Genetics and Evolution Summary Notes

Describe the process of meiosis. Meiosis is the process of sex cell formation. (1)




Mitosis is the process of normal cell

For sexual reproduction. Occurs in
the testes and ovaries. It produces
the gametes. There are two types of
gametes. Egg cells and sperm cells.

Growth : multi-cellular organisms
grow in size and complexity by
making more cells
Repair: old and damaged cells are
continuously replaced by the division
of cells
Genetic Stability: Daughter cells
contain same number and kind of
chromosomes as the parent cell.

When does it

Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotes.

When the sperm and the egg unite.

Where does it

Mitosis occurs in most cells

Sex cells

How many cell

1 cell division

2 divisions

How many cells?

2 cells. (two daughter cell swish the
same chromosome number as the
parental cell.

4 cells

How many

46 chromosomes each

23 chromosomes

Is there variation
in offspring?

Mitosis is the copying of cells.
Sometimes there might be an error
after the egg fertilization.

There is variation because the
chromatids exchange DNA sections.

Uses and results of
their use

Mitosis is the process by which all
cells divide. Many cells have a limited
life span, and mitosis allows them to
be renewed on a regular basis. Mitosis
is also responsible for generating the
many million of cells that are needed
for an embryo to develop into a foetus,
an infant, and finally an adult.

Meiosis functions to reduce the
number of chromosomes to one half
.Each daughter cell that is produced
with have one half as many
chromosomes as the parent cell.
Meiosis is important in assuring
genetic diversity in sexual

James Watson. and the double helix shape. E. The Double helix - In 1953. Genes and DNA - Within each cell is a nucleus which controls all the activities of the cells. The DNA molecule is made up of simple bases called nucleotides.Deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA carries the genetic information and passes it from one generation to the next. The message in a gene is a coded formula needed by the cell to produce one protein. (2) - A gene is a unit of heredity in a living organism. (4) ABOUT: Chromosomes. genes and DNA and particularly identify that information is transferred as DNA when cells reproduce themselves and explain the advantages of DNA replicating exactly. (3) DNA .g. Base Matching base Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Cytosine Guanine Outline the connection between chromosomes. It is normally a stretch of DNA that codes for a type of protein. Bases form the rungs of the staircase The sugar (deoxyribose) + phosphate + a base = a nucleotide. Sections of DNA on the chromosomes that contain complete messages are called genes. thread-like structure made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).Identify genes as units of heredity (carriers of genetic information). the double stranded backbone. Inside the nucleus of each of your cells is your unique set of 46 chromosomes. hair. Each sugar joins with a base. . Each of these is a long. DNA carries the code to make proteins (that contribute to determining eye colour and hair colour) to enable the cell to reproduce and perform its function. Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin discovered that the structure of DNA was a double helix Structure: - - Two strands intertwine like a spiral staircase to form a structure called a double helix. Sides: Deoxyribose sugar and a unit of phosphate forms the upright supports along the sides. Describe the structure of DNA in terms of four bases.

If the other twin is brought up on a good nutritious diet in a wealthy family he may reach his full height. Environmental Factors influencing your phenotype: - Diet Nutrition Exposure to disease Climate Temperature Sunlight Environmental Factors promoting Cancer - Smoking – lung cancer Drinking – liver cancer Exposure to UV light – skin cancer Exposure to radiation – thyroid caner Environmental Factors promoting rickets Vitamin D is found in fish and vegetables. The order in which the bases are strung along the chain forms the basis of the genetic code.can be important. If one twin is brought up in a poor family he may eat very little. Identical genotypes (twins) do not always produce the same phenotypes because the environment can affect the expression of genes. When the sun shines on our skin we can also make vitamin D. he may be unable to play sport. When children do not get enough vitamin D. What affects the growth of plants: - availability of water nutrition in the soil availability of sunlight fertilisers climate . he may suffer from malnutrition resulting in rickets (bandy legs). be fit and strong with good legs and teeth. climate. nutrition. Appreciate the role that environmental factors have in determining the features of an organism. not very tall. It can affect the expression of genes. Example: Identical twins have exactly the same genes. Plants Climatic factors . such as diet. be thin. the bones in their legs bend. or if he was brought up on hamburgers and chips he maybe obese. (5) The environment plays a big role in the appearance of an organism. and poor teeth. and a Base.- Each nucleotide is made up of three chemical groups: a Sugar. this is called rickets. exposure to disease. a Phosphate.such as rainfall. scurvy (vitamin C deficiency). temperature or exposure to wind . such as for tall height and strong muscles. The environment includes all surrounding forces of an organism. as well as soil composition and the availability of nutrients.

