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November 14
Two Revolutions in China, 1911-1949
Main Ideas:
This part of the course is concerned with worldwide processes of decolonization as well
as questions about the best system of government in the world (Communism, Liberal
Democracies, or Fascism).
The history of China in the first half of the twentieth century provides a useful lens for
thinking about larger global processes like decolonization, the spread of nationalism, and
struggles over political ideologies.
Part VI of the course:
The International Ideological Civil War and Decolonization
The continued importance of nationalism
The rise of an interventionist state
-new philosophy on role of government
-government should intervene with the lives of the people
-technology allowed state to maintain better control
-idea that government should help people grew popular
-governments intervened and regulated the economy
-New Deal: moment of massive government investment in society
-throughout the world states are intervening like never before
-new migration policies
What should new governments look like?
-agreement on what government should do, but how they should do it was unclear
-by the 20th century, people could identify themselves somewhere on a political spectrum





The Rise of Anti-colonial Resistance

-the more each of the governmental forms say that they want to help people, the more
colonialism looked contradictory
-many colonies claimed independence
Two Revolutions in China
-china begins to fight off foreign powers, but at the same time there is fighting within
The crises of the 19th century and the responses to them
-debates amongst many leaders in china on how to respond
modernize china, embrace free trade, adopt liberalism
another group of people at highest governmental lever said we do not want
liberalism. we need to go back to the time before the opium wars.
The Opium Wars
Reform or Reaction?
The Vision in the Palace
Empress Dowager Cixi: married to emperor, but he died. when he
died son was a baby so she ruled china for 12 years while he grew up.
when son became emperor he died, so she ruled again. She was incredibly
shrewd politically.
Nephew get idea that he should claim power and plans to arrest
him. she finds out and gets royal guards to trap him. she remains in
she is completely opposed to reform
The Vision on the Ground
Boxer Rebellion
-boxers were group of people who were opposed to foreign presence in china. what they
really hated was missionaries and rainroads.
-if you look at who were the worst off and best off, the best off were the missionaries and
people who converted to christianity. resentment builds.
-reason they were called boxers was because they used martial arts as a way to discipline
their body and spiritual soul.
-religious and mystical sense: if they could perfect their body and soul they would be
immune to things like bullets.
-go to villages and the first targets would be missionaries and converted christian chinese.
-would go to missionary compounds and kicking people out
-they also hated railroads
-support the Qing and destroy the foreigner: main slogan
-the empress initially looks the other way
-when foreigners begin to be murdered, foreign powers complained
-when she failed to act, europeans sent war ships
-instead of backing down, she gives full support to boxers

-boxers vs. foreign soldiers

-people caught in the middle: foreign merchants and diplomats residing in china.
-essentially every foreigner moved into one neighborhood who basically went into hiding
to avoid being killed by boxers
-they were overcrowded, had poor sanitation, and severe lack of food: many people died
in these neighborhoods
-europe defeats the boxers
-empress signs treaty with foreign powers: Qing remained in control but opened trading
rights to foreign merchants
-she now has to invoke reform
-sets up a mission to travel the world to see what would be the most successful methods
of reform.
-group comes back with a constitution that resembles japan
The 1905 Constitution, the Revolutionary Alliance, and the First
-still be an emperor but power would be checked by constitution
-military would be reorganized to be smaller, more efficient, and less corrupt
-create local small scale democracies
-although both reforms were small there was a risk
-in local areas of self government, people aired frustrations
-people came together and vented frustrations and they realized that the governmental
system of china was flawed
-people began to push for more reform
Revolution alliance
-group of people trying to fight for reform
-attempting to overthrow government
-in 1911 numbers are big and they are planning another revolution
-students got together and made bombs
-there is an accidental explosion and police are attracted
-police start to crack down
-large revolt is started
-Qing emperor actually steps down
1912 Election and Tenuous Democracy
-revolution split into groups
-KMT (see below) were perceived as the clear leader
Song Jiaoren: leader of KMT was assasinated
Warlords, Communists, and Nationalists
Kuomintang (KMT)
-people began to look to outside sources to seek answers
-communist manifesto became a popular work
-communism became attractive
The Communists and Nationalists Form an Uneasy Alliance

