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PROJECT REPORT ON

PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST GAS


RECIRCULATION ON SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of
Bachelor degree in Mechanical Automobile Engineering from
Kerala University

Submitted by
AJMAL S M, (10402006)
AKHIL T V, (10402008)
ASHIK S, (10402019)
RAKESH B, (10402049)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


SREE CHITRA THIRUNAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM
MARCH 2014

SREE CHITRA THIRUNAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


THIRUVANANTHAPURAM-695018
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

Certified that project work entitled PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS

OF EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION ON SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL


ENGINE is a bonafide work carried out in the eighth semester by AJMAL S M
(10402006), AKHIL T V (10402008), ASHIK S (10402019) and RAKESH B
(10402049), in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in MECHANICAL
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING from University of Kerala during the academic year 20132014, who carried out the project work under the guidance and no part of this work has been
submitted earlier for the award of any degree.

PRINCIPAL

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

PROJECT GUIDE

Dr. (Prof).SHAJI SENADHIPAN

Dr. S.H. ANIL KUMAR

Sri. RINU SATYAN

Principal
SCT college of Engineering
TVM-18

Professor
Dept of Mechanical Engineering
SCT college of Engineering
TVM-18

Assistant Professor
Dept of Mechanical Engineering
SCT college of Engineering
TVM-18

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our heartfelt gratitude to God Almighty for bestowing His blessings on us to
successfully complete our project.
We would like to express our sincere gratitude and profound obligations to Prof.(Dr.) Shaji
Senadhipan, Principal, SCTCE.
We express our sincere gratitude and respect to Prof. S.H. Anil Kumar, Head of the Department,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, for giving full support for our project.
We grateful for the constant support and encouragement of our staff advisor and guide, Mr. Rinu
Sathyan, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, whose valuable advice
helped us in the completion of the project.
We would also like to express our appreciation to all faculty members of the Department of
Mechanical Engineering for their kind help and invaluable advice.
Last but not the least we express our heartfelt gratitude to our families and friends for their moral
support and help.

ABSTRACT
PERFORMANCE TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST GAS
RECIRCULATION(EGR) IN DIESEL ENGINE
EGR technique, as one of effective measures to reduce NOx formation, was firstly
adopted in diesel engines. But with the growing energy and environment problems,
EGR has been commonly used also in all engines together with other advanced
techniques.Recirculating exhaust gas on engines is employed primarily to reduce fuel
consumption, and secondarily, to reduce NOx emission levels. In addition, EGR can
replace fuel enrichment in gasoline engine to inhibit knock. From the deep analysis,
EGR can improve fuel economy, reduce NOx emission and inhibit the tendency of
engine towards knock.The combination of EGR technique with supercharged direct
injection engine is the trend of todays gasoline engine. In this project we use this
concept of EGR in a single cylinder diesel engine, a simple EGR apparatus is
fabricated and a detailed study and tests are conducted.

CONTENTS
List of figures
List of tables
List of abbreviations
CHAPTER 1. Introduction9
1.1. Emissions in automobiles9
1.2. Comparison of SI and CI engines12
1.3. Comparison of fuel economy and fuel used14
1.4. Comparison of other operational costs....15
CHAPTER 2. Literature survey.16
2.1. Engine performance parameters..18
CHAPTER 3. Exhaust Gas Recirculation system.22
3.1. Description..22
3.2. EGR technique for NOx reduction...23
3.3. Classification according to different factors....25
CHAPTER 4. Elements of experiment...28
4.1. Piping,.28
4.2. Control valve..29
4.3. Orifice meter..31
4.4. Manometer.33
CHAPTER 5. Experimentation..35
CHAPTER 6. Conclusions..53
REFERENCES

LIST OF TABLES

1.1 Diesel Vs petrol engine for different operating conditions12


5.1 Readings of emission control test at 1250 rpm...35
5.2 Readings of emission control test at 1200 rpm...36
5.3 Readings of emission control test at 1100 rpm...37
5.4 Readings of emission control test at 1000 rpm...38
5.5 Constant speed load test without EGR at 1200 rpm..42
5.6 Constant speed load test with EGR at 1200 rpm48

LIST OF FIGURES
4.1 Piping...29

4.2 Control valve...29

4.2(a) Full port ball valve.30

4.2(b) Reduced port ball valve....31

4.2(c) V-port ball valve.31

4.2(d) Trumnion ball valve..31

4.4 Orifice meter...32

4.5 U-tube manometer.34

4.6 Experimental setup34

LIST OF ABBREVATIONS

EGR-Exhaust Gas Recirculation


NOx-Nitrogen oxides
CO-Carbon monoxide
CI-Compression Ignition
SI-Spark Ignition
TDC-Top Dead Centre
BDC-Bottom Dead Centre
LCV-Lower Calorific Value
SFC-Specific Fuel Consumption
BP-Brake Power
TFC-Total Fuel Consumption
IP-Indicated Power

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Early (1970s) EGR systems were unsophisticated, utilizing manifold vacuum as the only
input to an on/off EGR valve; reduced performance and/or drivability were common side effects.
Slightly later (mid 1970s to carbureted 1980s) systems included a coolant temperature sensor which
didn't enable the EGR system until the engine had achieved normal operating temperature
(presumably off the choke and therefore less likely to block the EGR passages with carbon
buildups, and a lot less likely to stall due to a cold engine). Many added systems like "EGR timers"
to disable EGR for a few seconds after full-throttle acceleration. Vacuum reservoirs and "vacuum
amplifiers" were sometimes used, adding to the maze of vacuum hoses under the hood. All vacuumoperated systems, especially the EGR due to vacuum lines necessarily in close proximity to the hot
exhaust manifold, were highly prone to vacuum leaks caused by cracked hoses; a condition that
plagued early 1970s EGR-equipped cars with bizarre reliability problems (stalling when warm,
stalling when cold, stalling or misfiring under partial throttle, etc.). Hoses in these vehicles should
be checked by passing an unlit blowtorch over them: when the engine speeds up, the vacuum leak
has been found. Modern systems utilizing electronic engine control computers, multiple control
inputs, and servo-driven EGR valves typically improve performance/efficiency with no impact on
drivability.