having identical alleles for a single trait. Define biotechnology and explain that genetic engineering is a form of biotechnology. Genetic Engineering . colours. if the height will be short or tall) Define dominant and recessive genes and explain their influence in determining phenotype given the inherited genotype. alleles refer to different versions of the same gene (e. Genotype is something you can't see with your eyes (e. Genotype: Refers to the genetic traits in an organism. = Such coding is inheritable. growth). recessive. physical manifestations of an organism. Phenotype: Refers to observable. RECESSIVE: A recessive gene is a gene that produces an effect in the organism only when it is homozygous. and therefore is inherited down to the next generation.Biotechnology is the practice of using plants. (9) When the gene is inserted into cotton plants. They dominate over recessive genes. Those grown in acidic soil produce blue flowers whilst those grown in basic soil produce pink flowers Distinguish between a gene and an allele. animals and micro-organisms such as bacteria. heterozygous).to some benefit. reflexes. The poison stays in the leaves and does no harm until the bollworm . Phenotype is things that can be seen with your eyes. (7) DOMINANT: The genes which determines the physical traits of a person. Outline the engineering of pest resistance into cotton plants or the production of human insulin by bacteria as examples of genetic engineering. (ex. structures.Examples: - The pH of soil can affect the hydrangea plant.g. behaviours corresponding to such species. The genotype is the genetic load that is copied every time a cell divides.g. It has to do with the genetic coding of an organism. dominant. as well as biological processes . they produce toxic proteins called Bt toxins that kill the bollworm caterpillars.. organs. behaviours. The phenotype includes physical characteristics. (6) A gene is a unit of heredity and is a section of DNA whereas. (8) Biotechnology .the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material to improve certain characteristics. etc. Use these as examples of where developments in Science have led to new technologies. The genotype is the genetic programming that provides the phenotype.such as the ripening of fruit or the bacteria that break down compost .

golden rice . The gene for insulin can be removed from a chromosome in a human pancreas cell using an enzyme which cuts out the exact piece of DNA containing the gene. BT cotton disease . but now it can be produced in vast amounts in the lab from bacteria which have had the human insulin gene inserted into its DNA. weeds and disease. . (11) GM Crops Advantages: .Answer to solving word wide food shortage e. . It is very specific .Resistant to GM crop e. and embryonic stem cells. .Continuity of species . Discuss how different groups within society or different cultures may have different views about biotechnologies. People who are diabetic need supplies of insulin because their pancreas does not naturally make it.eats the leaf tissue.Allergies unknown . As the bacteria reproduce by mitosis.A possibility that they could eliminate allergy-causing properties in some foods. by inserting the human gene for making insulin into the DNA of a bacterium.Destroying children . People with diabetes need to be given daily injections of insulin to keep their blood glucose levels correct.g.More environment friendly as they require less herbicides and pesticides. The bacteria being used is Escherichia coli (E coli). The production of insulin by bacteria. The gene can then be transplanted into bacteria where it combines with the microbes‟ DNA to turn the bacteria into tiny factories for making insulin.Inbuilt resistance to pests.Could potentially offer more nutrition and flavour (although this is debated).Not harmful . Medical insulin was formerly extracted from the pancreases of pigs which were slaughtered for meat. .g.Playing with god .Crops are more productive and have a larger yield. Insulin is needed to keep the amount of glucose in your blood at the right level. (10) Group Scientist Citizen Activist Activist against GM For Against . human cloning.Control food productivity MONSANTO Identify choices that need to be made when considering whether to use particular scientific advances such as GM only kills bollworm caterpillars and very closely related species. .Pests evolve resistance to . It does not affect humans or other animals. . . making exact copies of themselves (identical DNA) the new bacteria contain the human insulin gene.More capable of thriving in regions with poor soil or adverse climates.Foods are more resistant and stay ripe for longer so they can be shipped long distances or kept on shop shelves for longer periods.But with labelling .

Might the destruction of a single embryo be justified is it provides a cure for a countless number of patients? List uses of biotechnology – could include: (12) - AI (Artificial Intelligence) IVF (InVitro Fertilisation) GM foods Production of human insulin Put forward a case for and against the use of biotechnology.Raises issues of how far humans should be allowed to interfere with the production of new life Embryonic Stem Cells Advantages: . Issues: . they are an answer to feeding growing world populations.Does life begin at fertilization.(13) ADVANTAGES of biotechnology:     Different genes can be combined to make something better Can be enriched with vitamins to increase health Use of stem cells to treat diseases Diagnosing genetic disorders DISADVANTAGES of biotechnology:  May trigger allergic reactions  Many GM crops have pesticides built in them – toxic insects  Moral and ethical issues surrounding cloning .Interferes with traditional agricultural methods Human Cloning Advantages: . in the womb.Is a human embryo equivalent to a human child? .New drugs can be tested on stem cells prior to animals and humans Ethical Questions: . such as insulin for organs or transplants . or at birth? .Does a human embryo have any rights? .Not labelling is wrong and unfair to consumers .Potential to reverse diseases .GM crops pose a risk to food diversity .Producing human embryos to supply stem cells for therapy Ethical Issues: .Able to produce new and healthy tissues for transplant .Could give rise to super-weeds and super-pests .Form tissues and cells for medical therapies .GMO technology companies patent their crops .Should be encouraged without research into the risks .Can mas produce animals with desirable characteristics .Producing animals that have been genetically engineer to provide human products.- As more GMO crops can be grown on relatively small parcels of land.

Cancer-fighting genes can be introduced to foods such as tomatoes and broccoli.Genetic modification might be able to increase the health and cooking properties of soy products.GM foods can improve the nutrition of people who do not have enough to eat. if all the ball worms that feed on BT cotton die off. .g. (16) Group Lab Trial GM Farm Arguments for genetic engineering: .Set high prices which people won‟t be able to afford e. animals that rely upon that insect die too Many Australians are reluctant to eat GM food – there are no long term results to prove it‟s safe . . .g. so farmers won‟t have to add chemicals . but also affects the whole food chain.g.Greater ability to tolerate drought- Arguments against genetic engineering . a nut gene inserted into another organism .Could have health benefits for example golden rice has a source of vitamin A that could help reduce blindness. Animals that depend on insects for food might starve e. .GM soy is resistant to herbicidefarmers can spray weeds without harming their crops .Pesticides previously used may be washed into and contaminate water .Some GM crops have pesticide built into them. Monsanto setting high prices for their seeds making it unaffordable for farmers - - Non-target insects such as bees and butterflies may be killed by the plants Birds that eat poisoned insects may die as well Insects can build up a resistance to pesticides GM foods not only deprives insects of their source of food.Greater ability to tolerate diseasehigher yields .Might trigger allergic reactions or heightened allergic reaction e.Australian experiments indicate that some GM crops reduce the use of pesticide by up to 75% . (14) - Computer skills (ICT) Critical thinking Reading and writing Fine motor skills Ability to follow instructions Observation Cognitive abilities Determining and minimising risks Examination and evaluating experiments Drawing conclusions from evidence Analysis of results - Measure accurately Performing under pressure Making judgements Graphing results Teamwork Attention to detail Mathematics Collection of data Writing an experimental report Application of knowledge Organisations - Plant research Examiner of patents Forensic scientist Immunologist Identify possible career paths in science.Identify scientific skills that can be useful in a broad range of careers. (15) - Cancer research Bioengineer Mathematical ecologist DNA sequencing facility manager Write arguments for and against assisted reproduction or genetic engineering.

For evolution to occur there must be genetic differences amongst the members of a species (i. they will have to pay whatever price the companies demand.They relate to the hypothesis or problem A secondary source is reliable if: . it will die. . . passing on their beneficial mutations. not all species undergo adaptations. some mutations can be beneficial to an organism. . .A particular genetic make-up may be very successful at a certain time in Earth's history. . the organisms which live there must adapt to the new conditions to survive. (19) Adaptations: The features which enable the organisms to live in specific environment.Chemical exposure . These organisms reproduce.e. Analyse the accuracy of scientific information in the mass media.e.It refers to data and statistics from valid first-hand investigations The information in a source is accurate if: . Over time.Therefore.It is on a reputable site. the population).It is current .gov . Triggers for mutations: Light . (18) Mutations are a change in the structure of DNA. when the environment goes through physical changes. (17) The data in a source is valid if: . When an environmental changes.They have been fathered using appropriate methods . organisms with beneficial mutations are more likely to survive.Biodiversity in genes are important for the survival of a species. Define biodiversity and discuss its role in the health of an environment and the survival of life.It has been written by a qualified person . .more profit - Multinational food companies will patent GM seeds to control the price Since farmers will depend on the companies for seeds.The information can be substantiated in more than one reliable source Discuss the role of mutations in the ability of species to adapt to changing environments and the consequences for natural selection. physiological and physical. (20) Biodiversity: variety and differences amongst living . . due to natural selection.Adaptations can be behavioural.However.- higher yields Greater ability to tolerate frosthigher yields Higher yields. . the species adapts better.Radiation exposure Define adaptations and discuss their role in species and individual survival. .If an organism is not adapted to its environment.The information is not biased . i.

- If the environment begins to change. Archaeopteryx – similar to an extinct group of dinosaurs. and the lobe-fin fish. pelvis and limb bones have evolved for support on land. Two of the most famous transition fossils are archaeopteryx. Include fossil. the theropods. bones or shells. however. (22) Fossils – A fossil is a remnant or trace of a once living organism. (21) Develop ideas of common ancestor. biogeographical. The lobe-fin fish had lungs but in the amphibian. wood. Usually it is the „hard parts‟ of plants and animals that are presence e. which indicates that amphibians may have evolved from fish. . Fossils are preserved by being covered in sediments or by falling into an environment where there is little oxygen. larger ribs. Some animals that were around during these time periods were fossilised. except it had feathers and a „wishbone‟ Lobe-fin fish – A comparison of the skeletons of a lobe-fin fish and a primitive amphibian reveals and extraordinary similarity. comparative embryonic. comparative anatomic and comparative DNA evidence. Fossils are present in rocks found hundreds or thousands of years ago. The evolution from ancient reptiles to mammals is well documented by a series of transition fossils.g. which provides evidence for the common ancestry of birds and reptiles. These are called transition fossils. scientists see the changes that have occurred in different species to adapt to their environment. Transitional Forms Many fossils have been found which appear to have the characteristics of two different groups of organisms. Through the ages of the rocks. Genetic diversity plays a role in safeguarding a species from extinction when the environment changes. Discuss evidence that present day organisms have developed from different organisms in the past. known as evolution. this genetic make-up may no longer be successful.

. This shows that species evolved due to the selective pressure in their own habitats Comparative Embryology The different embryology supports evolution because it shows scientists the similarities in the species and how they‟ve changed. Homologous Structures The anatomy of different species can be compared to look for evidence of evolution from a common ancestor. They noticed that species living in the same area were more similar to each other than to species living in similar habitats far apart. Darwin and Wallace used biogeography as evidence of evolution. The similarities show us that all the species may have branched from one organism. Biogeography Biogeography is the study of living things in relation to geographical regions. this „mix‟ has occurred to support the animals for them to adapt to environmental change.Transitional forms provides evidence to scientists about the mix between two species.

but not necessarily exactly the same form or the same function. becoming less and less alike over time due to their different habitats. DNA and other biochemical evidence can be used to check the accuracy of evolutional trees already worked out from fossils or from the study of structural homologies. their DNA and protein molecules slowly change and become different. The development of homologous structures is an example of divergent evolution – which occurs when a number of species develop from one common ancestor. the difference species that exist today are evidence for evolution. If 2 new species evolved from a common ancestor. . This suggests that all of these groups of animals originated from some original group of animals (the “common ancestor”) Comparative DNA Science have found that DNA and the proteins it produces can provide evidence about evolution. All of these groups have limbs with five digits (finger-like structure_ which have the same basic structural plan. The number of differences is proportional to the time since they separated and allow the construction of evolutionary trees. The biochemical similarities between organisms can indicate to scientists that organisms could have the same ancestor and hence. but have altered to different environments and „life-styles‟. The pentadactyl limbs of vertebrate animals are examples of homologous structures.Homologous structures are structures found in plants or animals that have the same origin.

