Genetics and Evolution Summary Notes

Describe the process of meiosis. Meiosis is the process of sex cell formation. (1)




Mitosis is the process of normal cell

For sexual reproduction. Occurs in
the testes and ovaries. It produces
the gametes. There are two types of
gametes. Egg cells and sperm cells.

Growth : multi-cellular organisms
grow in size and complexity by
making more cells
Repair: old and damaged cells are
continuously replaced by the division
of cells
Genetic Stability: Daughter cells
contain same number and kind of
chromosomes as the parent cell.

When does it

Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotes.

When the sperm and the egg unite.

Where does it

Mitosis occurs in most cells

Sex cells

How many cell

1 cell division

2 divisions

How many cells?

2 cells. (two daughter cell swish the
same chromosome number as the
parental cell.

4 cells

How many

46 chromosomes each

23 chromosomes

Is there variation
in offspring?

Mitosis is the copying of cells.
Sometimes there might be an error
after the egg fertilization.

There is variation because the
chromatids exchange DNA sections.

Uses and results of
their use

Mitosis is the process by which all
cells divide. Many cells have a limited
life span, and mitosis allows them to
be renewed on a regular basis. Mitosis
is also responsible for generating the
many million of cells that are needed
for an embryo to develop into a foetus,
an infant, and finally an adult.

Meiosis functions to reduce the
number of chromosomes to one half
.Each daughter cell that is produced
with have one half as many
chromosomes as the parent cell.
Meiosis is important in assuring
genetic diversity in sexual

genes and DNA and particularly identify that information is transferred as DNA when cells reproduce themselves and explain the advantages of DNA replicating exactly. . E. DNA carries the code to make proteins (that contribute to determining eye colour and hair colour) to enable the cell to reproduce and perform its function. hair. Each sugar joins with a base. It is normally a stretch of DNA that codes for a type of protein. The DNA molecule is made up of simple bases called nucleotides. The message in a gene is a coded formula needed by the cell to produce one protein. thread-like structure made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). (4) ABOUT: Chromosomes. Describe the structure of DNA in terms of four bases. Each of these is a long. (3) DNA . and the double helix shape. (2) - A gene is a unit of heredity in a living organism. James Watson. Bases form the rungs of the staircase The sugar (deoxyribose) + phosphate + a base = a nucleotide. Sections of DNA on the chromosomes that contain complete messages are called genes. Inside the nucleus of each of your cells is your unique set of 46 chromosomes.g. the double stranded backbone. Base Matching base Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Cytosine Guanine Outline the connection between chromosomes. Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin discovered that the structure of DNA was a double helix Structure: - - Two strands intertwine like a spiral staircase to form a structure called a double helix.Deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA carries the genetic information and passes it from one generation to the next. Genes and DNA - Within each cell is a nucleus which controls all the activities of the cells. The Double helix - In 1953.Identify genes as units of heredity (carriers of genetic information). Sides: Deoxyribose sugar and a unit of phosphate forms the upright supports along the sides.

If the other twin is brought up on a good nutritious diet in a wealthy family he may reach his full height. and poor teeth.such as rainfall. Plants Climatic factors . temperature or exposure to wind . such as diet. scurvy (vitamin C deficiency). Identical genotypes (twins) do not always produce the same phenotypes because the environment can affect the expression of genes. It can affect the expression of genes. Appreciate the role that environmental factors have in determining the features of an organism. If one twin is brought up in a poor family he may eat very little. be thin. he may be unable to play sport. When children do not get enough vitamin D. nutrition. (5) The environment plays a big role in the appearance of an organism. Example: Identical twins have exactly the same genes. the bones in their legs bend. exposure to disease. as well as soil composition and the availability of nutrients. What affects the growth of plants: - availability of water nutrition in the soil availability of sunlight fertilisers climate . a Phosphate. not very tall. Environmental Factors influencing your phenotype: - Diet Nutrition Exposure to disease Climate Temperature Sunlight Environmental Factors promoting Cancer - Smoking – lung cancer Drinking – liver cancer Exposure to UV light – skin cancer Exposure to radiation – thyroid caner Environmental Factors promoting rickets Vitamin D is found in fish and vegetables. or if he was brought up on hamburgers and chips he maybe obese. such as for tall height and strong muscles.- Each nucleotide is made up of three chemical groups: a Sugar. he may suffer from malnutrition resulting in rickets (bandy legs). be fit and strong with good legs and teeth.can be important. climate. The order in which the bases are strung along the chain forms the basis of the genetic code. and a Base. When the sun shines on our skin we can also make vitamin D. this is called rickets. The environment includes all surrounding forces of an organism.

