabei'situt.ibiogiai>hy.

A ufo-

hiography, in which his oi)inions and feelings are candidly expressed, and a
<jiven

into the conduct both

full

insijxht

Few

lives so full of vicissitudes

investigated,

is

and

sulfer so little

of the monarch

and temptations would bear


his varied

to be so

Take him

from the investigation.


in

and the num.


minutely
all

in

and seldom combined

capacities as a writer, a soldier,


a ruler,

all,

and

nuist be admitted that his

it

proper place

men whom

among

is

the greatest

the Eiist has j)roduced.

It is almo.st needless to .say that

and

his public

both

his private life exhibit

Among those of the


description may be mentioned

blemishes.

former

his folly in sqiiandering the treasiu'e

found in Delhi
WuiTi-

Marble Mosque

at tlie

From Vtum'i

Tomb

Vi.-it to

of

the

Kmperor naber

which he
doned

they had

till

Baber
'

four

made
son.s.

serious inroads

The

second,

Tlie sm.-iU but very ole^'aiit white niaiUle iiios<|Uc

at tlio

tomb

Vot,.

left

I.

of Sultan Baber,

his

latter,

(ihuzin.

was built

in

KMO, by

is

bacchanalian habits,

said not to have aban-

on his constitution.

Kannan. who
|

and among those of

Rliali Jehai), in

at the time of his father's

l.onour of liis great ancestor.

Vi^il to Ghuziii.

15

Vigne's

114

AD

1530.

JSiiber.

[Book

death was governor of Cabool and Kandahar, not only retained \)f>memi(>n

them,
nonmavoon

OF INDIA.

JIISTOItV

l)iit

iriade

good a chiim to

tlie

Contented to hold governments in

son,

and by Babers
it

The two youngest sons were at


India under Hoomayoon, who, an eldest

special appointment,

anything but a bed of

Kamran, without any

effort

mounted

roses.

preserve

t<j

it,

The

tlie tlirone

of Delhi.

He

Punjab to

cession of the

was a kind of premium

offered to

which was accordingly attempted in varioas quarters.

aggression,

ol'

Punjab.

first

soon found

I.

The

first

was with Bahadur Shah, King of Gujerat, who had rendered liimself
formidable by the annexation of Malwah, and the establishment of his supremacy
contest

over several adjoining


])rotection

given by Bahadur Shah to

refuge with

Siege of
Cliviiiiir.

teiritories.

him

The

was the
Mahomed Zuman Mirza, who had taken
ostensible cause of f|uarrel

after a rebellion against his brother-in-law,

failed

During a

Bahadur

first lost,

series of struggle.s,

and then recovered

Hoomayoon, had

with various alternations of

success,

his kinfjdom.

The next formidable opponent who appeared was Sheer Klian Sur, who
had made himself master both of Behar and Bengal.
Hoomayoon advanced

The Chunar-ohcr, from

against liim from Agra, and

the South-west.

amved

From Hodge's Views in ludia.

with a powerful army before the fort of

Chunar, near Benares, in the beginning of 1538.

somewhat by

surprise,

Chunar strongly

and as

garrisoned,

Sheer

his object, therefore,

and

was

Khan had been taken


to gain time, he left

Hoomayoon

retired farther into the interior.

enemy possessed such a place in his rear,


He was thus detained for several months, and

did not venture to advance while the

and resolved to lay siege to

it.

only succeeded at last because the provisions of the garrison were exhausted.
This siege derives importance from the regular manner in which
ducted,

and
Hoomayoon

and the great use made of gunpowder and

artillery,

it

was

con-

both by besiegers

besieged.

Hoomayoon now advanced along

the Ganges, but Sheer

Khan

continued to

pursue his tactics of not risking a general engagement, and only offering such

FORTUNES OF IIOOMAYOON.

Chap. V.]

115

Hooniayoon ought now

resistance as miglit suffice to protract the advance.

have become perfectly aware of the trap which was laid

some strong

satisfied to select

Instead of

this,

])osition, at least till

to

AD

1540.

and been
the rainy season was over.
for him,

he found himself in the lower basin of the Ganges when

its

whole delta was Hooded, and every brook had swollen into an impassjible

Meanwhile Sheer Khan, by a dexterous movement,

torrent.
his rear,

and cut

The King of Delhi was

off his retreat.

])erilous condition,

and endeavoui'ed

to elude his

enemy by

himself to be completely surprised, and had barely time to


for the river.

him nobly

He

immediately plunged

had not a water-carrier, who was

])re paring

boats to

in,

momit

his horse

and

but his steed, after bearing

His fate would have been the same,

a while, sunk exhausted

for

at last alive to his

While thus occupied, he allowed

cross over to the other side of the Ganges.

make

i)laced himself in

crossing,

XaiTow
escape of

HooniayooH

by the aid of the water-skin, which

he had inflated for that purpose, seized him


before he

and carried him


He reached Agra

sunk,

opposite bank.

end of June, 1539, but


jierished,

and

his

queen

his

to

the

in the

whole army had

Wfxs

Sheer Khan's

captive.

Hoomayoon made the best use of his


escape; and, by the aid of his brothers,
Kamran and Hindal, who, after taking
very suspicious measures, had become cordially imited with him. kept the

bay.

By

at

the spring of 15-tO he thought

himself strong enough for a

The armies came


and continued
till

enemy

for

new campaign.

in sight of each other,

some time manoeuvring,

Hoomayoon, alarmed

at

BmiSTEE OH Water-carrier From Luard's

some symptoms

'

Views

iti

liidta.

of desertion, determined to risk a general

engagement.

It

proved disastrous; and in the

His

as extraordinary as before.

hoi-se wsis

flight

which ensued,

his escape

was

wounded, and he was on the point

when he found an ele})hant, mounted it, and htistened


The driver hesitated to swim the river, and gave place to an

of being Icilled or taken,


to the Ganges.

eunuch who undertook the

on account of

its

'

is

The bag

He

reached the opposite bank in

whioli the Hiliistee carries

on his back,

called a luushk of p.inee, or skin full of water.

It

a goat -skin carefully sewed up, and made perfectly


open at one end, which he

tight; a valve being left

holds in his hand to enalde

siifety, but,

two soldiers who hajipened


turbans, and throwing one end to him, drew him up

height, could not land,

present joined their

i.*

task.

him

to guide the water

into porous earthenware bottles, in which

it is

placed

till

to be

His

Some Bihistees go about leading a bullock


with two large skins of water for sale, slung acros.s
the animal's back, and nearly reaching to the ground.
In tiie baik-ground to our engraving, men are represented filling skius so slung. BihisUc means Itcato cool.

venly.

His sticoud
lefeitt

and

HISTORY OF INDIA,

I<>

I).

1.-.40.

situation

was now

treasure from

reception

lio[)ele.ss;

Agra and

was not very

ami

Delhi,

and

cpf

HoomayoKii

it.

He

failed;

To

Marwar.

Here

his

Kamran feared he might prove


preparing to make Ills ])eace with .Sheer

Punjab

to him.
liis

brother, turned his thouglits to Scinde,

and endeavoured, partly by {)ersuasion and


of

his

gracious, as his brotiier

Hof)mayoon, thus abandoned by

Siibsefiuont

fortunes

tlie

I.

and

itMiiovt; his fauiily

with them to Laliore.

liasten off

a dangeroas competitor, and was also

Khan, by ceding

only time to

luil

Ik;

[Hook

j)ajtly

by

obtain possession

force, to

and then tlirew himself on the protection of the Rajah of

accomplisli

was obliged

this he

and even

to cross the de.sert,

there had the mortification to perceive that the rajah

was only meditating how


Flight into the desert was again his

he might best deliver him to his enemies.

While wandering

only resource.

encumbered with the women of

here,

his

body of horse was seen approaching They were headed by the son
of the Rajah of Marwar.
Nothing short of death or captivity was foreboded
family, a

but after a great show of


He

reaches

hostility, the rajah's

son apparently

I'elented,

furnished

them with water, and allowed them to proceed The horrors of the desert were
still before them
and at last Hoomayoon, with only seven attendants, reached
Amerkote. Here he was not only hospitably entertained, but furnished with
;

Ameikote.

the means of making a second attempt upon Scinde.

but the rajah


insult

who accompanied

which he had

to

with

all his

and he was only too glad

despei-ate,

ment which permitted him

might have succeeded,

him, indignant at obtaining no redress for an

received, suddenly withdi'ew

His position was now

It

withdraw from Scinde and

to

Hindoo

make an

set out for

This province belonged to Kamran, and was then held for him

younger brothers.

Hoomayoon,

travelling with his wife

followers.

arrange-

Kandahar.

by one

of his

and an infant

child,

afterwards the celebrated Emperor Akber, had arrived within 130 miles of his

when one

destination,

of his old adherents rode hastily up, and gave

startling intelligence that his

him the

brother Mirza Askari was at hand, with the

making him prisoner.


He had only time to mount the queen
behind him, and take to flight. The infant could not be thus carried, and fell,
with his attendants, into the hands of his im^cle. Hoomayoon contiimed his
intention of

flight

with a few followers

was sent
Slieer

Khan

to

till

he

amved

Herat to await the shah's

Sheer Khan, on Hoomayoon's

within the Pei-sian dcjminions.

He

orders.

flight,

made a kind

of trimnphant progress,

seated on

the throne

and was soon in possession of

all

the territories which had acknowledged the

of Dellii.

authoi'ity of the
called,
1

540.

though

King

his title

of Delhi.

was

His

at least as

reign, or usurpation as

it

is

sometimes

good as Baber's, had been commenced

in

During the three following years he made himself master of Malwah.

Marwar, and Mewar, and was carrying on the siege of

Callinjer, in loio,

he was killed by the explosion of a powder magazine.

Khan, had previously been recognized by him as


of his character induced the chiefs to set

him

His eldest

his successor;

aside,

son,

when
Adil

but the feebleness

and give the

throiie to his

THE USURPER

Chap. V.J

117

ADILF.

Tib.

Khan, wlio

brother, Jelal

lasted nine years, durinor

a.ssnineJ the title of

Selim Shah.

Hi.s reign,

which

a d

i.w.

which several important internal improvements were

He

made, and public works erected, was on the whole peaceful

a son of

left

succeo-u.

age of twelve,

tlie

but he was nuu'dered


his

uncle,

Ma-

homed

Khan,

who

by

usurped the throne,

and

known by the

is

His

of Adili.

title

conduct on the throne

was such

miglit

as

have been expected


after the atrocity

by

which he had oained


it,

and he made himSuKKH

From UiinicUs

SiiAU's .Mausoleum at tSA.s.sKKAii.'

Oriental .\iinunl.

self universally odi-

by his follies and ini([uities. For a time, however, the abilities of Hemoo,
a Hindoo oi low origiji, to whom he had committed the government, kept him
ous

TT-

1-

on his seat
treasury,

and he pm'sued a course of utter lawlessness,

means of indulging

was formed against him.


succes.sful

was

scjuandering

liLs

his subjects, in

.an assassin,

It failed in the first instance,

and low debauch-

in his extravagances

After he had naiTOwly escaped the dagger of

eries.

first

and then indiscriminately confiscating the property of

order to procm'e the

a confederacy

but other revolts were

and Ibrahim Sur, making himself ma.ster of Delhi and Agra, Adili

Ibrahim, having in his

possession only of the eastern pro\4nces.

left in

turn been driven out of Delhi and Agra

by Sikundur

who

Sur,

h.ad

proclaimed

himself King of the Punjab, endeavoured to compensate himself by wresting

some more
not at

all

territory from Adili, but

was repulsed by Hemoo.

This success did

improve his condition, for intelligence immediately arrived that Bengal

and Malwah had both


defeated Sikundur, and

proved the most

revolted,

and that Hoomayoon, who had returned, had

was once more seated

fatal of all

for

in Delhi.

Tiiis la^t intelligence

though Hoomayoon soon

died, his son

Akber

and brought the Mogul empire to its highest pitch of glory. Adili
was maintained for some time by Hemoo but on that Hindoo's death his

succeeded,

success

was

at

an end, and he

Hoomayoon's
Kings of
'

Pei"sia,

rece])tion

lost his life fighting in

by Shah Tamasp, the second of the Safavi or Sophi

had been (m the whole favourable, though accompanied with

Sheer Shah's mansoleu'.ii .at S-is-scram. near ]?ebuilt in the midst of .v hirge tank, altoiit a

iiavaa. is

niile

iit

circumference.

to decay,
age.

and the stone

Bengal.

Tiic I'uiUling
i.s

The remains of Sheer

now

is

r.ipidly falling

grsafly di-icolonred hy

Sliah,\vitli those of several

nicnilier.s of

lii.s

faniilj-

were dei>osited

story of the mausoleum.

an octagon, 100

The

in the

feet in diimeter, standiiig

sivo square terrace, each angle of

with an octagonal kiosk.

lower

central apartment

which

is

on a

is

nias-

ornamented

uuritioii
of

iMaliiiiii.-il

Kiian^.r

118
A.I). I'.is

TTISTORV OF INDIA.

many

niortityiug circuia.stances,

Before

lie

[Bf^oK

couM obtain any

a.s.siHtance,

he wa.s

Maho-

obliged to cede the province of Kandahai', and a/lopt the Shiite form of

metanism.

After these conceasions, he

mustered oidy about 700.


reached in March,

154:5.

his other brother,

Kamran.

recovers

Kandaimr.

furnished with a body of H-,00()

under the command of the whah's son, Morad Mirza.

horse,

Hoomayooii

\va,s

It

first

was

in possession of Mirza Askari, as governor

proceeded agaiast Kamlahar, whicli he

was immediately commence^l, Vjut prothe end of which desertion and famine

cceded languidly for five montlis, at


obliged Mii'za Askari to surrendei'.

i>i'

siege

Hoomayoon, probably soured by misfortune,

humanity which had formed the best feature

forgot the

His own followern

He

The

F.

in

liis

character

and,

disregarding the promise of pardon which he had given, subjected his brother
to the

most contumelious treatment, and then kept him nearly three yeara as a

He

prisoner in chains

Kandahar
He

to himself,

and maltreating

From Kandahar he proceeded

recover

agreement with the shah, by keeping

also violated his

his Persian auxiliaries.

Kamran, who

against Cabool, and e.xpelled

Cabool.

was obliged
that

it

to take refuge in Scinde

The capture was the more gratifying

enabled him to recover his son Akber,


After a time

of age.

Kamran

returned,

now

and a

a child of about three vears

took place,

series of struggles

dm'ing which the greatest barbarities were perpetrated on both

and Akber,

sides;

who had again fallen into the enemy's hands, escaped almost miractdously, after
Ms uncle had. with savage cruelty, exposed him to the full tii"e of his fathers
cannon.
Kamran was ultimately defeated and obliged again to tiee but, by
the aid of the Usbeks, obtained possession of Budukshan
Tliither Hoomayoon
;

He was

followed
154)8.

His

affairs

victorious,

and returned in triumph

now assumed

so promising

battle \vith

On

a total defeat.
soldier

New

but his bad fortune retmiied,

Kamran, who had once more taken the

this occasion

end of

an appearance that he began to

talk of attempting the conquest of Transoxiana

and in a

to Cabool in the

field,

he made another of his remarkable

he sustained

e-scapes.

had wounded him. and was about to repeat the blow, when he was

confounded by the sternness with wliich Hoomayoon exclaimed, 'Wretch!

vicissitudes

dare you?" that he dropped his

arm and

let

him

escape.

He

lied Avith

so

how
only

Akber again fell into liis uncle's hands. Another tm*n


in the wheel of fortune placed Hoomayoon in the ascendent, and Kamran
became his prisoner. The manner in wliich he disposed of him is a great blot
on liis memory. At first he gave him a most friendly reception, seated him on
eleven attendants, while

his right hand, feasted him, shared half of lus shce of

and

sjjent the

evening with lum in "jollity and carousing."

peremptory orders were to put out his brother's

Kamran exclaiming during


ever sins

passion on
to

end

water-melon with him.

eyes.

the agony of the tortm-e,

"O

have committed have been amply punished in

me

in the next."

his days.

He

In the morning his

They were
Lord,

my

executed,

God! what-

this world;

have com-

died soon after at Mecca, where he had wished

DEATH OF IIOOMAYOON.

CuAP. v.]

119

In the meantime circumstances in India had become favom-able, and Hooma- ad.
yoon, setting out from Cabool in January, 1555, at the head of 15,000

issc.

liorse,

After some delay he continued his march, noomayoon

invaded the Punjab and took Lahore.

agfiiii iiins-

Shah

obliged Sikundur

and made

liimself

to take refuge

among

master of Delhi and

Agi*a.

the lower ranges of the Himalaya,

He had

thus regained possession

ter..f ueiiu

""

'^^'^

was not destined long


to enjoy them
His life had been the sport of fortune his death was to
resemble it.
He had only been six months in Delhi, and was one day, after a
walk on the terrace of his library, descending by the stair, which wjis placed on

of his capital and a portion of his original ten-itories, but

the outside, and consisted of narrow steps, guarded only


foot high.

Hearing the

call to

prayer from the minaret, he stopped, as

down

repeated his creed, and sat

by a parapet about a

to wait

till

made

the muezzin had

is

usual,

his round.

by which he was supporting himself slipped, and he fell


headlong over the parapet. He was taken up insensible, and died four days after,
In

rising,

his staff

on the 25th of January, 1556, at the age of

fifty-one.

He had commenced

Hia

dentil.

his

reign twenty -five years before, but sixteen of these had been spent in exile from
his capital.

As Hoomayoon's

may be
It

reign reached to the middle of the sixteenth century,

considered as forming the link between medieval and

modern

it

India.

be proper, therefore, before continuing the narrative, to take a survey

will

of the political condition of India at this period.

Mahomed

In the reign of

Toghlak, which commenced in

325, almost the

understanding

by that name both Hindoostan and the


Deccan was subject to Mahometan sway. The chief territories not thus subject
were a long narrow tract in the south-west of the ]ieninsula, the kingdom of
Orissa, consisting of an unexplored and densely wooded region, stretching for
whole of India proper

about 500 miles along the coast from the Ganges to the Godavery, with a

width of about 350 miles

number of independent
assigned, as they

and Rajpootana

chieftainships,

in the north-west, consisting of

of which the lunits cannot easily be

were constantly changing in their dimensions, according as the

Mahometan invaders
termination of

medium

or the native chiefs gained the ascendency.

Mahomed Toghlaks

reign, in 1351, the extent of his

had shrunk exceedingly, in consequence of his inisgovernment.


tlirew off its yoke,

Before the

and became an independent kingdom;

In

dominions

3 10 Bengal

in 1344, the

example

was imitated by the Rajahs of Telingana and Carnata, the former recovering
Wurungole, and the

liis

capital of

(n

the Toombudi-a

frontier

latter establishing

ca])ital at

Eijanagm*,

which extended no farther south than the banks of the Krishna, and

still

across the
in the

new

while the Mahometans were obliged to rest satisfied with a

no farther east than the meridian of Hyderabad.


on a

more extended
Nerbudda.

scale

In 1347, a Hindoo movement

took place, and the ^lahometans were driven

Hassan Gangii, the head of

this last

movement, founded

Deccan the extensive kingdom of Bahmani, which continued to subsist

Political

india.

1:20

I).

I'lM

II1S'J'()IIV

170 years.

lor

the

VVliiN;

strove in vain to regain

tliey

[Hook

INIJIA.

mjaliM roinaincd

II'iikIoo

what

or

had

iinitx'fl.

F.

the Maljoinetans

and ma<le scarcely any impression;

lost,

wJKin they began again to indulge in internal dissensions, the Mahcnnetans

V>ut

again extended

tlieir

conquests, subdued Wurungole, and oljtfiined jx^ssession of

the country between the Krishna and the Toombudra,

In Hindoostan and the adjoining

ii.dupcna.jnt
sdViM'eignties in uiii-

<>i

territories, various

11*11*Among these, one 01/'ithe


Uellii wcrc established.

xTvii"

kingdoms independent

vvas Gujerat, which, instead of

being confined

1111
<lui-able

mo.st exteiLSive

and

which bore that

b> the teiritor}^

name, extended over Malwah, which wa.s twice concjuered, and finally annexed
to

The Rajpoots of Mewar

it.

acknowledged

its

soon recovered

Malwah, before

supremacy.

itself,

it

also repeatedly bent Ijefore

Hoomayoon

occupied

and was inde[)endent

fell

it

for

it,

and Candeisii

a short time, but

at the acceasion of his son Akber.

under the power of Gujerat, had long maintained a

was under the domination


who, though not the nominal, was virtually the real sovereign, and
separate independence, and for some time

highest offices wath his


and, besides

it,

own countrymen.

Bengal

ha.s

Of

of a Hindoo,

the

filled all

been already mentioned

Candeish, Jounpoor, Scinde, and Mooltan were

at Akber's succession.

it

all

independent

the Rajpoot states, the most important wliich were

independent at the same period, are Mewar, ruled by the Ranas of Odeypoor,

though at one time reduced to a kind of vassalage under Gujerat


held

by

tlie

^larwar,

Rhahtors, who, after being driven out of Canouge, vv^here they had

early established themselves, retired to the desert between the table-land and

the Indus, subdued

the Juts, the onginal

dominion over a large

teriitory,

formed the separate

throwing

state of Bicanere

off a

inliabitants,

and extended

then-

younger branch, wliich afterwards

Jessulmeer, where the BhattLs had made

their settlement in tlie western part of the desert, at so early a period that their

history

waha,

is lost

in fable

who do not

Je\q)oor, possessed

and along the east of the table-land

north, along the slopes of the Himalaya, fi-om

which overlook the delta of the Ganges,

coiiinieucc-

ment of a
new era.

Sucli

was the

tribe of Cach-

much in early times, but have a proof of their imporAkber married their rajah's daughter. Besides these are

states in the desert

own independent

by the

figure

tance in the fact that

many minor

and Amber, or

all

In the

Cashmere east to the highlands

the petty states were i-uled

by

their

sovereigns.

when Akber came


forms a new era in the

state of matters

His long and prosperous reign

to the throne in

history of India.

556.

It

is

remember that before it commenced, another event,


in which the future destiny of India was more deeply involved, had occurred.
The route to the East by the Cape of Good Hope had been discovered moi-e

of importance, however, to

than half a century before; and the Portuguese had set the

first

example of those

European settlements which, imitated and improved upon, were afterwards to


expand, under British energy and prowess, into a magnificent empire.
great event, therefore, were

we now to

give om-

first

attention

we

To

this

should only be

OF AKBER.

IIEIGN

VI.]

CiiAp.

following' the order

ot"

time, but .some atlvaiitage.s in respeet of arriuiociiieiit will

Mahometan

be gained by continuing the thread of

Akbers

conclusion of

The empire of the

reign.

Hoomayoon,

guished during the misfortunes of

re-established, but raised to a degree of splendour

and

121

narrative unbroken to

a.u. 1&42.

tie

(Jreat Mogul, almost extin-

will thus

which

it

be seen not oidy

never attained before;

ni consequence, be unnecessary, in tracing Eiu'opean progress, to be

it will,

constantly turning aside in order to contemplate the internal changes which

were at the same tune taking

place.

CHAPTER

YI.

Peifrn of Akber.

KBER
at

might be

called a child of the desert,

Amerkote, on

after his

tlie

])arents.

edge of

it,

having been born

on the 14th of October,

with a few followers, had traversed

154-2,
it

homeless wanderers, under almost unparalleled privations.


fore

he was a year old he became a captive

uncle with wiiom his father

was

at

war; and, while

barously placed in the most exposed position on

tlie

still a

as

Be-

the hands of an

mere

was

child,

bar-

ramparts of Cabool, wliich

was besieged, in the malicious expectation that some

ball

from the cannon of

the besieijers would de-

him

prive

of

life.

His

caj)tivity was afterward'^

renewed

repeatedly
b\it,

had been

as if he

reserved for something

he

great,

harmed

])assed

in tlie

danger, and

hair-breadth

vui-

midst of

made many
escajies.

If

anything had been wantconfirm the belief

insj to

C\ii>'LlL.

that a

liigli

waited him,
at

it

would have been found

an early age, to display.

and the confidence reposed

mand

.-.

ll^tan.

in the remarkaltle talents

which he began,

Such were the expectations which he had


in him, that

excited,

he was sent into the Punjab in the com-

At this time
died he was only in his

of an army, and gained distinction on the field of battle.

he must have been a mere boy, for


Vol.

.MkllL-iUll

destiny a-

I.

when

his father

16

Akbei

history.

122

A D.

1660.

IirSTORV OF TNDTA.

(Ml

this coinuiaMd.

forthwith
liis

13elirain
riiJea in

Ak

ber'a uuiiiu.

Wl H'M

fourteeiitli yeai'.

own

tl le

luflaiicholy tidings readied

i)r()claiined as hiwf'ul

had stood hioh

were

Tlu; necessary steps

family to dispute

it

fB^JOK

ho wuh

liiui

iinine<liately taken,

possessor of the throne.

aWnt

and he waH

Tliere wa.s no rival in

with him; hut in Jieiiram Khan, a Toorkoman

and

in his father's confidence,

also

been his

own

tutor,

who

he found

who seemed determined to leave him little more than a nrmiinal


sovereignty.
Behrams talents were of the highest order; and he probably

a minister

retained the power not for

any treasonable purpose, but merely because he ha/1


persuaded himself that the interest of his youthful sovereign would thereby be
most effectually promoted.

Akber was not the kind

of person to be long kept in leading-strings, though

he had prudence enough not to take any decisive step


ing from thraldom

At

first,

till

he was sm-e that he would be able to give

Behram

therefore, he left

much

to extricate

very outset of
Akber's
thvoiie in

danger.

and declared

liis

for

It

Behrams

Akber from
reign.

effect to

undisturbed, and readily consented to

measm-es which he rertommended.


considerable gainer

for the purpo.se of escap-

is

probable that in this

all

it.

the

way he was

experience was great, and mast have done

the difficulties which encompassed

In the Punjab, Sikundur Sur

his determination to be satisfied

still

with nothing

him

at the

kept his gi-ound,

.short

of the throne

made a sudden in-uption,


and made himself absolute master and from an opposite direction, Hemoo, the
talented Hindoo minister of the usurper Adih, was advancing towards Agi'a at
of Delhi; in Cabool, Mirza Soliman of Buduk.shan had
;

the head of a powerful army.

Behram and

last,

as the

young sovereign immediately took the

his

too late; for the

Against the

Mogul generals had sustained a severe

most pressing danger,


It

field.

defeat,

was almost

and Hemoo had,

in consequence, not only captured Agra, but forced his entrance into Delhi.

The contest now about to be waged wore a very ominous aspect for Akber.
His army at the utmo.st mustered only 20,000 horse, wdiUe that of the enemy
exceeded 1 00,000. No wonder that many of the ofiicers urged an instant retreat
in the direction of Cabool.

The minister and

they resolved to risk the encounter.

He

gains a

signal

victory at

Paniput

Some

his sovereign stood alone

addition was

made

when

to Akber's force

by the arrival of soldiers who had belonged to the defeated detachments, but
when the armies met his was still far inferior in numbers. The decisive battle
was fought near Paniput, on the 5th of November, 1556. Hemoo began the
action with his elephants, and pushed forward with them into Akber s very
centre but these powerful and unwieldy animals acted as they almost invariably
Furiously attacked
did when their first charge failed to produce a general panic.
on all sides by the Moguls, who galled them with lances, aiTows, and javelins,
they L'ecame unruly, and carried confusion into their own ranks. The day was
thus quickly decided in Akber's favour but Hemoo, mounted on an elephant
;

of procUgious size,

still

bravely continued the action, at the head of 4000 horse.

An arrow pierced his eye and he sunk senseless into his howdah.

A few moments

Chap. VF.)

REIGN OF AKHER.

after, liaviiig coine to himself,

he

out the

|)hicke(l

brought the eye out along with

12.",

which

arrfivv,

and in the midst of

it;

this

is

said to

have

He

line.

On

deserved to succeed, but unhappily

Khan

and was taken

failed,

iscio.

agony had the

energy and presence of mind to attem}>t his escape by breaking through the

enemy's

\.v.

ueroigm
aiiiiidoo.

Akber to gain the


envied title of Ohazy, or Champion of the Faith, by killing him with his own
He had too much spirit to do the executioner's office. It would have
hand.
been pleasing to add that he went a step farther, and magnanimously interpose(i

prisoner.

being brought back, Behram

Hindoo's

his sovereign authority to save the

life,

lu-ged

irnfoitunately, he left liim

Behram Khan, who cut off" his head at a stroke.


Innnediately after the victory Akber marched upon Delhi, and entered it
He had not remained hmg when his presence was imperawithout opjjosition.
to the will of

tively recpiired
U'enerals,

On

and

Sikundur Shah,

the Punjab.

in

jum

oblio-ino-

to take refuo-e in Lahore,

after defeating (me

who had been

Shah,

commenced, and

and give

his son as

to be thus rid of his

Behram Khan,

it,

accord to

he regarded

fus

i)ass

galling,

lie

own

The

tei'ms

power

in India
his sovereign Anogimce

sis

began to presume more than ever on his

of

tiie

whom

persons

if

to

whom

he banished was

make

the act more

which he had thus rendered vacant by

Akber was gTeatly

})rece[>tor in his stead.

bomid

ho.stage for his future behaviour.

preceptor; and, as

at once tilled ui) the office

immediately prepai'ed to adopt

The

when Sikundur

most formidable opponent

One

his private enemies.

appointing another

of his

it.

sentence of death and banishment on individuals

Molla Peer Mahomcul, the king's

i>eiiii.

had not been worth the asking, proceeded

services; and, as if Akber's consent

own

an

instead of gradually retiring from

became more capable of exercising


of his

lasted six months,

severely wounded, offered to ca})itulate.

liim to evacuate the fort,

Akber was happy

liad

re-enter.

had advanced to Kalanoi-e.

