Genetics and Evolution Summary Notes

Describe the process of meiosis. Meiosis is the process of sex cell formation. (1)




Mitosis is the process of normal cell

For sexual reproduction. Occurs in
the testes and ovaries. It produces
the gametes. There are two types of
gametes. Egg cells and sperm cells.

Growth : multi-cellular organisms
grow in size and complexity by
making more cells
Repair: old and damaged cells are
continuously replaced by the division
of cells
Genetic Stability: Daughter cells
contain same number and kind of
chromosomes as the parent cell.

When does it

Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotes.

When the sperm and the egg unite.

Where does it

Mitosis occurs in most cells

Sex cells

How many cell

1 cell division

2 divisions

How many cells?

2 cells. (two daughter cell swish the
same chromosome number as the
parental cell.

4 cells

How many

46 chromosomes each

23 chromosomes

Is there variation
in offspring?

Mitosis is the copying of cells.
Sometimes there might be an error
after the egg fertilization.

There is variation because the
chromatids exchange DNA sections.

Uses and results of
their use

Mitosis is the process by which all
cells divide. Many cells have a limited
life span, and mitosis allows them to
be renewed on a regular basis. Mitosis
is also responsible for generating the
many million of cells that are needed
for an embryo to develop into a foetus,
an infant, and finally an adult.

Meiosis functions to reduce the
number of chromosomes to one half
.Each daughter cell that is produced
with have one half as many
chromosomes as the parent cell.
Meiosis is important in assuring
genetic diversity in sexual

hair. (4) ABOUT: Chromosomes. the double stranded backbone. E. DNA carries the code to make proteins (that contribute to determining eye colour and hair colour) to enable the cell to reproduce and perform its function.Identify genes as units of heredity (carriers of genetic information). Inside the nucleus of each of your cells is your unique set of 46 chromosomes.Deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA carries the genetic information and passes it from one generation to the next. (3) DNA . genes and DNA and particularly identify that information is transferred as DNA when cells reproduce themselves and explain the advantages of DNA replicating exactly. and the double helix shape. The DNA molecule is made up of simple bases called nucleotides. Bases form the rungs of the staircase The sugar (deoxyribose) + phosphate + a base = a nucleotide. Sides: Deoxyribose sugar and a unit of phosphate forms the upright supports along the sides. Describe the structure of DNA in terms of four bases. The Double helix - In 1953. Sections of DNA on the chromosomes that contain complete messages are called genes. . thread-like structure made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Genes and DNA - Within each cell is a nucleus which controls all the activities of the cells. Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin discovered that the structure of DNA was a double helix Structure: - - Two strands intertwine like a spiral staircase to form a structure called a double helix. James Watson. Each of these is a long. (2) - A gene is a unit of heredity in a living organism. Base Matching base Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Cytosine Guanine Outline the connection between chromosomes.g. Each sugar joins with a base. The message in a gene is a coded formula needed by the cell to produce one protein. It is normally a stretch of DNA that codes for a type of protein.

Plants Climatic factors . If the other twin is brought up on a good nutritious diet in a wealthy family he may reach his full height. he may suffer from malnutrition resulting in rickets (bandy legs). this is called rickets. scurvy (vitamin C deficiency). Appreciate the role that environmental factors have in determining the features of an organism. and a Base. as well as soil composition and the availability of nutrients. and poor teeth. be thin. a Phosphate. Identical genotypes (twins) do not always produce the same phenotypes because the environment can affect the expression of genes. be fit and strong with good legs and teeth. such as for tall height and strong muscles.- Each nucleotide is made up of three chemical groups: a Sugar. If one twin is brought up in a poor family he may eat very little. When children do not get enough vitamin D. temperature or exposure to wind . or if he was brought up on hamburgers and chips he maybe obese. nutrition. It can affect the expression of genes. the bones in their legs bend. Example: Identical twins have exactly the same genes. The environment includes all surrounding forces of an organism. such as diet. When the sun shines on our skin we can also make vitamin D. The order in which the bases are strung along the chain forms the basis of the genetic code.can be important. he may be unable to play sport.such as rainfall. (5) The environment plays a big role in the appearance of an organism. climate. What affects the growth of plants: - availability of water nutrition in the soil availability of sunlight fertilisers climate . exposure to disease. Environmental Factors influencing your phenotype: - Diet Nutrition Exposure to disease Climate Temperature Sunlight Environmental Factors promoting Cancer - Smoking – lung cancer Drinking – liver cancer Exposure to UV light – skin cancer Exposure to radiation – thyroid caner Environmental Factors promoting rickets Vitamin D is found in fish and vegetables. not very tall.

