I V E R S I T I
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A LofAEngineering
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EXPERIMENT 3
RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER
SESSION TIME: THURSDAY (2.00PM  5.00PM)
GROUP: 1
GROUP MEMBERS:
YONG KAI SIANG
SURIANI BT JUMALI
SITI MARIAM BT MOHD
ZAHIRUDDIN
SYAHRUL ANIS HAZWANI BT
MOHD BAROYI
SITI NUR FAZLIANA BT
ABDULLAH
169428
169414
168721
169433
168797
LECTURER NAME :
DR. ROSELIZA BINTI KADIR BASHA
point, then intensity at any distance from that source may be calculated. According to
Nave (2012), any point source which spreads its influence equally in all directions
without a limit to its range will obey the inverse square law. This comes from strictly
geometrical considerations. The intensity of the influence at any given radius r is the
source strength divided by the area of the sphere. Being strictly geometric in its origin,
the inverse square law applies to diverse phenomena. Point sources of gravitational
force, electric field, light, sound or radiation obey the inverse square law.
= (T4 Tc4)
A black body is defined as a body that absorbs all radiation that falls on its surface. A
black body is a hypothetic body that completely absorbs all wavelengths of thermal
radiation incident on it. Such bodies do not reflect light, and therefore appear black if
their temperatures are low enough so as not to be selfluminous. All blackbodies
heated to a given temperature emit thermal radiation.
Emissive of different surface polished silver anodized matt black
Emissivity is a measure of the efficiency in which a surface emits thermal
energy.it is defined as the ratio of energy being emitted related to that emitted by a
thermally black surface (a black body). A black body is a perfect emitter of heat
energy and has an emissivity value of 1. A material with an emissivity value of 0
would be considered a perfect thermal mirror.
The emissivity coefficient, indicate the radiation of the heat from a grey
body according the StefanBoltzmann Law, compared with the radiation of heat from
a ideal black body with the emissivity coefficient = 1. For a grey body reactor, The
StefanBoltzmann Law can be expanded to give qg = (Ts4 Ta4). Where the
radiating surface for a black body =1, and for a grey body, <1.
A mirrored surface may reflect 98% of the energy, while absorbing 2% of the
energy. A good black body surface will reverse the ratio, absorbing 98% of the energy
and reflecting only 2%. Effective emissivity is the ratio of the total amount of energy
exiting a black body to that which is predicted by Plancks law. This is the most
frequently to as emissivity. Effective emissivity of a cavity type black body will
normally be much higher than the surface emissivity due to the multiple energy
bounces inside the body cavity.
Equipment Setup:
P. A. Hilton Limited thermal radiation unit, polished plate, silver anodized plate and
matt black plate with black plate.
Procedures:
Initial Position: Distance from heat source(X) = 800mm
1. The power control was set to widen the position and the heater was allowed
approximately 5 minutes to reach a stable temperature prior to starting the
experiment.
2. The radiometer reading(R) and the distance from the heat source (X) were
recorded for a number of positions of the radiometer along the horizontal track.
3. The radiometer was allowed approximately 2 minutes to stabilize after being
moved to each new position.
4. The logarithm values (log10) of the data taken were calculated.
5. A loglog plot of radiometer reading against distance was generated.
*Note that radiometer sensor surface is 65mm from center line of detector carriage
and therefore center line position will be 865 mm.
Results:
Table A1: Radiometer reading and distance from the heat source.
Distance, X
(mm)
Radiometer,
R (Wm2)
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
52
68
92
131
192
292
564
2.903
2.845
2.813
2.778
2.602
2.474
2.301
Log10 R
1.716
1.833
1.964
2.117
2.283
2.465
2.751
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Figure A1: Graph of Radiometer Reading against Distance from the Heat Source
log10R
2.5
2.3
2.1
1.9
y = 1.6196x + 6.4916
1.7
1.5
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
log10X
2.8
Discussion:
In this experiment, the radioactive source will allowed the radiation to emit
about 2 minutes to stabilize before the reading taken. The graph of radiometer reading
against distances from the heat source and graph of Log10 R against Log10 X were
plotted based on the collected date. For the graph of radiometer reading against
distances from the heat source, the radiometer reading is inversely proportional to the
distance. On the other words, as the distances decrease, the radiometer readings will
increase. The graph is decreasing proportionally from log10 X = 2.301 to log10 X =
2.903.