Akber's approach he retired to Mankote, and shut himself up in

siege wa,s immediately

'^^^^

mejwure which

it

is

incensed, ami

probable he had long-

meditated.

Having gone on

a hunting party in the beginning

(tf

1560, he received, or no

is

ilisiiiissoO

])reten<led to
ill,

have received, a message from Delhi that his mother was extremely

and wished

to see him.

announciiiiT that
in

Immediately cu

lie

future no orders

ai

riving he issued a prochunatiou,

had taken the government into


Init

those issued

liy

his

his

own

hands, and that

authority weiv to be oluyed.

Hehi'am at once saw what was intended, and endeavoured to avert his downfall,

by sending two of
terms.

Akber

his principal friends to

most by

his submis.sion in the

humblest

refused to see them, and shortly after imprisoned them.

disgraced minister soon found


fited

make

his prosperity,

how

and

little

he could trust to those

.saw himself rapidly deserted.

who

The

ha<l pro-

Various schemes

At one time he thought of proceeding to Malwah and


setting up an independent sovereignty; at another, of making this experiment
in Bengal, where it might be eas}- to expel the Afghans.
The prospect, in either

passed through his mind.

jui.irebeu.

I2t
A.D.

1500.

HISTOIIY OF INDIA.
not

case, did

designs,

altle

very hopcfiil

scciri

he set out

and at

as

if Ik;

had abandoned

I.

treaw^n-

all

avowed intention of taking


Having halted at Nagore, in the

Gujerat with

for

and making a pilgrimage

shipping-

last,

[Book

tiie

to Mecca.

hope that the kings i-esentment might be withdrawn, he was deeply mortified
on receiving a message which dismissed him from office, and ordered him to
continue his pilgrimage without delay.

terms:

following

"Till

now

But

concerns

it

said to have been in the

was our royal

you should regulate

will that

being our intenti(jn henceforward to govern

it

own judgment,

our people by our

is

our mind haa Ijeen taken up with our education

and the amusements of youth, and


the affairs of our empire.

The message

let

our wellwisher withdraw from aU worldly

and, retiring to Mecca, far removed from the toils of public

spend

life,

the rest of his days in prayer."


Behram'i

It

seems that Behram

Khan had been

travelling with

all

the insignia of

i'el)eIU(ii

fails.

office

on receiving this message, he retiuTied his state elephants, banners,

for,

and drums, and


a

new thought seemed

and gave such decided evidence of treasonable

Here he began

retired into the

and perhaps

also

to thi'ow himself

intentions, that

As they approached he

openly raised the standard of

and

on arriving at Bicanere, he

to have struck him, for,

stopped short and retraced his steps to Nagore.

of troops against him.

Suddenly

shorn of his public honours, for Gujerat.

set out,

He

revolt.

Akber sent a
but

battle,

He was

it,

combined

it,

cause,

in determining

at once forgiven

and

lost

Here the hopelessneas of Ms

remorse for having engaged in

Vjody

retired into the Punjab,

even fought one

mountains of Sewalik.

on Akbers mercy.

to collect troops,

him

and some of the

him into the


On entering the court he hung Ms

leading officers of the court were sent to receive him, and conduct
[)resence

with every mark of distinction.

turban round his neck


He

is

and, advancing rapidly, threw himself in tears at the

Akber, giving him

foot of the throne.

Ms

hand, caused him to

l)ai'doued

him

in his former .station at the head of the nobles.

given him

and the king, addressing him,

court, a provincial

government, or

escoi't suitable to his

witli a lai'ge retinue

rank.

offered

libei"ty to

Behram

and placed

A splendid dress was then


him the

choice of a place at

continue his pilgrimage with an

preferred the

last,

and

set out for

and an annual pension of about 5000.

Gujerat, he halted in the suburbs of Puttun,

rise,

Mecca

After reaching

and turned aside to

visit

cele-

Having
hired a boat and a band of musicians, he spent all mght on the lake in company
with his friends. As he was returning in the morning he was acco.sted by an
Afglian, who, pretending to embrace him, drew a dagger and pierced him to the

brated spot, called Sahasnak, from the thousand temples in

lieart

It

battle }y

was an

its \'icinity.

act of revenge for the death of his father,

who had

fallen in

Behram's sword

Akber soon showed that, in taking the government into his own hand, he
had not presumed too much on his own talents. While success almost invariably
attended liis arms, his internal measui'es exhibited a model of liberal and

CiiAP

REIGN OF AKBER.

VI.]

When

enlightened administration.

he succeeded

125
possessed

lie

more than

little

a.d. i56i.

the territory aroimd Delhi and Agra, together with an imperfect and precarious

During Behram's regency Ajmeer was added to

hold of the Punjab.

his

dominions without a contest, the strong fort of Gwalior wjis captured, and the

Afghans were driven as

and a large
of

Juanpoor, after being dispossessed of

far enst as

tract of country

and with that view despatched an army under the connnand of

The

Atka.

was then

princi[)ality

success-

Lucknow

desire perhaps to signalize his full assumi)tion

resolved to attempt the contjuest of

of the reins of government,

ana

In loGO, shortly after the dismissal

on the Ganges.

Behram Khan, Akber, from a

Akber's
vigorous

Adam Khan

Baz Bahadur, who

possession of

in the

Malwah,

kept his court at Sarungpoor, where he had become so much the slave of indo-

and

lence

Moguls were within twenty miles of

pleasure, that the

Even then

before he could be roused to action.


his troops

his

having been routed at the

and family behind.

propert}'

Adam

He

Khan.

first onset,

be

at once disposed of tliem as if he

who was

without delay to

liim

call

account.

to

was

feeble

and

Boorhanpoor, leaving

fled for

These immediately

sending only a few elephants to Akber,


set out

his resistance

his capital

fell

into the

hands of

had been absolute master,

so

much

Adam

dissatisfied that

Khan,

if

he

he really

them completely frustrated by Akber's


make his peace.
He had previously, by the

entertained treasonable designs, found


ex])edition,

and hastened to

indulgence of unbridled passion, been the cause of an aft'ecting catastrophe.

One

of the inmates of the

harem

a Hindoo of surpassing beauty, highly

wtis

accomplished, and celebrated as a poetess.


the importunities

and violence of

When

the hour of meeting.

Adam

it

dress, sprinkled the richest perfumes,

attendants, seeing her

lie

down on

her couch and cover

asleej),

on the khan

they attempted to waken

Akber retm-ned

to

Agi-a,

lier

and fixed

her corpse.

chamber, put on her

and taken

poison.

lier face witli

and did not become aware of the

thought she had fallen


s a))proach,

yield,

Wcis only to behold

Immediately after the appointment she had retired to

most splendid

Her

her mantle,

real fact

till,

her.

and shortly after made Mahomed Khan Atka.

governor of the Punjab, his prime minister, and confeired the government of

Malwah on
in

fit

his old preceptor,

Peer

Mahomed Khan, whom

of jealou.sy, driven into exile.

In 1561, while on a

Behraiu
visit to

Khan

had,

a celebrated

Akber married the daughter of Poorunmul, Rajah of Je^qwor,


This
and enrolled botli the rajah and his son among the nobles of his court
is said to be the first instance in which a Hindoo chief was ennobled or ])laced
Akber,
in any position of high ti-ust under the government of the Great Mogul.

shrine in Ajmeer,

before (putting Ajmeer, despatched Mirza Shurf-u-din Hoossein to invest the


fort of

Merta, belonging to Maldo, Rajah of Marwar; and then set out for Agra

with such ex])edition


interruptitni.

that,

by taking only

tivigiciU

After endeavouring in vain to resist

Khan, she pretended to

he arrived

six attendants,

and travelling without

he pei-foi-med the distance of above 200 miles

in three da>'S.

Aki>er
niiuioo.

20
A

1).

ir,in.

of Mt'ita proved nioic

sicgi!

'I'lic

of the principal Rajpoot


Sie^j of

OF INDIA.

III.STOl;^'

Lliaii

liu'l

l.ct-ii

I.

Two

anticipated.

Marwar had thrown themselves into it, and


much skill and valour that the mirza's ojierations,

cliiefs

conducted the defence with so

(lifHi.i.ilt

[i;ooK

of

Moi'Cu.

though carried on with great vigour, were completely baffled, Aft<ir carrying
mines under one of the bastioas, and making a prfK;tiwi])le breach, he advanced
to the assault,

but was

i-enew the assault, he found that in the course of


built

Some

up.

one of

tlie

to

provisiorts

Favourable terms were given; but

capitulate.

disdaining to accept of them, collected 500 of his followers,

fajalis

and, after burning whatever they could not take with them, rushed out

cut

tlieir

to

night the breach had been

tlie

had thas passed away when want of

montlis

compelled the garrison

when he was preparing

In the morning,

re))ulsed.

way through

About

the enemy.

half the

number succeeded

and

the rest

perished.

The war with Baz Bahadur,

Malwah.

last so closely pressed that

Still,

and not only kept the country

was enabled

and

all

Malwah

in

ferment and alarm

561

Ijy fre-

with the rulers of Candeish anrl

Mahomed Khan

officers,

lost his life in

Baz Bahadur continued the pursuit


of

alliance

Peer

it

when, conti-ary to the advice of his


defeated,

however, he had no thoughts of peace,

to take the field with so powerful an

were obliged to retreat before

He was

continued, though he was at

in a con.staut state of

by means of an

(juent incursions, but

still

he was obliged to seek a refuge at Boorhanpoor,

within the limits of Candeish.

Berar,

Malwah,

in

army that the Moguls


fell

back on Beezygur

he resolved to risk an engagement.

attempting to cross the Nerbudda

as far as Agra,

while

and once more became master

His triumph was short-lived, for the governor of Kalpee,

being appointed to the command, expelled him a second time, and obliged him
to flee to the mountains.
Rivalship

among
Akber's

One
rivalry

of the greatest difficulties with which

and

strife

among

Akber had

to contend, arose from

Mahomed Khan

his leading officers.

Atka.

who had

officers.

been appointed minister at Delhi with the


favour at court

For

this

voured to undermine him


only issued in his
the minister

was

own

he was hated by

and

disgrace.

sittino- in

title

Adam

for this pm-pose

was high

of Shahab-u-din,

had

Klian Khoka,

who

endea-

recoui-se to intrigues,

He determined on revenge;

antl

in

one day,

which

whUe

the hall of audience reading the Kc)ran, entered and

The minister continued, as was visual in such circumstances, to


read on without taking any notice of his enti^ance, and Adam Khan, whether
from momentary im])ulse or premeditation, drew his dagger and stabbed him
Akber was sleeping in one of the inner apartments, and, liearing
to the heart.
saluted him.

the noise and ascei-taining the cause, rushed out in his sleeping dress.
lay the minister weltering in his blood, while the murderer

Akber s
by his own atrf)city, on an adjoining teiTace.
draw his sword and put him to death, but, recollecting
the sword to

its scal)bard.

Adam

stot)d,
first

There

as if stupified

impvdse was

t(

himself, he letm-ned

Klian took advantage of the interval to clasp

KEKJN OF AKIJEU.

Chap. VI.]

the king's

and

liaiul

his attendants to

About

tliis

l)eg fur

127

mercy; but he shook him

off in disgust,

do summary jastice by flinging him over the

time Akber himself narrowly escaped

and ordered

parajjct.

assfussination.

famous

chief of Tm'kestan, called Mirza Shurf-udin Hoos.sein, arriving from Lahore at

Agra, was received at court with great distinction

but shortly

I'oyal

army he

who happened

of his retainers,

One

retreated to the frontiers of Gujerat.

neighbourhood of Delhi when the

to be in the

it;

and, looking upwards, fixed

bow and pointed


in the air.
The

.sky,

as if he were going to shoot

at

in his

some object

towards the

it

bow and

did not inteifere, and he had time to lower the

and

tlie

arrow was with some

was aiming

attendants, thinking he

The

in the flesh of Ak])er"s shoulder.

Nissiatioii.

On

royal retinue was pa.ssing along the road, joined

an arrow

-^kber

being

after,

suspected of treasonable designs, fled to Ajmeer and went into rebellion.

the advance of the

a.u. isor

assassin

at a

lodge the arrow deep

was immediately cut


I'he

difficulty extracted.

l)ird,

to pieces,

wound, though deep,

did not prove serious, and healed over in about ten days.

Shortly after Akber set out from Agra on


ostensible object, but his real design

was

hunting excui'sion.

to nij) in the

This was his

bud an insurrection which

was meditated by Abdollah Khan Usbek, the governor of Malwah.


ingly turned suddenly aside, and, in spite of the r.ainy season,

He had

Usbek

He

made an

accord-

incursion

when Abdollah Khan, taking


guilt to himself, marched off with his forces and treasure for Gujerat.
Akber
chivalrously pursued with a small body of hor.se, but met with so much opposiinto that province.

only reached Oojein

The annoyance caused by this


U.sbek was said to have given Akber a rooted dislike to the whole race and it
was generally rumoured that he meant to seize and impri.son all the Usbek chiefs.
was obliged

tion that he

to fall

back on Mando.

The consequence was a general Usbek


mustered 40,000 horse,

In a short time the insurgents

revolt.

which they ravaged

witli

tlie

teriitories of

Berar and

was Asuf Khan Heroy, governor

Juanpoor.

One

of Kurra.

Shortly after his a])pointment he obtained permission to sulxlue a

of the leadei-s of the revolt

country called Gurrah, which was at the time governed by Doorgawutty, a ranee
or

Hindoo queen,

to

have been un])rincipled, for the only reason assigned

as celebrated for beauty

sis

for ability.

The

aggi-ession appears

for it is that

Asuf Khan

After several predatory excui'sions he invaded

had heard of the riches of Gurrah.

The queen opposed him with


an army of 8000 horse and foot, and 1 500 elej)hant.s. The battle was sanguinary
antl well contested, till the queen, who was mounted on an elephant, was struck
it

with a force of about GOOO

by an arrow
into the

driver

in the eye

hor.se

and infantiy.

and disabled from giving

ordei-s.

Determined not to

fall

hands of the enemy, she plucked a dagger from the girdle of her elephant ^",1^

Her

and stabbed herself

her infant son trampled to death.

capital

A.suf

was immeiliately taken by storm, and


Khan obtained an immense booty in

gold and jewels, but sent only a small part to the royal treasmy, and was thus
able,

i)e,itiiof

on joining the

revolt, to

add largely to

its

pecuniary resources.

^"^"^^

128
A.U.

HISTORY OF INDIA.
Akljcr, liiuUug that littN;

I5<jr,.

was uvula by

|)ro;rn;s.s

the revolt, detenniiied to take the field in person.


Campaign
against

seized, obliged

him

this

Usbuka.

to retuiTi to Agra,

then resumed the campaign.


forced

in the

lii.s

select

fever,

body of

liOOK

officers in suijpressin;^

where he remained

Taking a

march toward Lucknow,

'

with which he
April,

till

w{i.s

and

lofifi,

by a

horse, he j)roceedefl

hope of surjjrising Sikun<lur Khan;

Ijut

that rebel chief, having received warning, evacuated the place and joined his

Several of these, worked upon by emissanes from Aklicr,

confederates.

who

always displayed great dexterity in breaking up any confederacy formed against

made their submission but a formidby Bahadur Khan Seestany, who, after crossing

him, abandoned the cause as hopeless, and

was still offered


the Jumna and raising disturbances in the Doab, encountered the royalist
general, Meer Moiz ool -Moolk, in the open field.
The royalists were at first
successful; and, in the full confidence of victory, commenced the pursuit without
observing any order.
Baliadur Khan immediately seized the advantage, and
able opposition

changed
resvilt

his defeat into a victory, so complete that

Akbers

tidings of the

first

were received from Meer Moiz himself, who never halted in

his flight

till

he joined him at Canouge, witli the wreck of his army.


A

The

serioiis

repaired

was greatly aggravated by its indirect effects ^some of the confedwho had made their submission, conceiving new hopes, and again joining

reverse

erates,

loss

the revolt.

Among

these

was Khan Zuman, who immediately occupied Ghazi-

poor and the adjoining country.

Akber

set out against

him with

all

expedition,

but Bahadm* Khan, taking advantage of his absence, advanced to Juanpoor and
captured

it

by

This disaster seeming the more serious of the two,

escalade.

Akber retraced his steps, and, by the junction of forces from the loyal
was soon at the head of an army strong enough to crush the rebellion.

Khan

provinces,

Bahadur

accordingly evacuated Juanpoor and fled toward Benares, from wliich he

Akbers leanings
were to the generous side, but on this occasion his leniency was carried to an
extreme.
When the king, after having given his royal word of pardon, ordered
The

sent an offer of submission.

liim

and

shame
till

his brother

Klian

Zuman

for his past offences alone

offer

was accepted;

for all

to appear at coui't, the latter

answered "that

prevented him from appearing in the presence,

tima should have convinced his majesty of his loyalty; but that when the

king should return to Agra, both he and his brother Bahadur Khan would, at a
future time,

pay

their respects."

There was no sincerity in these words, for the

brothers were only endeavouring to gain time, and took the

first

opportunity of

revolting and seizing upon GuiTah.

The next quarter

Proceedinga
in Cabool.

It

was

in

to

which Akbers attention was

the hands of his half-brother,

.specially called

Mahomed Hakim

was Cabool.

Mirza,

who was

threatened by Suliman Mirza, chief of Budukshan. and sent a message to Akber,


earnestly soliciting his aid.

A strong

arrived the struggle

was

reinforcement was accordingly sent

Suliman Mirza had made good

before

it

threat

by attacking Cabool, and Mahomed Hakim

over.

Mii'za

but
his

had been compelled

REIGN OF AKBER.

Chap. VI.]
to evacuate

In his retreat he took the direction of the Indu.s, and wa.s

it.

ungratefid enoiigli to endeavour to compensate himself for the loss of Cabool


seizing u{)ou

The attempt

u])on

ances were so alarming that

Usbeks

Doab, and

in the

Lahore was made; and, though

Akber

the noise of

by

in

November, 1566, directed

drums and trumpets

appear- An

i.aiioio

the

mju'ch into

his

i.titnii't

Hakim Mirza was awakened by

and, calling to ask

it failed,

by the

po.stponed a projected expedition against the

In the dead of the night ]\Iahomed

Punjab.

a.d. loce.

This he was more readily tempted to do, because he

Lahore.

believed that Akber's hands were fully occupied in the eastern provinces

Usbeks.

2<)

what

it

meant, was told

that the citizens of Lahore were manifesting their joy at the intelligence they

had received of Akber's approach.


his steed in the

to

for

ab.sence of

Akber

in the

it

his

enemy, Suliman Mirza, had retired

Cabool very imperfectly defended.

for the winter, leaving

consequence was, that he recovered

The

mounted

Fortune was far more favourable to him than he

on arriving he found that

Budukshan

to learn more, he

utmost alarm, and, taking his cavalry along with him, was off

on the instant for Cabool.


deserved

Without waiting

as quickly as he had lost

The

it.

Punjab was no sooner known to the Usbeks

than they put themselves in motion, took Canouge and Oude, and extended

He

their conquests in all directions.

He

of Sheergur.

Seestany,

who was

inunediately raised

Khan Zuman Khan, when

was engaged

in laying siege to the fort

and, with his brother

it,

besieging Kurra, crossed the Ganges in

intending either to join some insurgents

who had

full retreat to

and finding no boats

his haste that,

in readiness,

Malwah,

Akbei', fully alive to the

magnitude of the danger which thus threatened, determined,


Such was

Bahadur Khan

a])peared in that province,

or to form an alliance with the kings of the Deccan.

overtake him.

revolt.

and

therefore hastened back to Agra,

having collected his troops, set out for Juanpoor.


this startling intelligence reached him,

Progress of

if possible,

to

on arriving at the ferry of Muneepoor,

he mounted his elephant and plunged into the

One hundred of his body-guard imitated his example; and though


the water was then high, they all reached the opposite bank in safety.
At the
head of this small party Akber proceeded, and had actually come in sight of the
enemy's camp before he was reinforced by the garrison from Kurra.
The enemy, never imagining that Akber would venture to cross without his

stream.

army,

felt perfectly secure,

They were

first

and had accordingly passed the night

brought to their

mikara, or kettle-drum.

numbers that the contest

sen.ses

in festivity.

by the ominous sound of the

Though completely
was for some time

surprised, they

doubtfid, and

royal

were so superior in

Akber was

in great

personal danger; but his elei)hants, advancing rapidly into the midst of the

enemy no time to rally. Khan Zuman, while endeavouring to extract an arrow which had wounded him, fell with his horse, and was
His brother, Bahadur Khan, was taken
tram])led to death by an ele]>hant.
prisoner; and on being bronght before the king, who asked him what injury he

confused mass,

Vol.

I.

left

the

17

lurap

IX

LIT-.'

liad susttiiuL'(l to justify

be to

OF INDIA.

IlJSTOJiV

:]{}

God

drawing the sword,

in uguiii

liiiii

that he has rescued

me

[Hook

ill-judged leniency, put

once more to see your majesty's wmntenance."

Siege of

it

now

provi;d

perhaps of a renewal of the kings

officers, afraid

The

to death without orders.

i-evolt

of the Usbeks

Akber returned to Agi"a in July, 1.jG7.


Akber next marched against Rana Cody Sing, who had hitherto refased to
acknowledge the Mogul supremacy. He immediately directed his steps against
The rana quitted it before his arrival, and retired
Cliittoor, in Rajpootana.
being

Cliittoor.

now

him

"Praise

siinj>ly replied,

This impudent hypocrisy had saved him on a former occasion, but


unavailing; for some of the

I.

considered at an end,

into the mountains, but left

8000 Rajpoots.
said to

am])ly provisioned and strongly garrisoned Ijy

it

was immediately invested by

It

have been made in the most

scientific

AkVjer, who.se ap[jroaches are

manner, in the mode recommended

by Vauban, and practised by the best engineers of modem times. After arriving
near the walls by means of zigzag trenches and stuffed gabions, two mines
were carried under bastions, filled with gunpowder, and fired. The stonning
party advanced, and, finding a practicable breach, di\'ided, with the view of

From some

entering both breaches at once.

was

exploded, and the second division

close

cause only one of the mines had

upon the other when the second

explosion took place, and 500 of the Moguls were blown into the

consequence was, that both attacks


Akber shoot;

Akber's

spu-it generally rose

The

air.

failed.

with the

difficulties

he encountered, and he

.lagmul.

immediately began to run new mines and carry on other works.

One

even-

ing while they were in progress, he perceived Jagmul, the governor, superin-

tending the repair of the breaches by torch-light.

one of his attendants, he

with so sure an aim as to lodge the

fired

The garrison were

Jagmul's forehead.

at once seized with despair,

a funeral pile for the dead body of their


along with

it.

chief,

Not a

soul appeared,

The Rajpoots had

the fort without opposition.

cliildi-en

had hitherto died

men

cliildren

forward to

and they entered

retired to their temples,

there, disdaining to accept of quarter, perished to a

Akber's

ball in

and erecting

bm-ned their wives and

Akber, aware of what was going on, ordered his

the breaches under the cover of night.

Sheikh

Seizing a matchlock from

and

man.

but in 1569, shortly after he had made

Seliiri.

a pilgrimage to a celebrated shrine at Ajmeer. and paid a

Selim

\dsit to Sheikli

Chishty, in the village of Sikra, his favourite sultana gave birth to his son

In the following year another

Selim.

him.

As both

births

whom

had taken place in the

particularly propitious spot,

period received the

son,

name

and

selected

it

he called Murad, was

village of Sikra, he regarded

as the site of a city,

which

Having

for all the chiefs

as a

of Futtipoor.

who had

therefore resolved to

ber, 1572.

it

to

at a later

Gujerat had long been torn by intestine factions, and also become a

asylum

bom

common

risen in rebellion against Akber's government.

march against

Puttun and Ahmedabad

fell

it

in person, he set out in Septem-

into his hands without a blow.

At

Chap

REIGN OF AKBER.

VI.

131

Baroach and Surat matters wore a more threatening appearance, Ibrahim ad.

Mahomed Hoossein Mirza


head of an independent army. On Akbers approach

i67-.>.

Hoossein Mirza being near the one, and his brother


near the other, each at the

uujorat.

towards Baroach, Ibrahim suddenly quitted the place, and set

by a

out

hoped to

where

Punjab,

the

reach

route to

circuitous

he

an insurrection.

raise

Akber, informed of his inten-

immediately adopted one

tion,

those

t)f

resolutions

chivalric

which, notwithstanding the suc-

which

cess

usually

attended

them, cannot be justiiied against


the charge of rashness.

nine o'clock at night

It

was

when he

SiiFiKH Sklim's
I'Voiii

heard of Ibrahim's departure.

Tomb at

Ki'TTirooit Sikra.*

un Oriental tlrawing, Kist Indiu House.

Immediately, taking only a small body of horse, he hastened off to intercept

On

his retreat.

reaching the Mhendry, which runs by the town of Surtal,

he found his i)arty reduced to forty troopers, and saw Ibrahim on the opposite
1)ank with 1000.

He

troopers.
river,

At

moment Akber was

this

expected more, but refused to wait for

Many

he advanced to the charge.

])erformed, i)articularly

by some Hindoo

which Akl)er had placed

of his enemies single handed,

rajahs,

himself,

were

acts of individual heroism

who, proud of the confidence

were eager to justify

in them,

more chivalrously than the king

by seventy additional
them and crossing the

joined

who

it

but none behaved

repeatedly engaged the bravest

and charged right against Ibrahim, who, shunning

by the

the encounter, only saved himself

fleetness of his horse.

Satisfied with this achievement, Akber, instead of attempting to pursue the


fleeing
Sui'at.

enemy, waited

till

his

valiant resistance

army

arrived,

was at

first

and then ])roceeded

threatened

were ready to open, the inhabitants surrendered.

to lay siege to

but as soon as the batteries

Meanwhile Ibrahim Hoossein

Mirza carried out his scheme of attempting an insuirection in the Punjab.


learning his arrival, Hoossein Koolly Khan, Akber's general,

who was

On

besieg-

ing Nagarcote, immediately raised the siege and pursued him through the

He

Punjab to Tatta on the Indus


escape, or believed

continuing his

'

Tliis

tomb

Koolly

flight,

Khan

probably thought

to be

lie

he set out on a hunting excm'sion.

waserecteil by .Xkber to Slieikli Selim,

in gratituile for the prayers of the holy

man.

a very beautiful little building, in

centre of a

tiue

more distant than

tliat

tlie

It is

quadran;j;le575feet square, surrounded by a lofty

wall, with a magnificent


it.

he had made his


was, for instead of
Oji his retiu'n

cloi.'ster all

he

around witliin

The sarcophagus containing the body

is

inclosed

within a screen of marble, carved into lattice work,


and inlaid with niother-ofjiearl.

suppression
voit in

""^"

tiio
'

FTTSTORY OF TXT)TA,

l:{2

A.U.

1.073.

found

lii.s

caiiip

stormed, and

Itrotlier

lii.s

Miusa/jod Hoossein a prisoner.

resolved to retrieve the day or perish, and

being repulsed at every point,


severely

wounded and taken

who

governor of Mooltan,

made many desperate

desi.sted, anl fled

shortly

alt<.'r

He

onsets; hut

was delivered up

to tlie

His head was sent

beheaded him.

I,

Here, after being

to Mooltan.

prisoner l>y a Beloochee, he

Agra, and by Akber's order jilaced above one of


Nuw troubles

[Rook

to

its gates.

In July, 1573, the affairs of Gujerat were again thrown into disorder by

in Uujorat.

the union of one of

former chiefs with ^lahomed Hoossein Mirza.

its

These

enough to attempt

confederates, after overrunning several districts, felt strong

The presence of Akber seemed absolutely necessary,


but a foi^midable obstacle was in the way. The rainy season had commenced,
and the march of a large army was impracticable. In these circumstances, he
made one of those decisive movements for which he had become famou.s. Sending
Ahmedabad.

the siege of

off

a body of 2000 chosen horse, he followed rapidly with a retinue of 300

mounted on camels and accompanied by led hoi"ses.


Having come up with the main body at Puttun, he found that his whole force
mustered 3000.
Without halting he set forward for Ahmedabad, while a swift
persons, chiefly nobles,

messenger hastened before to make the gan-ison aware of his approach.

enemy

first

learned

it

by the sound of

measure, prepared for action.

vent a

sally,

Mahomed

set out

his

drum

and though astonished above

Leaving 5000 horse to watch the gates and pre-

Akber

with 7000 horse.

at first waited, in the

him but on learning that this was not


and drew up on the plain. The battle was

expectation that the garrison would join


to be expected, he crossed the river
fiercely contested,

and was not decided

till

the king, with his body-guard of 100

men, made an attack in flank on Mahomed, who, losing


turned his back and
in the face

The rout now became

fled.

and mounted on a horse which had

leap a hedge, but both

fell,

and he was made

claim to the honour of the capture,

took you ? "

He

general,

also

liis

all

presence of mind,

^lahomed, wounded

been wounded, attempted to

prisoner.

Akber put the

Mahomed, holding down

of ingratitude overtook me."

The

Several persons laying

(question to himself

head, replied, " Nobody.

spoke truth, and paid the penalty

The
^

"

Who
cirrse

for before

Akber had given any orders respecting him. Rajah Ray Sing, in whose charge
he had been left, put him to death. The siege of Ahmedabad was immediately
raised, and Akber entered it in triumph.
Revolt in
Bengal.

In the com'se of

Bengal, took up arms.

him

Dawood Khan, son of Suliman Kirany,


Moonyim Khan, sent by Akber against him,

this year

in several actions,

and compelled him to sign a

the terms, refused to ratify

it,

and

expelled or obliged to pay tribute.


to gain time;
hostilities.

insisted that

He

latter,

defeated

Akber, disHking

treaty.

Dawood Khan

promised the

ruler of

should either be

but

it

was merely

and as soon as he thought himself strong enough, he resumed

Moonyim Khan again

defeated him, took his fleet of boats, and,

after crossing the Ganges, laid siege to Patna.