Use these as examples of where developments in Science have led to new technologies. behaviours. recessive. behaviours corresponding to such species. They dominate over recessive genes. (6) A gene is a unit of heredity and is a section of DNA whereas.the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material to improve certain characteristics. (ex. (8) Biotechnology . The phenotype includes physical characteristics. growth). Genotype: Refers to the genetic traits in an organism.g.such as the ripening of fruit or the bacteria that break down compost . The poison stays in the leaves and does no harm until the bollworm . Outline the engineering of pest resistance into cotton plants or the production of human insulin by bacteria as examples of genetic engineering. Those grown in acidic soil produce blue flowers whilst those grown in basic soil produce pink flowers Distinguish between a gene and an allele. (7) DOMINANT: The genes which determines the physical traits of a person. structures.Biotechnology is the practice of using plants. physical manifestations of an organism. animals and micro-organisms such as bacteria. heterozygous). and therefore is inherited down to the next generation. RECESSIVE: A recessive gene is a gene that produces an effect in the organism only when it is homozygous. alleles refer to different versions of the same gene (e. (9) When the gene is inserted into cotton plants. dominant. Genetic Engineering . reflexes.. = Such coding is inheritable. The genotype is the genetic load that is copied every time a cell divides. they produce toxic proteins called Bt toxins that kill the bollworm caterpillars. Phenotype is things that can be seen with your eyes.Examples: - The pH of soil can affect the hydrangea plant. It has to do with the genetic coding of an organism. Phenotype: Refers to observable. having identical alleles for a single trait. Define biotechnology and explain that genetic engineering is a form of some benefit. if the height will be short or tall) Define dominant and recessive genes and explain their influence in determining phenotype given the inherited genotype. colours.g. The genotype is the genetic programming that provides the phenotype. as well as biological processes . etc. organs. Genotype is something you can't see with your eyes (e.

It is very specific . . Insulin is needed to keep the amount of glucose in your blood at the right level. making exact copies of themselves (identical DNA) the new bacteria contain the human insulin gene. BT cotton disease . Discuss how different groups within society or different cultures may have different views about biotechnologies. The gene can then be transplanted into bacteria where it combines with the microbes‟ DNA to turn the bacteria into tiny factories for making insulin.Pests evolve resistance to . weeds and disease.But with labelling . As the bacteria reproduce by mitosis.Control food productivity MONSANTO Identify choices that need to be made when considering whether to use particular scientific advances such as GM crops. human cloning. (11) GM Crops Advantages: .Continuity of species .Answer to solving word wide food shortage e. People who are diabetic need supplies of insulin because their pancreas does not naturally make it.g. golden rice only kills bollworm caterpillars and very closely related species.Could potentially offer more nutrition and flavour (although this is debated).Crops are more productive and have a larger yield. Medical insulin was formerly extracted from the pancreases of pigs which were slaughtered for meat. It does not affect humans or other animals.Destroying children . The gene for insulin can be removed from a chromosome in a human pancreas cell using an enzyme which cuts out the exact piece of DNA containing the gene.Resistant to GM crop e.Not harmful .eats the leaf tissue. .Allergies unknown . but now it can be produced in vast amounts in the lab from bacteria which have had the human insulin gene inserted into its DNA.A possibility that they could eliminate allergy-causing properties in some foods. People with diabetes need to be given daily injections of insulin to keep their blood glucose levels correct.More environment friendly as they require less herbicides and pesticides. . . The bacteria being used is Escherichia coli (E coli). . by inserting the human gene for making insulin into the DNA of a bacterium. The production of insulin by bacteria.Playing with god .Inbuilt resistance to pests.More capable of thriving in regions with poor soil or adverse climates. and embryonic stem cells.Foods are more resistant and stay ripe for longer so they can be shipped long distances or kept on shop shelves for longer periods. (10) Group Scientist Citizen Activist Activist against GM For Against . . .

