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EPF 3105 Food Process Engineering


Laboratory 2

EXPERIMENT 3
RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER
SESSION TIME: THURSDAY (2.00PM - 5.00PM)
GROUP: 1

GROUP MEMBERS:
YONG KAI SIANG
SURIANI BT JUMALI
SITI MARIAM BT MOHD
ZAHIRUDDIN
SYAHRUL ANIS HAZWANI BT
MOHD BAROYI
SITI NUR FAZLIANA BT
ABDULLAH

169428
169414
168721
169433
168797

LECTURER NAME :
DR. ROSELIZA BINTI KADIR BASHA

EXPERIMENT 3: RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER


Introduction:
Radiation heat transfer is concerned with the exchange of thermal radiation
energy between two or more bodies. Thermal radiation is defined as electromagnetic
radiation in the wavelength range of 0.1 to 100 microns (which encompasses the
visible light regime), and arises as a result of a temperature difference between two
bodies. No medium need exist between two bodies for heat transfer to take place.
Rather, the intermediates are photons which travel at the speed of light. All bodies
radiate energy in the form of photons moving in a random direction, with random
phase and frequency. When radiated photons reach another surface, they may be
absorbed, reflected or transmitted. The heat transferred into or out of an object by
thermal radiation is a function of several components. These include its surface
reflectivity, emissivity, surface area, temperature and geometric orientation with
respect to other thermally participating objects. In turn, an objects surface reflectivity
and emissivity is a function of its surface conditions (roughness, finish, etc.) and
composition. In this experiment, we conducted three experiments related to radiation
heat transfer which are inverse square law of heat, Stefan-Boltzmann law and
emissivity.
Inverse Square Law for Heat
Inverse square law is a relationship that states that electromagnetic radiation is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance from a point source. A point
source of gamma rays emits in all directions about the source. It follows that the
intensity of the gamma rays decreases with distance from the source because the rays
are spread over greater area as the distance increases. As light radiates from a point
source, the intensity of light (I) is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance(x) from the source.
I = (1/x2)
As intensity is the power per unit area (W/m2), it naturally decreases with the
square of the distance as the size of the radiative spherical wave front increases with
distance. Inverse square law is applied in radiation protection and patient dose
calculations. This is because, if the radiation strength (intensity) is known at a specific

point, then intensity at any distance from that source may be calculated. According to
Nave (2012), any point source which spreads its influence equally in all directions
without a limit to its range will obey the inverse square law. This comes from strictly
geometrical considerations. The intensity of the influence at any given radius r is the
source strength divided by the area of the sphere. Being strictly geometric in its origin,
the inverse square law applies to diverse phenomena. Point sources of gravitational
force, electric field, light, sound or radiation obey the inverse square law.

Figure: Illustration of intensity and the distance.


Stefan-Boltzmann Law
The thermal energy radiated by a blackbody radiator per second per unit area is
proportional to the forth power of the absolute temperature and is given by
= T4 j/m2s Stefan-Boltzmann Law
= 5.6703x 10-8 watt/m2 K4
For hot objects other than ideal radiators, the law is expressed in the form:
= T4
Where is the emissivity of the object ( = 1 for ideal radiator/black body). If the hot
object is radiating energy to its cooler surroundings at temperature Tc, the net
radiation loss rate takes the form

= (T4 Tc4)
A black body is defined as a body that absorbs all radiation that falls on its surface. A
black body is a hypothetic body that completely absorbs all wavelengths of thermal
radiation incident on it. Such bodies do not reflect light, and therefore appear black if
their temperatures are low enough so as not to be self-luminous. All blackbodies
heated to a given temperature emit thermal radiation.
Emissive of different surface polished silver anodized matt black
Emissivity is a measure of the efficiency in which a surface emits thermal
energy.it is defined as the ratio of energy being emitted related to that emitted by a
thermally black surface (a black body). A black body is a perfect emitter of heat
energy and has an emissivity value of 1. A material with an emissivity value of 0
would be considered a perfect thermal mirror.
The emissivity coefficient, indicate the radiation of the heat from a grey
body according the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, compared with the radiation of heat from
a ideal black body with the emissivity coefficient = 1. For a grey body reactor, The
Stefan-Boltzmann Law can be expanded to give qg = (Ts4 Ta4). Where the
radiating surface for a black body =1, and for a grey body, <1.