Akber, thinking his presence

REIGN OF AKBER.

Chap. VI.j
required, left

Agm

in the

embarked

as could be

middle of

tlie rains,

in 1000 boats.

On

and

i;j3

set out

with as

many

troops

it

was

Hajeepoor, on the opposite side of the Ganges,

Dawood Khan,

without resistance.

also yielded

a.u. 1579.

arriving within a few miles of Patna

he had the satisfaction to learn that, in consequence of Moon^'im's success,

on the point of being evacuated.

thus defeated at

points,

all

iio^-mt in

wished to make terms; but Akber insisted on his unconditional submission, at


the same time observing to his messenger, " Tell Dawooil

sand

men

my army

iu

as

good as

issue in single combat, 1 will

manner

this

he,

and

if

he

myself meet him."

of settling the contest,

Dawood
take

Kiian
refuji'e

have a thou-

disposed to put the point to

Dawood Khan had no

idea of

and made a precipitate retreat to Bengal.

In the pm-suit 400 of his elephants were taken.

and Moonyim Khan, continuing

is

Khun

Akber now returned

to

Agra

to prosecute the subjugation of Bengal, obliged

to
in

S?

r"*"-

Ultimately

Orissa.

was overtaken

he

on the shores of the

Bav

of Bengal, and

obliijed

The

submit.

to

terms

were

that he should relinquish

preten-

all

sions to

Bengal and

Beliar,

but

Orissa

retain

and Cuttack.

Moonyim Khan was

RuiN8 OF GooR ' DanieU's Oriental Scenery.

appointed governor

and removed the seat of government from Khowaspoor Tanda to


Goor, which had been the capital till it was abandoned on account of its in-

of Bengal,

He had

salubrity.

better have left matters as he found them, for he soon

a victim to the climate, and was succeeded by Hoossein Koolly Khan, a

fell

Toorkoman, who bore the

title

Before Hoossein Koolly

of

Khan

Jehan.

Khan had taken

actual possession of his government,

itss'ippressioii

'

"Takin? the extent

of tlie ruins of

most reasonable calculation,

it is

not

Goor

at the

than

fifteen

less

miles in length (e.\tenfling along the old bank of the


Ganges), and from two to three in breadth. Several
villages stand

on part of

its site; tlie

remainder

i.s

cither covered witli thick forest, the habitations of


tigers and other beasts of prey, or become arable
laud,

whose

soil

Tlie principal

is

chiefly

composed of

brick-ilust.

ruins are a mosque, lined with bl.ick

marble elaborately wrought, and two gates of the


citadel, which are strikingly grand and lofty. These
fabrics, and some few others, appear to owe their
duration to the nature of their materials, which are

marketable and more difficult to separate, than


those of the ordinary brick-buildings, which have
been, and continue to be an article of merchandise,
and are transported to Moorshedabad, Malda, and
other places, for the purposes of building. The situation of Goor was higiily convenient for the capital
of Bengal and Behar as united under one government, being nearly centrical with re.spect to the
populous parts of tho>e provinces and near the
junction of the principal rivers that, compose that
less

e.vtraordinary inland navigation for which those pro-

vinces are

famed." Major Reunell, quoted

ton's Oazettecr of Indiit.

in

Thorn-

A D 1585

DawooJ

Kliau,

of 50,000

liavin;;^

hor.se,

and retook the greater part


for,

taken prisoner, and put

Afghan

in

<^t"

chiefs,

Bengal,

The

to death.

was

defeated,

hea<led

stilJ

by some

were fought; but ultimately the

battles

The

Moguls proved everywhere trium{>hant.

possession, however,

after, lie

was

iiLsuirection

appeared at the heal

ili.s

a battle fought shortly

and several sanguinary

chiefs,

[Hook

leagued with several ^Vfgliau

was only momentary;

l!oii?al an.l

OF INDIA.

IIIS'IOHV

:; !

which

fort of Khotas, in Behar,

JJehar incoi'poratail

had long held

was obliged

out,

to surrender;

and Bengal and Behar were

in the

Mo-ul
empire.

formally incorporated with the empire of the Great Mogul, though they both
4

continued to be, from

time to time, the seats of fonnidable insurrections.

These had hitherto for the most part originated with Afghans,
thither

when

when

the

who had

J
fled

Afghan dynasty was driven from the throne of Delhi; but


had ceased

their hostility

to be fonnidable, the

began to give considerable trouble,

Mogul

quarrelling with

first

chiefs themselves

Akbers

arrangements, and then making open war by appearing in the

with an army of 30,000 men.

financial

1579.

field in

After an intestine war, which the Afghans again

endeavoured to turn to account, tranquillity was restored.

While Akbers

Akber
advances on
tlie Punjab.

to

march

officers

were thus occupied in Bengal, he was himself obliged

to the north-western provinces, in consecjuence of a

new attempt by

his half-brother,

the

Punjab.

Mahomed Hakim Mirza, to make himself master of ])art of


Mahomed had advanced as far as Lahore and laid siege to it, when

the

arrival of

Akber

He had

to Cabool.

mined not

at Sirhind disconcerted all his schemes,

to let

him

march upon Cabool

now

so often before escaped in the


off so easily

itself,

and

making
and was left

set out

on

its return.

On

same way, that Akber deter-

after crossing the Indus, continued his

which he entered

at his mercy; but, on

terms than he deserved,

army

and he hastened back

in trixunph in

579.

his submission, received

Mahomed was
more favourable

in possession of his capital, wlule the royal

Akber

this occasion

built the fort of

Attock

Jumna

short time after he built the fort of Allahabad, at the junction of the

and Ganges.
New trouMi!

After MoozufFur Shah, the former ruler of Gujerat, had been forced to

iu Gujerat.

abdicate, he

was taken

to Agra,

and

he was presented with an extensive domain, and allowed to

seemed

satisfied;

but in 1581,

worked upon by some of the

when new

insurgents,

troubles arose

and suddenly quitted Hindoostan

the purpose of attempting to recover his lost throne.


rection soon

Akber that
reside upon it.
He
in Gujerat, he was

so far ingratiated himself with

Thus headed, the

became formidable, and the royal generals were obliged

for

insur-

to retreat

northwards to Puttun, leaving MoozufFur in possession of Alimedabad, Baroach,

and nearly the whole of the province.


of

tlie late

Behram Khan, recovered a

An

army, sent imder Mirza Khan, son

large portion of

what had been

lo.st

but

MoozufFur, retiring into the more inaccessible parts of the peninsula, maintained
himself in a kind of independence for several years.

In 1585,

Mahomed Hakim Mirza havmg

died,

Akber immediately

set out

In this he found no

to take possession of Cabool.


after

135

REIGN OF AKBER.

Chap. V[.]

difficulty;

undertook another task, which brought him into

but he immediately

collision

with tribes of a

more warlike character than he had previously encountered, and

called for his Aki^rt

utmost

and

skill

Cashmere, with

pi'owess.

ambition, and he resolved to


ftivourable

for dissensions liad

make a conquest
broken out

kingdom was torn asunder by contentling


<piest

beautiiui valley,

its

of

it.

canii)aigns

tempted

his

The circumstances were

in the reigning family,

But the

factions.

a.u. i5s7

ill C'al)(Kil

atul Cashluere.

and the whole

facilities for con-

thus afforded were greatly counteracted by the physical features of the

embosomed among lofty mountain chains, and is accessible


only through perilous pavSses.
At first Akber, then at Attock, was contented to

country.

It lies

AiTouK, from West Bank of the Gauges. Viguu's Visit to Olnixui

send forward a detachment of his armv.


pass which had not been guarded

sudden setting
in

command

in of

It succeeded in i)enetratin<; throu-'h

but a threatened want of provisions, and the

winter with a heavy

of snow, so intimidated the officers

fiiU

that they hastily concluded a treaty

acknowledged the Mogul su]>remacy, but was


possession of

its

by which Cashmere nominally

left,

in every other respect, in full

former independence.

This treaty was utterly at variance with AkV)er's views; and he therefore

Cashmere
eoiHUierwl.

not only refused to ratify

it,

but, in the following year

(1587), sent a second

mvading army, the commander of which, by dexterously availing himself of the


intestine dissensions, was admitted within the pas.ses without a struggle, and

made an easy
among the nobles

afterwards
enrolled
in

Behar.

The

conquest.

king, having been

captured,

of Delhi, and sent to live on a domain

Cashmere, rob1)ed of

its

indo])endence, which

a.s.sirnu'd

was
him

had maintained

it

for

nearly 1000 years, became merely a i\logul ])rovince.

The

struggles in this quarter were not yet over;


t,o

mountain

districts

Afghan

which encircle the plain of Peshawer.

tribes in this direction

rise

above

it

and

stretch

back

to the

snowv

The most powerful

and the mountain terraces

ridires

of the

Campaign
against

Af'dian

were the Yoo.soofzyes or Eusofzeis, who

possessed the northern part of the Peshawer plain,

which

Akber's ambitjon

the subiuixation, not nierelv of Ca.shmere, but of the

extended

of the

for

Hindoo Koosh.

tlio

Y<H>s<K>fzyes

and Rosbiiyes.

HISTORY

136
A.u. iMi.

The

Mi)<^ul iiriiiy

('iii[)l(y(;(l

in

INIIA.

OF'

the expedition a^^uinst thiH AI';L^han tribe

commanded by Zein Khan Koka, who allowed


and had great

difficulty in

[Book

I.

whh

himself to be wm|)letely defeat<id,

reaching the royal camp at Attr)ck.

Rajah Beerbui,

a special favourite of Akber, perished on this


occasion

and the monarch had thus

to endure,

not merely the mortification of defeat, but the

deep

grief,

which he could not but

one of his most valued

loss of

Yoosoofzyes,
victory,

having

to

at the

friends.

The

improve

their

were ultimately obliged to make some

sort of submission,

more formal than


nias,

failed

feel,

which appears to have been

real.

The Roshnyes or Rooshe-

another of the mountain

a leader of the

name

of Jelala,

tribes,

headed by

made a

more

still

valiant defence, but were also at last oblicred to

Afghan contest was being


waged, Akber was extending and consolidatincj
submit.

his

While

this

empire in other directions.

Taking advan-

tage of dissensions in Scinde, he in 1591 sent

Mirza
YoosooFZYE.

Elphiiistoue's Kingdom of
Cabool.

sciiide raado

province,

to enter it from the north,


fort of

in Sciiidc, advanccd with a

with

Sehwan.

and lay

Lahore,

siege to the

Mirza Jany Beg, then ruling

numerous army and a train of

arriving within twelve miles of the


filled

Khan with an invading army from

artillery.

After

Mogul camp, he sent forward 100 boats

artillery-

men and archers,


to make an attack.
Mirza Khan had
twenty - five

only

command

boats at

but, taking advan-

tage of the night,

came upon the ene-

my by

surprise,

and

compelled him to a
precipitate

flight.

Mirza Jany Beg became,

in

future,

more cautious; and


having

down

his

Ruins of the Castle of Sehwan.

Jackson's Afghanistan.

bronslit

whole

inaccessible.

fleet,

landed on a

Here he

swampy ground,

which, at high water, became

successfully resisted all attempts to dislodge

him

and

KEIGN OF AKBER.

Chap. VI.]
at the

same

time, while he kept his

lo7

own commimications

open, so interrupted

those of the Moguls, that they were unable to obtain the necessary supplies.

Khan had no

these ciremnstances, Mirza

taking part

(^f

it

to Tatta, while the

may

soldiers,

and

alternative but to divide his army,

remainder cojitiimed the

Mirza

siege.

be regarded as the

It

have had 200 natives dressed as Eui'opeans.

to

first

Sepoys

and ceding

it

to that

and kept the contjuest to himself

making the compiest

Kandahar passed

fulfil

from

Persia,

his agreement,

but the circumstances afterwards became

to Persia shortly after Akber's accession.

remained in

this position

till loy-t,

to account,

was able

make

to

monarch, refused to

Kand.ihar

Internal troubles prevented the shah from

resenting the injustice at the time


favom'able, and

These

Akber's father, after obtaining

military aid from the vSliah of Persia, on condition of


of Kandahar,

'i'i>f fii-st

in India.

how Hoomayoon,

has been mentioned

1594.

In

Jany Beg, thus tempted to assume the offensive, lost the advantages of his
])()sition, and was finally caught in a trap, which compelled him to accept of
any terms of peace that the Moguls chose to dictate. His kingdom became a
Mogul province, and he himself exchanged his position as a king for that of
an officer in the Mogul service. In this war he is said to have employed some
Portuguese

ad.

when

It

Akl)er, turning the Pei-sian dissensions

himself master both of the town and temtory

without being obliged to strike a blow, the Persian prince

who

held the fort

being contented to exchange his possession for the government of Mooltan and
a

command

in the

Mogul

ai'my.

In the whole of India north of the Nerbudda, Mogul supremacy was


completely established.

now earnestly

Akber's attention was

an opportunity

was otherwise

It

the Deccan

and to

now

therefore,

it,

In 1586 he had availed himself of

turned.

to interfere in the internal concerns of

Ahmednuggur

and had

endeavoiu'ed, though without success, to aid a claimant in obtaining the throne.

In 151)0 he had recourse to a

much more

formal proceeding, and sent aml)assa-

Asseer and Boorhanpoor, Ahmednuggur,


modern Hyderabad demanding an acknowledgment

dors to four different courts

and Bhagnagur, the


his

supremacy.

Bejajjoor,

When a common

which he had anticipated, and

was given, he only received the answer


which he was })repared. For the avowed

refusal

for

purpose of reducing them to subjection, Mirza

He

of

Khan was immediately

sent

Mando.

Meanwhile a messenger
had arrived from Boorhan, King of Ahmednuggur, who had lived for some time

south with an army.

in exile at

after, in

to

15f)4.

name

of

Ahmed,

jMurad Mirza, then in Gujerat.

immediately put his army

in

His death having

and his son and successor having

a disputed succession took place, and the minister,

claim of a boy of the


Prince

fii-st

Akber's court, announcing his entire submission.

taken place shortly


battle,

proceeded

who favoured

ap])lied for assistance to

The

]>rince,

by

fallen in

Akber's son.

his father's orders,

motion and marched for the Deccfin, taking the

direction of Ahmednuixonir.
Vol.

I.

the

18

Akbercinims
in the

'"^^""

HISTORY OF

l.'i.S

I).

The

1090.

the
Siego of All

miniHter, Mceaii Muiija,

and therefore prepared

.step,

to

called in this {orei;^ri aid,

meet the prince a

I.

had repented of

he had wjnie not oh an

if

Having provisioned and otherwise prepared

but as an enemy.

ally,

who

[Book

1NI>IA.

for the

ludUiiuggur.

defence of Alimednu<ro-ur, he jjave the

who had been queen and dowager-regent

Beeby,

of the army.

met the

Chand
Beeby.

of

Chand
the neighbouring kingdom
it

to the

Princess

frontier with the remainder

Murad Mirza and Mirza Khan having united their forces,


circumstances by laying aside their o.stensiljle character as

Prince

altered

and assuming that of

auxiliaries,

of"

and marched toward the Bejapoor

of Bejapoor,

Heroism of

command

principals in the war.

Chand Beeby, equally j^repared to act her part, and when the Moguls opened
the siege of Ahmednuggur, made a most resolute defence, counterworking their
mines, superintending the repairing of breaches, and often

sword

ance,

in hand, to

animate the garrison when their

contented with thus resisting in the

neighbouring kings

tlie

and,

by

making her appear-

spirits

began to

Not

fail.

she entered into correspondence with

fort,

vivid description of the

common danger by

which they were threatened, succeeded in forming a confederacy which levied


a powerful army for the purpo:!e of advancing to her relief
to effect a capture before this

up about eighty

army could

feet of the wall,

The Moguls, anxioas

arrive, fired their mines,

which blew

and threw the garrison into such consternation

that they would have given

up the plase had not Chand Beeby, appearing


on her face and a naked sword in her hand, animated

among them with a veil


them to new exertions. She caused gims
and stones

ants,

to be hurled

and did not depart

she had seen

till

longer practicable.

It

to renounce

built

its

in the

Dec?an.

filled

with their

to such a height as to be

which

left

Ahmednuggur and

native sovereign, and only required

sooner was this treaty ratified than the dissensions

the Deccan, which had only been suspended

no

to be disheartened;

some obsolete or unavailable claim on the throne of

personal

campaign

up

to conclude a peace

dependencies entire in the hands of

No

Akber's

it

was now the turn of the Moguls

and Prince Murad was glad

him

was

so that the ditch

assail-

During the night she stood by the breach, superintending the workmen,

dead.

its

upon them,

on the

to be brought to bear

by a common

among

Berar.

the princes of

danger, again broke out.

Among

other

Mogul

and, in the very face of their recent engagement, marched a hostile force

into Berar.

follies,

they voluntarily assumed the offensive against the Great

Akber had thus only

too good ground for interfering;

accordingly resolved, in 1599, to take the field in person.


resolution
grief

is

said to

which he

the loss of his second son. Prince Murad,

and treated

ungrateful return.
its

influence

who had

died

Another care weighing heavily upon him was the miscon-

duct of his eldest son, Prince Selim.


cessor,

cause of this

have been the desire to divert his thoughts, and lighten the

felt for

of a sudden Ulness.

One

and he

liim

He had

him

his suc-

with the utmost indulgence, but met with a most

The prince had become the

was hurried

formally appointed

into several crimes.

slave of intoxication,

One

of these

was

and imder

treason, wdiich

EEIGN OF AKBEll.

CfiAP. VI.

he carried so far

tliat it

had assumed the form of open

second and better thouglits induced him to

ever,

stains

memory,

his

had long been


torian of his

is

share he

tlie

had

and

from which, how-

revolt,

celebrated

is still

the his-

cis

him, at the instigation of Prince Selim, and

fell

been aware of the share which his son

in this atrocity,

have taken effectual steps to disinherit him

since,

without this additional


bitterly,

and

days and

over, he

vowed

and took

without

niglits
it

by

sleep.

on Narsing Deo

inflicting

\"',lif,^_i

he would probably

aggravation, the tidings so affected

him that he wept


This first paroxysm

laid for

Assassina-

Had Akber

fighting valiantly.

into

fell

an ambuscade, which Narsing Deo, Rajah of Orcha, in Bundelcvmd, had

iiad

ioo6

murder of Abulfazl, who

was returning from the Deccan when he

Abulfa^sl

ad.

Another crime wliich

desist.

in the

his father's favourite minister,

re'vnx.

13!)

two

])assed

siud all his race severities of

revenge,

which

his

reign happily affords few examples.

In the south Akber's usual good fortune had attended him

his arm.s,

though

Akiwrs
''

not uniformly, were so generally successful, that most of the princes hastened to

make

their submission;

retui-ned to

Agra

in 1602, so satisfied

with the

""'^'^"'

that in a proclamation wiiich he issued, he tissumed, in addition to his

result,

other

and he

i t'ho

titles,

emj)ii'e,

that of Prince of the Deccan.

of which he had himself been the

magnificence which few

was

declining years,

second son,

when

far

While thus at the head of a mighty

main

architect,

any sovereigns have ever

if

from happy.

He had

his third son, Piince Daniel,

and surrounded by a
Akber, in his

eiiualletl,

scarcely cesised to

whose marriage

mourn

for his

in 1601< he

had

celebrated with great festivities, died within a twelvemonth, the victim of his

own drunken

habits.

But

his

sorrow for the dead members of his family was

His domestio

not so distressmg as the shame and agony produced by the misconduct of the
Selim, his only surviving son

living.

and destined

successor, after a promise of

reform, had sunk deepei- than ever in his vicious courses, acting habitually with

madman and

the caprice of a
soi\

Khosroo had such an

self

by poison

seems

now

to

the cruelty of a tyrant.

effect

the thought of being succeeded

(|uarrel

life

to his future arrangements.

by Selim, and yet

He had entwined

Khurram

own

manifested the gi-eatest decision,

in

He

shuddered at

Khosroo, Selim's eldest son,

he beheld the very passions which disgraced Selim himself


son,

with his

on that youths nxother, that she destroyed her-

Akber, who had through

have hesitated as

There wtis a third

himself around the heart of his grandfather,

but the fearful consetiuences of a disj)uted succession appear to have deterred

him from making any


and

per{)lexities,

during the

last

tlestination in his favour.

his health

Amid

these distressing trials

began visibly to give way, and after an

illness,

ten days of which he w;is confined to bed, and employed

of his time in giving good counsels to his son, he expired (m

t!ie

much

13th of

Of the sixty-foiu" years of his life, fifty-one had been spent (jn
the throne. He was l)uried near Agra, in a tomb consisting of a solid pyramid,
surrounded by cloisters, galleries, and domes, and of such innnense dimensions,
October,

605.

nisUeatu.

JIISTfJiiY

lO

A.n. 1605.

that for a year or two after

tlie

OF

(IJOOK

ISI>\.\.

coii<[ue.st f>f

the surrounding t<jrritory hy the

a whole European regiment of dragoons was quartered

Britisl),

I.

in

it.

iy_J'.ii::ij.il

Mausoleum of Emperor Akber at

Akber

Akber'sper-

is

From an Oriental drawing in East India Hoose.

described as of a manly, athletic, and handsome form, fair com-

son, talents,

andcha-

SectsiJitA.'

plexion, pleasing features,

and captivating manners.

racter.

In early

<

life

his tastes

were

somewhat

curean,

and he indulged

in wine;
yeai-s

in

epi-

his latter

he was abstemious,

both in meat and drink

He

had no

ness in

liis

\Tndictive-

nature

and,

however much he migh t


have been provoked, was
always ready to extend
pai'don to every one wlio

asked
Akber's Tombstone at Secundha.' Oriental drawing, East India House.

to

amount

to rashness

and the chivalrous prevailed

"

The tomb of Akber at Secundra, near Delhi,


and doings, exceptional, and
unlike those of any of his race, but still of great magnificence.
The tomb is pyramidal in external form.
The outer or lower terrace is .320 feet square by 30
feet in height, and its architecture is bold and massive.
On this terrace stands another far more ornate, measuring 186 feet on each side, and 14 feet 9 inches in
height.
A third and a fourth of similar design, and
respectively 1.5 feet "2 inches and 14 feet 6 inches high,
stand on this, all these being of red sandstone. Within
and above the last is a white marble inclosure 1.57 feet
is,

like all his buildings

e.ach

way,

or, e.Kternally, just half

the length of the

so

His

it.
t

coiu-age

was

so decided as oiten

much

in Ins temper, that

lowest terrace. The outer wall of this is entirely composed of marble trellis-work of the most beautiful
patterns.
Inside it is surrounded by a colonnade of
the same material. In the centre of this cloister, ou
a raised platform, is the tombstone of the founder, a
splendid piece of the most beautiful arabesque tracery
(see accompanying engraving).
This, however, is not

the true burial place; but the mortal remains of this


great king repose under a far plainer tombstone, in a
vaulted chamber in the basement, 35 feet square,
exactly under tlie simulated tomb that adorns the

summit of the mausoleum."


of Architeciure.

-Fergusson's Iland-Book

REIGN OF AKBER

Chap, VI.

he often underwent great

His

love of adventure.

toils

though not of the

intellect,

great

hinisell' to

from a mere ad

perils,

first order, wiis

1005.

remarkably

and nothing pleased him more than discussions of a metaphysical and

acute,

When

[)uzzling nature.

to be present at

them

not actually engaged in these discussions, he delighted

and amused himself with the wianglings of


whose leaders he on varioas occasions summoned

as a listener

philosoi)hical or religious sects,

took place

when he

of the most remarkable of these discussions

held a meeting of Maliometan doctors and Portuguese mis-

and deluded the

sionaries,

One

to court for this veiy purpose.

latter

by pretending

The truth seems

a Christian convert.
of

and exposed

141

any kind, and employed

to

have some idea of becoming

to be, that he

his acuteness,

had few serious convictions

not so much for the purpo.se of disco-

vering, as of evading truth.

In private

he was a kind and imlulgent parent, and a generous, warm-

life

and strongly attached

hearted,

Indeed,

friend.

only real griets which he suffered through

As a

relations.

many
lost

life

may

it

be truly

had their

that the

said,

soui'ce in these

He

military commander, he takes high rank.

Akbers

two

did not fight

great battles, but often, after some of his ablest officers had fought and

made

them, he no sooner

his appearance in the field

than fortune, which

had forsaken them, seemed to return, and defeat was converted into victory.
In the cabinet he

was

the

the art of winninii the affections of all with

hiijliest degfree

in contact,

and rendering

advancement of
seen,

still

more

successful than in the field;

and possessed in

whom

he came

their varied talents antl influence subservient to the

his service.

For the

first

time Mahometans and Hindoos were

during his reign, working harmoniously together, while holding places of

lionour

and

Akbers

trust near the throne.

best fame

is

founded on his internal administration, into wliich so

many important inn)rovements were


enumerate them.

Suffice

it hei'e

introduced, that

to say, that in every

it

would be

difficult to tum.

department of the

state,

business wtis conducted on rational, liberal,

and tolerant

was administered impartially among

of subjects, without reference to

birth or religious profession;

all chiases

and the revenue was

posed to be mo.st equitable and least oppressive.

standard

principles; justice

raised in the

Having

inteniai
nilniinistra-

first

manner sup-

fixed a uniform

meivsurement, he carefully ascertained the extent and relative pro-

t)f

amount
room for

ductiveness of each landed tenement, and then fairly apportioned the


of taxation which each ought to bear.

iavouritism
sive in its

ami

a burdtMi wliieh,

while

In this
it

way

there

was

lay equall}' upon

all,

little

was not

exces-

amount, was borne easily and without gnidging.

In connection with Akbers revenue sv.stem

may

be mentioned his adminis-

trative divisions of the empire into pro^^nces or suhihs, each of

governed by a head
those of a viceroy,

officer called

all

being vested in him

which wjis

a suhahdar, whose powers were equivalent to

authority, civil as well as military, within the province

Subordinate to the subahdar,

tliougli a])|)ointed

not by

Division

<.f

einpire int..

U2
AT),

um.

OF INDIA.

HrSTOI'.V

him,

}>y

l)iit

t!i(!

king,

was an

had the sn[)erintendence of

all

with

officer,

tlic;

[Book

title

of

dewan

or diwnn,

The

matters of revenue and finance.

who

subahs,

originally fifteen, were, in consequence of additional conquests, raised to eigh-

Of

teen.
spirit of

bers

these twelve were in Hindoostan

Among

Liberal

Ak-

rule,

and

six in the Deccan.

Akber which deserve notice for their humane and


liberal Spirit, and at the same time throw some reflection on the tardy legislation of the British government on the same subjects, are his prohibition of the
burning of Hindoo widows against their will, and his permitting them to
marry again, though the Hindoo law expressly forbids it. The same humane
and

the enactments of

liberal spirit appears in his prohibition of the jezia or capitation tax

infidels,

which had placed an enormous,

irresponsiVjle,

on

and much-abased power

Mahometans and in the aboHtion of the practice of


making slaves of prisoners taken in war a practice under the cover of which
not only the wives and children captured in camps or fortified places, but the
peaceable inhabitants of any hostile country, were seized and earned off into
in the hands of fanatical

slavery.

These enactments gave grievous offence

beino- odious to the

infidel

still

by the

is

beard,

and m-ged

Mollahs,

stronger proof

court etiquette, on wliich

than

affecting the

Hindoos

Brahmins, and those which laid restraints on the Mahome-

tans being seized upon

was an

those

as a proof that

was supposed

Akber seems

Akber

him.self

to be found in a matter of

more pertinacity
He had a dLslike to the

to have insisted with

easily reconcilable with his usual moderation.

and would scarcely admit a person who wore

it

to his presence.

Unfor-

tunately his feeling in this respect was in direct opposition to an injunction of


the

Koran

and

several of the

more zealous Mahometan

Palace of Akber, Puttipook Sikra. From an

forego the honours

original

chiefs chose rather to

drawing by Capt. R. Smith, 44th Regiment.

and pleasm-es of the court than conform to a

regulation, the

observance of which seemed incompatible with orthodoxy,


"^

works"

Among

the public works executed dm-ing the reign of Akber, are the walls

Chap. VI.

and

REIGN OF AKBER.

citadels of

on the

site of

Agra and Allahabad, the

own

city for his

touudatioii

oi"

the city of Futti[)(X)r

the village of Sikra, for which, as the birth-place of two of

he had conceived a strong partiality

sons,

143

residence,

and near

it

palace of Agra, in

its

iiis

the splendid })alace erected in that

architecture;

Another work of Akber, though not

'

DauieU's Oriental Scenery.

tomb of
his father Hoomayoon at Delhi.
Its commanding position, its magnitude and
solidity, and its stupendous dome of white marble, have long made it celeln'ated
strictly of

as one of the greatest of his structures

while a

a pubHc nature,

new

King of

Delhi.

formances of Akbers

It

reiffn,

the

is

interest has recently

as the scene of the capture of the last and,

most worthless representative of the Great Mogul


so-called

1G06.

a mosque remarkable for the beauty and

Chalees Sitoon, Axlauauao.

it

I).

and the white marble mosque and


both of which simplicity and elegance are happily combined.

majestic proportions of

given to

A.

all

the

would be unpardonable,

Akters
lie

,.iii,-

worKs,

been

things considered, the

present (January,

858)

in referring to the per-

not to mention anotiier work which, though of a

very different nature from any of the above, might have shed gi-eater lustre on
his reign than the
^

-r\

most celebrated of them

This work was a translation of the

iii'
It was undertaken by Akbers
T

gospels nito Persian.

-IT
special directions,
-

in-

trasted to a Portuguese missionary, who, unfortunately, in.stead of executing

committed what

faithfully,

translation, disfigured

sequence

is,

that a

is

called a pious fraud,

and adulterated by lying

work which,

issued under

tlie au.spices

might have given a knowledge of pure Christianity in

it

and produced a spurious

Popi.sli legends.