From the reading obtained, a graph of log10 R against log10 X is in a straight
line that having a negative slope of 1.6196 which is approximately 2, therefore,
verifying the inverse square relationship between distance and radiation intensity that
satisfy the equation
The inverse square law stating that the intensity of the radiation at a location is
inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the source of radiation. Hence,
in terms of light and radiation, the intensity of light or other linear waves radiating
from a point source is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the
source. The inversesquare law generally applies when some force, energy, or other
conserved quantity is evenly radiated outward from a point source in threedimensional space. Since the surface area of a sphere which is 4r2 is proportional to
the square of the radius, as the emitted gets farther from the source, it is spread out
over an area that is increasing in proportion to the square of the distance from the
source.
The experimental results are not accurate due to some errors occur during the
experiment. Thus, the plot obtain is not give the best fit of a linear line. Firstly,
varying of ambient temperature causes some deviation in the results obtained. This is
because ambient temperature is difficult to be kept constant all the time during the
experiment and might be effluent due to the air conditional in the room. In fact, thr
ambient room temperature is lower than usual during the experiment is carried our.
Secondly, the insensitivity of equipment used during the experiment which is the
thermal radiation unit also will led to some inaccuracy of data collected during the
experiment. The equipment must be ensured is in a perfect and good condition to get
accurate readings. Besides that, it may due to parallax error during fixing the distance
of surface from source of radiation.
Conclusion:
It is proven that the intensity of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional
to the square of the distance of the surface from the radiation source according to the
experimental results and graph.
Objectives:
The objective for this experiment is to show that the intensity of radiation
varies as the fourth power source temperature.
Procedures:
1. The equipment was set up as the Figure 1 above. The reflective disc was also
placed in the radiometer to prevent heating reflect and zero drift.
2. The initial values of variables to be used was set :

Results:
Distance from radiometer to black plate (X)
Distance from black plate to heat source (Y)
= 200mm
= 50mm
2
Q emitted
= 200mm (0.2m)
Q emitted
Table B1: The reading of temperature and radiometer with calculated value of qb
Reading
Power
(W)
Temperature
o
Reading,Ts( C)
Radiometer
Calculation
Ts(K)
TA(K)
qb=
qb=
Reading,R
11.07xR
(Ts4 
(W/m2)
(W/m2)
TA4)
(W/m2)
183
102.5
456
298
1134.675
2005.829
224
163.1
497
298
1805.517
3014.443
350
296.2
623
298
3278.934
8100.087
Where
The Stefan Boltzmann Law states that q emitted = (Ts4  TA4)
Q emitted = energy emitted by unit per area of a black body surface
Ts
TA
Calculation:
Ambient temperature = 200C
= 5.674x 108 Wm2K1
For power = 3W
Qb = 11.07xR
= 11.07x102.5
= 1134.675W/m2
For StefanBoltzmann Law
Qb = (Ts4  TA4)
= 5.674x 108 (4564 2984)
= 2005.829W/m2
For power = 5W
Qb = 11.07x 163.1
= 1805.517W/m2
For StefanBoltzmann Law
Qb = (Ts4  TA4)
= 5.674x 108(4974 2984)
= 3014.443W/m2
For power = 7W
Qb = 11.07x296.2
= 3278.934W/m2
For StefanBoltzmann Law
Qb = (Ts4  TA4)
= 5.674x 108(6234 2984)
= 8100.087W/m2
Discussion:
The intensity of radiation and temperature varies at four different power inputs
which are 3W, 5W and 7W. The value of qb can be calculated by two formula which
are qb= 11.07 x R and qb = (TS4  TA4) which is the StefanBoltzmann formula.
From the result calculated, the radiometer readings were increasing as the
temperature of black plate increase. This result shows that the black body was
absorbing the heat emitted from the heat source and some of the heats are transmitted
through radiation. The result also shows that, as the power input increase, the higher
the temperature and radiometer and this indirectly the value of q emitted increase also.