communist party starts

1923 Strikes
workers banded together deciding that they would stop work in order to
have better conditions
start to paralyze the country
police kill 35 people
Lin Xiangqian: leader at the time that police approached, and requested for
him to call of strike. he refused.
police cut off his head in front of giant group of strikers
strike turned to war
-alliance between communist party and KMT
-realization that both organizations need each other in order to maintain control
Chiang Kai-Shek: military leader of KMT
-1926 troops enter shang hai and call on a strike
-workers paralyzed industry and KMT came in and took over
-this is the place where communist and KMT parted ways
-no one is in control of government
The Communist Presence in the Jiangxi Mountains
Mao Zedong: communist organizer
-went to mountains in attempts to spread communism to peasants living there
-mao realizes the suffering in villages
-tries to bring peasants to communism
-region around mountains that is controlled by communist
-communist party is blocked by KMT
The Long March, 1934-1935
-foundational moment: all of the people in this region had to get out. had to cross
difficult terraine
-marched for 4 hours and stopped for 4 hours
-ended up crossing 6,000 miles
-if you can get people to sacrifice for an idea inspires others
-becomes important symbolic
Moving between a Civil war and foreign wars
1949 The Peoples Republic of China
-mao takes control of china

November 19

World War II and the Origins of the Cold War

Four Country cases that help us analyze the rise of the
interventionist state and Ideological Debates



Communism Socialism (left)
Liberal Democracies(center)
Fascism (right)
Soviet Union

United States

1. Germany
a. treaty of versailles was humiliating
b. kaiser stepped down and germany adopted a new form of
c. troops coming home injured and some opposed to german
d. widespread idea among germans that the youth were sent off to
fight a war for the old germany
e. germans believed they were stabbed in the back by their own
Weimar Germany, 1919-1933
new style of government in germany set up by winners of WWI
1918 Legacies of the Treaty of Versailles
-german government was weake
-large restrictions on military and how much they could
-great depression hit germany hard
-inflation was rampant
-widespread starvation and frustration
-feeling of humiliation adds to problem

Germany under Nazi Rule

1933 Election and National Socialists (Nazi Party)
-he did not win the majority of the votes

-Received about 43%

-only way he could come to power is if sitting president
(hindenberg) and rest of political parties vote to install him.
-all vote in favor of hitler except for communist and
-fighting on streets between party supporters
-once the nazi party took control, they were able to isolate
their political rivals.
-people were thrown in jail or even killed
-there was also fighting among the nazis: people killed if
suspected of not being loyal
-when hitler gained power he started to break the treaty of
-they begin to invade other territories
-begins to condense other governments
Adolph Hitler
1938 The Munich Pact: hitler convinced major powers
that he will stop expanding if they let him have Czechoslovakia and
-germany made an agreement (non aggression pact) to agree not to
fight each other
2. Japan
State and Nation-Building, 1868-1930s
Meiji Restoration, 1868
-brought member of meiji family into the emperor of japan
-tried to modernize state
-tried to simplify government
-a pledge of allegiance was installed in the education
-they were trying to build good citizens in schools
The Successes and Failures of the Russo-Japanese War,
-shock to the entire world
-there was a previous belief that white people could not
loose to non whites
-what should have been a great victory for japan was
actually detrimental
-japan diplomats did not receive good terms out of the
peace treaty
-japan military takes a more active role in military
-desire to modernize gets thrown into high gear
Preparing for war in times of peace

-citizens need to rationize goods, build up military, and

promote good citizenship
-government would nationalize smaller communities by
taking away separate religious shrines and installing one common one
with a japanese flag
-government promoted antimaterialism
-luxuries that people stopped buying were foreign
produced goods
-they used posters and films to promote government
Japan and Germany form an alliance
-they have very similar governments at this time: fascism
-influenced scientific racism
The Rape of Nanking, 1937
-civil war in china, russian and japanese troops also
-japan marches into chinese city nanking and takes over
-after taking control the soldiers used massive violence and
sexual crimes on the civilians
3. The United States
a. at this time the role of the government was to play a larger role in
improving society
b. prohibition
c. great depression
Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal: when roosevelt installs
many projects to promote economy
-people who dont like roosevelt called him a communist
Initial Reponse to the War
-people initially did not want to participate in war
-among the groups that did want to go to war was african
americans (Italy invaded ethiopia)
-after pearl harbor is bombed there is public consensus to enter
4. Russia
Josef Stalin
-leader of government
Five-year plan:develop economy along communistic lines
-promoted productivity that relied on forced labor
Gulag: soviet work camp where people were essentially worked
to death
-place where prisoners were placed
they were also building up their military
they were neutral initially