The sad con-

of the Great Mogul,

influential quarters

could not otherwise be reached, has only had the effect of presenting

it

which

under a

debased and ])olluted form.


'

"

The most

beautiful tiling [at Allaiiabadl

was

the pavilion of the Chaleea Sitoon, or forty pillars,


RO called from having tliat number on the principal
floor, ilisposeil

one internal of

in

two concentric octagonal ranges;

si.\tcen pillars,

the other outside of

twenty-four; above

this,

supported by the inner colon-

nade, wa.s an upper range of pillars crowned by a

dome.

This building has entirely disappeared,

its

materials being wanted to repair the fortifications."

Fergussou's Hand-Iiook of Architecture.

His order for

!"
and

Persian

translation

gosp'^u.

JIISTOHY OK INlJlA.

Iil<

[PjfJOK

I.

CTTArTKPv YIT.
Modera India -Clianges

in

mode

the

of intercourse with

tlie

East

M'^napolies

c^itahlLiihed

by the

Good Hope

Venetians, tho Genoese, and other ItaUan republics- Doubling of the Cape of

Portuguese progress in India.

the time of the

establishing a
led

wJien the Pei-sians,

Ju.stiiiian,

to Constantinople,

had raised the price of

A.D. MO.

how an

adequate supply might be obtained at home.

labours as Christian missionaries, they


Indian

traile

silk eiKjr-

opportune arrival of two Persian

in that luxurious capital, the

Wi monks dissipated the alami which had begun


C.R.

by

monopoly of the Indian trade along the route whicli

most directly

mously

Roman emperor

had penetrated

by showing

to prevail,

In the course of their

and become

into China,

acquainted with the whole process of the sUk manufacture, from

its

commence-

under
Justinian.

ment

in the rearing of silk- worms, to its termination in the finished product.

Their information attracted general attention


its

and the emperor,

importance, determined immediately to act upon

monks, under his auspices, paid a second


Silk-worm-i

a supply of the eggs of the

it.

visit to Cliina,

silk -worm, concealed in the

With

fully alive to

view the

this

ami returned with

The

hollow of a cane.

first

brought to
Europe.

worms hatched from

these eggs being carefully reared, multiplied so rapidly

that in a short time Greece, Sicily, and Italy were both producing

manufacturing
thus

ill

on an extensive

it

scale.

One branch

raw

silk,

and

of the Indian trade

was

some degree superseded, but the others which remained were

cient to create a large

of supplying

it.

partially opened,

demand, and excite to strenuous exertions

In this

way

for the purpose

the ancient channels of intercourse were again

and Indian products were beginning

to flow into

Europe by

when new

the inland and maritime routes which have been already described,
obstacles of a very formidable character

The Mahometan imposture,

Changes in
the route of
Indian
traflRc.

were suddenly

whole

and soon placed both

Pema

and Egypt under the absolute control of


mosities thus engendered, left no

tor.

regarded

Mahomet

room

as a prophet,

its

fanatical adherents.

for friendly intercourse

and those who knew him

Exterminating warfare alone was thought

the utmost fury.

interposed.

after spreading like wild-fii-e over the

of Arabia, continued its conquests in all directions,

who

still suffi-

of,

The

fierce ani-

between those
to be

an impos-

and continued to rage with

In these circumstances, as the demand

for

Eastern products,

more wealthy, had become generally diffused among all


the only alternative was to endeavour to obtain them by a channel which

originally confined to the


classes,

lay so far to the north as to run

tan fanaticism.

little

risk of being interfered with

Mention was formerly made of the commercial

by Mahome-

route,

which

after

EARLY INTERCOURSE WITH EUROPE.

Chap. VII.)

and then sent a branch north

crossing the Indus continued west,

now adopted

This route, with a slight modification, was

and continued

practicable,

for a long period to be the

45

to the Ca.s{)ian.

as the safest

109.3.

and most

main trunk by which the

commerce between Em-ope and the more remote regions of Asia was main-

Two

tained.

one from the western frontiers of China, and

lines of caravans, the

met

the other from the western frontiers of India,

Amoo

or Oxus, where that stream

became available

fii".st

goods by both lines were here embarked

at a connnon point of the

down

being carried

Lake Aral, they were again conveyed by land

the stream into

carri.age to the Caspian,

by water to the mouth of the Kur, and up the stream as

The

for transport.

and thence

An-

far as navigable.

them to the Phasis, down which they were tranand thence to Constantinople, which thus became a

other land conveyance brought


sported into the Black Sea,

At a

great commercial emporium.

a direct caravan route brought

later period

the products of the East to Astrakhan, from which they were conveyed either

down
or

the Volga into the Caspian, thereafter to follow the same route as before,

by land

to the Don,

This route, with

and thence to the Sea of Azof

all its

obvious disadvantages, was the best which Europe

Houtebytiio
Persian

possessed for

more than two

The

centuries.

cfiliphs

They were

ing to renew the ancient channels of commerce.


the riches which

would thus

enough to keep their


sacrificing tlieir

was confined almost


to extend

it,

when

both by affording

by founding the port and

made

and both from

aware of
politic

could not be indulged without

own subjects, they carefidly endea\^ured


new facilities at home, and encouraging the

entirely to their
it

In this way, at an early period, the caliphs

Bagdad had provided a new emporium

Tigris

it

ouif.

Accordingly, even while the Indian trade

interests.

exploration of foreign coimtries.


of

perfectly

poured into their treasury, and were

l)e

f\inaticism in check

pecuniary

would not have been unwill-

tiie

for the trade of the Persian Gulf,

city of Bussorah, at the junction of the Euj^hrates

Persian Gulf and the

Red Sea numeroiis voyages were

to both sides of the peninsula of India, to Ceylon, to Malacca,

shores of countries lying far beyond

By means of these

it.

and

voyages

all

and

to the

the valued

productions of the East Indies arrived in their ports, and found ready purchasers in merchants,

The

who earned them

friendly intercourse

for distribution into the interior.

between Christian and Mahometan nations seemed

on the point of being renewed, at least commercially, when the })reaching of

and myriads of Crusjiders hastened


from every quarter to wrest the holy sepulchre from the hands of infidels
War
Peter the Hermit set

all

Europe

in a flame,

accordingly began again to rage with

new

fury

and the exasperation which had

been gi'adually softened by time, became more bitter and imiversal than

had ever been

doned

and

bef(re.

was now

necessarily aban-

])eriod did the trade of the

West make more

All idea of peaceful trade

yet, perhaps, at

no

rapid progress than during the Cnisades.

The armies destined

brated expeditions never could have reached the East without


Vol.

I.

it

for these celetlie

aid of the
19

i:ffect.<<oftiio

1)

12(11.

lllS'lOliV

1()

Genoese, the

and the Venetians, whose

Pi.sans,

march along the nearest

their

the incaiis of transport.

them

shores, 8uj)j)lied

accompanying

whom

causc,

t!i(;nj

].

in

with provisions and

b<jth

naturally shared

they had assisted, ami, when vahialde harbours

hands of the Crusaders, obtained many imfjortant

into the

Italian

maritime

fleets

privileges.

engaged

Tlic maritime states of Italy, while thas ostensibly

Pro-ieasof
tlio

[Book

In return for these services they

in the success of those


fell

OF IM>IA.

in

a wjinmon

wcre by no means prepai-ed to admit that they had a common


i

interest,

and were hence disposed to act towards each other on the narrowest and most

The old maxim, that the commercial prosperity of a state


was best promoted by depressing the trade of its neighbour, though now exploded, was then universally received and in acting upon it, there was no injustice or perfidy of which the rival Italian republics scrupled to be guilty when
illiberal principles.

it

seemed possible in

able illustration of
I'lie

tliis

way to

fact wiis

tliis

establish a maritime ascendency.

given in

204,

when

tlie

Venetians induced the

avowed

leaders of the fourth crusade to turn aside fi-om tlieir

One remark-

object of warring

Venetians.

with

wrest Constantinople from the hands of a monarch,

infidels in order to

who, whatever his demerits might


of motives
step

may have

be,

was by

profession Christian.

A variety

influenced the Crusadei-s in taking this unwarrantable

but the subsequent conduct of the Venetians leaves no room to doubt that

their only object

was

After Constantinople had been

aggrandizement.

selfish

stormed and plundered, the dominions which had belonged to the Greek emperor

were partitioned among


ders \^as placed

upon

his unprincipled conquerors

and while an Earl of Flan

his tlirone, the Venetians obtained a chain of settlements

from the Dardanelles to the Adriatic, and made them virtually

wliicli stretched

masters of the navigation and trade of the Levant.

In Constantinople, which,

from the cause already mentioned, had long rivalled Alexandria as an emporium
for the traffic

which made
furnished

between Europe and India, they obtained exclusive

it

privileges,

impossible for any maritime state to compete with them, and

them with the means

The ungenerous
efiect of greatly

coui'se

of lording

it

over

all their rivals.

pursued by the Venetians had undoubtedly the

extending their trade generally, and of giving them an almost

monopoly of that large portion of the Indian trade which had its
centre in Constantinople. The superiority they had thus acquired remained with
them for rather more than half a century; and the injustice to which they owed
it seemed almost to be forgotten, when the day of retribution arrived, and thenexclusive

own

tactics

were successfully employed against them.

The Greeks had never

been reconciled to the Latin yoke, which had been fraudulently imposed upon
them, and were therefore prepared to avail themselves of the
The Genoese,

opportunity of shaking

it

off".

Had

they been

left to their

own

fii'st

favourable

resources they

could scarcely have hoped lor success, but they had powerful auxiliaries in the

Genoese, wlio wei'e animated at once by a feeling of revenge for the injustice

which they had

suffered,

and a

desire to

become

mastei's of a traffic, the posses-

VENETIANS AND GENOESE.

Chap. VTL]
sion of

which had given the Venetians an immense superiority over

settled.

were to supplant the Venetians in

objects

all their

Cm.
A.u. xaso.

The terms of alliance between the Greeks and the Genoese were easily
The former were again to be ruled by their own dynasty, and the

rivals.

latter

147

were accomplished.

exclusive privileges.

Both

Greek emperor once more mounted the throne

and the Genoese,

of Constantinople,

all their

in addition to other imj)ortant privileges,

took formal j)Ossession of the suburb of Pera, subject only to the condition of
holding
It

it Jis

flef

of the empire.

was now the turn

of the Venetians to be depressed; while the Genoese,

Gonoeee

as-

cendoiicy at

not contented with their supremacy in the harbour of Constantinople, extended


it

to the Black Sea, where,

particularly

by

Coimtaiiti-

erecting forts on various points of the coast, and

on commanding positions in the Crimea and within the Sea of Azof,

they secured a monopoly of the extensive and lucrative trade carried on with the
East by

way of the

In virtue of this monopoly Genoa became for a time

Caspian.

the greatest commercial power in Europe.


to

The Venetians

at first attempted

compete with the Genoese, even in the harbour of Constantinople, but soon

;t;

'.

i4.

CoNSTANTiNOPLK, end of Scveuteeiith Century

rcnn a print

by noniann.

found the terms so unequal, in consequence of being burdened with heavy duties,

from which their rivals were exempted, that they abandoned the struggle as
hopeless.

Their only alternative

now was

or endeavour to re-open

its

met

by deep-rooted

at the very outset

to resign the Indian trade altogether,

ancient channels.

In prefeiTing the

prejudices,

which made

latter,
it

they were

unlaAvful

even impious to enter into alliances of any kind with Mahometan rulers

and

but no

sooner were these prejudices overcome than the remainder of the tivsk was comparatively easy.
as

on many

With the sanction

others, allowed the

who on

this occasion,

supposed impiety to be committed in considera-

tion of the profit anticipated from

the Sultan of Egy^it.

of the pope himself,

it,

a commercial treaty was concluded with

It contemplated the caiTying

on of the Eastern

traffic

Venetians
the'luiun.'

JH
A.D.

1453.

IIISKJJCV UJ' 1NJ>1A.

(liooK

way

Red Sea. With


this view the Venetian senate was empowered to appoint two eoiwuLs, with
mercantile jurisdiction, tlie one to reside at Damascus and the other at Alexboth by the overhind

rijute across Syi'ia, Jiiid Ijy

Both of these

andria.

cities

the

of the

were accordingly resorted to

Ijy

Venetian mer-

chants and artisans; while at Beyrout, as the port of the former, and in the

harbour of the

at

mercantile vessels bearing the Venetian flag far outnum-

The Genoese, contented with their undisimted


Constantinople, seem not at this time to have made any attempt to

bered those of

monopoly

hitter,
all

other countries.

share in the advantages which the Egyptian sultans had conferred on the VeneTlie Floren-

by the conquest

tians; but the Florentines, after they had,

of Pisa, in 1405,

tines.

acquired the seaport of Leghorn, turned their attention to the Indian trade, and
succeeded, in 1425, in concluding a treaty which placed
as the Venetians in respect of commercial privilege.

made

them on the same footing

Tlie earnest attempts thus

would of themselves lead

to share in the trade to the East Indies,

under that

conclusion that a taste for the products of the- regions included

name must no

general

longer have been confined, as at

few countries

to a

fii'st,

on the eastern part of the Mediterranean, but must have spread

The

north, so as to include a large portion of Europe.

there

is

not

much

difficulty in

accounting for

leaders of the Crusades, with their followers,


European

demand

far

west and

really so

and

Many of the most distinguished

it.

came from those

home with them new

their return brought

was

fact

to tlie

new

ideas and

quartei-s

and on

To

wants.

theii"

for

Indian com-

astonishment they had found that in several points, usually considered as tests of

modities.

civilization,

tomed

they were far surpassed by the

to regard

they had

respects,

as

mere barbarians.

little difficulty in

infidels

Galled

whom

by

their inferiority in

these

and imbibed

tastes

learning to sm-mount

and formed habits which they could not

it

indvilge in the absence of Eastern pro-

The demand naturally produced a supply; and

ducts.

they had been accus-

Italian ships, freighted

with these products, were frequently seen in the English Channel, in the Gennan
Ocean, and even within the Baltic.

North was completely roused and


;

visits,

sent

theii-

own

In course of time the maritime


its

Genoese.

In

hand from the

and there became pur-

Florentines, Venetians,

and

was taken by the cities of the Hanseatic


by Bruges, which in consequence became one of the

this traffic the lead

League, and ])articularly

most populous and


Capture of

merchants, instead of waiting for Italian

vessels into the MediteiTanean,

chasers of Indian produce at second

spirit of the

floui'ishing

The Genoese were

still

marts in Northern Europe.


in 1453,

when an

and was followed by a

series of

in possession of theii-

monopoly

Constanti-

nople by
the Tuiks.

event occurred which abruptly terminated


disasters

was the

which ultimately annihilated

it,

their maritime greatness.

This event

and the extinction of the Greek empire, by


They made an effort to escape the destruction

captiu^e of Constantinople,

the Turks under

Mahomet

II.

which threatened them, by attempting

Mameluke Sultans

of

Egypt

to

form a commercial treaty with the

but the monopoly which they had held at Con-

CIUIISTOPHER COLUMBUS.

CiiAP. vir.

stantinople under the

negotiation proved

The Venetians,

fruitless.

in a false position,

accordingly, were once

and the

more

fill.

A.IJ. 1460.

in the

Their most formidable rival had been obliged to resign the contest

ascendent.

new

to rmi a

and they began

foresight reached,

coui-se of prosperity, to whicii, as far as

At

no limit could be assigned.

Venice was tottering to her

])rosperity

The

Greek emperors, placed them

4!)

revival of learning

this period of

human

unexampled

fall.

and the discovery

of printing

had at once awakened a

I'logrcss of

the art of

and furnished the most

spirit of in(][uiry,

effectual

means of

diffusing

departments of literature and science rapid progress was made

Among

footsteps.

the arts thus improved was navigation.

the shore was lost sight


vessel at sea

there had been no

of,

means of

were con-

life,

to follow in his

when

Hitherto,

dii'ecting the com'se of

and the utmost which the boldest and most experienced navigator

was

attem})ted,

and stimulating others

iiavigntioii.

and discoveries

leading to practical results in some of the m)st important arts of


stantly rewarding the diligent inquirer,

In aU

it.

to steer from headland to headland without

hugging the

inter-

vening shore, or to take advantage of a wind which blew regularly like the

monsoons of the Indian Ocean, and thus use


which

blew

it

for traversing a

When

voyage.

it

according to the direction from

wide expanse of sea on an outward or a homeward

the compass was discovered, the greatest obstacle to a voyage

out of sight of land was at once removed

and there was even

less

danger in

launching out on the wide ocean than in


following the windings of the coast, exposed
to rocks

and

shoals,

and the many

dangei's

who proposed

to tui'n

of a lee shore.

Among

the

first

the use of the compass to jjractical account


in the discovery of

new

brated

Christopher

become

satisfied,

lands,

Marco

grounds

scientific

and from the accounts of

cele-

He had

Columbus.

both on

ticularly those of

was the

par-

travellers,

Polo, that as the

continent of Asia extended

much

further

eastward than had been generally imagined,


it

would be

possible to arrive at the East

by sailing west across the Atlantic.


The immense importance of such a passage,
Indies

once proved to be practicable,

was

perfectly

Chuistopher CoLVMBrs.

obvious.

dispense with the tedious and expensive overland routes


of the East

noi8..ir.i.

would at once

by which the produce

to those
;

of Christians.

Europe, and transfer the most valuable


infidels

These were the grand objects at which Columbus

but so much were

iiis

Cliristoiilier

Coluiubua.

to

with which the world was yet acquainted, from the hands of

traffic

aimed

was then brought

It

From

views in advance of his n^e, that

manv

vears

UISTOKV or INDIA.

!.">()

u.

i4o.i.

passed

away

whiuli

would

before he couid induce


Im!

necessary in

oi-d<;r

[Book

any Euroj)can

state to incwr the expenm:

Spain at

to realize tljem.

New

the task, and was rewarded with the discovery of a

more than even Columbus had


were

more accurate than

far

underrated

which he

tlie

first

undertook

lat

World.

wan

Tliis

TJKMigh his geographifxil ideaK

anticipated.

he had greatly

crmtemporaries,

of his

tho.se

T.

magnitude of the globe; and hence, imagining that the land


reached belonged to Asia, he gave

name

the

it

of

West

Indies.

In this name he informs us of the goal after which he had been striving, and

which he was so confident of having actually

attainecl, that for

would scarcely believe the evidence of

and

which he saw was Indian.

The

his senses,

India,

Columbus thas laboured

delusion under which

and of the eager longings of the maritime

share in

that everything

in.si.sted

now

a striking proof of the general interest which was

is

a time he

regard to

felt in

Europe to obtain a

states of

without being fettered by the monopolies which the Maho-

its trade,

metans and Venetians had established in the Levant.


ProUabie

Tliougli

Columbus faded

routes to

the East

to discover

an oceanic route to

pointed out the direction in which

It

it lay.

India, he clearly

was previously known that the

Xiidiss

by the continents

Atlantic was bounded on the east

The

west.

was

conclusion, therefore,

obvious, that

Europe by a continuous sea voyage,

it

these continents to

and then

with

tliis

termination,

its

As

Portugal.

but the

the only one with which

Trince

if

it

and

on the

India was accessible from

sailing

round

In accordance

it.

conclusion, four lines of passage presented themselves as possible

subsequently attempted

of

Africa,

could only be by tracing one or other of

and a

north-west, a north-east, a south-west,

Henry

and

had now proved that an equally insurmountable barrier bounded

lie

is

of Europe

last,

The

south-east.

tliree first

were

which was certainly the most promising,

we have now

to do.

more than twenty years before Columbus was bom,

early as 1415,

Prince Henry, fourth son of John


at the capture of Ceuta,

I.,

King of Portugal,

on the coast of

after distinguishing himself

with a determination

Africa, returned

to devote himself to maritime discovery,

by employing navigators

to trace the

western coast of that continent, and thereby perhaps solve the great proljlem of
a practicable route to the East Indies,

He had
him

all

by

sailing

round

the talent and scientific acquirement necessary, in order to qualif\'

for superintending the great task thus undertaken,

proof of his inflexibility of purpose

by

Avithdi'awing from

residence in the seaport of Sagres, not far from

erected an observatory,

of youth,

southern extremity.

its

whom

Cape

and gave a striking


coiu"t,

St.

and fixing

Here he

Vincent.

and established a school of navigation

for the training

He was

he might afterwards employ on voyages of discovery.

not destined to solve the grand problem

paved the way

for

called because

no previous navigator had

it,

by

fitting

Madeira and the Cape Verd

but before his death, in

out expeditions, which, leaving Cape

Islands,

pavssed

it)

and penetraf ed as

far behind,

fiir

his

had

463,

Non

(so

discovered

south as Sierra Leone.

"

PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY.

Chap. VTT.]

The

him

and under Alonso

was explored ahnost

coast

which Prince Henry had fostered was not allowed

spirit of enterprise

to expire with

151

V.,

who was then


John

to the equator.
/

Alonso, continuing the progress of discovery,


ultimately be reached, that, in

was

H8i, he took a

ordinary nature, appears to have been dictated

II.,

so

a d. uso.

reigning, the African

the son and succe.ssor of

-11
convinced that

discovery

India would

step which, though of an extra-

by sound and

Progicfisof

far-sighted policy.

un.ier

a,,!!"*"

'"'"'

Great exertions had been made by the government of Portugal in fitting out
expeditions for maritime discovery

crowned with

success, tlie

on sharing in the

sadors to several of

tiie

means of preventing

and furnishing men and money

this,

them the
to

own

would be awarded them, or leave him

entire resj)onsibility,

and of

anil insist

{isist

fair

alternative
in the con-

proportion

to proceed as hitherto,

common

course, in

to be

he sent ambas-

which he was contemplating, on the understanding that a

of the benefit
his

best

leading European courts, and offered

of either uniting with him,


(juests

and now, when they seemed about

danger was, that other states might step in

As the

fruits.

fairness, for his

on

own

exclusive benefit.

This attempt to form what

may

be called a joint-stock company, in which

kings were to be the only sluu'eholders,


to,

declined to entertain the proposal

failed.

All the

crowned heads

Grant from

ap|)lied

and John took the additional precaution

of calling in the aid of the pope, who, in the plenitude of an arrogant power,

then undisputed, but soon after to be shaken to

an imaginary

line

from north

to south,

its

very foundations, drew

by which he divided the world into

west to east

and decreed that discoveries of new countries made from


should only be competent, and shouUl belong exclusively to the

Portuguese.

It

two

halves,

eipial

discoveries

grant

futile,

From

seems not to have occurred either to the king

made from

to

eixat

and convert

this period the

it

ai'

the pope that

west might be carried so far as to

into a great

make

this

bone of contention.

King of Portugal assumed the

additional title of

Lord

of Guinea, and evinced a detennination to turn his grant to the best account.

Besides fitting out an expedition, under Diego

Cam, who,

in

1481, reached

and must consequently have been within 12^ of the

22" of south latitude,

southern extremity of the African continent, he sent two messenger overland

with instructions to discover the country of Prester John, then believed to be

though since ascertained to have had only a fabulous existence.

a great reality,

They were

to ascertain

also

Venetians traded

in,

reaching
letter

India,

conveying

and whether there

One

Africa to India

whence the drugs and


wjis

any

spices

sailing

from the south of

of these messengers, Pedro de Covillam, succeeded in

and obtained much im}M)rtant information;


it

came which the

but before the

reached Portugal, the great problem had been solved by

Bartolommeo Diaz, who had

sailed south with

thive ships in 1486.

After

reaching a higher southern latitude than any ])revious navigator, a storm arose

which drove him out to

.sea.

His direction under such circum.stances could not

Overiand
journey to
tiieEiisi

HISTORY OF INDIA.
A.I).

ltii:i

1)6

Diaz duublo^
tlio Cape of
Good Hope.

from hot

to cold,

steering eastward.

He

that the land which,

when he

and

south,

lie

readied

it;

but, to his gi-eat a.stonlshment, discovered

quitted

was now stretching

east

it,

lay on his left hand, nearly due noith

and west, and trending

round the soutliern extremity of Africa, and was now on

and he was obliged

south-eastern coast.

which Africa terminates.

Cape of Good Hope.

him

to give

it

the

much more

name

his crews in forcing

name ominous,

appropriate, and, in allusion to the great promise

which

Cabo de Buena Esperanza,

it

Cape of Good Hope.

Arrival of

It is singular that,

though John survived

this cUscovery nine years,

Columbus
in the

him

of Caho de Todos los Tormentos,

the doubling of the promontory held out, called


or

and.

From an old print.

or Cape of Storms, but the king, on his return, tliinking this

chose one

He was

The weather he had met with.

remembrance of the conduct of

perhaps, also a painful


to return, determined

to turn his face homewards.

few days brought him in sight of the magnificent pro-

so far rewarded, for a

in

been carried

anxious to prosecute this auspicious commencement, but his crews

refused to follow him,

montory

its

The

north-east.

He had

cause was too apparent to leave any room for doubt.

He was most

T.

knew it to he southerly. After tossing about


arul suffering much by a sudden transition of the tJ^niperature
he attemjjted, when tiie st^jnn abated, to regain the land by

accurately ascertained, but

for thirteen days,

[Book

no attempt to follow

Tagus.

it

up.

One

cause of the indifference thus manifested

been the mortification wliich he

liave

he made

felt at

the

still

more

may

brilliant success

which Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain had achieved by the emplojTnent of


Christopher Columbus.
of a

had

New

This renowned navigator, returning from

World, arrived in the Tagus in 1493.

offered his services to Poiiugal,

and been

discovery

Before applying to Spain, he

refu.sed.

now have given

to be able to recall that refusal?

counsellors base

enough to suggest that the remedy was

He had

liis

It

"\iMiat

was

would John not

too late

stiU in his

but he had

own

hands.

only to assassinate Coliunbus, and take po.ssession of his papers; his

'

VASCO DE GAMA'S FIRST VOYAGE.

Chap. VI I.]

discovery would thus die with

infamous suggestion
able to
his

and Columbus,

giver than

tlie

hiiii.

John was succeeded


imbued with the s])irit

for his owii

in l-i95

by

Emanuel, who was thoroughly

his cousin

of enterj)rise

which had animated

and not run the

what

it

was,

predecessors, under

to rest satisfied

with the

seen, in the third

avowed purpose

it

of not only doubling the Ca])e of


till

Good Hope,

the coast of

In this expedition, which consisted of three small

India was reached.

new

year of his reign, fitting out a

but afterwards continuing the voyage without intermission

ships,

carrying 160 men, Bartolommeo Diaz held only a subordinate station.

had he even the

satisfaction of seeing his discovery prosecuted

on arriving at the

""'"^
'

was impossible to foresee the


resolution had been formed, and there could be no doubt

when he was

expedition for the

his

Portuguese

risk of impoverishing his hereditary

dominions by expensive expeditions, of which


but his

honour-

to the court of Spain.

discoveries already made,

less

1497.

to the receiver, continued

Timid counsellors were not wanting who advised him

final result

fame he spurned the ad.

becoming reception, not

after a

must have been gratifying

it

triumphant progress

Happily

15;3

fort of

by

others

Nor
for,

El Mina, he wsis sent back to Portugal, and not long

after his return perished at sea.

The command

of the expedition, thus rather ungenerously withheld from

was conferred on Vasco de Gama, a


gentleman of the royal household, who had
Diaz,

previously done good sei*vice at sea, and,

by his subsequent conduct,


choice which had been
a

made

pompous ceremonial, more

justified

of him.

the

After

in accordance

with the great object contemplated by the


expedition than with the very inadequate

means furnished

for

its

accomplishment,

the three small ships left the port of Belem,

on Saturday, the 8th of July, 1497-

They

were accomjxinied by a small l)ark cam-ing


provisions,

was

and a

captain.

encountered

caravel, of

Ofi" tlie

which Diaz

Canaries the vessels

storm,

which

separated

Vasco de Gama.
From Vincent's Voyage

them, but they met again at Cape Verd,

of Nearchu*.

Ha\nng next day anchored


at Santa Maria, on the African coast, they repaired their damages, and took
the other vessels
in water.
Diaz, proceeding no farther, returned homewards
which had been fixed as the place of rendezvous.

pursued their voyage.

Another storm,

still

more violent than

tlie

former, over-

hope of weathering
o it, when it
abated, and they took shelter in a bay, to which they gave the name of Santa
Elena.
Vasco de Gama attempted to hohl communication with the natives, but

took them

;
^

given up
and they
1
J had almost t>

all

De canm
enters the

Vol.

I.

20

bayofsanta

l.Jt

\).

1408.

met with an

He

stay.

reception, wliicli left

iiiliospital^le

set sail again

Good Hope, which,

[Book

no ineiination

liini

tf>

I.

ju'olong Iuh

on the HJth of November, liaving already been more

than four months at sea; and two


of

OF TNDTA.

lIlST(JliV

<

came within

lays after

sight of the

Cape

about in consequence of baffling winds,

after tacking

they doubled on the 20th of November, amid the sound of music and general
rejoicing.
I)e

Gama's

They were now

launched on the Indian Ocean, but instead of steering

fairly

course along
east coast

right across

of Africa.

vations,

it,

continued for a time to follow the coast, making careful obser-

and daily discovering some new object

Christmas,

they saw land, which, in honour of the day, they called

1497,

Tierra de Natal;

and which,

whom

retaining

still

its

The next land

importance as a British colony.

with

On

to excite their wonder.

name, promises to

rise

into

visited belonged to the KafFres,

they had much friendly intercourse.

In proceeding farther north, the expedition was much impeded by currents,

which induced De

Gama

to give the

name

of Caho de Corrientes to a prominent

headland, and to keep far out to sea in order to avoid the risk of being embayed.

Owing

to this, Sofala,

which was then the great emporium of

this part of Africa,

was passed without being seen. The natives appeared now to be more civilized
than those who had previously been seen, and instead of the timid and suspicious looks which others had manifested, made themselves as familiar with the
Portuguese as

if

they had been old acquaintances.