Those grown in acidic soil produce blue flowers whilst those grown in basic soil produce pink flowers Distinguish between a gene and an allele.the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material to improve certain characteristics. = Such coding is inheritable. Define biotechnology and explain that genetic engineering is a form of some benefit. The poison stays in the leaves and does no harm until the bollworm . (7) DOMINANT: The genes which determines the physical traits of a person. structures. (9) When the gene is inserted into cotton plants.such as the ripening of fruit or the bacteria that break down compost . dominant.Biotechnology is the practice of using plants. animals and micro-organisms such as bacteria. and therefore is inherited down to the next generation. It has to do with the genetic coding of an organism.g. physical manifestations of an organism. heterozygous). alleles refer to different versions of the same gene (e. RECESSIVE: A recessive gene is a gene that produces an effect in the organism only when it is homozygous. as well as biological processes . behaviours. reflexes. Phenotype is things that can be seen with your eyes. They dominate over recessive genes. The phenotype includes physical characteristics. having identical alleles for a single trait. colours. they produce toxic proteins called Bt toxins that kill the bollworm caterpillars. if the height will be short or tall) Define dominant and recessive genes and explain their influence in determining phenotype given the inherited genotype. (8) Biotechnology . organs.g.. The genotype is the genetic programming that provides the phenotype. The genotype is the genetic load that is copied every time a cell divides. Phenotype: Refers to observable. (6) A gene is a unit of heredity and is a section of DNA whereas. Genotype: Refers to the genetic traits in an organism. (ex. Genotype is something you can't see with your eyes (e. growth). behaviours corresponding to such species. Genetic Engineering . etc. Use these as examples of where developments in Science have led to new technologies.Examples: - The pH of soil can affect the hydrangea plant. Outline the engineering of pest resistance into cotton plants or the production of human insulin by bacteria as examples of genetic engineering. recessive.

More environment friendly as they require less herbicides and pesticides.Continuity of species . The gene can then be transplanted into bacteria where it combines with the microbes‟ DNA to turn the bacteria into tiny factories for making insulin. Insulin is needed to keep the amount of glucose in your blood at the right level. People who are diabetic need supplies of insulin because their pancreas does not naturally make it. The gene for insulin can be removed from a chromosome in a human pancreas cell using an enzyme which cuts out the exact piece of DNA containing the gene.Crops are more productive and have a larger yield. The bacteria being used is Escherichia coli (E coli).Resistant to GM crop e. .Foods are more resistant and stay ripe for longer so they can be shipped long distances or kept on shop shelves for longer periods. Medical insulin was formerly extracted from the pancreases of pigs which were slaughtered for meat.Control food productivity MONSANTO Identify choices that need to be made when considering whether to use particular scientific advances such as GM crops.Destroying children . . (11) GM Crops Advantages: .Pests evolve resistance to . Discuss how different groups within society or different cultures may have different views about biotechnologies.Answer to solving word wide food shortage e.But with labelling .Allergies unknown .Inbuilt resistance to pests.Not harmful . making exact copies of themselves (identical DNA) the new bacteria contain the human insulin gene.eats the leaf tissue. (10) Group Scientist Citizen Activist Activist against GM For Against . BT cotton disease . . but now it can be produced in vast amounts in the lab from bacteria which have had the human insulin gene inserted into its DNA.Playing with god .Could potentially offer more nutrition and flavour (although this is debated). human cloning. golden rice . As the bacteria reproduce by mitosis.A possibility that they could eliminate allergy-causing properties in some foods. It does not affect humans or other animals. . weeds and disease. and embryonic stem cells. People with diabetes need to be given daily injections of insulin to keep their blood glucose levels correct. It is very specific . by inserting the human gene for making insulin into the DNA of a bacterium.g. .it only kills bollworm caterpillars and very closely related species. . The production of insulin by bacteria. .More capable of thriving in regions with poor soil or adverse climates.g.

they are an answer to feeding growing world populations.Should be encouraged without research into the risks .Could give rise to super-weeds and super-pests . Issues: .Raises issues of how far humans should be allowed to interfere with the production of new life Embryonic Stem Cells Advantages: .Does life begin at fertilization.GMO technology companies patent their crops .Potential to reverse diseases .Is a human embryo equivalent to a human child? .Might the destruction of a single embryo be justified is it provides a cure for a countless number of patients? List uses of biotechnology – could include: (12) - AI (Artificial Intelligence) IVF (InVitro Fertilisation) GM foods Production of human insulin Put forward a case for and against the use of biotechnology. such as insulin for organs or transplants .Form tissues and cells for medical therapies .- As more GMO crops can be grown on relatively small parcels of land.Producing human embryos to supply stem cells for therapy Ethical Issues: .Interferes with traditional agricultural methods Human Cloning Advantages: .(13) ADVANTAGES of biotechnology:     Different genes can be combined to make something better Can be enriched with vitamins to increase health Use of stem cells to treat diseases Diagnosing genetic disorders DISADVANTAGES of biotechnology:  May trigger allergic reactions  Many GM crops have pesticides built in them – toxic insects  Moral and ethical issues surrounding cloning .Producing animals that have been genetically engineer to provide human products.Able to produce new and healthy tissues for transplant .New drugs can be tested on stem cells prior to animals and humans Ethical Questions: .Can mas produce animals with desirable characteristics .Not labelling is wrong and unfair to consumers . or at birth? .Does a human embryo have any rights? . in the womb.GM crops pose a risk to food diversity .

Genetic modification might be able to increase the health and cooking properties of soy products.GM soy is resistant to herbicidefarmers can spray weeds without harming their crops .Could have health benefits for example golden rice has a source of vitamin A that could help reduce blindness. (14) - Computer skills (ICT) Critical thinking Reading and writing Fine motor skills Ability to follow instructions Observation Cognitive abilities Determining and minimising risks Examination and evaluating experiments Drawing conclusions from evidence Analysis of results - Measure accurately Performing under pressure Making judgements Graphing results Teamwork Attention to detail Mathematics Collection of data Writing an experimental report Application of knowledge Organisations - Plant research Examiner of patents Forensic scientist Immunologist Identify possible career paths in science.Greater ability to tolerate drought- Arguments against genetic engineering .Greater ability to tolerate diseasehigher yields .Cancer-fighting genes can be introduced to foods such as tomatoes and broccoli.g. (15) - Cancer research Bioengineer Mathematical ecologist DNA sequencing facility manager Write arguments for and against assisted reproduction or genetic engineering. Monsanto setting high prices for their seeds making it unaffordable for farmers - - Non-target insects such as bees and butterflies may be killed by the plants Birds that eat poisoned insects may die as well Insects can build up a resistance to pesticides GM foods not only deprives insects of their source of food.Some GM crops have pesticide built into them.g. animals that rely upon that insect die too Many Australians are reluctant to eat GM food – there are no long term results to prove it‟s safe .GM foods can improve the nutrition of people who do not have enough to eat.Australian experiments indicate that some GM crops reduce the use of pesticide by up to 75% .Identify scientific skills that can be useful in a broad range of careers.g. (16) Group Lab Trial GM Farm Arguments for genetic engineering: . a nut gene inserted into another organism . if all the ball worms that feed on BT cotton die off. . so farmers won‟t have to add chemicals .Pesticides previously used may be washed into and contaminate water . but also affects the whole food chain. Animals that depend on insects for food might starve e.Might trigger allergic reactions or heightened allergic reaction e. .Set high prices which people won‟t be able to afford e. . .