1941: The War Expands

Pearl Harbor and the War in the Pacific
-brings the US into the war
The Eastern Front
-germany invades russia
-draining both sides man power, people were dying in massive
U.S.-Soviet tensions during the war
-US had to form alliance with Russia

The effects of World War II

Fascism and Racism lose mass appeal
-new conflict occurs between liberal democracies and
-scientific of racism loses popularity, it becomes something bad
Dividing up Europe and the Cold War
-russia controls eastern europe and eastern germany
Domino Theory
Decolonization begins

November 26
Decolonization in Africa and Asia
-Decolonization looked different everywhere it occurred
-Always a combination of local and international factors
Main Goals:
During the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, colonies in Africa and
Asia began to earn their independence.
Decolonization was caused by a combination of local and international
factors. It occurred differently in each place.
Processes of decolonization were heavily shaped by long-standing
internal tensions within societies as well as the international context of
the Cold War.

The Effects of World War II and the Push for Decolonization

Had a lot of interesting legacies
-most obvious effect of WWII was that the United States and the Soviet
Union became a dominant world power
Lessons of WWII
-the belief that conquest and colonies were bad things
-the belief that each ethnic group should be able to rule itself
United Nations
-designed to prevent war and provide cooperation between countries
-suppose to create political equality
Social and Cultural
opposition to racism
-racism reached its peak under nazi germany
-because of the horrors of racism in germany there is a rejection of
The United States and the Soviet Union: Anti-imperialists?
-both members of the united nations
-both claimed that imperialism is bad
-there is a gap between saying your opposed and how you act towards
a newly independent country
*if imperialism and racism is rejected, the stage is set for the
decolonization of foreign controlled colonies.
*people can use hitler as a way to critique other political powers
Three Case Studies of Decolonization (Nigeria, Congo, India)
-decolonization is a gradual process
-people want to know how long it will take, what the relationship will be
between the former controllers and newly freed, and what type of
government the colony will posses.
Nigeria: New Nationalism and Old Rivalries
-most simple
-example of a new nationalist emerging and the internal tensions that
can occur within a decolonizing country
Chinua Achebe and anti-racism
Things Fall Apart (1958)
-tells about time it was written

-story of Ibo village being transformed as european

presence intensifies
Ibo (sometimes spelled Igbo)
Okonkwo: main character, wants to be better than
father, does whatever to obtain power, the more he tries to get ahead
in his village, the more the rules change because of european
-he is trying to adhere to norms that are no longer in place
Why so revolutionary?
-story considered radical because he put a human face on african
-he showed readers that africans are people and how european
colonization disrupted african society
-it also shows how much europeans dont see when they see africa
*before decolonization many people where creating texts to show that
it is wrong
Nigerian Independence and old regional divisions, 1960
-in 1951 a draft of a constitution is put into place
-its not until 1960 that nigeria gains independence
-main issue in debates was whether it should be a single country or
divided into three regions:
North (Muslim, Hausa speaking)
West (Yoruba speaking)
East (Ibo-speaking, Christian)
-tensions between regions had not been that strong during british rule
but emerged upon independence
-one big problem was how to elect a leader (which region should the
ruler come from?)
Two Coups in 1966
-in the first: evil Ibo president takes control using military force. The
Ibo people become victims of attack
-Second candidate comes into power was a compromised candidate
(anti Ibo) creates violence against Ibo.
-Entire Ibo or eastern region succeeds from nigeria
Ibo Secession and the Biafran Civil War (1967-1970)
-civil war: Ibo vs. other two regions
-people who didnt want to succeed moved out
-violence began to break out
Why opposition to secession?
-it happens to be where all of the oil is