As

their language wa-s not

by signs was necessarily confined within very


narrow limits, but enough was communicated to satisfy Vasco de Gama that
they were accustomed to mingle with people in a still more advanced state of
civilization.
Two chiefs in particular, who paid him a visit in their own boats,
gave him to understand that they had seen ships as large as those of the Portuguese and after they had returned to the shore, sent two pieces of calico on
understood, the conversation

board for
usual

sale.

This cloth, which

name from the town


it

was the

fii'st

with in their voyage.

It

is

almost needless to mention, takes

it,

perhaps erroneously, to be the product of

specimen of Indian manufacture which they had met

was regarded

great undertaking, and hence Vasco de

as

His proceedings at Mosair)bi(iue.

Good

Having again
their

an omen of future success in their

Gama

of which these transactions took place, the


or River of

its

of Calicut, excited a particular interest in the

Portuguese, because supposing


that city,

it

gave to the stream, at the mouth

name

of

Rio de Buenos Slnays,

Signs.
set sail

on the

2^i\\ of

February,

14?98,

the vessels continued

voyage along the coast through the channel of Mosambique, and on

town of that name, were hailed by a number of little


The vessels cast anchor,
boats, the crews of which made signs to stay for them.
and the boatmen, without showing the least fear, leaped at once aboard, made
themselves perfectly at home, ate and di'ank freely, and conversed in Arabic
with one of the crew who understood that lanouaore. The intercourse at first

arriving opposite to the

VASCO DE GAMA'S FIRST VOYAGE.

Chap Vrr.]

promised to be very friendly, but

oii its

1 '55

being discovered by the sheikh or

that the Portuguese were not, as he had originally supposed, Turks

but Christians, his manner suddenly changed, and

metans,

was

friendship

Ultimately open

at an end.

all

chief,

ad.

w.is.

and Mahoseeming

his

were declared, and the

hostilities

Portuguese avenged themselves by bombarding and destroying the town of


Mosambicpie.

The

weighing anchor, continued their course northwards, and

vessels again

arrived at the island

ot

Mombas, with a town

seeming friendship of the Moors proved as

Mosambique

oi

same name.

Here the

false as that of the inhal)itants of

by dropping hot bacon upon

liiida

their flesh,

that a plot had been formed for his destructicni, hastened his departure,

not again halt

till

and did

he arrived off Melinda, which delighted the Portuguese, as

reminded them more of home than any African city they had yet
seated on the level part of a rocky shore,

built of stone, three stories high,

the inhabitants,

seen.

It

it

was

amid plantations of palms and orchards

of orange and other fruit trees, covered a large space,

first

and Me-

and Vasco de Gama, believing, on the confession of two Moors,

wlu^in he barbarously ])ut to the torture

At

rrocoe<iiii(;8

and with terraced

and consisted of hoases

roofs.

who were probably acquainted with

the transac-

Mosambique and Mombas, kept aloof, but a good understanding wa.s


eventually established; and the king, though a Mahometan, so far forgot his

tions at

]M-ejudices that
visions,

It

he afforded the Portuguese every

and even made a formal

was now unnecessary

the African coast.

facility for

obtaining pro-

visit in his barge.

for the Portuguese to continue their course along

Their object had been to obtain such information as might

enable them to proceed with safety across the ocean towards India.
furnislied

lying in

them with

its

Four ships from India were then

that they requu-ed.

all

harbour, and

little diffijulty

Melinda

was found

in obtaining a pilot capable

named Melemo Kana, was a native of GuThe compass, charts,


jerat, and had a thorough knowledge of his profe.ssion.
and quadrants were quite familiar to him and an astrolabe shown him seemed
This

of acting as their guide.

pilot,

a Gujemt
gaged.

so inferior to other instruments

which he had seen used

that he scarcely condescended to notice

for the

same purpose,

De Gama

Before leaving Melinda,

it.

by persons belonging to the Indian ships. He imagined them to


be Christians, because on coming aboard they })rostrated themselves before an
was

visited

image of the Virgin, probably mistaking


])lain,

women,

gowns

own

after a prosperous

May.

leagues,

of white calico, wore their hair, which

plaited under their turbans,

The expedition
of

one of their

idols

from the description given of them, that they were Hindoos.

clothed in long
of

for

it

sailed

and

rose high

Malabar

it is

They were

was long

from Melinda on Tuesday, the 22d of April,

off the

but

like that

and ate no beef

voyage of twenty- three

They were

day.s,

coast,

and bold from the

saw

India,

l-ti)S,

and

on Friday, the 17th

which was at the distance of eight


sea.

Their destination was Calicut,

Arrival on

olst.

lIISTOIiY C>r INDIA.

i:)f;

I)

1498.

and

as tliey were con.siderably nortli

east.

On

they

tlie 20tli

belield,

]>artially

tlieir

tlieir uii.speakuble delight,

on the open

after cat anchor

course to Houtli-

the lofty wofxled

about two leagues

without roadstead or harbour, though

inside of

which small vessels

Bran et Hogenburjj, Theatre des prmuipale^s Villes de tuus

was then the

sheltered,

l>each,

by a rocky bank,

protected

CALicax.

Itszamorin.

changed

r.

it.

Calicut, situated

Calicut,

tliey

it,

and shortly

terraces rising behiml that city,

below

tf>

of"

fHooK

capital of a

Hindoo

les

tolerably

lie

UniveiB, 1574.

sovereign, who, under the title of

samiry or zaniorin, ruled a considerable extent of country in the south-west


This

of the peninsula.

title is

probably the corruption of Tamuri, the

name

of

whom, according to popular tradition, a prince called Cheruman. after


dividing his territories among his other cliieftains, had nothincr more remainincj
a rajah on

to bestow than his sword, " with all the territory in

small temple here could be heard


singular nature of the grant, the

'^

The

name

in course of time

was metamorphosed

aside as fabulous

but

it is

which a cock crowing at a

territory thus assigned took,

from the

of Colico-du, or the Cock-crowing, which


into Calicut.

certain that in whatever

the territory was acquired, the sword of

may

This account

way

be

set

the original nucleus of

Cheruman proved the most valuable

part of his bequest, and enabled Tamuri to place himself at the head of

all his

and transmit his power to a series of successors. One of


these had been converted to Mahometanism " by some pilgrims who had been
wrecked on his coast while proceeding to visit Adam's Peak in Ceylon and,
Ijrother chieftains,

with the zeal of a new convert,

set out

on a pilgrimage to Mecca.

He

never

returned; but the favour shown to Mahometans during his reign, and the

encouragement which, in consequence of his recommendation, they received

from his

them
'

successor,

to acquire

had induced them to

much

settle in great numbei"s,

influence in Cranganore, Calicut,

and enabled

and the surrounding

Buchanan, Narrative of a Journey frora Madras, tJirouyh Mi/sorc, Canara, and Malabar,

vol.

ii.

p.

47i.

Brigg's FcrUhta, vol. iv. p. 531, 532.

DK GAMA AND THE ZAMOTIIN.

Chap. VIL]

Such was the

districts.

necessary to attend to

De Gama having
by some

it,

key

as furnishing a

the Portuguese arrived, and

many

to

it is

was immediately

visited

small fishing-boats, and imder their guidance sailed as near to Calicut

would

He had

allow.

whose sentence had been remitted

of these criminals

i-in-t

land-

Portuguese

in consideration of the danger to


to hold intercom'se

the natives, under circumstances too hazardous to justify

One

hos

brought several criuiinals from

which they were to be exposed by being sent ashore

any of the crew.

ad

subsecjuent proceedings.

anchored, as ah'eady mentioned,

as the depth of water

Portugal,

when

state of matters

157

tlie

with

em])loyment of

was accordingly despatched along with

him might enable De Gama to


shape his futm-e com'se.
He was immediately surrounded by a crowd whose
curiosity could hardly be satisfied, though it was more importunate than rude.
As his ignorance of the language made it useless to ask him any questions, they
took him to the house of two Moors, one of wliom, called Monzaide who, from
the fishermen, in order that the reception given

knew him

being a native of Tunis,

to be Portuguese

astonishment by exclaiming in Spanish,

and on approaching De Gama,

Many

luck!
for

and

all

What brought

devil take you!

rubies,

many

cried aloud in Spanish, "

emeralds!

having brought thee wliere there are

with

The

utterance to his

After some exj)lanations, Monzaide went off with him to the

you hither r'


ships,

"

gave

Thou

art

all sorts

bound

Good luck

to give

of spices and ]irecious stones,

De Gama and his crew were so


meeting with one who could speak their language so

home, that they wept for

good

God thanks

the riches of the world."

affected at

surprised
far

from

joy.

Having learned from Monzaide that the zamorin was then at Ponan}^ a
village at the mouth of a river of same name, about thii-ty-six miles south from
Calicut, De Gama immediately announced his arrival, intimating at the same
time that he was the bearer of a letter to him from his master the King of
Portugal, a Christian prince.
The zamorin, in aaswer, bade him welcome, and

DeCanm
"shore.

sent a pilot to conduct the ships to a safer anchorage, near a village called

Pandarane.

He

avail himself of

accepted of the services of the

pilot,

but demurred at

first

to

an invitation by the cotwal or chief magistrate, to go ashore

by land to Calicut. On second thoughts, however, he became convinced that tliis was a risk which he ought to run and while his brother Paul,
who commanded one of the ships, and the other officers, reminded him of the

and

})roceed

danger to be apprehended, not so much from the natives,

whom

they insisted

on regarding as Christians, as from the Moors, whose deadly enmity they had
already experienced on the African coast, he announced his determination, let

what would
treaty of

On

betide him, to go a.shore and leave no

commerce and

i>er{)etual

means

luitried to settle

amity.

the 28th of May, after leaving orders that in the event of any accident

befalling him, the vessels

were to return home with the news of

uisfiret

"
liis

discovery,

he set out in his boat, attended by twelve of his company, with flags waving

zilmorin.

;;

nrSTOUY

l-'jS

A.i)

ii.is

trumpets Houndinj^.

jtiid

fii-st

visit to

thozamo-

Two

assemblage.

Mobility of

tlx;

had been

palantiuias
^
^

[Book

was waiting

Tlie ootwal

nairs, understoorl to he
DeG.ama'8

INDIA.

()]

one for

T)rovided,
'

made

sliip,

hung seven

In front of

with 200

on

De Gama and

another

During the jour-

foot.

a temple built of freestone, covered with

visit to

large as a great monastery.

liini

country, and a large [jroniis^mouH

tlte

for the cotwal; the rest of the attendants followed

ney they paid a

receive

tf>

T.

tiles,

and a

stood a pillar as high as the ma.st of

it

of wire, with a weather-cock on the top, and over the entrance

The

bells.

was

interior

full

images

(jf

and

these, as well as

some

of the ceremonies, confirming the Portuguese in their previous belief that the

natives were Christians, they began to

the light did not allow

them

pay

The dimness of

their devotions.

to see the kind of figures they

were worshipjnng,

but on looking around they discerned monstrous shapes on the walls, some

with great teeth sticking an inch out of their mouth, others with four arms and
such

which he was making

fore
is

that one of the Portuf^uese, on beholdinc; one of them, be-

faces,

frio-jitful

God

On

I worship."

his genuflexion, exclaimed, " If this

be the

devil, it

approaching the city the multitude became immen.se,

who was waiting, along with


a number of nairs, to conduct De Gama with all the pomp of an ambassador
into the royal presence.
Though almost stifled by the press, he was so much
and the cotwal halted

gratified that

at the house of his brother,

think in Portugal what honour


nisreception at
i.aiacd

'pjig

tike

"

he could not help observing to those around him,

palacc,
at
^

little

done us here."

is

which they arrived an hour before

by

trees,

had a handsome

sunset,

-^

appearance, and was surrounded

They

and gardens adorned with

fountains.

was entered by a series of five inclosm-es, each having its own separate gate
and such was the eagerness of the populace to S(^ueeze themselves in, that
At the grand entrance De Gama was received
several were crushed to death.
It

by the

chief minister

and

high-priest, a little old

man, who,

him, took him with his attendants into the presence.


set

round with

velvet,

seats, rising as in

a theatre

and the walls hung round with

wrought with

gold,

and a

rich

He wore

roses of beaten gold


calico

and

legs, left

a large, stout

and with something majestic in

the buttons were large pearls.

reached to his knees.

and both

He was

a short coat of fine caHco, adorned with branches and

cious stones, covered his head;

kind

years,

the head of

with a covering of white

canopy overhead.

man, of dark complexion, advanced in


his appearance.

At

silks of diverse colom's.


sofa,

embracing

The hall of audience was


was carpeted with gi-een

the floor

the hall the zamorin lay reclined on a kind of


silk

after

his finders

Another piece of white

kind of mitre, ghttering with pearls and preliis

ears

were stning with jewels of the same

and toes were loaded with diamond

rinofs.

His aims

Near him stood two


the one bason contained betel and areca nut,

naked, were adorned with gold bracelets.

gold basons and a gold fountain

which was handed him by an attendant, the other received

it

when chewed

the fountain supplied water to rinse his mouth.

DE GAMA AND THE ZAMOKIN.

Chap. Vll.J

After

De Gama

the country,

entered and

by bowing

made

his obeisance accordinjr


& to the

body three times and

his

lo9

lifting

up

custom of
hands, the

liis

zamorin looked kindly at him, recognized him by a scarcely perceptible


nation of the head, and ordered

by signs

liini

The attendants being admitted, took

him.

On

regaled with fruits.

was brought, but

tliey

the vessel with their

advance and

to

a d hus

iiu-li-

iheiuur-

down near

sit

their seats opposite,

and were

calHng for water to drink, a golden cup witii a spout

were told that

it

was considered bad manners

The awkwardness of the Portuguese,

li{)s.

to touch

wlio, in at-

tempting to drink by the spout, either choked themselves with the water or

upon

spilled it

their clothes,

gave much amusement

to the court.

De Gama

having been asked by the zamorin to open his business, gave him to understand

custom of princes in Europe was to hear amba.ssadors in the i)resence of

tliat tiie

only a few of their chief counsellors.

and the audience took place


only

De Gama and another

side,

and the zamorin,

his betel-server

with what

in another

Portuguese,

apartment similar

who

to the former,

where

acted as his interpreter, on the one

his cliief minister, the comptroller of his household,

on the

object,

was immediately adopted,

Tlie suggestion

When

otlier, Avere present.

De Gama answered

of Portugal, the greatest prince in

were Christian princes

that he

and

asked whence he came, and

was an ambassador

King

of the

the West, who, having heard that there

all

in the Indies, of

whom

the King of Calicut was the chief,

had sent an ambassador to conclude a treaty of trade and friendship with him.

He

King
India by

added, that for sixty years the

been endeavouring to discover


the

intrusted

and had

sea,

In anticipation of this success,

time.

first

him with two

letters,

his

welcome, made

made a

till

his predecessors

had

at length succeeded for

master, had

the king, his

the delivery of which, as

would, with the zamorin's permission, defer


reason to think he had

and

of Portugal

it

was now

late,

he

De Gama had

to morrow.

favourable impression, as the zamorin repeated


as to the distance to

incjuiries

Portugal,

and the time

occupied by the voyage, and declared his willingness not only to recognize the

King of Portugal as

his fiiend

and brother, but to send an ambassador

to his

coiu-t.

De Gama,

after passing the night

with his attendants in a lodging specially


.

provided for them, began next morning to prepare a present for the zamorin.

He was

not well supplied for that purpose

scarlet, six hats, four

of sugar,

two

branches of

barrels of oil

wal to ask their opinion.

and

told

present.

but after selecting four pieces of

coral, six almasars,

and two of honey, sent

On

He

arose,

and

to the port

at last the factor

he would not

visit the

king

made a

arrived,

cot-

and he complained of

better

and cotwal depaiied,


till

they returned to

waited the whole day, but they never appeared.

when they

and

looking at the articles they burst into a laugh,

kind of altercation

go with him.

a parcel of brass, a chest

for the royal factor

him that the poorest merchant who came

after taking his promise that

following,

On

the day

their behaviour, they

made

De aama's
proposed
present.

liiO

I).

1108.

IIIS'I'OKV

light of

and Ijegan

it

they had been gained

[liOOK

The

to talk indiffereDtly of other matters.


})y

new

of a

uj)

sequent decline of that which had


to leave

fact

J.

wa8 that

the Moorn, who, fearing that their interests might be

seriously affected Ijy the opening

were determined

OF 1M>1A.

ti-ade

with

l>een carried

hith(;rt<j

and the don-

?^iro[e,

no meaas untried to fnistrate the

on hy the Red Sea,


of the Portu-

oVjject

guese expedition.

When De Gama went

Do (Jama's

to the palace to

pay the

visit

which, according to

Hoooiul visit

to tho zai"<iriii.

appointment, should have been paid a day sooner, the effect of the Moorish

was very apparent. He was kept waiting for three hours anrl when at
last admitted, was told angi'ily by the zamorin that he had waited for him all
He was then asked how it was that, if he came from so great
the day before.
intrigue

rich a prince as he represented his

and

king to

be,

he brought no pr&sent with

him, though in every embassy of friendship that must be regarded as a neces-

De Gama made

sary credential.

by

the best excuse possible in the circumstances,

referring to the uncertain issue of his voyage,

provide a present which there might

mising that

if

V)e

which made

it

imprudent to

no opportunity of delivering, and pro-

he lived to carry home the news of his discovery, a suitable

The zamorin, not yet satisfied, observed, "I hear


you have a St. Mary in gold, and desire I may have that." De Gama, taken
somewhat aback at this demand, replied that the image was not gold, but only
wood gilded; and as he attributed his preservation at sea to its influence, he
must be excused for not parting with it. The zamorin, quitting the .subject,
present would certainly arrive.

asked for the two


cate,

letters,

which indeed contained only the same thing in dupli-

the one written in Portuguese and the other in Ai-abic.

"As soon as
preted by Monzaide, was in pui-port as follows:
King of Por

the

King

of Portugal that the

King

The

latter, inter-

was known

to

of Calicut, one of the mightiest princes of

all

it

tiigal's

letter.

the Indies,

was a

with him,

for the

Christian, he

was desirous

to cultivate a trade

and

friendshi]:)

conveniency of lading spices in his ports; for which, in

exchange, the commodities of Portugal should be sent, or else gold and


in case his majesty chose the

same

referring

make a further report." This letter, and


Gama, who throughout the interview behaved

to

character which he claimed, disabused the

it

silver,

to the general, his ambassador,

the noble bearing of Yasco de


in a

manner becoming the

higli

mind of the zamorin of the impres-

him throvigh the intrigues of the Moors, who had sedulously


circulated a rumour that he was no ambassador, but merely a pu-ate. He therefore conversed with him in the most friendly manner, and gave him full liberty
to bring any merchandise he had with him ashore and dispose of it to the best
sion received of

advantage.
Effect of

Moorish
intrigues.

The next day, the 31st of May, De Gama prepared to return to his
and was actiially on the way to Pandarane, when the Moors, fearing that
once got

away he would not again

to hasten after

and detain him,

if

he

by a

large bribe,

them an opportunity

of disposing

return, induced the cotwal,

so as to afford

ships,

DE GAM A AND THE ZAMORIN.

Chap. VII.]
of

him summarily.

Gama

luistening

The cotwal accordingly

"Yes;

am

him

if

till

and continued

he reached the

I)e

a.d. urn.

The cotwal

He

answered,

his journey, the cot-

was sunset before

It

village.

The cotwal

immediately for a boat.

up, but he called

and found

his attendants.

he was running away.

running away from the heat;'

wal keeping close by him

men came

set out in pursuit,

on considerably in advance of

ralKed him on his haste, and asked

IGl

his

at first endea-

voured to dissuade him, but finding him resolute, pretended to send for the
boatmen, while at the same time he sent another messacre, orderin<j them to

keep out of the way.

The consequence was that no boat appeared, and there

was no alternative but

to pass the night

lu the morning matters assumed a

on

shore.

more threatening appearance.

still

The

i>eGain.i
forcibly

cotwal, instead of bringing a boat, told

him

to

ilo-

tiiiued ushore

order his ships nearer shore, and on his refusal,

threw

off all

disguise,

him that

telling

as he

would not do what he was ordered he should

De Gama was

not go on board.

The doors of

tents a prisoner.
shut,

in-

all

his lodging

were

and several nairs with drawn swords kept

guard within.

Coello

and, fortunately,

De Gamas

by communicating with one of

sailors,

was apprised of
still

meantime had come with

within a short distance of the shore

his boats

he

thus to

who had been

his situation.

The

left outside,

cotwal, while

detained him, seemed afraid to proceed

to violent

extremes; and after finding that he

could not lure the vessels into the harbour, so


as to give the

Moors an

oppoi't unity of destroy-

ing them, changed his tactics and asked only

merchandise should be sent ashore.

that the

Ship of Spaik, Fifteenth Century


EpiiloUk Crutoferi Colom..

His object apparently was to appropriate


himself;

and

as

De Gama's

it

presence interfered with this object, he

From

I9.S.

him

was

easily His

but took care by his

more celebrated Bartolommeo, who

the zamorin ^vith the

first

unworthy treatment

to depart.

to

factor,

Diego Diaz, brother

doubled the Cape, to acquaint

which he had been subjected.

and promised both to punish the offenders


and send merchants to purchase the goods. He could scarcely have been sinand the goods, which they took
cere, for the insolence of the Moors increased

The zamorin seemed much

incensed,

every opportunity to depreciate, found few purchasers.


ever,

was

established

and

after permission

was given

to

kind of

traffic,

how-

remove the goods from

Pandarane to Calicut, as a more suitable market, much friendly intercourse took


Vol.

1.

I.

release,

once free of the cotwal and his associates, determined not again

to place himself in their power,

of the

to

induced, as soon as the merchandise arrived, to allow

De Gama,

Ac.

21

Traffic

commencoi..

H)2
AC.

1498.

JIIS'IOIIV

OF INDIA.

between the Portuguese and the natives.

place

[Book

They were not

I,

how-

destined,

ever, to part so amicaljly.


Tiie

zamoriii

liooomes
hostile.

More than two montlis had elapsed since the arrival of tiie Portuguese
vessels, and as the north-east monsoon, on which they depended for their return
homewards, was about to

set in,

De Gama, on

Diaz to the zamorin with a present of


admission, and

He was

obliged

t^.)

things,

and

wait four days

The

was then received with a frowning countenance.

mind had been completely poisoned and he regarded the Portuguese


pirates, who had come for plunder, or .spies, who, after acquainting

zamorin's

either as

themselves with the country, intended to return with a

fleet .sufficient to

invade

Accordingly a guard was set over the house which the Portuguese had used

it.

for

and other

scarfs, silks, coral,

a notification of his intention to depart.


for

the 10th of Augast, sent Diego

a factory, preventing

egress;

all

and a proclamation

prohibiting

i.ssued

all

intercourse with the Portuguese ships.

De Gama, on
mined

what had happened, was much incen.sed, Vjut deterand employ craft against craft. Two days after the

learning

to proceed warily,

proclamation,

arrived

with
sale.

four

an

in

lads

almadia,

preciotLS

.stones

for

They were suspected

to be spies

but

De Gama

spoke to them as

he

if

were entirely ignorant of

what had taken place in


Calicut, and allowed them
to depart, in the hope that their return would induce other persons of more consequence to pay him a visit. Nor was he mistaken. For the zamorin, convinced
by De Gama's conduct that he was ignorant of the detention of his factor Diaz,
An

and
over

Almadia.

From

Hughen's Discours of Voyages in Indiistan,

his secretary Braga,


it,

who were both

sent people on board to keep

the destruction of his

sliips

De Gama
retaliates.

when

six

when

in the factory

him amused

by preparing a

one from Mecca for that purpose.

15S5.

till

the guard was set

he should be able to

own ports,
own coiinsel,

fleet in his

De Gama kept

his

effect

or bringing
till

one day

He

of the principal inhabitants arrived with fifteen attendants.

immediately seized them, and sent a letter ashore, demanding his factor and
secretary in exchange.

and the

After some parleying, Diaz and Braga were sent aboard,

principal inhabitants,

who were

nairs,

were returned.

The

attendants,

however, were detained, on the plea that some of the Portuguese merchandise

was

stiU

unaccounted

for.

This was mere pretence on

had already determined to carry

off"

them

as the vouchers of his discovery.

ment

to those

who had been

De Gama's

part, for

he

the poor natives to Portugal, and exhibit

Immediately after making

sent for the natives,

this

and desiring them

the zamorin that he would shortly return and give

him

full

announceto inform

means of judging

PORTUGUESE EXPEDITION UNDER CABRAL.

Chap. VII.]

Ido

whether the Christians were thieves, as the Moors had persuaded him, he weighed
anchor and set

Two

isou.

.\.ij.

on his homeward voyage.

sail

days after their departure, wlien the ships were lying becalmed a league

De Cawn
attiicked

from Calicut, the zamorin's

was seen approaching,

fleet of forty vessels

of

Their object was obvious; but the Portuguese, by means of their

soldiers.

ordnance,

managed

they got clear

De Gama,

for

otf,

to keep

them

bay

at

and that in

though not without being pursued

a short time, kept near the coast

all its

sea.

tiio

tiaet.

for

an hour and a half

and when within twelve leagues

whole coast was in motion,

harbours vessels were being fitted out for the purpose of inter-

Longer delay,

cepting him.

by

a gale fortunately sprung up, and

till

of Goa, received the alarming intelligence that the

out to

full

therefore,

seemed dangerous, and he at once put

The voyage home was tedious and

disastrous; but ultimately

Belem

Anive-sin
Portugal.

was reached

Of the

in September, 1499, after

an absence of two years and two months.

The news of

original crew, only fifty returned alive.

their arrival

was

kingdom and
De Gama, after being conducted into Lisbon in triumphal procession, was raised
to new honours and liberally pensioned.
So elated was King Emanuel with the
hailed with extraordinary demonstrations of joy throughout the

success of the expedition, that

forthwith added to his

lie

titles

that of Lord of

the Conquest and Navigation of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and the Indies.

No

time was

lost in fitting

out a

expedition on a more extended

on the 9th of March, 1500, under the

command

of Pedro Alvarez Cabral.

first
little

8th

but from them the

new

land they reached was a

was

Brazil.

coiu-se

was

The expedition again

Good Hope, but was thrown

sailed

The

so far west-

continent, the discovery of

importance ai)pears to have been attached to

lUtimately proved the most valuable acquisition


It

rvpciitioi.

Bartolommeo Diaz, the discoverer of the Cape of Good Hope,

Canaries were seen on the

which, though

.socond

Amonjr

and his brother, Diego Diaz, who had been factor to Vasco de Gama.

ward that the

scale,

containing 1200 men, and sailed from Belem

It consisted of tliirteen vessels,

the captains were

new

made by

the crown of Portugal.

on the 2d of

into considerable alarm

at the time,

it

May

for the

Cape of

by the appearance

of a

comet, which continued to increfise for ten days, and shone so brightly as to be
visible

both day and night.

The

runner, seemed to be realized

and fury

di.siisters,

by the bursting

that, before the sails could

commanded by Bartolommeo
others were so shattered

and

of wliich

it

was dreaded

as the fore-

of a storm with suoli suddenness

be furled, four of the

vessels,

one of them

Diaz, simk, with every soul on board,

and the

with water that, had not their

been so

filled

.sails

torn as to leave nothing but bare poles, they

Dreadful as the storm was,

on

its

abating, that the

Cape of Good Hope was already doubled.

along the south-east coast of


Sofala.

taken.

it

must certainly have foundered.


was ultimately weathered, and Cabral found,

Africii,

They took fright and made


They proved to be Moorish

he

fell

in

vessels

Continuing *g3

with two vessels at anchor near

for the shore,

bound

but were pursued and overfor Melinda.

As

^>torm <>n

the Portu-

Hope,

Kit
AD.

1M)0

Jil.ST(JllV

guese were on IViendly terms with

more

liappened,

OF

its

INJJIA

fli^WK

I.

Cahral was sorry for what liad

chief"

most valuable part of the cargo coasisted of

especially as the

gold, which, during the teiTor of the tiight,

had been thrown overboard.

On

expressing his regret, the Moorish captain gravely asked wliether he ha/J not

some wizard with him, who might conjure

it

up from the bottom of the

At

sea.

Melinda, where the chief proved as friendly as before, Cabral wa,s funiished

with two Gujerat

Under

pilots.

and

across the Indian Ocean,

their guidance he

made a prosperous voyage

cast anchor within a league of Calicut

on the

3th

of September.

Shortly after his arrival several nairs came on board, bringing the zamorin's

Cabral
arrives at
Calicut.

welcome, and making great


take his ships nearer the

Gama had

carried

from Portugal purely to

some delay and

Cabral ventured ashore.

till

and friendship

came

by De Gama's
This demand produced

but, taught

last six of the principal natives arrived,

The interview took

purpose, near the water-edge.

Vasco de

sent a messenger, intimating that he

hostages were given.

but at

altercation,

whom

and sent ashore four natives

settle trade

he refused to land

expei-ience,

Interview

city,

He afterwards

off.

Cabral was thus induced to

offers of friendship.

and

place in a pavilion, erected on

The zamorin, dressed nearly

when De Gama

as

witli tlie

zamoriii.

visited him, dazzled all eyes

sapphires,

and

pearls,

covered his fingers and


silver,

with the

size

which studded
toes.

and

his girdle

His chair of

state

curiously wrought, glistened with

articles

brilliancy of the diamonds, rubies,

and hung from

and palanquin,

all

precious stones; and,

liLs

ears,

of gold and

among

composed of the precious metals, were three gold and seventeen

trumpets, and various silver lamps, and censers smoking with perfumes.
after delivering his credentials,

and stating the

desire of the

King

or

other
silver

Cabral,

of Portugal

t<j

enjoy the zamorin's friendship, and establish at Calicut a factory, which should

be supplied with

pay for them

all

kinds of European goods, and take spices in exchange, or

in ready

money, caused the present to be brought

of a wrought silver basin

gilt,

in.

