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How to create a Cause-Effect outline

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

The aims of this session are to:


Familiarise you with a range of ways you might
organise an essay which focuses on cause and
effect
Give you an opportunity to practise summarising
a text
Familiarise you with words and phrases typically
used to signal cause and effect

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

Task 1
Study the different ways of organising a
cause and effect essay (page 17 of the
book).
What differences do you see?

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

Task 1
Which way of organising is shown in the following
text?
because of the nail, the horseshoe was lost;
because of the horseshoe, the horse was lost;
because of the horse, the rider was lost;
because of the rider, the battle was lost.

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

Task 2
Consider the following essay question:
How would you explain the marked
increase in earnings inequality in Britain in
the last 15 years?
Which of the four forms of organisation in
Task 1 would you use?

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

Task 2 suggested answer


Most probable: Emphasis on causes
Definitely NOT: Emphasis on effects

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

Task 3
Skim read the sample essay on pages 19
and 20 of Course Materials.
Which form of organisation did the writer
use?
Emphasis on causes

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

Task 4
Work in groups of four.
Each person should read one of the body
paragraphs and prepare a short oral
summary for the rest of the group.
Give your summary to the group without
looking at the text.
Be prepared to ask and answer questions.

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

Task 5 (i)
Read the essay again and
underline/circle/highlight any words or
phrases that might be useful for any
cause-effect essay.

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

Task 5 (ii)
the four principal causes of
the main cause of
have had the effect of
the impact of
the overall effect of
as a result
has contributed to
a further reason for
have heightened

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

Task 5 (iii)
to have a disproportionately high effect on
the three reasons
to have had significant but indirect effects
factor
a direct cause of
this has resulted in
these four factors, three indirect, the last
direct, have had the combined effect of

Now practise using some of these words


and phrases by writing sentences about
another cause-effect relationship: subprime mortgages (cause) and the
financial crisis that began in 2008 (effect).

How to create a Cause-Effect outline

1. Giving sub-prime mortgages was one of


the principal causes of the financial crisis
of 2008.
2. The financial crisis of 2008 happened
as a result of giving sub-prime mortgages.
3. Giving sub-prime mortgages was a
factor in the financial crisis of 2008.
4. Giving sub-prime mortgages
contributed to the financial crisis of 2008.
Which sentence gives most weight to subprime mortgages?

HOMEWORK: