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ADVANCED ADAPTIVE SIGNAL

PROCESSING TECHNIQUE FOR


UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC
COMMUNICATION

LOKENDER SINGH SHEKHAWAT


VISHWA KELAIYA

CONTENT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION


WHY ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION
CHALLENGES
DOPPLER
MULTIPATH PROPAGATION
SIGNAL PROCESSING
DECISION FEEDBACK EQUALIZER
CONCLUSION

UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC
COMMUNICATION

Underwater Acoustics is the study of propagation of sound in


water & interaction of mechanical waves that constitute with
water & its boundaries.
Typical frequencies associated with Underwater Acoustics are
10Hz to 1MHz.
The propagation of sound in the ocean at frequencies lower
than 10 Hz is not possible.
Frequencies above 1 MHz are rarely used because they are
absorbed very quickly.
Underwater Acoustics is also known a HYDROACOUSTICS.

UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC
COMMUNICATION

WHY ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION

Radio waves propagate at long distances through conductive


sea water only at extra low frequencies (30-300 Hz), which
require large antennae and high transmission power.

Optical waves do not suffer from such high


attenuation but are affected by scattering. Moreover,
transmission of optical signals requires high precision in
pointing the narrow laser beams.

Acoustic waves are the single best solution for communicating


Under water.

PARAMETER VARIATION IN
DIFFERENT UNDERWATER LAYERS

CHALLENGES

Multipath Propagation

Doppler Effect

Time Variation of the Channel

Bandwidth Limitation

Signal Attenuation

DOPPLER

There are two aspects to cause the Doppler:


The motion of sea surfaces and currents and
The relative motion between transmitter and receiver.

Doppler frequency shift is estimated by


using cyclic prefix and compensated by
resampling the received signal.

MULTIPATH PROPAGATION
Multipath

structure depends on the channel


geometry, signal frequency, sound speed profile.
Models are used to obtain a more accurate prediction
of the signal strength.
Ray model provides insight into the mechanisms of
multipath formation:
Deep water

Ray bending

Shallow water Reflections from bottom.

MULTIPATH INTERFERENCE UNDER


WATER COMMUNICATION

TIME STRUCTURE

Multiple paths as visible in the envelope of real time


domain signal.
Approximate dimensions: water depth 90m,
horizontal range 1000 m, source depth 15m, receiver
depth 83 m

SIGNAL PROCESSING
Bandwidth-efficient modulation (PSK, QAM)

Phase-coherent detection

Synchronization

Equalization

Multichannel combining
12

DECISION FEEDBACK EQUALIZER


(DFE)

DFE is a non-linear equalizer


Feedback filter: ISI cancellation using previous
receiver decisions
Feed-forward filter: ISI cancellation on the
transmitted symbols
Advantages:
Performance comparable to the optimum
demodulator but with much lower
computational complexity
Low noise enhancement

DFE BLOCK DIAGRAM

ISI(N-1)(t)

Feed-back
Filter

_
yN(t)

Feed-forward
Filter

N(k)

Decision
Device

SN(k)

CHANNEL ESTIMATOR AND


EQUALIZER IMPLEMENTATION

Two major possibilities for implementing the


channel estimator and the equalizer
adaptively are : -

1. Fixed Channel Estimate/Adaptive Equalizer


2. Adaptive Channel Estimate/Adaptive
Equalizer

TAP SELECTION

Three Major Approaches : -

1. Optimally Sparsed Filter


2. Approximation of the Optimization Criterion

3. An Ad Hoc Method

MULTICHANNEL CASE

1 ()

..
.

Precombiner

()

Equalizer 1

+
Equalizer 2

Decision

e(n)

Phase
Correction

Channel estimation &


Post cursor ISI
computation

To parameter
update

d(n)

Data
decision

training
sequence

CONCLUSION

REFERENCE

The End

Questions?

Thank You!