Producing animals that have been genetically engineer to provide human products. or at birth? .Able to produce new and healthy tissues for transplant .Might the destruction of a single embryo be justified is it provides a cure for a countless number of patients? List uses of biotechnology – could include: (12) - AI (Artificial Intelligence) IVF (InVitro Fertilisation) GM foods Production of human insulin Put forward a case for and against the use of biotechnology.GM crops pose a risk to food diversity . in the womb.Form tissues and cells for medical therapies .GMO technology companies patent their crops .Should be encouraged without research into the risks .Does life begin at fertilization.(13) ADVANTAGES of biotechnology:     Different genes can be combined to make something better Can be enriched with vitamins to increase health Use of stem cells to treat diseases Diagnosing genetic disorders DISADVANTAGES of biotechnology:  May trigger allergic reactions  Many GM crops have pesticides built in them – toxic insects  Moral and ethical issues surrounding cloning . they are an answer to feeding growing world populations.Raises issues of how far humans should be allowed to interfere with the production of new life Embryonic Stem Cells Advantages: .Producing human embryos to supply stem cells for therapy Ethical Issues: .Is a human embryo equivalent to a human child? .Could give rise to super-weeds and super-pests .Interferes with traditional agricultural methods Human Cloning Advantages: .Can mas produce animals with desirable characteristics . such as insulin for organs or transplants . Issues: .Does a human embryo have any rights? .Not labelling is wrong and unfair to consumers .- As more GMO crops can be grown on relatively small parcels of land.Potential to reverse diseases .New drugs can be tested on stem cells prior to animals and humans Ethical Questions: .

(15) - Cancer research Bioengineer Mathematical ecologist DNA sequencing facility manager Write arguments for and against assisted reproduction or genetic engineering. . but also affects the whole food chain.Might trigger allergic reactions or heightened allergic reaction e.Could have health benefits for example golden rice has a source of vitamin A that could help reduce blindness. if all the ball worms that feed on BT cotton die off. Monsanto setting high prices for their seeds making it unaffordable for farmers - - Non-target insects such as bees and butterflies may be killed by the plants Birds that eat poisoned insects may die as well Insects can build up a resistance to pesticides GM foods not only deprives insects of their source of food.g. .g.Australian experiments indicate that some GM crops reduce the use of pesticide by up to 75% . a nut gene inserted into another organism .Greater ability to tolerate diseasehigher yields .Set high prices which people won‟t be able to afford e.GM soy is resistant to herbicidefarmers can spray weeds without harming their crops .Genetic modification might be able to increase the health and cooking properties of soy products. (16) Group Lab Trial GM Farm Arguments for genetic engineering: . (14) - Computer skills (ICT) Critical thinking Reading and writing Fine motor skills Ability to follow instructions Observation Cognitive abilities Determining and minimising risks Examination and evaluating experiments Drawing conclusions from evidence Analysis of results - Measure accurately Performing under pressure Making judgements Graphing results Teamwork Attention to detail Mathematics Collection of data Writing an experimental report Application of knowledge Organisations - Plant research Examiner of patents Forensic scientist Immunologist Identify possible career paths in science.Pesticides previously used may be washed into and contaminate water . Animals that depend on insects for food might starve e.Greater ability to tolerate drought- Arguments against genetic engineering . .Cancer-fighting genes can be introduced to foods such as tomatoes and broccoli. animals that rely upon that insect die too Many Australians are reluctant to eat GM food – there are no long term results to prove it‟s safe .GM foods can improve the nutrition of people who do not have enough to eat.Identify scientific skills that can be useful in a broad range of careers.g.Some GM crops have pesticide built into them. . so farmers won‟t have to add chemicals .