Figure for the experiment on emissivity

A mirrored surface may reflect 98% of the energy, while absorbing 2% of the
energy. A good black body surface will reverse the ratio, absorbing 98% of the energy
and reflecting only 2%. Effective emissivity is the ratio of the total amount of energy
exiting a black body to that which is predicted by Plancks law. This is the most
frequently to as emissivity. Effective emissivity of a cavity type black body will
normally be much higher than the surface emissivity due to the multiple energy
bounces inside the body cavity.

Equipment Setup:
P. A. Hilton Limited thermal radiation unit, polished plate, silver anodized plate and
matt black plate with black plate.

Figure 1: P. A. Hilton Limited thermal radiation unit.


Experiment A: Inverse Square Law for Heat
Objectives:
The objective for this experiment is to show the intensity of radiation on a
surface is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the surface from the
radiation source.

Materials and Apparatus:


P. A. Hilton Limited thermal radiation unit

Procedures:
Initial Position: Distance from heat source(X) = 800mm

1. The power control was set to widen the position and the heater was allowed
approximately 5 minutes to reach a stable temperature prior to starting the
experiment.
2. The radiometer reading(R) and the distance from the heat source (X) were
recorded for a number of positions of the radiometer along the horizontal track.
3. The radiometer was allowed approximately 2 minutes to stabilize after being
moved to each new position.
4. The logarithm values (log10) of the data taken were calculated.
5. A log-log plot of radiometer reading against distance was generated.
*Note that radiometer sensor surface is 65mm from center line of detector carriage
and therefore center line position will be 865 mm.

Results:
Table A-1: Radiometer reading and distance from the heat source.
Distance, X
(mm)
Radiometer,
R (Wm-2)

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

52

68

92

131

192

292

564

Table A-2: Log X and Log R


Log10 X

2.903

2.845

2.813

2.778

2.602

2.474

2.301

Log10 R

1.716

1.833

1.964

2.117

2.283

2.465

2.751

Radiometer Reading, R (Wm-2)

Graph of Radiometer Reading against


Distance from the Heat Source
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Distance from Heat Source, X (mm)

Figure A-1: Graph of Radiometer Reading against Distance from the Heat Source

Graph of log10R against log10X


2.9
2.7

log10R

2.5
2.3
2.1
1.9
y = -1.6196x + 6.4916

1.7
1.5
2

2.2

2.4

2.6

log10X

Figure A-2: Graph of log10R against log10X

2.8

Discussion:
In this experiment, the radioactive source will allowed the radiation to emit
about 2 minutes to stabilize before the reading taken. The graph of radiometer reading
against distances from the heat source and graph of Log10 R against Log10 X were
plotted based on the collected date. For the graph of radiometer reading against
distances from the heat source, the radiometer reading is inversely proportional to the
distance. On the other words, as the distances decrease, the radiometer readings will
increase. The graph is decreasing proportionally from log10 X = 2.301 to log10 X =
2.903.
From the reading obtained, a graph of log10 R against log10 X is in a straight
line that having a negative slope of 1.6196 which is approximately -2, therefore,
verifying the inverse square relationship between distance and radiation intensity that
satisfy the equation

The inverse square law stating that the intensity of the radiation at a location is
inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the source of radiation. Hence,
in terms of light and radiation, the intensity of light or other linear waves radiating
from a point source is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the
source. The inverse-square law generally applies when some force, energy, or other
conserved quantity is evenly radiated outward from a point source in threedimensional space. Since the surface area of a sphere which is 4r2 is proportional to
the square of the radius, as the emitted gets farther from the source, it is spread out
over an area that is increasing in proportion to the square of the distance from the
source.
The experimental results are not accurate due to some errors occur during the
experiment. Thus, the plot obtain is not give the best fit of a linear line. Firstly,
varying of ambient temperature causes some deviation in the results obtained. This is
because ambient temperature is difficult to be kept constant all the time during the
experiment and might be effluent due to the air conditional in the room. In fact, thr
ambient room temperature is lower than usual during the experiment is carried our.
Secondly, the insensitivity of equipment used during the experiment which is the
thermal radiation unit also will led to some inaccuracy of data collected during the

experiment. The equipment must be ensured is in a perfect and good condition to get
accurate readings. Besides that, it may due to parallax error during fixing the distance
of surface from source of radiation.

Conclusion:
It is proven that the intensity of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional
to the square of the distance of the surface from the radiation source according to the
experimental results and graph.

Experiment B: Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Objectives:
The objective for this experiment is to show that the intensity of radiation
varies as the fourth power source temperature.