. the species adapts better. (17) The data in a source is valid if: .The information can be substantiated in more than one reliable source Discuss the role of mutations in the ability of species to adapt to changing environments and the consequences for natural selection. organisms with beneficial mutations are more likely to survive. not all species undergo adaptations. .- higher yields Greater ability to tolerate frosthigher yields Higher yields. (20) Biodiversity: variety and differences amongst living organisms.Therefore.For evolution to occur there must be genetic differences amongst the members of a species (i. some mutations can be beneficial to an organism. . passing on their beneficial mutations. (18) Mutations are a change in the structure of DNA.It has been written by a qualified person . When an environmental changes. when the environment goes through physical changes.Chemical exposure . .e. .Adaptations can be .Biodiversity in genes are important for the survival of a species. due to natural selection.However.They have been fathered using appropriate methods .It is current .It refers to data and statistics from valid first-hand investigations The information in a source is accurate if: . . the population).They relate to the hypothesis or problem A secondary source is reliable if: . Over time.more profit - Multinational food companies will patent GM seeds to control the price Since farmers will depend on the companies for seeds. i. Analyse the accuracy of scientific information in the mass media. These organisms reproduce. Triggers for mutations: Light .It is on a reputable site.If an organism is not adapted to its environment. it will die. Define biodiversity and discuss its role in the health of an environment and the survival of life.The information is not biased . (19) Adaptations: The features which enable the organisms to live in specific environment.e. physiological and physical. they will have to pay whatever price the companies .A particular genetic make-up may be very successful at a certain time in Earth's history. the organisms which live there must adapt to the new conditions to survive. . .Radiation exposure Define adaptations and discuss their role in species and individual survival. .

(21) Develop ideas of common ancestor. Fossils are present in rocks found hundreds or thousands of years ago.g. Archaeopteryx – similar to an extinct group of dinosaurs. Usually it is the „hard parts‟ of plants and animals that are presence e. which provides evidence for the common ancestry of birds and reptiles. wood. however. Fossils are preserved by being covered in sediments or by falling into an environment where there is little oxygen. known as evolution. comparative embryonic. The evolution from ancient reptiles to mammals is well documented by a series of transition fossils. Transitional Forms Many fossils have been found which appear to have the characteristics of two different groups of organisms. which indicates that amphibians may have evolved from fish. biogeographical. (22) Fossils – A fossil is a remnant or trace of a once living organism. Discuss evidence that present day organisms have developed from different organisms in the past. the theropods. Through the ages of the rocks. larger ribs. bones or shells. Two of the most famous transition fossils are archaeopteryx. pelvis and limb bones have evolved for support on land. and the lobe-fin fish. Include fossil. scientists see the changes that have occurred in different species to adapt to their environment. Some animals that were around during these time periods were fossilised. The lobe-fin fish had lungs but in the amphibian. .- If the environment begins to change. These are called transition fossils. Genetic diversity plays a role in safeguarding a species from extinction when the environment changes. this genetic make-up may no longer be successful. comparative anatomic and comparative DNA evidence. except it had feathers and a „wishbone‟ Lobe-fin fish – A comparison of the skeletons of a lobe-fin fish and a primitive amphibian reveals and extraordinary similarity.

The similarities show us that all the species may have branched from one organism. Homologous Structures The anatomy of different species can be compared to look for evidence of evolution from a common ancestor. This shows that species evolved due to the selective pressure in their own habitats Comparative Embryology The different embryology supports evolution because it shows scientists the similarities in the species and how they‟ve changed. . Darwin and Wallace used biogeography as evidence of evolution.Transitional forms provides evidence to scientists about the mix between two species. this „mix‟ has occurred to support the animals for them to adapt to environmental change. They noticed that species living in the same area were more similar to each other than to species living in similar habitats far apart. Biogeography Biogeography is the study of living things in relation to geographical regions.

The pentadactyl limbs of vertebrate animals are examples of homologous structures. The number of differences is proportional to the time since they separated and allow the construction of evolutionary trees. but not necessarily exactly the same form or the same function. . but have altered to different environments and „life-styles‟. The development of homologous structures is an example of divergent evolution – which occurs when a number of species develop from one common ancestor. their DNA and protein molecules slowly change and become different. DNA and other biochemical evidence can be used to check the accuracy of evolutional trees already worked out from fossils or from the study of structural homologies. the difference species that exist today are evidence for evolution. If 2 new species evolved from a common ancestor.Homologous structures are structures found in plants or animals that have the same origin. The biochemical similarities between organisms can indicate to scientists that organisms could have the same ancestor and hence. This suggests that all of these groups of animals originated from some original group of animals (the “common ancestor”) Comparative DNA Science have found that DNA and the proteins it produces can provide evidence about evolution. All of these groups have limbs with five digits (finger-like structure_ which have the same basic structural plan. becoming less and less alike over time due to their different habitats.