It consisted

a fountain of the same, a silver cup with a

gilt

two cushions of cloth of gold, and two of crimson velvet, a cloth of state of
the same velvet striped and bound with gold lace, and two rich pieces of arras.
cover,

Mutual

So

far all things

had gone on smoothly but beneath


;

this

seeming friendship

ilisti'ust.

mutual distrust was at work, preparing for a

final rupture.

First, the hostages,

on learning that Cabral was preparing to retm-n, began to suspect that they

might be detained altogether, and endeavom-ed to escape by leaping into the


sea.

Some

harshness.

succeeded, while those re-captured were treated with .some degree of

Before the misunderstanding thus occasioned was completely cleared

up, Cabral proposed to send a message to the zamorin, to ask

willing to finish the aoreeraent which he

conviction

among

So strong was the

the Portumiese that this message would onlv

worse, that Fiancisco Correa

volunteer to carry

had begun.

whether he was

it.

was the only man

make

matters

in the fleet bold enough

to

Contrary to expectation, Correa met with a friendly

CABRAL'S EXPEDITION.

Chai'. A'II]

reception,

165

and completed an arrangement by whicli a regular Portuguese factory

was established

in Calicut,

under the charge of his brother, Ayres Correa

seems to have been very inditlerently qualified for his

factor

himself to be imposed upon at

had never ceased

made

all

their intrijjues

At

their appearance

hands, and

from the

their instigation

stood out to

The zamorin

sea.

at the cause of Cabral's removal,

This

and allowed

especially

some

hostile manifestations

made, particularly by Khoja Comireci, the admiral of Calicut

became so alarming that Cabral deemed

liou.

by the Moors, M'ho


moment when the Portusfuese

more
first

office;

a.d.

were

and appejwances

necessary to quit the harbour, and

it

expi'essed deep

and apparently

sincere regret

and showed a willingness to take whatever

He gave orders to prevent the


ijiterference of the Moors, removed an officer whom he had placed in the factory,
and substituted another, who, he thought, would be more acceptable. He even
steps miglit be necessaiy to restore confidence.

took the

more decided step of removing the factory from a

still

locality whicli

and gave the Portuguese a perpetual


The
grant of a new house more conveniently situated near the sea-shore.

gave the Moors too great control over

good

it,

measures was soon visible; and the Portuguese walked

effect of these

the streets of Calicut as safely, and as free from molestation, as if they had

been

in Lisbon.

The

Mooi-s,

whose resources

were inexhaustible, determined to

in intrigue

break up this understanding, and tried to effect

it

by a

rather singular expedient.

Availino- themselves of the vindictive feelings of the officer

removed horn the Portuguese

factory,

Moorish

who had been

they employed him to persuade Correa

that Cabral could not confer a greater service on the zamorin than to capture

Cambay

a large ship, which was bound from Ceylon to


elephants.

and

as he

One

whom

of these animals, which the zamorin coveted, had been refused

had thus been unable

glad to obtain

it

or Gujerat, with

to obtain it

The Moors

anyhow.

by

means, he would be very

ftm-

calculated that the master of the vessel,

they had put on his guard, would be more than a match for the Portu-

guese admiral, and, at

events, that the Portuguese,

all

by attacking a

vessel with

which they had no proper ground of quarrel, would justify the reputation M'hich
they had given them as mere depredators.
thus laid for him
could,

by

but, ai"ter discovering the trick,

fell

too easily into the snai*e

made

the best reparation he

restoring the vessel to its owners.

The Moors, disappointed


1

threw many obstructions


1

Cabral

in their object,
1

in the

i>

way of the

resumed

their former practices,


1

and

Portuguese; who, in consequence, saw

the time for their departure a]iproaching while their ships remained unladen,

Cabral complained to the zamorin, and was authorized to search the vessels
of the Moore and take whatever spices were found in them, only paying the

The Moors were too numerous and influential to be thus


with and on one of their ships being seized, obtamed permis-

original cost prices.

summarily dealt

sion from the fickle zamorin to retaliate.

They took

measui-es accordingly; and

rortuguefactory

stormed,

166
A D \:m.

IIISTOIIY

having excited n

stormed the Poi-tugue.se

riot,

and among others Ayres Correa,

principal

tlie

any apology

Cabral, not having received

i.i.io,u.i8

Calicut.

OF INDIA.

own method

determined to take his

made a

and

possession of the cargoes

opened

and

from the zamorin,

for this outrage

without note of warning,

which were lying in the harljour

600 of the Moors and natives perished, gained

on

set the ships

Many

upon the town.

his fire

of the inmates,

their lives.

fsicUjr, lost

On a sudden,

furious onset on ten large ships

after a contest, dm-ing wliicli

Many

fjictory.

I.

of revenge, without giving him.self any

concern as to the lawfulness of the means.

he

[B/jok

of

fire.

Not

with

satisfied

this,

he

public buildings were destroyed,

its

and the inhabitants, becoming crowded in their flight, fell in great numbers.
The zamorin him.self made a narrow escape, as one of his nair.s, who was
immediately behind him, was struck down
Peace was

Fiieiidshii)

of Cochin

now

guese, however,

Vjy

a cannon-ball.

out of the question, and open

had no idea of abandoning

war was declared

their Indian traffic;

dispossessed of one factory, immediately looked out for another.

than Calicut, and bounding with


It recognized the

supremacy of

and was therefore

was the kingdom

Calicut,

new

these

recent contest with the zamorin

and on being
Farther soutli

or rajahship of Cocliia

but had often aspired to independence,

easily induced to listen to proposals of

The power of

guese.

it,

The Portu-

visitors

amity from the Portu-

had been signally displayed in

and the King of Cochin could

their

scarcely doul>t

that,

were their powerful aid secured, the yoke of Calicut might soon be shaken

off".

Accordingly,

make

when Cabral appeared

off"

the coast, and stated his desire to

town and harbour of Cochin the seat of Portuguese commerce, the


terms were easily arranged. The rajah, whose name was Truimpara or Trimumthe

para, at once agreed to give hostages as a security that the Portuguese should

not be treacherously dealt with

whom

when

ashore, only stij^ulating that the

he sent for the purpose should be changed daily, as they

shipboard without becoming unfit for the royal presence,

or,

coiild

two

nairs

not eat on

in other words,

losing caste.

The harbouT of

The Porturemove

coast,

and have

Cocliin,

forming one of a

occasional openings

to that of Calicut

first

which here

ships can enter,

was

line the

far superior

to congratulate themselves

but recent experience made them cautious, and

an

who were

interpreter,

and four criminals

to act as servants.

whom

he had brought

Their reception was very gracious

but the court presented none of the dazzling state conspicuous at Calicut.
soon appeared, however, that

promise
vessels

made was

it

fulfilled. to

possessed

more valuable

the letter; and

qualities.

It

For every

the lading of the Portuguese

with the spices which the country produced in abundance, was accom-

plished without delay.


so

all

ventured to do Avas to land a factor of the name of Gonzalo

Gil Barbosa, a clerk,

from Portugal,

by which

and the Portuguese saw reason

on their change of locality


that Cabral at

series of lagoons

much

This difference of treatment was probably

to the personal qualities of the sovereigns of Calicut

omng, not

and Cochin, as

to

f":
1C7

THIRD PORTUGUESE EXPEDITION.

Chap. VII.]
tiieir relative

positions

the former considering himself strong enough

make ad

to

looi

his will law, and, if so disposed, to play the tyrant, while the latter, writhing

under a galling yoke, was convinced that his best chance of escaping
tlu-ow himself into the hands of

tiie

Tiiis feeling of

Portuguese.

it

was

to

common

and a common danger naturally smoothed down many tlifficulties, and


made friendship, when once established, firm and lasting.
The impression which the Portuguese had produced, both by the terror of

Fnendiy

.1
.,
their arms and the extent of their commercial transactions, was strikingly

from other

interest

/.

evinced by the anxiety which several native states

From

their alliance.

the chiefs of

two of

these

now

manifested to secure

^'^^'^ "*

Cananore, situated consider-

north of Calicut, and Coulan, or rather Quilon, situated considerably south

ably^

of Cochin, in the state of Travancore

mes.sengers

amved

to invite the Portu-

gne.se to their harbours,

promising them

be obtained at Cochin.

Cabral was, of course, inchned to open communications

many quarters as possible, with

in as
it

overtures

was impossible

a view to subsequent

do more than promise a future

to

y)osed of twenty-tive large ships,

visit,

avenge the injuries

inflicted

traffic;

as he

but at the time

had more

the assi.stance in his

tiiis

his fidelity to his

new

power but Cabral, thanking him


;

that he would prove

to be destined to

allies

by

offering

them

all

for the offer, felt confident

them single-handed. It would seem,


somewhat shaken, for after some manoeuvring

more than a match

confidence v/as

and

com-

fleet,

appeared off the

vessels,

boai'd,

serious

This information was furnisiied by the

on Cabcut.

who proved

Rajah of Cochin,

and many smaller

have 15,000 soldiers on

It wjxs said to

however, that

on cheaper terms than they could

Just as he was completing his cargo, a formidable

work on hand.
coast.

.spices

for

with the view of bruiging the enemy to action, he suddenly changed his mind,

and

saileil

ho.stages

away

whom

in such haste, that he did not even take time to restore the

he had received from the rajah.

To

increase the

he was pursued a whole day by the Calicut

flight,

at night he appears to

fleet.

ignominy of the

When

it left

him

cabrai

by the
*

^^t""'

have availed hhnself of the darkness to regain the Mala-

bar coast, and anchored in front of Cananore, where he took in 400 quintals of

cinnamon.
the reason
credit
1>\-

The

why

rajah

was

so friendly that, supposing the

want of money

to be

he did not take more, he offered him any additional quantity on

and showed how anxious he was

to cultivate the Portuguese alliance,

actually sending an amba.ssador with Cabral to Europe for that purjiose.

Nothing of much

interest

occun-ed on the

an-ived in Lisbon on the 31st of July, 1501.

homeward voyage, and Cabral


Of the ships which originallv

formed the expedition only six returned.


Before Cabral
It

had

s ari'ival

sailed in IMarch,

a third Portuguese expedition

and consisted only of three

was on

sliips

its

and a

way to

India.

caravel,

with

+00 men, under the command of an experienced seaman of the name of Juan de
Nueva.
His instructions, proceeding on the assumption that Cabral had established factories at Sotala

and at

Calicut,

were to leave two of the vessels with

TUini
expedition.

168
A.D.

1501.

HISTORY OF INDIA.

their cargoes at the fonner,

[lioOK

and proceed with the two others

I.

to the latter town.

As a precautionary measure the experlition was to call at San Bhis, situated east
of the Cape of Good Hope, and wait ten days to give an opportunity of meeting
with any of Cabral's ships which might be on their way home.
Here they
found a

letter

which had been

left for

them, detailing the events which

taken place

Calicut

at

and Cochin.

liad

In

corLse-

juence of this informa'

Juan

tion,

^'

deemed
W-%'

Nueva

de

imprudent

it

to

separate his vessels, and

proceeded with the whole


India,

for

in

arrivinir

j*S%'iti?.:

November
a

small

coast

at Anchediva,

on

i.sland

south

of

tlie

Goa.

Shortly after he anchored


off
Cananore.

Bnin et Ho^jenburg,

Cananore, the rajah

of which

1574.

was very urgent

that he shoidd lade there;

but anxiety to learn the state of matters at the factory induced liim

t(j

decline

and hasten on to Cochin.


De Nueva

On

arriving, he learned that the rajah,

though greatly offended with Cabral

arrives at

for leaving

Cocliin.

ally,

without notice and carrying

and given

full

protection to

Moors had carried their

all

the

off his hostages,

members

hostility so far as

had proved a

of the factory

on one occasion to

faithful

but that

set fire to

it,

tlie

and

by depreciating the value of their merchandise, had prejudiced


the native traders against them to such a degree, that they refused to part
with their spices except for ready money.
As this was a commodity witli
which Juan de Nueva was very scantily provided, he immediately retiu-ned to
Cananore, where tlie rajah dealt with him much more liberally, and furnished
him with 1000 (quintals of pepper, 50 of ginger, and 450 of cinnamon, together
in various ways,

with some cotton

had lodged

cloth, to

for sale in

be paid out of the proceeds of the goods which he

a Portuguese factory established there.

While occupied

with these commercial transactions, Juan de Nueva received intelligence that a

Defeats

tlie

large fleet belonging to the zamorin

was on the way

who sent
make an

him

was not

the intelligence advised

to

to attack him.

land his

men and

The

ordnance, and

enti'enchment on shore, as the only effectual means of defence.

SO casily intimidated

and,

on the next da}^ when

rajah

He

00 vessels were seen

zjimoriii s
fleet

entering the bay, he advanced to meet them, and poured in his shot with such

good

effect,

that the zamorin's

commander hung out a

parley, agreed to quit the bay,

flag of truce, and, after

and make the best of his way back to Calicut

EXPEDITION UNDEIi DE GAMA.

Chap. VII.]

169

made such an impression on the zamorin that he proposed terms of


accommodation. Juan de Nueva, probably feeling that his powere were not
sufficient for transacting basiness of so much importance, set sail for Europe.
This failm-e

His homeward voyage was prosperous, and he arrived safely with all his ships.
The accounts brought home by Cabral satisfied the King of Portugal that
he must either
desist

out his expeditions on a scale of greater magnitude, or

fit

from the attempt to establish a trade in the East.

was not

native

to be

thought

for

of;

even under

stances the profit had counterbalanced the

tlie

It

loss.

The

a.d

1502,

Expidition

d"'cr!.nr"

latter alter-

most adverse circum-

was

therefore determined

that the next expedition would be more adequate to the objects contemplated.

These were not merely to overawe any of the native Indian princes who might
be disposed to be

hostile,

but to chastise the insolence of the Moors by attacking

then* trade in its principal seat.

Accordingly, the expedition

consisted in all of twenty-

The c(jmmand,

shii)s.

now

fitted out

at first offered to Cabral,

was

Gama, who was to proceed directly to India with


Stephen de Gama, and Vicente Sodre, were each to

ultimately given to Vasco de

ten ships

while his brother,

have the command of a squadron of

five,

and

scouring the Malabar coast, and the other

Ked

clear the sea of Moors, the one

by cruizing

off"

by

the entrance to the

Sea.

Gama, honoured with the

Viisco de

title

of Admiral of the Eastern Seas, set

' "

"'

title

sail

with Vicente Sodre on the 3d of March, 1502, before Juan de Nuevas

Stephen de

i-etm-n;

Gama

did

Having

not leave before the 1st of May.

doubled the Cajie of Good Hope, and sailed up the east coast of Africa, for the
purpose of establishing factories at Sofala and Mosambique, Vasco de Gama,
after waiting

till

he was joined by his brother, continued his course

Indian Ocean, and had arrived within sight of Mount Dilly, a


of Cananore,

Egypt.

when

lie

was richly

It

laden,

and wealth, bound on a


anil ca])tm'ed

it

in

fell

or in goods.

They

Mecca.

To

Going on board, he
to produce

He
liis

immediately attacked

di.sgi-ace

all

called the principal pa.ssengers

whatever property they had

He

to his

own

all

events to have been satisfied with

I.

and

but

threat-

it.

In.stead of this

he had thrown aside every feeling of humanity, and resolved

tiie

plunder

ship, in order to

jirofit,

but merely for the plea-sure

it

afforded.

among his crews, and removing all the children


fulfil a vow which bound him to make monks of all

the males he should thus ca])ture, he forced


Vol.

sea,

had thus secured a rich prize by questionable

to ])lay the barbarian, not for the

After dividing

money

the others in the same way, they became temfied, and

means, and ought at


if

in

declared that most of both had been left in Calicut

yielded to his demand.

he acted as

it,

he made an atro- " capt.-.res

on his throwing one of them bound hantl and foot into the
ening to treat

north

and had on board many Mahometans of rank

after a vigorous resistance.

and onlered tliem

before him,

little

the

with a large ship belonging to the Sultan of

jiilgrimage to

eious use of his victory

acro.ss

all

the jiassengei's and crew of the


22

shiji

HISTORY OF

170
A.D. 1502.

on

it

[Rook

the hatches upon thern,

Had

they been the

wretches possible, instead of being for the most part inoffensive

had now surely done enough to save their


had been ordered, and Vasco de

who proved

hi8

was executed; but the unhapjiy


made superhuman efi^orts, and having broken o[)en

the liatchcs, succecdcd in (juenching the flames.

Stephen,

t^jld

[.

Tiie fiendish (jrder

fire.

victims, rendered desperate,


DeGama's

down

Moorisli vessel below, and, iiaving nailed

brother to set

INF'IA.

But

lives.

Gama was

giiiltiest

pilgi-ims,

they

Their destruction

no.

not to be satisfied with

less.

himself no unwilling instrument in his brother's hands,

and made the attempt, but met with such a reception


from the Mahometaas, when they saw that no mercy was to be expected, as
was told

to board,

compelled him to
passion, he

had now

could be done
order

tliirty
all

full

time to

been acting tmder a sudden burst of

for night

cool,

Wlien he

moi-ning.

till

rose, it

were women, were burned

who were

in the vessel

whom

when

this

came

on,

was only

the vessel .was again boarded and set on

except the children,


His arrival
at Gauanore

Had De Gama

retire.

fire,

to death, or

and nothing more

to repeat

and 300

liis

inhuman

persons, of

whom

drowned, or slaughtered-

Of

the capture was made, not a soul escaped

bloody baptism initiated into the Romish

faith.

name

After this iufamous transaction one almost shudders to mention the

of

Vasco de Gama, but the course of the narrative cannot in the meantime proceed
without him.

thought

it

In his next proceeding, the caution which he used, when he

own life might be in danger, contrasts strangely with


he showed when iniquitously di.sposing of the lives of others.

possible that his

the recklessness

Having anchored

off"

Cananore, he desired an interview with the rajah

the captivity he had suffered at Calicut on his

first

voyage seemed

but as

still

upper-

most in his mind, he adopted the device of having a wooden bridge, which
projected a considerable

was covered with

way

carpets,

into the water.

At the end

of this bridge, wliich

a pavilion was reared to form the

hall of audience.

The rajah made his appearance first, attended by 10,000 nairs, and advanced to
the pavilion amid the beating of drums and floiu-ishes of trumpets.
De Gama
came accompanied by all his boats, adorned with flags, and took his place in the
The result of the interview was a treaty
pavilion, under a salute of artillery.
of amity, and the estaljlishment of a Portuguese factory at Cananore.
His pro-

From Cananore De Gama

continued his course to Calicut, and, making his

ceediiigs at

Calicut

appearance unexpectedly in the roads, captured several small boats, containing

about

fifty natives.

Whatever just cause

of quarrel he

may have had

with the

zamorin, these poor creatures were not implicated, and yet, on not obtaining
redress for the destruction of the Portuguese factory,

sioned
their

by it, he hung them up

arms and

zamorin, that

breaches of

feet,

at the yard-arm, and, after they

and caused them

similar treatment

faith.

and the

loss of lives occa-

were dead, cut

oft'

to be carried ashore, with a message to the

was

in reserve for himself for his repeated

To show that he was

in earnest, he ordered three ships to

stand in as near as possible to the town, and open their

fii'e

upon

it.

The royal

DK CxAMA RETURNS HOME.

Chap. VII.]

171

was one of the many buildings thus demolished.

palace

Without waiting

tt^

ad.

i5u3.

ascertain the effect, he left Vicente Sodre with a squadron to scour the coast

and destroy the Moorish

and

trade,

Here matters were

set sail for Cochin.

on their former friendly footing, mutual presents were ex-

easily re-established

changed, and a commercial treaty of a more formal nature than that previously
existing

was concluded.

The next proceeding


as

if

was very

of the zamorin

inexciLsable, and, indeed, looks

he had determined to put hnnself entirely

De Gama was

him

lading at Cochin, he sent a messenger, iii\ating

be so desu-able that

felt to

more to secure

and

it,

De Gama determined

out alone, leaving

.set

other

all his

to Calicut,

his entire satisfaction

This was rather a slender foundation on which to negotiate


Calicut was

Hearing that

the wrong.

and promising that everything would be arranged to

to

but peace with

make one

effort

behind.

The

shij)s

temptation was too strong for the fickle and tortuous court of Calicut

Gama, instead of the friendly reception which he had

by a

large fleet of small vessels,

and very narrowly

Treachei-y of

and De

anticipated, wjis set

esca])ed being

made

upon

prisoner.

Fm'ther negotiation was of course impossible, though he ought certainly to

have disdained to take the petty revenge of putting the zamorin's messenger
to deatli.

The

them De Gama,
two

after putting to flight a large

large Moorish ships,

whicii

weight, with emeralds for

its eyes,

cious stones for its covering,

triple alliance, for

his squadron, sailed for

Portugal

till

Rotun. of

of small vessels, captured oanm

prizes,

both of them being

to

"'"'**

a robe curiously wrought and set with pre-

and on

and united with

visited Cananore,

number

proved valual)le

In one of

little interest.

on board one of them was an image of gold of thirty pounds

richly laden, wliile

kind of

which ensued possess

details of the conflicts

its bi'east

its

Having again

a large ruby.

rajah and that of Cochin in forming a

mutual defence, De Gama, leaving Vicente Sodre with

Europe on the 20th of December, 1503, but did not reach

He had

the following September.

again proved himself an able

navigator; but his proceedings had rather tarnished than increased

His sovereign, however, was

satisfied

and rewarded him with the

title

fame.

liis

of Count

of Vidogueii-a.

Before

De Gama

tlireatening messages

which a

ally

faithful

consideration than

zamorin's revenge.
ture

was

it

which

lie

had received from the zamorin.

was thus exposed,


received,

Nor was

it

entitled his case to a

and he was
long before

left

it

too favom-able an opportunity to be

most formidable

had made him aware of

departed, the Rajah of Cochin

scale

lost,

and

were immediately commenced.

about sixteen leagues north of Ctn^hin.

.')0,000

more

to

careful

fmy

of the

De Gama's

depar-

exposed to the

overtook him.

Ihe penl

full

hostile preparations

on a

In the vicinity of Ponany,

men were

assembled.

Before

commencing operations the zamorin asked nothing more than the siuTender
of the Portuguese

who had

fixed

tlieir

residence in Cochin.

The population

xiie

zamorm

attack

'"'

172

AD

1501.

HISTORY OF INDIA.

were urgent that the demand


and, though his force

The
till

was too unequal

last obliged to

I.

be complied with, but the rajah stood finn,

was comparatively

contest, however,

he was at

slioulfl

[Book

abandon

insignificant,
;

advanced to the

enc^junter.

and he was driven from post

his capital,

to post,

and seek an asylum

in the

island of Vaipi, or Vipeen, in its vicinity.

While iu

Arrival of

Alfonso Al-

bunuorquB.

this extremity
,

he received no support from Vicente Sodre,

who

Kept cruizmg about raakmg captm-es, but on some shallow pretext or other
refused to give
ing.

any

direct assistance.

Nine ships had

sailed

Powerful

aid,

however, was approach-

from Lisbon, in three equal .squadroas, under the

commands

respective

of Alonso or Alfonso

Albuquerque, Francisco Albuquerque, and

Antonio Saldanha.
in the

mouth

was

Tlie last

Red Sea

of the

were to proceed directly


Albuquerque arrived

the others

to India.

first,

to cruize

Franci.sco

and with a con-

siderable addition to his squadron, in con-

sequence of having fallen in with some of


the ships belonging to Vicente Sodi-e.

This

powerful reinforcement completely changed


the a-spect of

and

affairs,

defeated at every point.

zamorin wa.s

tlie

Triumpara, in the

joy of his heart, not only conferred


privileges

on the Portuguese, but gave them

permission to build a

Alfon'so de Albuquerque.
From a print after Silva.

On

operations,

The

sea.

and many

made a voluntary

the establishment of a factory;

The

.\lbu-

(luerqnes
sail for

Europe.

the

was compelled

offer to lade

two

ships,

to sue for peace.

It

sail for

by a

series of

was granted, but on


first

pretext for a

For some reason not explained

at this very time, wdien

necessary than ever, set

and consent to

while the zamorin, dispirited

and was soon again at open war.

two Albuquerques,

of these wa.s

eflfect

terms so disadvantageous, that he availed liimseLf of the


rupture,

successful

In the south Coulan, or Quilon, then under

manifested in various ways.

disastrous defeats,

fort.

the arrival of Alfonso Albuquerque

new energy was thrown into the Portuguese


expeditions were made both by land and
female government,

new

theii'

presence seemed more

Europe, lea^^ng only Duarte Pacheco with

the ship which he commanded, two caravels, and 110 men, for the defence of
Cochin.

Francisco Albuquerque appears to have perished in a storm, for he

was never more heard


safety,

of;

Alfonso, reserved for greater things,

amved

in

bringing with him for the king forty pounds of pearls, a diamond of

remarkable

size,

and two

horses, a Persian

and an Arab, the

first

of the kind

which were imported into Portugal.

The zamorin had become convinced that he would never be able

single-

LOPE SOARE/.

Chap. VII.]

handed to overcome the Portuguese; and


the

made

field,

coalition

173

therefore, in again preparing to take

by entering

his first business to strengthen himself

it

with neighbouring

In

states.

this

he found

sea,

attacking and making prizes of

of what-

all vessels

ever country, whenever they found any pretext for stigmatizing tliem

name

We

of Moors.

have already met with instances of

confessed, or rather complacently dwelt

doubted that

lie

Tiumerous.

Be

in.stances

tlie

this as it

it

terror,

can scarcely
still

provided with nearly 400 cannons,

sea,

an army, estimated at 50,000, begun

overwhelming

desei't.

force,

for not only Heroism

but his subjects, under the influence of

the greatest alarm,

Paeheco made

out with so
retire

much

with a severe

all his

arrangements with so much

resolution, that the confederates


loss.

to

him

him
This was no empty

and spoke of surrender, scouted the

that a valiant defence woidd certainly prove successful.


boast.

i-acheco.

The only person whose courage remained luishaken

was the Portuguese captain, Duarte Paeheco, who, when the rajah came
in

more

larul.

in

began to

by the

fleet,

Triumpara was dismayed, and apparently with good reason,


was the enemy

coalition

may, the coalition soon assumed a very formidable

prepared to bomlmrd Cochin from the

by

upon by themselves and

The zamouu

kind candidly

which they have not recorded were

appearance; and while a niunerous

to apj)roach it

this

idea, assuring

skill,

and carried them

were ultimately obliged to

Attempts were repeatedly made to renew the attack,

but the result was always the same

and the zamorin with

his allies

had the

by a mere handful of Europeans.


example of what one daring spirit can

mortification of seeing all their efforts baffled

Seldom has there been a more striking

accomplish than was furnished by Paeheco in this struggle.


the zamorin had lost 18,000 men, and

was now

so

In the course of

humbled

again meet with Paeheco,

fleet

we may

As we

here conclude his history.

It

is

having arrived under the

command

government of El Mina, on the west coast of


his private fortune, to

which he was too

would be improved.
first

not

a melancholy

of Lope Soarez, Paeheco,

though treated with merited distinction, was superseded, and invested

which

shall

of thirteen ships, of larger dimensions than had ever before been

built in Portugal,

tion,

it

as gladly to accej)t

of terms of peace from his o^vn tributary Rajah of Cochin.

one.

1505

for the

little difiiculty,

Portuguese were not only viewed with jealousy as strangers, but had pursued a

very reckless course at

ad.

into a

Africa.

Here

it

heroiccilly dispo.sed to

Avith the

was thouijht that


give

much

atten-

This object was entirely defeated by a violent faction,

thwarted his measures, and then had the audacity to seize his

person on a false ciiarge, and send

him home

in chains.

After languishing for a

time in prison he obtained an honourable acquittal, but

it

was too

late.

The

ungrateful return for his di.stingaished services had broken his heart, and he

died either in prison or shortly after he

Lope Soarez, soon

after his arrival,

was

released from

moved up

messenger from the zamorin, who was

now

it.

to Calicut,

willing

to

and was met by a

com])ly with every

His

fate,

of

IIISTOHV OF INI>IA.

174
A

I)

I.

mi:

[Book

made upon liiiii except one. This was t<> deliver up an Eur<;pian, a
of Milan, who liad entered his service, and taught him the art of aisting

(lemaiKl

native

cannon, along with other important naval and military improvements.


llulioill'.'ihli.'

conduct

I.

honour the zamorin demurred to

tlie

To

his

delivery of an individual who.se only

i)f

was the

ability

and

fidelity

with which he had served him

Soarez

the za-

offence

moriii

unable or unwilling to appreciate the hoiK^ur and justice of the zamorin's refusal,

immediately bombarded the town, and laid the greater part of

This

it in ashe.s.

of destruction accomplished, he immediately proceeded to another, and

work

town of Cranganore, which had adhered to the zamorin, in the same


His next exploit began more ominously, but ended still more triumph-

treated the

way.

In sailing north from Cranganore to attack Ponany, he was met

antly.

zamorin's
peril

fleet,

the

Here he found himself in imminent


before which he had been obliged to retiie,

and driven into a bay.

for in addition to the fleet

V>y

seventeen large Moori.sh ship?, well provided with cannon, and carrying 4000
He

is

do

f Jilted l)y

Lape
Soarez.

men, were waiting to receive him


a very

trifling loss to the

lading were destroyed.

A fierce

Portuguese,

all

conflict

the ships of the

Soarez, thinking he

remainder.

enemy with

had now done enough

his return, left four ships at the fort of Cochin,

Lisbon.

ensued; but ultimately, with

and

From Bnin et Hogenburg,

set sail for

their rich
to justify

Europe with the

1.574.