Materials and Apparatus:


P. A. Hilton Limited thermal radiation unit

Procedures:
1. The equipment was set up as the Figure 1 above. The reflective disc was also
placed in the radiometer to prevent heating reflect and zero drift.
2. The initial values of variables to be used was set :
-

Distance from radiometer to black plate (X) = 200 mm

Distance from black plate to heat source (Y) = 50 mm

3. The power knob was set to 3 W.


4. After the reading of heat source temperature was stabilized, the reflective disc
was taken out from radiometer, the black plate was placed in the holder, and
timer was set for 2 minutes.
5. After 2 minutes, the reading of heat source temperature, TS, radiometer
reading, R, and temperature of surrounding, TA were recorded. The reflective
disc was placed again in the radiometer.
6. Steps 3 to 5 were repeated for power of 3W, 5 W, and 7 W.

Results:
Distance from radiometer to black plate (X)
Distance from black plate to heat source (Y)

= 200mm
= 50mm
2

Q emitted

= radiometer reading x (0.063 + L2) / (0.063)2

= 200mm (0.2m)

Q emitted

= radiometer reading x (0.06322 + 0.22) / (0.063)2


= radiometer reading x 11.07

Table B-1: The reading of temperature and radiometer with calculated value of qb
Reading
Power
(W)

Temperature
o

Reading,Ts( C)

Radiometer

Calculation
Ts(K)

TA(K)

qb=

qb=

Reading,R

11.07xR

(Ts4 -

(W/m2)

(W/m2)

TA4)
(W/m2)

183

102.5

456

298

1134.675

2005.829

224

163.1

497

298

1805.517

3014.443

350

296.2

623

298

3278.934

8100.087

Where
The Stefan Boltzmann Law states that q emitted = (Ts4 - TA4)
Q emitted = energy emitted by unit per area of a black body surface

= Stefan Boltzmann constant ( = 5.674x 10-8 Wm-2K-1)

Ts

= Source temperature of radiometer and surrounding

TA

= temperature of radiometer and surrounding

Calculation:
Ambient temperature = 200C
= 5.674x 10-8 Wm-2K-1

For power = 3W
Qb = 11.07xR
= 11.07x102.5
= 1134.675W/m2
For Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Qb = (Ts4 - TA4)
= 5.674x 10-8 (4564 2984)
= 2005.829W/m2

For power = 5W
Qb = 11.07x 163.1
= 1805.517W/m2
For Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Qb = (Ts4 - TA4)
= 5.674x 10-8(4974 2984)
= 3014.443W/m2

For power = 7W
Qb = 11.07x296.2
= 3278.934W/m2
For Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Qb = (Ts4 - TA4)
= 5.674x 10-8(6234 2984)
= 8100.087W/m2

Discussion:
The intensity of radiation and temperature varies at four different power inputs
which are 3W, 5W and 7W. The value of qb can be calculated by two formula which
are qb= 11.07 x R and qb = (TS4 - TA4) which is the Stefan-Boltzmann formula.
From the result calculated, the radiometer readings were increasing as the
temperature of black plate increase. This result shows that the black body was

absorbing the heat emitted from the heat source and some of the heats are transmitted
through radiation. The result also shows that, as the power input increase, the higher
the temperature and radiometer and this indirectly the value of q emitted increase also.
All the result calculated were recorded in the table B-1. The calculated values of qb
from these two formulae are different. By theoretically, the qb value of these two
formulas should be same or closed to each other. However, the trends of the result
calculated from these two formulae are the same, which is increasing as the power
input increasing.
These deviations of the result may be due to some errors that occurred during
the experiment. First, the sensitivity of the equipment used in this experiment. The
equipment might be too old and has low sensitivity that lead to inaccuracy of the data
collected. Parallax error might be occurred during measuring the distances between
the black plate and heat source. To get an accurate result, some precaution steps must
be taken for example, eyes must be at the correct position when measuring the
distance between the black metal and heat sources. Others than that, the radiometer
readings should be taken sharply every two minutes.

Experiment C: Emissivity

Objective:
The objective for this experiment is to determine the emissive of different
surface which include polished plate, silver anodized plate and matt black.

Procedure:
1. The matt black plate was installed in the carrier.
2. The power to the heat source was varied and the temperature of the metal plate
(Ts) and radiometer reading (R) were recorded at various settings.
3. It was recommended that while waiting for the black plate temperature to
stabilize between each increase of the heater power control the reflective disc
was placed in the radiometer to prevent heating effects and zero drift.
4. The procedure ware repeated for the silver anodized plate.