Biodiversity in genes are important for the survival of a species.e. organisms with beneficial mutations are more likely to survive. .They have been fathered using appropriate methods .For evolution to occur there must be genetic differences amongst the members of a species (i. (18) Mutations are a change in the structure of DNA. the organisms which live there must adapt to the new conditions to survive.It has been written by a qualified person . . . . when the environment goes through physical changes. Define biodiversity and discuss its role in the health of an environment and the survival of life. it will die.However. passing on their beneficial mutations. not all species undergo adaptations. some mutations can be beneficial to an organism. the species adapts better. Analyse the accuracy of scientific information in the mass media.Radiation exposure Define adaptations and discuss their role in species and individual . Triggers for mutations: Light . the population).Chemical exposure .If an organism is not adapted to its environment. .The information is not biased . . . physiological and physical.- higher yields Greater ability to tolerate frosthigher yields Higher yields.e.The information can be substantiated in more than one reliable source Discuss the role of mutations in the ability of species to adapt to changing environments and the consequences for natural selection. (17) The data in a source is valid if: . due to natural selection.It is current . . i. . (20) Biodiversity: variety and differences amongst living organisms. (19) Adaptations: The features which enable the organisms to live in specific environment.more profit - Multinational food companies will patent GM seeds to control the price Since farmers will depend on the companies for seeds. These organisms reproduce.They relate to the hypothesis or problem A secondary source is reliable if: .It is on a reputable site.It refers to data and statistics from valid first-hand investigations The information in a source is accurate if: .A particular genetic make-up may be very successful at a certain time in Earth's history. they will have to pay whatever price the companies . When an environmental changes.Therefore.Adaptations can be behavioural. Over time.

except it had feathers and a „wishbone‟ Lobe-fin fish – A comparison of the skeletons of a lobe-fin fish and a primitive amphibian reveals and extraordinary similarity.g. The lobe-fin fish had lungs but in the amphibian. Transitional Forms Many fossils have been found which appear to have the characteristics of two different groups of organisms. Some animals that were around during these time periods were fossilised. Discuss evidence that present day organisms have developed from different organisms in the past. (21) Develop ideas of common ancestor. The evolution from ancient reptiles to mammals is well documented by a series of transition fossils. which indicates that amphibians may have evolved from fish. (22) Fossils – A fossil is a remnant or trace of a once living organism. Fossils are present in rocks found hundreds or thousands of years ago. Genetic diversity plays a role in safeguarding a species from extinction when the environment changes. comparative embryonic. comparative anatomic and comparative DNA evidence. and the lobe-fin fish. . bones or shells. Archaeopteryx – similar to an extinct group of dinosaurs. Usually it is the „hard parts‟ of plants and animals that are presence e. biogeographical. These are called transition fossils.- If the environment begins to change. which provides evidence for the common ancestry of birds and reptiles. larger ribs. however. Fossils are preserved by being covered in sediments or by falling into an environment where there is little oxygen. Through the ages of the rocks. wood. the theropods. this genetic make-up may no longer be successful. pelvis and limb bones have evolved for support on land. scientists see the changes that have occurred in different species to adapt to their environment. known as evolution. Include fossil. Two of the most famous transition fossils are archaeopteryx.

Transitional forms provides evidence to scientists about the mix between two species. Darwin and Wallace used biogeography as evidence of evolution. This shows that species evolved due to the selective pressure in their own habitats Comparative Embryology The different embryology supports evolution because it shows scientists the similarities in the species and how they‟ve changed. The similarities show us that all the species may have branched from one organism. this „mix‟ has occurred to support the animals for them to adapt to environmental change. Homologous Structures The anatomy of different species can be compared to look for evidence of evolution from a common ancestor. . They noticed that species living in the same area were more similar to each other than to species living in similar habitats far apart. Biogeography Biogeography is the study of living things in relation to geographical regions.

DNA and other biochemical evidence can be used to check the accuracy of evolutional trees already worked out from fossils or from the study of structural homologies. If 2 new species evolved from a common ancestor. The number of differences is proportional to the time since they separated and allow the construction of evolutionary trees. but have altered to different environments and „life-styles‟. The pentadactyl limbs of vertebrate animals are examples of homologous structures. All of these groups have limbs with five digits (finger-like structure_ which have the same basic structural plan. becoming less and less alike over time due to their different habitats.Homologous structures are structures found in plants or animals that have the same origin. The development of homologous structures is an example of divergent evolution – which occurs when a number of species develop from one common ancestor. This suggests that all of these groups of animals originated from some original group of animals (the “common ancestor”) Comparative DNA Science have found that DNA and the proteins it produces can provide evidence about evolution. The biochemical similarities between organisms can indicate to scientists that organisms could have the same ancestor and hence. . their DNA and protein molecules slowly change and become different. but not necessarily exactly the same form or the same function. the difference species that exist today are evidence for evolution.