His arrival at Lisbon, on the 22d of July, 1506, was gladly wel-

comed, as no richer cargo in goods and prizes had ever retuiTied from the East.
Don Fran

The next Indian armament

ciiico .VI-

nieidas
arrival
:is

viceroy

scale

than any which preceded

fitted
it.

out by Portugal was on a more magnificent

It consisted of

twenty-two

ships, cari-}ing, in

addition to the crew, 1500 fighting men, and

was placed under the command

Don

time the proud

Francisco Almeida,

India.

who

bore for the

first

His arrival in India took place in 1507.

island of Anchediva, where, as

it

occupied a

and had become a common station

The

first

commanding

title

of

of Viceroy of

land reached was the

position

on the

for Portucruese vessels, he built a fort.

coast,

On

arriving at Cochin, where he intended to have rewarded Triumpara, the old and

Chap.

NATIVE COMBINATION.

VI I.]

faithful ally of the Portuguese,

had brought from Portugal


liad retired

with a crown of gold, set with jewels, whicli he

for the purpose,

1507

he was astonished to find that he

in his stead,

and received the crown from the

hands of Almeida during a pompous ceremonial.


understand

A.D

from the world, to spend the remainder uf his days as a solitary

His nephew was reigning

devotee.

175

all

that

was meant by

it,

for

It

is

probable that he did not

from that day he was to be regarded,

not as an independent sovereign, but a vassal holding his crown during

tlie

|)leasure of the Portuguese.

Before Almeida arrived, the zamorin had once

more placed

fortunes

Native coin-

aware that the struggle in which he was about to

.'igiiiiist tlii-

all his

tiiiiation

on a venture; and, as

if fully

engage would prove decisive of his

At

.success.

tiie

no means unemployed to insure

Portuguesc.

time a powerful dynasty was reigning in the Deccan over

which included a considerable

territories

while

this

fate, left

kingdom

of Gujerat or

tract of sea-coast,

Cambaya had

risen to

from Goa northwards,

be a great naval power.

Both of these states had been wantonly attacked by the Portuguese, and their

commerce had
to

provoke

suffered severely before they

hostility.

were aware of having done anything

Naturally exasperated, they entered with readiness into

.;<!!

HiRDs EYE View ok Alexandria

Kroni

Bnui

et

Uogenburg, 1&T4.

a combination intended to banisli the Portuguese for ever from the E<istern seas.
Even with these auxiUaries the zamorin did not feel secure. He therefore

extended

liis

views much further, and entered into communication with the

Sultan of Egyi>t.

The Mameluke

sultan at once responded to the call thus

made upon

him, Thcsiun

and the more readily that his attention had previously been di-awn to tlie sub- S^t."
ject from another quarter.
The success of the Portuguese in tlie East was
already telling powerfully against the lucrative trade wliich the Venetians had
long been accustomed to regard as their special monopoly.
Goods brought into

the Levant, either overland or

by way of Alexandria,

liad so

heavy

burden of

176
AD.

1507

OF INDIA.

lIISTOilV

transport and taxation to

they could not possibly wjmpete with

l^uar, tliat

comparatively inexpensive

[Book

I.

tiie

a single voyage, however long, from the

i)rocess of

The Venetians thas found themselves


every European market, and became perfectly aware that they

port of lading to the port of delivery.


Intrigues of

undersold in

theveue-

by

either destroy the Portuguese trade or be destroyed

j^yj^t,
tiaiis.

it.

Their

first

endeavour was to work upon the fears of the King of Portugal and the pope, by
instigating the sultan to send a tlireatening letter

mating that

if

t(^

Lisbon and Rome,

the Portuguese did not forthwith relinquish the

new

inti-

course

by which they had penetrated into the Indian Ocean, and cease
from encroacliing on a commerce which had been carried on from time immemorial between Asia and his dominions, he would put to death all the Christians in Egyi^t, Syria, and Palestine, bum their churches, and demoli.sh the
of navigation,

holy sepulchre itself


An

This menace having failed to produce the effect anticipated, the Venetian.s

Egyptian

flejt fitted

out.

did not scniple to urge the sultan to take the remedy into hLs

own

hands, and.

by the zamorin, become a powerful


auxiliary in the crusade against the Portuguese.
There was only one difficulty.
The Egyptian fleet in its actual state was overmatched by that of Portugal. If
the war was undertaken, the first thing necessary would be to build a new fleet.
Egypt had no proper timber for the purpose. How, then, was it to be obtained
in accordance with the invitation given

The Venetians were not

to be balked of their object

by such an

Had

ob.stacle.

they not whole forests of naval timber in Dalmatia? and ha\'ing gone so far

why

need they scruple to place them at the disposal of the sultan, who. after

hewing down
route to the

much as he required, might easily transport it by a well known


Red Sea?
Such was the plan actually adopted; and Europe
as

saw the maritime power which had taken a prominent part

in the cnisade of

Christian piinces against Mahometans, as zealously engaged in promoting a

Mahometan crusade

By

It^ arrival in
lii:lia.

built

against Christians.

these extraordinary

and

means a

fleet of

fully equipped, set sail for the Indian coast in 1507.

men, and was commanded by an experienced


Hoosseiu, and the Portuguese

Mullik Eiaz, admiral of


that kingdom,

double

its

Meer Hashim.

Mahmood Shah

was prepared

numbers and

to join

it

streng-th.

of the danger which threatened liim


tactics obviously should

In this
detail.

late.

I.,

whom Ferishta

Ameer

It sailed first to Gujerat,

where

who was then

reigning sovereign of

with a squadron wliich would more than

Almeida seems not to have been aware


till

he was almost overtaken by

have been to attack the Tirrkish

had resolved

to pursue this obvious course

His son Lorenzo,

intercept the sultan's

fleet,

whom

It carried 1500
calls

officer,

fleet

way it might not liave been difficult for him to beat


He may have been prevented by obstacles of which we

for after he

too

twelve ships of war ha^^ng been

it

on

its passage.

his enemies in

are not aware

was found

he had despatched with eleven

having been detained,

first

off

His

it.

to be
sail

to

Cananore, where he

LORENZO KILLED.

Chap. VIT]

attacked and, with scarcely any

loss,

177

destroyed a native squadi'on far larger than ad.

isot

own, and afterwards at Anchediva, where sixty Moorish and native vessels

his

had made an attempt on the

fort,

arrived in the harbom- of Choul, or Chowul,

about twenty-three miles south of Bombay, jast in time to see the Egyptian
admiral enter

it.

tierce conflict

without any decided advantage

till

immediately ensued, and was continued

Mullik Eiaz with the Gujerat

renewed the

battle,

fleet.

to

Ameer Hoossein by

Lorenzo,

the arrival of

undismayed, immediately

still

but found the Egyptian admiral a much more formidable

antagonist than he had been accustomed to deal with.

After another day's

were so much

fighting had left the victory undecided, the Portuguese ships

shattered that
niijht

and

it

was determined by a council of war

who had

previously incurred his father's displeasm'e,

one occasion to lorce the

fleet oi

and continued

when he began
it

to linger

on

till

sell

to follow, his ship grounded,

He might

have escaped in

his life as dearly as possible,

and

his boat,

after

method of keeping

having been struck by a

at a distance

ball,

men

and

him

left

to

The enemy

at first

that he adopted the more

and pouring

which broke

ineffectual efforts to

his post.

resisted,

another ball broke his back and killed him.

crew of 100

some

this

but at )uce made up his mind

in his shot.

his thigh, ordered

placed against the mainmast, and there remained,

its

Lorenzo,

himself to be

encouraging his men,

Tiie shij)

shortly after sunk.

till

Of

only nineteen escaped.

According to Faria y Sousa, the


of the Portuguese amounted only to eighty-one men, while the

whole

loss

enemy

lost 600.

The Mahometan account given by Ferishta

is

very

different.

After mentioning that the Portuguese flag-ship, valued at a crore of rupees


(a million sterling),

the

Mahometan

was sunk, and every man on board

fleet

returned

victoriously;

for

perished, he adds, that

although

400 Turks were

honoured with the crown of mtu'tyi-dom, no fewer than 3000 or 4000 Portuguese
infidels

Vol..

son. i,o-

Unfortunately

sail.

their flight,

and die at

attempted to board, but was so bravely


cjiutious

He had by

the day began to dawn.

the rest of the squadron continued

off",

his fate.

to

Heroism of
Almeida's

the zamorin to action, wtis very reluctant

time consented to retreat, and several of his vessels had set

tow

by declining on

a step which would justly be considered as an acknowledgment of

to take
defeat,

to take advantage of the

a retreat.

effect

Lorenzo,

Next day

night separated the combatants.

an immense preponderance was given

a navai

were at the same time sent to the infernal regions.

r.

His death,

HISTORY OF INDIA.

178

CHAPTER
Portuguese progress

in the

UE

East

VIII.

now

committed to their career of

fully

and successive armaments, on a grand

One

Lisbon for the East.

of

consisted of thirteen vessels,

the.se,

and

A.D.

1508,

scale,

quitted

under Tristan da Cunha,

1*300 fighting

command

of twelve vessels, sailed under the


CiR.

I.

The viceroyships of Francisco Almeida and Alfonso Albuquerque.

Portu^iese were

oiK^uest,
I

[Book

men.

Another,

of Alfoaso Albu-

querque, who, after performing sevei'al exploits on the African coast, and taking

~~ effectual

measures to cripple the trade from India by the Red Sea, continued

along the coast of Arabia, and entered the Persian Gulf, determined to stiike
Alfonso Al-

still

more

biKinerqiie

returns to
India.

There the Mahometan

fatal blow.

Albuquerque, in

active.

whom

bined, at once perceived liow

with India was

still

great military and political talents were com-

an

effectual interdict

Ormuz, situated on an island

in the

mouth

might be

make

only thing necessary for this purpose was to


of

traffic

upon

laid

The

it.

himself master of the city

of the gulf

J^

way he could
command
completely
In this

the passage, and


the trade at

After

mercy.

liis

capture

the

and

Muscat,

jjlace

of

several

other places of minor

importance,

he

pro-

ceeded to the execution


of his grand enterprise.

His design had been


penetrated; and in.stead
of being able to take
Ormuz.

11 is

expedi-

tion to tlie

Persian
Uuif.

found

it

Brun

defended by a

the city
et

sui'prise, as

he had anticipated, he

fleet of

an army of 30,000 men.

by

Hogenbiirg, 1374.

400

vessels, sixty of

To show how

far

them of

large size,

and by

he was from being dismayed at

these preparations, he immediately advanced into the harbour, and anchored

among

five of the

largest ships,

firing his

cannon as

if in

defiance.

After

waiting for a message from the king, but receiving none, he sent him his
ultimatum, which, considering the relative position of the parties, was certainly of a very extraordinary

that

lie

had come with orders

and arrogant
to take the

description.

King

of

It

was

Ormuz imder

to the effect

his protection,

ALMEIDA SUPERSEDED.

Chap. VIIT.]

'ITU

on the condition of paying a reasonable tribute to Portugal, or to treat him as a

d^'iooo.

an enemy by declaring war against him.


There was

room

little

doubt which of the alternatives, thus arbitrarily

to

Ormuz would

])laced before him, the sovereign of

tions

were not yet completed,

it

was important

Aibuquer-

'l" attacks
c
n
accept, but as his fortinca- onmu.
1

to gain time;

and

solely

with

that view, instead of sending a resolute defiance, he entered into negotiation.

Albuquerque saw what wtis intended, and at once brought matters to a point,

by

telling the

messenger that when he next came,

acceptance of peace, or a declaration of war.


for choice,

and made two furious onsets

destroyed

all

were the

walls,

The

Persians, in the meantime,

loss of

were not

idle,

but neither in weapons nor discipline could they


is

said to have l^een coloured with their

only ten men, Albuquerque burned, sunk, or otherwise

the ships of Ormuz, and received a tiag of tiiice with an offer

comply with

to

commencing a

in

feaiful slaughter, as not only

cope with the Portuguese, and the sea

With the

moment

crowded with combatants, but even the tops of the houses

vessels

were covered with spectators.

blood.

either an

There had never been any room

Albu(iuerque lost not a

cannonade which must have caused

and

must be with

and the message accordingly was, that Ormuz was in use not to pay,

but to receive tribute.

shore,

it

all

his

demands.

The terms

were,

the annual pajTuent of

Siii)mi8ioii

Persians.

bout 2000 as tribute to the Kinfj of Portuo-al, and trround on which to build

SI

No

fort.

sooner were the terms arranged, than the fort was immediately

commenced, and carried on with such

ra])idity, as to

assume

shai)e in the course

of a few days.

Khojah Attar, who governed Ormuz


minor, had no sooner

in the

name

made the arrangement than he

of Sailaddin,

re})ented of

it.

who was a
From the

destruction which Albuquerque had caused, he had formed an extravagant idea


of the force under his
that

it

tilities,

command and was


;

did not muster above 460 men.

and dexteroush'

astonished above measure, on learning

He

av^ailed himself of a

therefore prepared

mutinous

Portuguese commanders, to escape the consequences.


his rage

feelinsr

amonjj the

for hosinferioi-

Albuquerque, after venting

by some very barbaroas proceedings, was obliged

to depai-t

the winter at Socotra, which had become a Portuguese conquest.


returned, he gave formal notice of his arrival to the

anew

and

si)end

Having again

government of Ormuz, and

was immediately informed that the tribute stipulated would be paid, but that
he would not be j^ermitted to build the fort.
He would fain have resumed the
siege, but more important interests required his presence in India.
He iiad been
appointed viceroy.
Almeida, in the midst of his preparations to avenge the death of his son,
received the mortifying intelligence that he had ])een superseded in his govern-

ment.

Obedience to the royal mandate

wsis,

of course, his duty; but both

ri'vengeand ambition pointed to an opposite comvse, and he detennined to follow


it

at

all

hazards

On

the pretext that the ])nblic iutere-t would not allow him.

Almeida
avenge
*"*

hu

180
A.a"i509.

HISTORY OF

in present circum.stanceH, to

demit his

of office; and leaving Albuqueique,

who was

powerful armament.

(Book

he refased to resi^ the

autliority,

devour his disappointment as he could,


tilTrol
Dabiu

TNT)TA.

no condition

in

set out

t<j

fleets,

there received information which determined

insigriiu

force him,

coast, in search

he stopped at Anchediva, and

him

make

to

the important com-

mercial city of Dabul, situated on the coast about half-way between

Bombay, the

who had

first

object of attack.

belonged

It

t^;

note of warning, he suddenly

In

ship.s.

any severity; and, without any

ju.stify

commenced

Goa and

a king of the Deccan,

joined the zamorin's confederation, and assisted him with

Almeida's view this was sufficient to

i(}

without him at the head of a

While proceeding northwards along the

of the combined Egyptian and Gujerat

1.

by sea and land,


and never desisted till he had laid Dabul in ashes. An immense plunder
might have been obtained; but fearing the effect upon his troops, he chose
i-ather to
11.;

From

dufeats

the Tui-kish
ami Gujerat

his attack both

hurn than to preserve the booty.

which certainly added

this achievement,

-^

little

Almeida

to his laurels,
'

procecded to Diu, finely and strongly situated on an island of the same name, on
the southern shore of the peninsula of Gujerat.

and Mullik

Eiaz, with their fleets.

Had

Here he found Ameer Hoossein

they remained in their position under

the batteries of Diu, as the Gujerat admiral strongly urged, Almeida,

ventured an attack at

all,

must have made

it

if

he had

under great disadvantage; but

Egyptian admiiul, who was naturally of a chivalrous temper, and perhaps

tlie

also

when Lorenzo was slain, disdained


when he could meet his enemy in the open sea,

rendered over-confident by his recent success,


to

be cooped up in a harboiu",

and

sailed out, displaying

more valour than

some time, terminated

furiously for

guese, who, however, converted

massacre.

they murdered

possible excuse for the atrocity

an indelible

into

coiild

Eiaz that he

and the only explanation given

not otherwise be satiated.

made

overtures of peace.

The

defeat

They were

might have obtained advantageous terms,

if

it

He

retains

a peremptory

is

no

that Almeida's

so dispirited ]\Iullik

readily listened to

and he

As much

to his

honour as

Portuguese for making such a demand, he at once gave

refusal.

Almeida, liaviug returned to Cochin, was again pressed by Albuquerque to

the viceroyship.

had

is,

There

he would have stooped to the

meanness of delivering up his Eg}^)tian colleague.


to the disgrace of the

raging

by the Portu
disgrace, by an atrocioas
and they had sailed away

prisoners in cold blood.

all their
;

conflict, after

in a glorious victory gained

Several days after the battle was fought,

for Cananore,

revenge

it

The

discretion.

resign the viceroyship,

mandate of

his sovereign.

So

far

from complying, he took the extraordinary

step of seizing the person of his competitor,

the fort of Cananore.

which he had persisted in holding, in defiance of the

He would

and sending him as a prisoner

to

probably have completed the treasonaljle

was now committed, by declaring himself independent, had


not the ojjportune arrival of Don Fernando Coutinho, witli a lai'ge fleet and

course to which he

DEATH OF ALMEIDA.

Chap VIII.]

181

The

extraordinary powers, enabled him to act with effect as a mediator.

Almeida abandoned

was, that
of

him that he was not destined

pa.ssed

it,

d. isio.

Before leaving, a native conjuror had

make merry with

when an
The three

the prediction,

event took place which terminated his career somewhat ignobly.

him anchored

in

Saldanha Bay, a

One

and sent ashore a watering- party.

He had

Cape of Good Hope.

to pass the

however, and had begun to

ships he had with

idea of resistance, and, resigning the insignia

took his departure for Em'ope.

office,

told

all

result

little

north of the Cape,

of the ex-viceroy's servants insulted

one of the natives, and wa.s roughly handled by tliem in return.

Almeida,

Death of

contrary to his wish and better judgment, was induced to take part in this
petty stpiabble, and having gone ashore, was returning with the cattle carried
oft

in

a foray, when

tlie

They were armed only with pointed

upon him.
efiectujdly,

stakes, but tiiese they used so

of the Portuguese soon lay dead at their

tliat tifty

them was the ex-viceroy


liis

been lying in ambuscade, rushed out

natives, wlio liad

himself, morttdly

wounded by

Among

feet.

a thrust whicli ])ierced

throat.

Albuquerque,

now

fully installed as viceroy,

was bent on following out

his

Aii,u<iuer-

que's attack

career of con(iuest, and sailed for Calicut, before which he appeared on the 2d

of January, 1510, with thirty vessels

natives

who

and 1800 men, together

airived from Europe with an earnest longing for Eastern


the opportunity offered, he

had

800 men, after administering

forward as

if

all tiie

it,

iiad

renown and now that


;

heart on signalizing himself as the captor

cautions which his superior talents and expe-

Unfortunately Coutinho thought only of his

prize,

he had been running a race rather than fighting a

looking behind him, he forced his


liimself in

iiis

Coutinho

Albuquerque indulged him by giving him the command of

of the royal palace.

rience suggested.

set

a number of

witli

followed in boats, allured by the hope of plunder.

on caikm

for the purpose of

way

to the palace,

and

set

and rushed

Never

battle.

about installing

His infatuation was

celebratmg his triumph.

who took advantage of it so silently and


not awake to a sense of his peril, till he found

soon perceived by the native troops,

Coutinho did

effectually, that

himself

hemmed

in

by thousands of

natives,

Albuquerque, in exerting himself for his

and dei^rived of every


^

relief,

was

head by a stone, and in the throat by a dart, that


shore.

lie

fell

escape

wounded

was borne

Coutinho, and several young nobles from Lisbon,

in the

senseless to the

in the palace fighting

ami the whole detachment would have perished to a man, had not
hirge body of reserve arrived and obHged the enemy to retire.
Notwith-

desperately
a

so severely

outlet, """""'ow

standing

tills

disastrous retreat, the inhabitants suffered

much more

than the Portuguese, and saw the greater part of their city laid in

Ormuz was

severely

ruins.

the next place to which Albuquerque turned his attention.

had there been baffled by the supineness or treachery of his

officers,

He

particularly

Lope de Soarez and Juan de Nueva, and obliged, in consecpxence, to leave one
of the

main avenues of Mahomet<iii trade

still

open.

He

accordingly began to

>82
AD.

1510.

HISTORY OF INDIA.

make such
when his

preparations for a

new

attack upon

was attracted

attention

employ

lilies to

become the seat of Portuguese government

armament against Goa.

was

history,

have proved

it a.s inu.st

I.

Hucce.s.sfuJ,

another quarter, and he resolved

to

Mi.iiiuoi-

his

[Book

t^>

This town which, from having afterwards

makes some

the East,

in

figure in

on an island at the mouth of an estuary, forming one

finely situated

of the very few good harbours which occur on the western coast of the Indian

At

peninsula,

kings of

time (1510;

this

Deccan,

tlie

who had

it

was included

in the territ<jries of

and

his capital at Bejapoor,

is

asually called

Portuguese writers Sabay or Savay, though his proper name or


Adil Shah.

He had

recently wrested

of Albuquerque's quarrel with

that he did not

was

object
it

deem

it

it

worth

wliile to inquire

and

if

by

Yasuf

The grounds

and

it is

probable

His only

neces.sary either to allege or invent any.

to extend the Portuguese rule

as scarcely

title wa.s

from the Rajah of Onore.

Yusuf are not very apparent

one of the

he could succeed, he regarded

whether the means which he employed

One inducement may have been, that, as a new conquest,


Yusuf s possession of Goa must have been somewhat insecure. Another inducement was, that the Rajah of Onore, the legitimate ov/ner, was ready to assist to
could be justified.

the utmost in recapturing


still

more

He

it.

foimd a third auxiliary capable of rendering

who figures sometimes as Rajah of


which was bounded by Goa on the north, and .sometimes
in Timoja,

effectual assistance

Canara, a district

simply as a privateer, roaming the seas with a powerful

fleet,

and lising

b\-

plunder.

Thus

Ciipture

assisted,

ning of 1510.

Albuquerque made

At

first

his appearance

ofi'

the

coa.st in

the begin-

nephew
which was weU

anticipating a valiant resistance, he sent his

They discovered a

along with Timoja to take soundings.

fort

provided ^vith guns, and defended by 400 men, and not only had the hardihood
to attack, but the

good fortune to capture

commencement, and proved only the

first

This seemed a most auspicious

it.

of a series of fortunate events which

followed rapidly, and put Albuquerqiie in possession of this most important


locality, before

accounts,

he was required to strike a blow.

some conjuror or

According to the Portuguese

whose predictions were implicitly believed,

fakir,

had announced that Goa was destined shortly to become subject to

On the

faith of this prediction, the inhabitants

thought

instead of enduring the miseries of a siege which


to

make a voluntary

surrender.

it

foreigners.

a stroke of good policy,

must ultimately be

successful,

Accordingly, to the gi'eat but most agi'eeable

was received ashore by the population

had

Reception

surprise of Albuquerque, he

ciuerque.

becu their native prince, conducted in state to the gate, when he received the
keys,

and thereafter put in

posses.sion of the palace.

says nothing of the conjuror

and with

may have

and thus rendered defence

The Mahometan account

far greater probability represents the

capture as the necessary result of a surprise.

Albuquerque's nephew

The

fort captured

given them complete

impossible.

as if he

by Timoja and

command

of the city,

GOA CAPTURED.

Chap. VIII]

At

this time, however,

Yusnf Adil Shall having

it \v;i.s

died,

lo.st

183

almost as easily a

was succeeded by

had been gained, ad.

it

his son Ismael Adil JShah,

who,

abont four months after the hasty surrender of Goa, collected an army estimated

Kumal Khan,

at 60,000.

whom

the general to

this

army was

denly made his appearance, and conducted the siege with so


Albu(i[uerque,

twenty days, finding

after

was glad

seriously threatened,
finally

from Cananore with a

.sail

iruich ability, that


fleet

fleet of

which had arrived from

twenty-three ships, and 1500

After landing at Onore, to assist at the celebration of Timoja

righting men.

taken.

In the course of the same year, having

prize.

collected all his forces, including several additional ships

Portugal, he set

^oa takeu
nnd le-

But he had no idea of

to evacuate the place.

abandoning so valuable a

intrusted, sud-

communication with the

his

1511.

marriage with the daughter of a native ([ueen, he h.ustened off to Goa, and,

anchoring before

a second time, immediately prepared for the

it

It

.issault.

took place before daybreak, and with such success, that the Portuguese entered
the city along with those of the defenders

who had been

a time every inch of gi'ound within the city


at the palace the fight
their retreat to the

was

alive

left

was furiously renewed,

mainland might be cut

The enemy

confusion.

was

lost

6000

.stationed outside.

disputed,

till

the defenders, fearing that

the Portuguese only

but the natives were

ti

and more especially

([uitted the place in the

off,

For

utmost

Not one Moor

fifty.

eated with great moderation.

Besides

recovering theu' property, they had the satisfaction of being placed under the

government of

their

countryman Timoja, who ruled more equitably than might

have been anticipated from his predatory habits.


dechired his intention to

The remaining

make Goa

Before departing, Albuquerque

the capital of Portuguese India.

exploits of Albuquerque, though they

had not India

for their Aibuqner-

theatre, are so intimately connected witli its history, that a short account of

them

is

here subjoined.

After returning to Cochin he began to prepare another

armament, and gave out that

was destined

to act against

Aden, which was

then, as it is

now, the key to the navigation of the Red Sea.

The importance

of the object

was

sufficient to justify all the preparations

but while preteiuling to

The

tion.

it

l(K)k to

the west, his eye

city of Malacca, situated

long been the most important

was

tion iigainst

^^'^

which he was making;

fixed in an opposite direc-

on the peninsula of the same name, had

emporium of the

rich countries lying further east

The Moors were still carrying on a lucrative traffic in that quarter


by means of it were almo.st able to compensate themselves for all the losses

than India.

:ind

which they had sustjiined from the Portuguese.


,

sufficient

wiiich he

to determine

ships

itself

Albuquercpie to undertake the important expedition

was now meditating, though the

might expect to derive from

On

This consideration was of

it

direct benefits

were of themselves a

which

sufficient

his

own country

inducement.

the 2d of May, 1511, Albuquerque set sail from Cochin with nineteen

and 1400 fighting men,

Of

these, however,

600 were natives of India.

Malacca was at this time under the rrovemment of a king of the

name

of

capture of

HISTORY OF INDIA.

IcSl

D. 1513.

Miihomcd, whu

by an
('ai>tureof

liad trcacherou.sly

officer called

iiiij)risoii(;il

a number

osteiisible object of Albu({uer(jue's expedition.

and was now defended by 30,000

these

means of

defence,

with, did not feel secure,


if

tliis

was ready

it

With

enemy he had

of the kind of

command

at his

boldest he

tlie

and 8000 cannon.

and sent a messenger to the viceroy

he came for merchandise,

commanded
outrage was the

have contained 100,000 inhabi-

soldiers,

Mahomed, aware

I.

Portugues*.',

waH one of

It

itself is said to

tants,

of"

To avenge

Diego Lo[)ez de Siqueira.

had ever undertaken, as the city

[Book

t^>

all

deal

to intimate that,

Albuquerque replied

by Siqueira,
and that on the delivery of them he would be prepared to say what more lie
wanted.
After some parleying, the captives were delivered, and Albuquerque
It demanded compensation for the outrage, and for the
sent his ultimatum.
expenses incurred in obtaining redress, and a site for the erection of a Portuthat the merchandise he required

guese

This

fort.

last

was some Portuguese

proposal the king refused to entertain, and Albuquerque

The Malays

immediately prepared to compel him.

but

it is difficult

artillery,

to believe

it

for

with

all

are said to have fought well,

the aid which they could derive from

poisoned aiTows, poisoned thorns, and mines of gunpowder laid in the

streets, their tens of

way

thousands gave

before a mere handful of Portuguese,

and the viceroy took triumphant possession of the


received and sent several embassies

He

to Pegu.

of these

there

left

is

among

the

also sent out several navigators

said to

While here he both

city.

latter,

one to Siam, and another

One

on exploring expeditions.

have been commanded by Magalhaens,

whom

to

it

suggested

the idea of his subsequent celebrated circmnnavigation.

On

\i'"i^

iieroisraaud

the voyage home, Albuquerque lost his finest ship, which was nearl}' cut

across the kccl

position he

on a sharp rock

was obliged

otf the coast of

to pass the night

girl

whom

in India, he

In this perilous

and when the morning dawned, was

seen peiforming an act of humanity and heroism,

young

Sumatra.

by

sheltering with his

he had saved in the midst of the confusion.

When

found that advantage had been taken of his absence.

arms a

he arrived

Adel Khan

Goa with an army of 20,000 men, and the zamorin


was again in arms. Goa was easily relieved and the zamorin, despairing of
The subversion of the Mameluke djTiasty in
success, retired from the contest.
Egypt had deprived him of any fui-ther assistance from Ameer Hoossein, and
on looking round he saw no quarter to which he could appeal for new aid.
had resumed the

siege of

According to Ferishta,

tiiis

humbling conviction so completely overwhelmed

him, that his health gave way, and he died of a broken heart.
Hisexpedi
tion against

Aden.

fhe attack on Aden, which Albuquerque meditated, had been postponed


that of Malacca, but by no means abandoned.
Accordingly, on the 18th

to

February, 1513, he appeared before

board

it

with a

fleet

700 Portuguese, and 800 natives of India.

and hastened forward, in the hope


he might gain possession of the

that,

place.

by applying

He had

of twenty

He

lost

sail,

having on

no time in landing,

scaling-ladders to the

underrated

of

its

strength,

w^alls,

and the

ORMUZ CAPTURED.

Chap. VIII.

valour of

defenders,

its

and was obliged

to retire with a loss too severe to leave

He

him any inclination to renew the attempt.


degree by entering the Red Sea, which then,
on

vessel

compensated himself in some

for the first time,

saw an European

After re-

several valuable prizes.

maining; for some time at the island


of

a.d isu.

made

bosom, and

its

18;")

Kamaran, he returned and again

looked

upon Aden, but found

in

that

in the

tions

had been

that

it

interval its fortifica-

much improved

so

would have been madness

to attack

He

it.

therefore passed
Aden.

and continued

on,

On

India.