Effects on civilians
-civilian casualties was high
-nigerian government dropped bombs daily
-markets shut down, schools were closed,
-many people died from military violence and famine
-trade stopped once war started
-people began to face protein deficiency
-people stopped growing foods due to bombs
-many cases of people dying due to poisoning after eating wild foods to
avoid starvation
Chinua Achebe, Christmas in Biafra and Other Poems
Refugee Mother and Child
-takes images from christianity like the virgin
mary and plays on the theme to talk about hardships in africa
Refugee Mother and Child
No Madonna and Child could touch
that picture of a mothers tenderness
for a son she soon would have to forget.
The air was heavy with odours
Of diarrhea of unwashed children
With washed-out ribs and dried-up
Bottoms struggling in labored
Steps behind blown empty bellies. Most
Mothers there had long ceased
To care but not this one; she held
A ghost smile between her teetch
And in her eyes the ghost of a mothers
Pride as she combed the rust-coloured
Hair left on his skull and then--Singing in her eyesbegan carefully
To part itIn another life this
Must have been a little daily
Act of no consequence before his
Breakfast and school; now she
Did it like putting flowers
On a tiny grave.
The Belgian Congo: New Nationalism, Old Rivalries, and Cold
War Politics
-U.S. and Soviet Union become involved

-Belgian Congo was site of the highest level of violence (five million
people were killed)
-longest standing areas of european rule
Belgian Opposition to Decolonization
1957 Local Elections
-gave people a small amount of local control
-every ethnic group each came up with own candidate
The emergence of Patrice Lumumba
-tried to build a political network that consisted of all ethnic groups
-gained power
-1959: strikes and rebellions for independence from belgian rule arise
1960 Independence with conflict
-belgium offers independence from the congo
-Lumumba becomes president of Congo
-independence is only the beginning
-still have racially divided military
-Congos relationship to Belgium is not good
Secession of Katanga Province
-wants to gain independence from congo
-fighting happens and Lumumba calls on the United Nations
-UN does not do much
-Lumumba becomes frustrated and calls on the soviet union
*The United States and the Soviet Union become involved in a
civil war
-civil war becomes an international conflict
-belief in U.S. that if Lumumba wins, communism will arise
-Lumumba is assassinated
Colonel Mobutu
-becomes leader of congo
-two countries succeed: Burundi and Rwanda
Consolidation of the Democratic Republic of Congo (later Zaire)
Mobutu and U.S. aid (1960s-1997)
The Decolonization of India
-one of the first places to be decolonized
Mahatma Ghandi and the Quit India slogan
-protested different aspects of british policies

-lead movements and became a popular figure

-took ideas from anti imperialism and applied them to india
1947 Decolonization of India
-came about because of Ghandi
-religious conflict: should india be unified or divided based on religion?
What should it look like?
One single state (as under British rule)
Many small states (as it was before British rule)
Two states divided by religion (as was eventually
-decision was to create two states:
1947 Partition: Pakistan (muslim) and India (hindu)
-in order to create two nations they had to divide small provinces down
the middle
Bengal and Punjab: two divided provinces
-Partition assigned set dates that initiates the divided lines
-the days leading to the set dates people were fleeing to and from
-violence arose during the movement of people
-2 conflicts emerge: U.S. and soviet involvement and kashmir question
The Kashmir Question: was the one place that hadnt been
colonized, and never had to declare independence
-should it remain independent or be ruled under pakistan or india?
Wars over Kashmir in 1947-48, 1965, 1971
-pakistan sends troops to influence them to come under their rule
-india also sends troops
-repeated wars over kashmir between pakistan and india
-The U.S. and Soviet Union request allied relationship with india and
-pakistan accepts and india claims to be neutral
-U.S. provides a lot of weapons into pakistan to avoid communism
Questions to consider: STUDY!!!
How did the United States and Soviet Unions opposition to
imperialism spur decolonization?
Did they engage in imperialism during the process of decolonization?