More of each kind of organism is produced than can survive to maturity. (26) One example is the peppered moths of north England. (23) NATURAL SELECTION: .1.2. The surviving members of a species possess the characteristics that best enable them to survive in their present environment. .4. which led to a debate between the Bishop of Oxford. Peppered moths are born either pale coloured or nearly black. their environment changed rapidly. Outline how Charles Darwin constructed this theory to explain his observations. Some members of a species will die before they reproduce.Darwin summarised his theory of natural selection in 4 steps: . Some of this variation is passed from parent to offspring (i. Define artificial selection and give an example. organisms become better suited to their current environment. Members of a single species show variation in their characteristics. .e. . In areas covered with pale lichen the pale moths were well camouflaged. .Outline the theory of evolution by natural selection. Only a small fraction of black moths survived to lay eggs. They pass these characteristics on to their offspring. Then the white moths were eaten. The black moths were quickly eaten by birds. List the factors that cause natural selection: (25) - competition for food & shelter variation struggle for existence reproduction Explain how the factors causing natural selection can lead to changes in a species. They have a short life span meaning that changes in the population can be seen in just a few years.Some offspring will be better suited to survival than others. . Describe the difficulties that the theory of evolution had in gaining acceptance in society. . . They were suited to their environment. In the case of the peppered moths. Samuel Wilberforce and the eminent biologist. Thomas Huxley. (24) - His theory started a controversy between the biblical belief that all organisms were formed at the same time. while most of the black moths survived to lay eggs. (27) - Artificial selection (or selective breeding) describes intentional breeding for certain traits. The church tried to shame the theory.In all populations of living things there are differences (biologists call them variations) within the offspring. When pollution was at its worst the walls of buildings were black. and after some time his theory started to be accepted. or combination of traits. it is inherited).When an animal is born with a slight advantage and is more likely to survive than its brothers and sisters. Over time. It was known as the „Monkey Debate‟.3.

Thus. EXAMPLE: Early humans chose to breed dogs that were loyal. each group of finches would have become so different that they could be regarded as separate species. Distinguish between how Darwin & Lamarck would explain evolution. Those birds on each island which was most suited (best adapted – or “fittest”) to their environment (e. fast and good at retrieving game.g. (28) The original birds landing on the islands from the mainland would have had some variation e. This results in inbreeding. . However. Eventually. passing on their successful characteristics to their offspring (because of inheritance of genes). particular genes and characteristics would have become more common on the different islands. He did not believe in natural selection where only certain organisms would adapt to its environment. and so hunting dogs evolved to have these traits. all organisms changed.g.- Artificial selection results in reduced genetic diversity because fewer individuals are chosen for breeding. Describe an example of how an organism has evolved. They would also have reproduced best. instead. in their beaks. (29) Lamarck‟s theory of evolution was that species learnt to change as their environment did. Darwin‟s theory suggested that the theory of evolution was caused by natural selection and the dying out of animals with detrimental qualities. birds with beaks best suited to the food resources on their island) would have survived best.

(32) Many of the world‟s religions have ideas and beliefs about the origin of the universe. They see the cosmologists helping them to understand how God brought the world into being – the Big band could have been the mechanism God used. There is a variety of interpretations of the biblical accounts of creation among Christians today. - Merely because some kind of physical change has been achieved by an organism. In particular.Describe Lamarck’s theory of evolution and discuss it as an example of a theory once considered by Science but then rejected. Most believe that God brought the universe into being from nothing (ex nihlio). Other Christians regard these accounts as more like parables or symbolic accounts that tell (in story form) the profound truth that God brought the universe and all that is in it into being. however. it was proven false as many species were dying out because they weren‟t adapting to the environment. some believe that is was created from matter that already existed (ex material) Some Christians take the biblical accounts of creation literally. Usually these take the form of creation account in the sacred books of the religions concerned. Discuss evidence supporting different viewpoints. including people and animals. (30) - Lamarck‟s theory was considered to be true. . account for the differing views supporting evolution and creationism. Many Christians have no problem in accepting the Big bang Theory. (31) Outline the Catholic Church’s position on evolution-creationism. These Christians might look to science to help them understand how God did this. that's not to say those changes can be inherited by their descendants. and sustains his creation. when it was observed. believing that they describe exactly how the universe and human beings were created. For many Christians there isn‟t a conflict between the religious ideas about creation expressed in Genesis and the findings of science.

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