4. Peppered moths are born either pale coloured or nearly black.e. It was known as the „Monkey Debate‟.In all populations of living things there are differences (biologists call them variations) within the offspring. They pass these characteristics on to their offspring. it is inherited). In the case of the peppered moths. . and after some time his theory started to be accepted.1. Define artificial selection and give an example. Some members of a species will die before they reproduce. Only a small fraction of black moths survived to lay eggs.3. They were suited to their environment. (24) - His theory started a controversy between the biblical belief that all organisms were formed at the same time. . Over time.2. The black moths were quickly eaten by birds. When pollution was at its worst the walls of buildings were black. (27) - Artificial selection (or selective breeding) describes intentional breeding for certain traits. Samuel Wilberforce and the eminent biologist. More of each kind of organism is produced than can survive to maturity. organisms become better suited to their current environment. while most of the black moths survived to lay eggs.When an animal is born with a slight advantage and is more likely to survive than its brothers and sisters. Outline how Charles Darwin constructed this theory to explain his observations.Outline the theory of evolution by natural selection. The church tried to shame the theory. which led to a debate between the Bishop of Oxford. . In areas covered with pale lichen the pale moths were well camouflaged. Then the white moths were eaten. or combination of traits. (26) One example is the peppered moths of north England. .Some offspring will be better suited to survival than others. The surviving members of a species possess the characteristics that best enable them to survive in their present environment.Darwin summarised his theory of natural selection in 4 steps: . (23) NATURAL SELECTION: . Thomas Huxley. their environment changed rapidly. Some of this variation is passed from parent to offspring (i. . Describe the difficulties that the theory of evolution had in gaining acceptance in society. . . Members of a single species show variation in their characteristics. They have a short life span meaning that changes in the population can be seen in just a few years. List the factors that cause natural selection: (25) - competition for food & shelter variation struggle for existence reproduction Explain how the factors causing natural selection can lead to changes in a species.

Eventually.- Artificial selection results in reduced genetic diversity because fewer individuals are chosen for breeding. all organisms changed. He did not believe in natural selection where only certain organisms would adapt to its environment.g. passing on their successful characteristics to their offspring (because of inheritance of genes). Distinguish between how Darwin & Lamarck would explain evolution. instead. However. and so hunting dogs evolved to have these traits.g. Thus. Those birds on each island which was most suited (best adapted – or “fittest”) to their environment (e. They would also have reproduced best. This results in inbreeding. . EXAMPLE: Early humans chose to breed dogs that were loyal. (28) The original birds landing on the islands from the mainland would have had some variation e. Describe an example of how an organism has evolved. each group of finches would have become so different that they could be regarded as separate species. fast and good at retrieving game. birds with beaks best suited to the food resources on their island) would have survived best. Darwin‟s theory suggested that the theory of evolution was caused by natural selection and the dying out of animals with detrimental qualities. in their beaks. (29) Lamarck‟s theory of evolution was that species learnt to change as their environment did. particular genes and characteristics would have become more common on the different islands.

Most believe that God brought the universe into being from nothing (ex nihlio). Other Christians regard these accounts as more like parables or symbolic accounts that tell (in story form) the profound truth that God brought the universe and all that is in it into being. including people and animals. For many Christians there isn‟t a conflict between the religious ideas about creation expressed in Genesis and the findings of science. when it was observed. These Christians might look to science to help them understand how God did this. (31) Outline the Catholic Church’s position on evolution-creationism. . (30) - Lamarck‟s theory was considered to be true. Many Christians have no problem in accepting the Big bang Theory. - Merely because some kind of physical change has been achieved by an organism. some believe that is was created from matter that already existed (ex material) Some Christians take the biblical accounts of creation literally. Usually these take the form of creation account in the sacred books of the religions concerned. They see the cosmologists helping them to understand how God brought the world into being – the Big band could have been the mechanism God used. account for the differing views supporting evolution and creationism. however. (32) Many of the world‟s religions have ideas and beliefs about the origin of the universe. Discuss evidence supporting different viewpoints. In particular. There is a variety of interpretations of the biblical accounts of creation among Christians today. and sustains his creation.Describe Lamarck’s theory of evolution and discuss it as an example of a theory once considered by Science but then rejected. it was proven false as many species were dying out because they weren‟t adapting to the environment. that's not to say those changes can be inherited by their descendants. believing that they describe exactly how the universe and human beings were created.

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