November 28

December 3
The Arab Spring
Lecture Goals and Main Points:
The separate revolutionary movements of the Arab Spring had
similar causes and were connected to one another in specific ways.
Each revolution has occurred very differently with distinct results.
The Arab Spring allows us to reflect upon revolutions in the age of
What does the Arab Spring refer to?
Background History, Common Causes, and False Starts:
Decolonization in the 1950s
-many of the territories that had been colonies of europe began
to fight for independence
-very few governments that emerged were democratic
-energetic reformers, people who take a lot of power, and are
excited about bringing a country into the future
-leaders that emerge are very active
-the leaders turn into entrenched families
-a lot of young people are looking for new opportunities
-people have a lot of complaints
Common causes in all of the revolutionary upheavals
-internal vs external factors?
Two False Starts:
The United States Invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq
-north africa and middle east are politically important
-oil controls the economy, is produced in middle east
-alliance with israel: engages in warfar with arab countries
-US send troops to afghanistan in 2001
-US send troops to Iraq in 2003
talk that sudam hussein supposedly had ties to bin ladden
he might have weapons of mass destruction

George w bush believed that democracy would spread if

established in iraq
problem was that the democracy in iraq would be violent
critics say that you cant install democracy from outside, it has
to come from within
The 2009 Election in Iran
-numerous parties
-2 ruling parties:
Mahmoud Ahmadiejad
Mir-Hossein Mousavi
-belief that it was a corrupt election
-weeks of protest in streets of iran
-people learned the power of social media
twitter spreads info rapidly to alot of diff. people (can be one step
ahead of the police)
spread info around the world
Four Case Studies (Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Syria)
-first spot in arab spring
1956 Independence from France
-smoothest cases of decolinization
this is because the population was homogenous
-since 1956 they have had 2 rulers:
Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali and the family business
-ruled like a family business
-after 23 years a corrupt bureaucracy formed around him
-he became more of a dictator
Mohammed Bouazizi
-earned college degree, middle class and couldnt get a job
-in order to make money sold veggies out of a cart
-if you want to sell in a market, you need a permit
to get this you need to know someone or bribe someone
-gets fined because he cant get permit
-denied numerous times
-caught himself on fire in front of city office
-considered to be the person to bring up bottled up discontent
-others protested as a result
-protest turned into a revolutionary overthrow
-knew question arises: what type of law should exist?
islamic or liberal?
-liberal party arises as well as islamic party

-tunisia is an example of a state with islamic law but is very democratic

-economic stagnation
-they could look at tunisia as an influence
Police Day 1952 Independence from England
-egyptians protested against british rule
-british police fired on protestors
Police Day 2011 Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak
-patriotic celebration turns to protest
-number of protests against mubarak
-he eventually agrees to step down
-him and his family were put in jail and fined
-military takes control until elections occur
-what is the new government going to look like?
-since then there have been numerous protests
Who is protesting?
-followers of islamic law
President Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood
-brotherhood based heavily on islamic law
-written constitution that will be voted for on dec. 15
-camp david accords
Why more attention from the international community?
-are they going to maintain peace with israel?
-in the minds of the us and europe there is a lot more at stake
Muammar al-Gaddafi
-ruled libya for a long period
-had difficult relationship with US
Has a large oil supply
Highest standard of living in area
when protests first occurred gaddafi reacted harshly and quickly
-said a lot of bad things that created hostility towards him
UN troops sent in when he started cracking down on protestors
What looked like a protest was turning into a civil war
tripoli vs bengazi
october 2011-gaddafi killed in streets
now has president
lot of same debates over the role of islam in the constitution

Old tensions in a new context

NATO support
-since 1970 one family ruled:
Assad ruling family
-willing to use political oppression
people began to protest
place where we have seen the most violence
protest has taken on civil war
Assad has political backing of China and Russia
UN Support?
-people want the UN to move into
-Seems to not happen because russia and china back them up
The Arab Spring in a Global World
-use of social media
-disillusioned middle class people
-a lot of questions arise as a result (what type of law will rule?)
How can we think of these in terms of the global past?
A new Age of Revolution?
A new wave of decolonization?
Something else?
How does globalization affect arab spring?
Hip Hop and the Arab Spring
-historically a music of protest
-used throughout world as protest
-targets young population and gets them involved in cause
The Arabian Knightz feat. Shadia Mansour Prisoner

El Gnral Rais Lebled (Head of State)