Results:
E = Emissivity of surface

Initial values of variable to be used


i.

Theoretical Formula :
Stefan-Boltzmann law

ii.

q Emitted

= (Ts4 TA4)

= 5.674 x 10-8 (Wm-2K-1)

Calculation Formula :
Distance from radiometer to black plate (X)

= 100 mm

Distance from heat source to nearest metal plate (Y) = 50mm


qemitted = radiometer reading x (0.0632 + L2) / (0.063)2
Hence for

= 100mm (0.1m)

qemitted = Radiometer Reading x (0.0632 + 0.12) / (0.063)2


= Radiometer Reading x 3.519
For each plate in turn:
Where K = oC +273 = 293K
Ambient temperature, TA = 20oC

Table C-1: The readings of the matt black plate


Powerheat

Temperature

Radiometer

TS

TA

qb =

E=

sources(watt)

Reading

Reading (R)

(K)

(K)

3.519 x R

qb / (TS4

(TS),oC

Wm-2

(Wm-2)

TA4)Wm-2

125

401.8

427 298

1413.93

0.9827

172

507.8

445 298

1766.95

0.9940

193

587.3

466 298

2066.71

0.9275

Average
E:

=
= 0.9681
0.97

Table C-2: The readings of the silver anodized plate.


Powerheat
sources(watt)

Temperature Radiometer
Reading

Reading

(TS),oC

(R)

TS

TA

qb =

E=

(K)

(K)

3.519 x R

qb / (TS4

(Wm-2)

TA4)Wm-2

Wm-2
3

37

26.2

315

298

92.20

0.8293

54

49.0

326

298

172.43

0.8916

86

67.8

342

298

238.59

0.7257

Average E :

=
= 0.8155
0.82

Calculation:
Average value of emissivity of matt black plate, E

= 0.97

Average value of emissivity of silver anodized plate, E

= 0.82

i) Matt Black plate


Heat power = 3 watt, TS = 427K, TA = 298K, R = 401.8 Wm-2
Thus, q emitted, qb

= Radiometer Reading (R) x (0.0632 + 0.12) / (0.063)2


= R x 3.519
= 401.8 x 3.519
= 1413.93 Wm-2

Emissivity of surface, E

= qb / (TS4 TA4)
= (1413.93) / (5.674 x 10-8 (4274 2984))
= 0.9827 Wm-2

ii) Silver anodized plate


Heat power = 3 watt, TS = 315K, TA = 298K, R = 26.2Wm-2
Thus, q emitted, qb

= Radiometer Reading (R) x (0.0632 + 0.12) / (0.063)2


= R x 3.519
= 26.2 x 3.519
= 92.20Wm-2

Emissivity of surface, E

= qb / (TS4 TA4)
= (92.20) / (5.674 x 10-8 (3154 2984))
= 0.8293Wm-2

Discussion:
This experiment is carried out to determine the emissive of different surface,
matt black, silver anodized and polished. Formulae like qb = 3.519 x R and E = qb/
(Ts4 TA4) are applied and all the results are recorded in Table C-1, C-2, and C-3.
The results show that as the temperature increase, the radiometer reading will
increase too while the emissivity of the surface will decrease. This is due to the ability
of the surface to emit energy by radiation. The average value of the emissivity of the
matt black plate, silver anodized plate and polished plate are approximately 0.97 and
0.82 respectively. The ideal surface for a perfect emitter and absorber of radiation is
black body and this is why black plate has the highest average value of emissivity.
Stephan-Boltzmann equation prove that a small increase in the temperature of
a radiating body results in a large amount of additional radiation being emitted while
this statement holds true with our result. The result show that R increase in
exponentially with the Ts of the metal plate. Other than that, silver anodized plate
which has a thick coating surface compare to polished plate will has higher emissivity.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, matt black has higher emissivity than silver anodized plate. The
emissivity of the plate is caused by its surface characteristic and colour. The matt
black plate which is in black colour has higher emissivity.

Reference:
1. Radiation heat transfer. Retrieved December 19, 2013 from
http://www.mhtlab.uwaterloo.ca/courses/ece309/lectures/pdffiles/summary_ch12. pdf
2. Stefan-Boltzmann Law. Retrieved December 19, 2013 from
http://www.wright.edu/~guy.vandegrift/climateblog/smallfiles01/Stefan.pdf

3. An emissivity primer. Retrieved May 5-9, 2014 from


http://www.electro-optical.com/eoi_page.asp?h=What+Is+Emissivity?