and after some time his theory started to be accepted. List the factors that cause natural selection: (25) - competition for food & shelter variation struggle for existence reproduction Explain how the factors causing natural selection can lead to changes in a species. . (24) - His theory started a controversy between the biblical belief that all organisms were formed at the same time. which led to a debate between the Bishop of Oxford. Define artificial selection and give an example. while most of the black moths survived to lay eggs. Then the white moths were eaten. Some of this variation is passed from parent to offspring (i.e. When pollution was at its worst the walls of buildings were black. (26) One example is the peppered moths of north England.3. They have a short life span meaning that changes in the population can be seen in just a few years. (23) NATURAL SELECTION: . They pass these characteristics on to their offspring. The church tried to shame the theory. . Thomas Huxley. . They were suited to their environment.In all populations of living things there are differences (biologists call them variations) within the offspring. . In the case of the peppered moths. Only a small fraction of black moths survived to lay eggs.2. The surviving members of a species possess the characteristics that best enable them to survive in their present environment. it is inherited).Some offspring will be better suited to survival than others. Over time.Outline the theory of evolution by natural selection.Darwin summarised his theory of natural selection in 4 steps: . . Members of a single species show variation in their characteristics. Outline how Charles Darwin constructed this theory to explain his observations. The black moths were quickly eaten by birds. their environment changed rapidly. .1. More of each kind of organism is produced than can survive to maturity. It was known as the „Monkey Debate‟. Some members of a species will die before they reproduce. organisms become better suited to their current environment.When an animal is born with a slight advantage and is more likely to survive than its brothers and sisters.4. Samuel Wilberforce and the eminent biologist. or combination of traits. . (27) - Artificial selection (or selective breeding) describes intentional breeding for certain traits. Peppered moths are born either pale coloured or nearly black. Describe the difficulties that the theory of evolution had in gaining acceptance in society. In areas covered with pale lichen the pale moths were well camouflaged.

They would also have reproduced best. particular genes and characteristics would have become more common on the different islands. Distinguish between how Darwin & Lamarck would explain evolution.g. Eventually. birds with beaks best suited to the food resources on their island) would have survived best. Darwin‟s theory suggested that the theory of evolution was caused by natural selection and the dying out of animals with detrimental qualities. fast and good at retrieving game. EXAMPLE: Early humans chose to breed dogs that were loyal. However. . Those birds on each island which was most suited (best adapted – or “fittest”) to their environment (e. passing on their successful characteristics to their offspring (because of inheritance of genes).g. all organisms changed. instead. (28) The original birds landing on the islands from the mainland would have had some variation e. This results in inbreeding. Describe an example of how an organism has evolved. in their beaks.- Artificial selection results in reduced genetic diversity because fewer individuals are chosen for breeding. He did not believe in natural selection where only certain organisms would adapt to its environment. and so hunting dogs evolved to have these traits. (29) Lamarck‟s theory of evolution was that species learnt to change as their environment did. each group of finches would have become so different that they could be regarded as separate species. Thus.

Discuss evidence supporting different viewpoints. In particular. Other Christians regard these accounts as more like parables or symbolic accounts that tell (in story form) the profound truth that God brought the universe and all that is in it into being. that's not to say those changes can be inherited by their descendants. some believe that is was created from matter that already existed (ex material) Some Christians take the biblical accounts of creation literally. and sustains his creation. There is a variety of interpretations of the biblical accounts of creation among Christians today. however. believing that they describe exactly how the universe and human beings were created. They see the cosmologists helping them to understand how God brought the world into being – the Big band could have been the mechanism God used. it was proven false as many species were dying out because they weren‟t adapting to the environment. including people and animals. . (32) Many of the world‟s religions have ideas and beliefs about the origin of the universe. (30) - Lamarck‟s theory was considered to be true. when it was observed. Usually these take the form of creation account in the sacred books of the religions concerned. These Christians might look to science to help them understand how God did this. - Merely because some kind of physical change has been achieved by an organism. (31) Outline the Catholic Church’s position on evolution-creationism. Most believe that God brought the universe into being from nothing (ex nihlio). account for the differing views supporting evolution and creationism. For many Christians there isn‟t a conflict between the religious ideas about creation expressed in Genesis and the findings of science. Many Christians have no problem in accepting the Big bang Theory.Describe Lamarck’s theory of evolution and discuss it as an example of a theory once considered by Science but then rejected.