All the result calculated were recorded in the table B1. The calculated values of qb
from these two formulae are different. By theoretically, the qb value of these two
formulas should be same or closed to each other. However, the trends of the result
calculated from these two formulae are the same, which is increasing as the power
input increasing.
These deviations of the result may be due to some errors that occurred during
the experiment. First, the sensitivity of the equipment used in this experiment. The
equipment might be too old and has low sensitivity that lead to inaccuracy of the data
collected. Parallax error might be occurred during measuring the distances between
the black plate and heat source. To get an accurate result, some precaution steps must
be taken for example, eyes must be at the correct position when measuring the
distance between the black metal and heat sources. Others than that, the radiometer
readings should be taken sharply every two minutes.
Experiment C: Emissivity
Objective:
The objective for this experiment is to determine the emissive of different
surface which include polished plate, silver anodized plate and matt black.
Procedure:
1. The matt black plate was installed in the carrier.
2. The power to the heat source was varied and the temperature of the metal plate
(Ts) and radiometer reading (R) were recorded at various settings.
3. It was recommended that while waiting for the black plate temperature to
stabilize between each increase of the heater power control the reflective disc
was placed in the radiometer to prevent heating effects and zero drift.
4. The procedure ware repeated for the silver anodized plate.
Results:
E = Emissivity of surface
Theoretical Formula :
StefanBoltzmann law
ii.
q Emitted
= (Ts4 TA4)
Calculation Formula :
Distance from radiometer to black plate (X)
= 100 mm
= 100mm (0.1m)
Temperature
Radiometer
TS
TA
qb =
E=
sources(watt)
Reading
Reading (R)
(K)
(K)
3.519 x R
qb / (TS4
(TS),oC
Wm2
(Wm2)
TA4)Wm2
125
401.8
427 298
1413.93
0.9827
172
507.8
445 298
1766.95
0.9940
193
587.3
466 298
2066.71
0.9275
Average
E:
=
= 0.9681
0.97
Temperature Radiometer
Reading
Reading
(TS),oC
(R)
TS
TA
qb =
E=
(K)
(K)
3.519 x R
qb / (TS4
(Wm2)
TA4)Wm2
Wm2
3
37
26.2
315
298
92.20
0.8293
54
49.0
326
298
172.43
0.8916
86
67.8
342
298
238.59
0.7257
Average E :
=
= 0.8155
0.82
Calculation:
Average value of emissivity of matt black plate, E
= 0.97
= 0.82
Emissivity of surface, E
= qb / (TS4 TA4)
= (1413.93) / (5.674 x 108 (4274 2984))
= 0.9827 Wm2
Emissivity of surface, E
= qb / (TS4 TA4)
= (92.20) / (5.674 x 108 (3154 2984))
= 0.8293Wm2
Discussion:
This experiment is carried out to determine the emissive of different surface,
matt black, silver anodized and polished. Formulae like qb = 3.519 x R and E = qb/
(Ts4 TA4) are applied and all the results are recorded in Table C1, C2, and C3.
The results show that as the temperature increase, the radiometer reading will
increase too while the emissivity of the surface will decrease. This is due to the ability
of the surface to emit energy by radiation. The average value of the emissivity of the
matt black plate, silver anodized plate and polished plate are approximately 0.97 and
0.82 respectively. The ideal surface for a perfect emitter and absorber of radiation is
black body and this is why black plate has the highest average value of emissivity.
StephanBoltzmann equation prove that a small increase in the temperature of
a radiating body results in a large amount of additional radiation being emitted while
this statement holds true with our result. The result show that R increase in
exponentially with the Ts of the metal plate. Other than that, silver anodized plate
which has a thick coating surface compare to polished plate will has higher emissivity.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, matt black has higher emissivity than silver anodized plate. The
emissivity of the plate is caused by its surface characteristic and colour. The matt
black plate which is in black colour has higher emissivity.
Reference:
1. Radiation heat transfer. Retrieved December 19, 2013 from
http://www.mhtlab.uwaterloo.ca/courses/ece309/lectures/pdffiles/summary_ch12. pdf
2. StefanBoltzmann Law. Retrieved December 19, 2013 from
http://www.wright.edu/~guy.vandegrift/climateblog/smallfiles01/Stefan.pdf
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