Bruii et Hogenburg, 1574.

voyage to

his

reaching Gujerat he

made an

ineffectual application for permission

but did not attempt to enforce

to build a fort at Diu,

another project, on which his heart had long been


nestly that his attempts to accomplish
project

it,

as he

and

set,

had hitherto been

it

all

This

frustrated.

His

was the command of the Persian Gulf by the capture of Ormuz.

third attempt

upon

it

was made

in March,

The circumstances were

1514.

opportune; and when he demanded permission to complete the

though disposed to

nor,

was intent on ^^^^ ^


the more ear-

The name

comply.

of

resist, felt

the gover-

fort,

he had not the means, and was obhged to

Albuquerque was now famous

all

over the East; and

even Ismael, the I'ounder of the famous Persian dynasty of Sophi, sent him
an ambassador with valuable presents, and concluded a treaty with him.
Before leaving Ormuz, Albuquerque not only finished his

king to lodge

in inducing or forcing the

way Portuguese supremacy was completely


Under Albuquerque the Portuguese
more firmly

an empire, as

it

but succeeded

cannon within

In this

it.

established.

])ower extended

more widely, and was

It cannot, however,

seated, tiian before or since.

[)riety styled

all his

fort,

be with any pro-

was not composed of contiguous

immense

rather consisted of a vast niunber of isolated forts, scattered over an

extent of coast, and situated at wide distances from each other.


for the
gi-eat

this

The

sites

most part admirably chosen, and gave a complete control over

maritime thoroughfares from the East Indies to Eurojie.

mode

of rule

easily acquired,
stability

is

lias its

advantages over

territorial

but

teiTitories,

were
the

all

In some respects

possession.

It

is

more

and admits of being maintained at a cheaper rate; but

very precarious.

necessarily extinguished.
(juerque's regency, there

The moment the command at sea

This, however,

were no

is

lost,

its

it

is

was an event of which, during Albu-

s^Tn})tonis;

and the

fact that they

began to be

manifested not long after he disappeared from the scene, serves to impress us

with a higher idea of the wisdom and vigour of his government.

countrymen hailed him


Vol.

I.

as " Great."

all

When

his

impartial observers of his exploits were


24

Porttieuese

tha kuh.

mSTOilY OF INDIA

186
A.I),

i&i.":

ready to

[Book

His greatness, however, was

eclio their acc-lamations

now drawing

to a close.
Albuquer-

While at Ormuz

had suffered much from

lie

sickness,

que's Ul1163:;.

become

make him hasten

sufficiently serious to

and seemed unbroken

year,

grief tliat killed iiim.

Duke

of

title

It

In

in constitution.

is

ti-uth,

had applied

said that he

There was no

his departure.

He had

reason, however, to suspect a fatal termination.

and the sympUjms had


only passed his sixtieth
it

was not

disease but

to his sovereign for the

His enemies took advantage of the circum.stance to

of Goa.

was cherishing schemes of ambition, and had manifested, by

insinuate that he

the arrogance of his application, the treasonable purpose which he had at heart.

Once Duke of Goa, he would


whole East as

rule the

establish him.self in tliat Eastern metropolis,

There was

ab-solute master.

was enough

insinuations; but there

to form the

little

plausibility in these

groundwork of a

successful

court intrigue.

Albuquerque, wliile oppressed by sickneas, was yet dreaming

of a ducal

when he

title,

received the mortifying intelligence that the only

reward which he was to obtain

He was

no longer viceroy

seded to

make way

than he could bear

was

for all his services

and

as if this

for his mortal

and when the

On

in a dying state.

how

exclaimed, " See

it is

the

vessel in

first

which he

news of

my

To the

grave, then, old man, for

his last acts

mending
wliich

is

was

The shock was more

sailed arrived off Goa, he

his dismis.sal, he

is

fellow-men has brought

now

high time

to write a touching letter to

his son to his protection, he says:

of small

impose, and this

him and

it is

amount but
;

for me."

It

was thought he

advanced with such rapid


after the vessel

strides,

had crossed the

buried with great

pomp

at

Goa

said to have

me

my

into bad

fellow-men.

to the grave

"

One

of

in which, recom-

my property,
obligation which my ser\dces

"I bec^ueath to
affairs of India,

liim

they will speak for

micrht be able to reach Goa, but death

that he breathed his last almost immediately

bar,
;

King Emanuel

Mm the

In regard to the

great.

is

I also leave

dLsmis-sal.

was not enough, he had been super-

enemy, Lope Soarez.

Love to

was a summarj'

odour with the king, and love to the king into bad odour with
His death.

and

on the 16th of December, 1515.

He was

but in accordance with a request in his

will.

his remains, in 1566, v/ere transported to Lisbon.


Lope Soarez

After the death of Albuquerque, the Portuguese power began visibly to

succeeds.

decline.

"Up

to this time," says Faria

Sousa, "the gentlemen

had followed

the dictates of true honour, esteeming their arms the greatest riches

from

time forward, they so wholly gave themselves up to trading, that those

ought to have been captains became merchants."

and eager scramble

for riches,

There was, in

from the highest to the lowest

and public was held subordinate and made subservient


very

first

sail,

a general

to private interest.

fleet of thirteen sail, and, ha\'ing increased it

to twenty-seven

who

class of officials

proceedings of Soarez gave evidence of his incapacity.

brought with him a

ments

short,

this

by

He

The
had

reinforce-

proceeded, in accordance with the orders which he

DIEGO LOPEZ DE SEQUEIRA.

Chap. VIIL]

187

had received at Lisbon, on an expedition to the Red Sea, with the view of ad.
encountering a large
at Suez.

On

arriving

the keys.

Egypt was

Aden, he found a large breach

ott"

consequence of a siege which

(Tovemor of

the Sultan of

fleet wliicli

had

it

lately sustained

defenceless condition, that he actually

its

The compliments with which they were

his vanity, that

he returned

said to be fitting out

in the fortificsitions, in

and

so conscious Wi\s the

made Soarez an

offered

were

ofter of

so soothing to

keys thas tendered, and desired the governor

tlie

to

keep them

him

for

He

which admitted of no delay.

was at present on an expedition

as he

his return,

till

1521.

accordingly entered the

cruizing about to no purpose, retraced his .steps to Aden,

Red

ineffectual
atteiii))t

uiion .\<ien

Sea, and, after

and was very much

astonished when, on announcing his arrival to the complimentary governor, he

proud defiance to come and take them.

received, insteatl of the keys, a

The

explanation was soon given.


visit,

A bold

had, in the interval, been thoroughly repaired.

have put him in pos.session of

and he moved

it;

which were defenceless on

walls,

off to

attempt some petty

mitted him, for nearly a third of


liastened

back to Goa with

Tlie native princes,

tlie

fleet

liis

Even

captiu-e.

was destroyed

his former

stroke might yet

man

but Soarez was not the

tlie place,

The

this

make

to

was not

in a storm,

per-

and he

remainder.

who had been overawed by Albuquerque, were not

Ill

/.|.
to duscover the character of his .successor,

and take advantage

.slow rortupiew

(T->i/^
of
Both Goa
it.

build a fort
at

Colombo

and Malacca were seriously threatened, though as much of ancient discipline


still

remained to ward

ott'

the danger.

these disasters were the submission of


to

become tributary

to Portugal,

The only occuiTences to compen.sate for


the King of Ceylon, who, in 1517, agreed

and allow a

fort to

be built at Colombo

and

the successful voyage of Fernando Perez de Andrada, who, in the same year,

penetrated to Canton, and laid the foundation of a lucrative trade.

Diego Lopez de

who

Se(iueira,

succeeded Soarez, was a

man

of a similar

temper, and instead of doing anything to retrieve the honour of the Portuguese
arms,

tarnishetl

appearing before

them
it

further

still

by a dastardly

manned by 3000 Portuguese, and 800

natives.

MuUik

Febniary, 1521, he sent a mes.senger to


permission to build a

fort,

The Gujerat admiral

much

from Diu, after

with one of the largest armaments which had ever sailed

under Portuguese colours in the Indian Ocean.

it.

retreat

and a menace, that


told

him

to

He had in all forty .ships,


On his arrival, on the 9th of
Eiaz, with the old re([uest for

if it

were

do his worst

refused, he

would

force

and must have been as

pleased as sur]irised when, instead of being attacked in the style of which

Almeiila and Albuipierque had given examples, he

saw the Portuguese

fleet

weigh anchor, and gradually disappear from the coast.


The fortiflcations, it
seems, had been strengthened and Lopez, after endeavouring to .shelter himself
;

by

calling a council of war,

which sanctioned

his cowardice, decided that the

attack was too hazardous to be attempted.

This disgraceful retreat was not

lost

upon the native

princes,

and

in the

Diego Lopez

from uin

188
A.I). l.Vil

HLSTORY OF INDIA,

coui'se of the

same year

formed against them.


Xative coin-

[Book

I.

Purtuji^uese .saw .several foniiiflahle conibination.s

tin;

Mullik. Eiaz

deemed

unnecessary any longer

it

seek

it)

the protection of his batterie.s at Diu, and, sailing out, converted the Portuguese

)>iii:it.i(>us
:i(?iiiiit

tlie

retreat into a Hight, taking one of their ships

and disperaing the

Not

rest.

I'ortugueso.

with this

satisfied

he continued his course to

success,

where the Portu-

(Jlioul,

guese were engaged in building a factory, again defeated them, and remained
off the port

fni-

twenty days, cutting

and the Portuguese

communication Vjetween the

which kept iiovering

fleet,

or attemi)ting to force a

outside,

run much

risk,

but

The

the adjoining territory

all

without offering

became emboldened, and Adel Khan,

appearance once more in the vicinity of Goa.

his

fact^jry

battle,

In ])roportion as Portuguese pasillanimit\

pa.s.sage.

increased, their assailants

to

ott' all

city

was

1522, maL'

in

was too well

occupied,

fortifier 1

and once more

acknowledged the supremacy of the King of Bejapoor.


Naval
off

In

fight

527 the hopes of the Portuguese were much revived by a decisive

victors'

Choul.

gained at Ohoid over the Gujerat

Of

these, seventy-three

fieet,

which consisted of eighty-three

were burned, destroyed, or driven ashore.

Silveira, the victor, following his advantage,

Bombay now

bay, where

stands, to

ve.ssel.-s

Hector de

proceeded up to the head of the

Tannah, and then northwards to

Bas.sein,

levying contributions from both places, and compelling both to become tributary.

Three years

Antonio de

his brother,

after,

vessels, crossed the

sacked and burned

with a

Silveira,

bar of the river Taptee, and, forcing his

of fifty-one

fleet

way up

to Surat.

In the following year Daman, a large town situated on

it.

the same coast, shared the same

fate.

These, however, were only desultory attacks, preparatory to a gi-eat

Kxpeditioii

effcjrt

against Diu.

The King

about to be made for the capture of Diu.

of Portugal, iiTitated at

having been so often baffled in his attempts to take


it

The expedition had

attempted.

sent out peremptory

The preparations were on a


magnitude anything that the Portuguese had ever before

orders to obtain possession of


scale far exceeding in

it,

on any terms!

its

rendezvous in

Bombay

harbour, where

mustered 400 vessels of aU descriptions, having on board 22,200 men.

3600

soldiers

and 1400

sailors

were Europeans.

On

it

Of these,

the 16th February, 1531,

commanded by Nmino de Cunha, governor of India, arrived


Nine days before, it had attacked the town and island of Bet, or Be}t,

the expedition,
off"

Diu.

which

lies

not far from the south side of the entrance to the Gulf of Cutch.

and was strongly


of 18,000
Its faUure.

men

men and

sixty cannon to the enemy,

to the Portuguese.

disaster.

Among

both by nature and

fortified

The

art.

It

was taken with a

and with the

loss of

victory, however, great as it seemed,

loss

only twelve

was

in fact a

the twelve slain was Hector de Silveira, the hero of the

fleet

while the time lost was so diligently improved by the enemy, that Diu was

rendered

all

The defence was conducted by Mustapha Khan,


much courage and ability, that all the efforts of the

but impregnable.

an European Turk, with so


besiegers proved fruitless,

and they found

it

necessary, at the end of a month,

BAHADUR SHAH.

Chap. VIII.

According to the Portuguese accounts,

to retire.

the sole cau.se of

failui-e

Mahometan

but the

180
tlie

strength of the place

was

ad.

1534

add that the immediate

historians

cause of raising the siege was the approach of Bahadm- Shah, then ruler of

This so frightened the Portuguese,

Gujerat, at the head of a formidable army.

that they

made a

tiiese is said

to

precipitate retreat, leaving their


"

have been

avenge themselves

and committed

coast

One

of

the largest ever before seen in India, and recjuired

a machine to be constructed for conveying


ti)

gmis behind them.

for their defeat,

it

to

The Portuguese,

Champanere."

bm-ned a great number of towns upon the

fearful devastation

Notwithstanding their discomfiture, the Portuguese had not abandoned the

naiu-uiur,

k"

make themselves masters of Diu. If direct force


failed, policy might yet succeed.
Chand Khan, a brother of Bahadur, was at
first set up as a competitor for the throne, and when this failed, a league was

liope of

being yet able to

Gujemt

formed with Hoomayoon, King of Delhi, who, regarding Bahadur as a revolted

make

Bahadur, thus pressed on

had invaded Gujerat.

vassal,

his choice

between submission

He

the Portuguese.

King of

to the

preferred the latter;

was obliged

to

and submission

to

all sides,

Delhi,

and accordingly,

in 1534, concluded

a treaty by which he ceded Bassein, which was thenceforth to be the only port
at which vessels sailing from India were to

He

pay duties and take out

clearances.

further engaged not to assist the Turkish fleets in the Indian seas.

made the Portuguese


his friends, but made him more obnoxious than ever to the King of Delhi, who,
following up the advantages which he had gained, obliged him to take refuge
This treaty gave him only a very partial relief

It

^ir

aiii.an.-e

vrith thu

portugtieso

Here, as the assistance of the Portuguese was indispensable to him, he

in Diu.

was obliged

by giving them permission to build a fortified factory.


As the work proceeded Bahadur became more and more uneasy, and besides
to purchase

it

entering into communication with the Turks,


the destruction of his Portuguese

allies.

The

is

said to have formed a plot for

stjxtements on the subject

Portuguese and the Mahometans vary so much, that

it is difficult

by the

to pronoimce

The probability is, that both parties were anxious to be quit


and that thus there were plots and counter-plots. All that can

between them.
of each other,

now

be considered certain

was on a

visit to the

is,

tlmt a frav commenced, and that Bahadur,

Portuguese admiral, having fallen or leaped into the

who

sea, a

Portuguese sailor threw a boarding-pike at him, which pierced his skull, and hu
killed
ciii

him on the

spot.

bono, the decision

wlille

Bahadur

Were

would necessarily be given against the Portuguese;

lost his life,

from them.

It has

for

they gained the island of Diu.

They had not been long


it

the question to be decided on the principle of

when an attem])t was made to wrest


been mentioned that when Bahadur repented of his
in possession

Solyman the
The application

cimcession to the Portuguese, he applied for aid to the Turks.

Magnificent was then upon the throne of Constantinople.


therefore could not

have been made under more favourable circumstances.

death

HISTORY OF INDIA.

190
AD.

1537.

[Book

Solyinan was a great and a successful warrior, and his irnajrination fired at
idea of estahlisliing an additional emj)ire in the Eant

Turkisii ox-

news of Bahadur's death

taken, the

arrived, but

tliis

inination to

fit

For

of Diu.

out an armament on such a

this pur[)ose instructions

8tep.s

tlie

were

only confirmed the deter''

peditioii to

Gujerat.

Before any

I.

.scale

as

would insure the conquest

were given to Solyman, the Egyptian

P^=9^-_

General View of Diu.

pacha, to

Brun et Hogenburg, 1574.

commence preparations immediately

of seventy-six galleys, having 7000 Turkish soldiers on board,

fleet

equipped; and, sailing under the

command

There a

in the port of Suez.

was forthwith

of the pacha, arrived off

Diu

in the

beginning of September, 1537.


Portuguese

Thouo'li the dano-er

had been

foreseen, the Portucjuese councils

were at

this

besieged
in Diu.

time so dilatory and distracted, that no adequate preparations were made to

meet

it.'

The government of India had just been conferred on Garcia de

Noronha, and the time which ought to have been devoted to the supply of

Diu with everything necessary to

its

was spent

defence

in petty squabbles

The consequence was, that when the

between the old governor and the new.

Turki.sh fleet arrived, the garrison consisted only of about 600 men,

them

sickly.

Nor was

so deficient, that nothing could save the place

which the Portuguese had to

was

fear.

Nor was

from capture

if

the siege

the Tm-kish the only

was

armament

Gujerat army, estimated at 20,000 men,

in the vicinity, ready to co-operate

Such was the apparently desperate

Heroic

of

Both ammunition and provisions were

this the worst.

persisted in or relief did not arrive.

many

with the besiegers.


state

of matters

when

the governor,

defence.

Antonio de
in

the

fort.

Silveira,

unable to maintain a footing in the town, shut himself up

In himself, however, he was equal to a host, possessing not only

military talents of the highest order, but also the rare gilt of infusing his

own

who were under

Not only was every


soldier within the garrison prepared to do his duty, but the women, forgetting
the feebleness of their sex, fearlessly encountered every danger, and worked with
their own hands in repairing the walls as they crumbled beneath the jwwerful
lieroic spirit into all

his

command.

SIEGE OF DIU.

Chap. VIII]

Turkish

It is told of

artillery.

by night she viewed

that

instead of giving

retin-ned to lier post,

jiside,

all

way

Anna

posts,

tlie

She even saw

encouraofino- the soldiers.


ball, but,

one lady,

to the

and only

191

Fernandez, wife of a physician,

and during the

own

lier

stood by

assaults

down by a cannon-

son struck

agony she must have

after the assault

a.d. 1545.

drew

felt,

body

his

had been repulsed went to

bury him.
It

was

however,

imi)ossible,

the

that

defence

could

much

last

The
longer.

Every new

assault thinned the

numbers of the

siege ot

Diu

garrison,

and

raised

many

scarcely as

remained as could make even a show of resistance, when a breach was nuide.

The governor saw

way
was

nothinij befoie

him but death or surrender, and was

to the gloomiest forebodings,

when, to his uns])eakable delight, the siege

The Turkish commander, when

raised.

by the

dispirited

his greatest efforts, received the startling intelligence that


fleet

was

at

hand

and, without staying to ascertain

the utmost precipitation.


circulated, strange to say,

who commanded

It

ffivino-

its

failure of

one of

a powerful Portuguese

accuracy,

made

with

ofi'

turned out to be a false rumour, invented and

by Khojah Zofar, a renegade Turk, of Italian

the Gujerat forces.

origin,

His pride had been repeatedly offended

by the arrogance of Solyman Pacha; and he had, moreover, ascertained that the
Turks were determined,

if

they gained the place, to retain

There was thus only a choice of mastere

])ossession.

as a

it

permanent

and as the Portuguese

seemed the more tolerable of the two, Zotar had given them the preference.
After Khojaii Zofar had rid himself of his Turkish

by

allies

this stratagem,
^

he entered into friendly communications with the Portuguese, but at the same

Attcinptto
the
gmrisou.

I'Oisoii

time took several steps whicli convinced them that enmity was rankling at his

He was

heart

in the highest possible

favour with the King of Gujerat; and

feeling satisfied that that sovereign's complete

ascendency in the peninsula

own aggrandizement, was

prepared to adopt any means,

wouUl best secure

his

however unscrupulous, that promised


attempt was an infamous

an immense

When this

cistern

from the town

Portuguese.

laid,

His

first

which he endeavoured to poison the water of


to the magazine.

fire

which would have comj)letely

The Portuguese objected

and the foundation

he had no sooner completed his preparations,

than he made an open declaration of war.

Mascarenhas, the

the

which supplied the garrison, and to set

a quarrel being thus

in 1545,

expel

plot failed, he attempted to build a wall

isolated the fort


foi-

plot, in

to

the cn-cumstances

commander
;

of Diu,

made

the best aiTanorements

but his means being inadecpiate, he

lost

iios-sible

no time

in

acquainting Juan de Castro of his danger. Zofar, at the same time, aware of his
advantage, resolved to assault the place before succour could an-ive.
With this

view he prepared an immense


lery,

caused

it

it

with heavy

to be steered opposite to the .sea-bastion, in the

such a breach in

clumsy device,

floating battery, and, filling

it

as

would give him access into the

for before

he could bring

it

artil-

hope of making
It

proved a very

to bear the garrison

made a night

fort.

R<^''^'

192
A

D. 1.04V

HISTORY OF INDIA.

atta-k upon

and, settin;^

it,

fire to

blew

it,

to complete the wall already mentioned,

kept up
an incessant and crushinf;
*
"^

Zofar's
efforts to

was of extraordinary

takb uia

size,

killed the

it nit/j tlie air.

and

on the

his great

come and witness

fort to

'

said Uj

it is

Happily

fly.

gun did more harm

killed

was

far

It proved hotter

it.

I)usillanimous prince

neiskiiie.i

fort.

Every shot from

have shook the

for the besieged,

was

on the way back

success, that

to the Portuarrived.

and the

which lighted on

his tent

and never looked behind him

fled,

to his capital.

ball

still

more fortunate shot

This gave the exhausted garrison some respite; but

short duration, for

Roumi Khan,

Zofar's

.son,

It

he hafl invited him to

work than he had anticipated

by a chance

so terrified

one of his attendants, that he

Zofar himself

till

killed

was

it

of

succeeded him, and, not satisfied

with the slow process which had hitherto been pursued, made a general
It failed,

island,

one of their shot

own party than

to his

seems that Zofar had become so confident of

lie

mount it with cannon, which


One of the nieces of ordnance

t<>

While the siege was thus proceeding, the King of Gujerat

guese.

was

Frenchman, and the gunner who succeeded him managed so awk

wardly that

and

Zofar's next plan

i.

and bein^ managed by an expert French renegade,

did con.siderable damage.

and made pieces of the

fire

[B<jok

new attempt

but scarcely a day passed without some

assault.

to force an

entrance into the place.

The

had now lasted several months, while the preparations at Goa

siege

proved so dilatory, that the only

progiess of

commanded by Fernando de Castro, the


govcmors son, and the other by Don Alvaro. The latter consisted of 400 men,
and brought supplies of ammunition and provision, when they were just on the
point of being exhausted.
The Portuguese were so elated that they disdained
to

be cooped up any longer in the

against his better


ness,

judgment

to lead

and retreated with such

and almost compelled Mascarenhas

fort,

them

out.

They paid dearly

precipitation, that they

had the greatest

This domestic misfortune seems to have had the effect of hastenincr

De

enemy

fi'om entering the fort along

was the governor's own

but

it

with them.

son.

Castro's departvu-e from Goa.

What

the cause of delay

possessed in the East,

any

other,

first

was

and the

in the

acquisition of

not exjDlained

is

tlirce Sail, lost

coast,

but at

doul)tful.

course,

cost

them more than

His

fleet,

which consisted of

some time in committing barbarities at various

last,

in

loio,

was observed from Diu.

and gained a signal

and the Portuguese

for the

ninet}'

After relieving the garrison,

of his troops

which had

which the Portuguese

most imminent danger, Ms prepai-ations were

time considered to be complete.

l)y

L'astro

was

gives a poor idea of his energy and resources to learn, that at the end of

eight months, while one of the most important stations

De

difficulty

the

slain

relieved

for their rash-

Among

in preventing the

Dill finally

two

detachments, the one

insignificant

the siege

relief sent to the garrison consisted of

De

victory.

The

localities

result

on the

was not long

Castro marched out at the head

The

fall

of the

town followed of

acted, as they almost invariably did

on such occa-

DEATH OF DE

Chap. VITI.]

by indulging

sions,

" Tlie

in horrid atrocities.

193

CASTliU.

women

e.scaped not the fate of

ad

1570.

the men, and children were slain at their mothers' breasts."

The victory which De Castro had gained was not very remarkable. His
troops bore a considerable proportion to those of the enemy, and with the superiority of discipline which they possessed, it would have been disgraceful to him
But the Portuguese,

not to have succeeded.

had

their power,
;i

for several years before

in consequence of the decline of De

enjoyed few opportunities of celebrating


feelings of the governor,

and therefore entered readily into the

victory,

who
a Roman

thought himself entitled to be received at

The gates and

triumph.

streets

c-wtro-s

ceiei.rati...,

"l^y""^"'

Goa with all the magnilicence of


were hung with silk, all places

resounded with music and salvos of cannon, and vessels gaily adorned covered

The governor on arriving

the harbour.

presented with a crown of laurel,

branch of

with a

it

which he carried

he had borne

crucifix, as

the royal standard

like

in the

walked one Friar Anthony,

in front

and

fiofht,

windows throwing

On

him with sweet water.

Queen

hand

The governor walked on

the ladies from the

Catherine,

it

was

with which he encircled his head, and a

besi(ie

behind was Jazar Khan, a Moorish

captives in chains.
silks,

in his

at the gate, under a rich canopy,

him an
chief,

leaves of gold

officer

bearing

followed by 600

and

and

silver,

rich

upon him, and sprinkling

flowers

reading the account of this pompous procession,

"De

of Portugal, shrewdly remarked, that

He

a Christian and triumphed like a heathen."

Castro had overcome

did not long .survive his

His death

and charac-

trunnph

and was on

his death-bed

when

the honours sent out from Portugal to

reward his victory were announced to him at Goa.


man, but

this

failing

He must have

was compensated by many good

tr.

been a vain

He was

qualities.

so

zealous for the public service, that gi-ief for the miserable condition into which
it

had

his

fallen is said to

have broken his heart

honesty by dj-ing in extreme poverty.

and he gave the best proof of

One

of his last acts

was

to

make

formal protest, which he desired to be recorded, to the effect that "he had never

made

u.se

any other man's money, nor driven any trade t<


The practices of which he thus solemnly declared his

of the king's nor

increase his

own

stock."

innocence, undoubtedly prevailed to a great


officials,

and go

far to account for the rapidity

extent

among

the

with which Portugal

Portuguese
fell

from the

From time to time, however, .she


and showed how much she might .still have

high place which she once held in the East.

seemed to resume her ancient

spirit,

been able to accomplish, had

men

intriguers,

In

of spirit and integi'ity. instead of mere court

been placed at the helm of

1570,

when

affairs.

Luis de Ataida was \'iceroy, one of the most fomiidable

combmations into which the native princes had ever entered, was triumphant!}defeated.

It

was headed by the Deccan Kings of Ahmednuggm* and Bejapoor,

and a new zamorin, who, undeterred by the fate of his predecessor, was bent on
recovering all that had been wi-ested from him.
Their common object was to
expel the Portuguese from the country, but each had his
VoL.

I.

own

separate griev25

^'"m'""''

tivepmices.

194
A.D

li70.

HISTOKVr OF INDIA.

ance; and hence, thovigli the attack was

important stations

V)y tlie

is

the only one to which

Ally Adil Shah,

who

was mafle

it

at Choul

by

I.

at thret

tlie zarnorin,

which overawed his capital at Calicut

and by the King of Bejapoor, at Goa.


memorable,

.siiiiultaiieons,

King of Ahniednuggnr,

at Cliale, wliere a fort liad been erected

l'\)niii(lable

[?K,f,K

The

it is

as in every respect the

last,

most

necessary liere to advert.

then sovereign of Bejapoor, having assembled an

wfis

attack on
(ioa by Ally

army

of 100,000 foot

and 35,000

2140 elephants and 350 pieces of

horse,

Adil Shah.

cannon, suddenly descended from one of the passes of the Western Ghauts

intfj

the Concan, and then, turning south, marched without of)position upon Goa.

No

preparations had been

made

for this formidable attack

and the governor, on

mustering his European troops, found that they did not exceed 700.
these he

had about

300 monks, whose zeal and fanaticism compen.sated in some

number

degree for their want of discipline, and a considerable

of natives, on

whom

no great confidence could be placed.

His great security was

in his insular

position, which, so long as

command

impo.ssible for

enemy

the

to attempt

the mainland.

he held the

Against this

the Portuguese, aware that

it

Ally Adil Shah directed

side, accordingly,

if

all his

heroic valour

was

It

was only a temporary

and by one great

wliich the

effort, in

a short time, took his

for

into

and, after lingeiing

More than 12,000 of

final departure.

most

them

displayed, cut their assailants to pieces, or drove

Ally Adil Shah had no heart to renew the combat

sea.

succeas

they made good their footing the place must sur-

render, mustered all their strength,

for

made

an approach on any side but the one which lay nearest to

succeeded in passing over into the island.

the

at sea,

and with such overpowering numbers and perseverance, that 5000 men

efforts,
It is repulsed

Besides

his troops

had

The attacks on Choul and Chale were equally unsuccessful. New


lustre was thus added to the Portuguese arms and many who looked only at
the surface imagined that their power had never been established on a firmer
perished.

Those

basis.

who

looked deeper could not but see that the whole fabric wac

undermined and tlireatening


Causes of
Portuguese
decline.

It

ruin.

would be out of place here

to

examine in

detail the various causes to

which the overthrow of Portuguese supremacy in the East


few, however,

may

One

be briefly mentioned.

and

By

all

attributable.

of the most obvious

parative indifference of the Portuguese themselves.

the Cape of

is

Good Hope, India was the great goal

for

When

they

the com-

is

first

which they were

doubled
stiiving,

the exertions of which they were capable were exclusively devoted to

the discovery of Brazil a

new

interest

was

created,

it.

and gradually became

the more absorbing because the more lucrative of the two.

smaU

state like

Portugal was unable to superintend the affairs of two mighty empires, situated
at the opposite extremities of the globe

and experience seems to have proved

that in giving the preference to the American continent she


choice.

own

Both empires, indeed, are now

race of kings

still sits

enthroned.

lost to

her

made

the wiser

but in that of the West her

Chap.

PORTUGUESE DECLINE.

TX]

may be

Another caase of Portuguese decline in the East


Eui'opean

and became subject

Cardinal, Portugal lost her national independence,

bigoted and t^Taimical rule of Philip

</