A Million Milkshakes in Bahrain

December 5
Hattiesburg and World History
The What of History vs. the How of History
Mississippi at 1500: History, Heterogeneity, Hierarchy
900-1700: present day georgia to present day arkansas is referred to
as the mississippi period
-diverse group of native americans
-thousands of villages, only a few different languages
Chickasaw, Choctaw, biloxi, and tuscaloosa were well
known tribes
Chiefdoms: hierarchal organization type
-organized around a cheif
-many built mounds: large mound (the kings) surrounded by a
bunch of smaller ones (the nobles)
-clear hierarchy
-number of noble families
-grew a large amount of food and had ability to fish: able to
sustain themselves
-still traded with other regions for luxury goods
-had connections through marriage and warfare
-some tribes got together and united villages-formed empires

The Mississippi Region as Imperial Crossroads

-starting in 1500s
-european powers started shading in maps and making claims on
-when they claimed land, it was a sort of fiction: not building fences
-fights among european powers about who owns gulf coast area
Hernando de Soto
-spanish soldier traveling through gulf coast looking for an aztec
like empire.
-one of the first european explorers in area
Pierre Le Moyne Sieur dIberville
-first person to settle in gulf coast area
-1699 built fort in present day biloxi
-people saw it as the symbolic end of mississippian indian realm:
it marks beginning of european fight for territiory
European and Native American Interactions
Warfare and Slavery
-certain european powers only traded with certain indian
french government gave permission to business man named john law
to build plantations.
it was initially run by slaves
wage prisoners became slaves
first slaves in knew were indians
many people went to war with sole purpose of obtaining slaves: you
The Age of Revolution, United States Statehood, and the Rise
of a Plantation Economy
1783: Great britain grants freedom to colonies
1802: louisiana area goes back from spain to france
1804: haiti declared independence
-napoleans so frustrated he sells louisiana territory to US
*Mississippi is not just part of the american revolution
1817: mississippi becomes a state

-borders still present today

The Rise of Cotton:
-largest crop grew in mississippi
-sold a majority to Britain
-only way cotton manufacturers can afford to produce is by
manufacturing it 24 hours a day.
-need a lot of employees? rise of slaves??
-mississippi becomes a cotton capital
-british east india company: 1835: send engineers to miss.
-they take notes and take it back to india
-knowledge in mississippi was taken to india to supply cotton for
great britain
Mississippi Technology, Indian Cotton, and British Colth
The Resurgence of Empire in the 19th century
-late 1700s:
John Quitman and Cuba
-born in new york
-plantations in mississippi
-governor of mississippi
-he was a soldier in u.s. vs. mexico war
-when he came back from war a cuban approached him and requested
his aid to help cuba
-he rejected offer but starts funding independence movements in cuba
The Age of Migration and the Founding of Hattiesburg
-during this age, an number of leaders in mississippi were trying to
attract immigrants:
Attracting migrants to Mississippi
-state money was used in attempts to attract immigrants
-this is because so many people were leaving
-There was a lot of people migrating to mississippi and a lot of people
leaving mississippi
-cities were where population was growing
Mississippi and Migration: Two Contradictory Trends?
William and Hattie Hardy
-he founded hattiesburg in 1892 after his wife hattie hardy
-place where four different railroads met
-initially there was 400 people
-by 1930 there was 18000
-major industry here was yellow pine
source of lumber

World War I and Camp Shelby: Another Cuba Connection

-1898-1902: U.S. troops present in cuba
-in this period:
Leonard Wood: highest ranking military commander in cuba
George McHenry: buddy of leonard wood
-after troops leave, mchenry opens law firm in hattiesburg
-wood stays in military and rises in ranks
-both come together and build camp shelby: place that would provide
supplies for world war I
Kriegsgefangener and Weihnachten at Camp Shelby
-a lot of german prisoners of war were sent to camp shelby
-1st word: prisoner of war, 2nd: christmas
-POWs had newspaper
The Civil Rights Movement and Decolonization
Clyde Kennard
-first black student to attempt to enroll in usm, denied acceptance
-sent to prison due to local accusations
-died from cancer before civil rights movement
Cold War Technology Developed in Lumberton
-1964: 2 nuclear devices detonated underground in lumberton
-attempting to develop technology that could detect a bomb making
-salt dome developed?
Mississippi and New Questions about Globalization
-global connections deal with sustained interactions
Is it something new?
Does it exist at all?
Predicting the Future in 1981