1.1 Emissions in Automobiles:


Exhaust gases let out by automobiles causes problems to people and matter. The substances
that produce harmful effect on human being and the environment are known as toxic
substances. The following toxic substances are liberated during the operation of the piston type

internal combustion engines. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Soot, Carbon monoxide (CO),
Hydrocarbons (CH), Al-dehydes, Cancer producing substances, and compounds of Sulphur and
Lead.
1.1.1 Nitrogen oxides:
In a diesel engine cylinder, nitrogen oxides formed contain up to about 90 percent of nitrous
oxide NO, the remaining 10 percent are nitrogen dioxide NO2. Oxides of nitrogen are formed
within the combustion chamber due to dissociation of the molecular oxygen and nitrogen at
peak combustion temperatures and persists during expansion and exhaust in non equilibrium
amounts.
The amount of nitrogen oxide depends on the concentration of atomic oxygen and nitrogen
and also on temperature. High local temperature with large amount of excess air available
produce considerable amount of oxides of nitrogen. Diseases caused by NOx are destroying lung
tissues.
1.1.2 Soot:
Soot represents solid particles of carbon products containing up to 99% of pure carbon.
Immediately after formation, these particles have a diameter of (50 to 500) 10-10 meters. Then,
even during the process of combustion in the diesel engine, these particles coagulated to form
the secondary and ternary stretches with linear dimensions of 0.3-100 m. The presence of soot
in the spent gases is the cause of black smoke in the exhaust. Smoking of the exhaust gas is the
major disadvantage of the diesel engine, particularly in the racing period.
1.1.3 Carbon monoxide:
These is many found when the fuel burns with insufficient amount of oxygen. Some amount
of Co may also form in the near- Wall layers of the mixture or due to the dissociation of CO2 at
high temperature. In the Diesel engines COx is formed as a result of cold flame reactions and

10

upon combustion in the zones with a local deficiency of oxygen, but much of CO then oxidizes
to CO2. That is why the exhaust gases of the diesel engine contains small amount of C), which
by volume do not exceed 0.1 to 0.2 %. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless and tasteless
gas. Carbon monoxide can cause headache, Nausea, Respiratory problems (breathing problems).
1.1.4 Hydrocarbons:
The hydro carbons present in the exhaust gases contains the starting or decomposing
molecules of the fuel i.e. different types are present. Temperature of the gases nearly the
combustion chambers wall is not very high to cause the fuel combustion. This is the reason why
here the flame dies out and combustion does not occur. The hydro carbons of the un-burnt fuel
may appear in the exhaust gases also due the presence of excessively rich or Lean mixture zones
in the charge, and in the carburetor engines during ignition misfires also occur. The presence of
the Hydro carbons in the exhaust gases of the diesel engine is one of the causes of appearance of
white or blue flame. Hydro carbons can cause Eye, Throat and lung irritations. Some hydro
carbons are considered carcinogenic and can cause cancer.

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Concentrations of Exhaust Gas Constituents, Diesel Vs Petrol engine for different operating
conditions are as follows:

TABLE 1.1: Diesel Vs Petrol engine for different operating conditions

Driving

Carbon

oxides

Conditions

monoxide

Nitrogen

Vol %

ppm

Ideal

0.1(11.7)

Acceleration

of formaldehyde

hydro

carbons

ppm

ppm

59 (33)

9 (30)

390 (4830)

0.05(3.0)

849 (1347)

17 (16)

210 (960)

cruise

0.0(3.4)

237 (563)

11 (7)

90 ( 320)

Deceleration

0.0(5.4)

30 (18)

29 (286)

3306,750)

Value given with ( ) corresponds to petrol engines.

1.2 Comparison of SI Engine and CI Engines:


1.2.1 Differences in operating variables:
Compression Ratio: The comparison ratio of SI Engine is about 5 to 10.5.The compression ratio in
the standard SI engine is restricted by the ant-knock quality of the fuel.
The compression ratio of the CI engine is about 12 to 20.The higher the ratio employed in the CI
engine result in higher thermal efficiency, hence a greater power output for the quantity of fuel
consumed.
Operating Pressures: Higher pressures are found in the CI engines as a result of the higher
compression ratio utilized. The Compression pressure in the CI engine run in the range of 400 to

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700 pounds per square inch, in comparison to a value of the 100 to 200 for SI engine. This higher
pressure requires a stronger engine structure, and CI engines are, therefore Heavier.
Operating Speed: This Brake horse power of a given engine is a function of engine speed. The
maximum Brake Horse power is ordinary Identified with the speed at which this output occurs. The
SI engines usually considered as a high speed engines.
Example: Passenger car engine speed for Maximum Output occurs in the range of 3000 to 5000
rpm. Many CI engines Operates at speed considerably below those of SI engine, In the 400 to 1200
rpm Range.
Distribution of fuel to the cylinder: In Multi-cylinder SI engine, considerably difficulty is
encountered in distributing the mixture to the various cylinders in such a manner that each cylinder
will receive the same desirable air fuel ratio. The injection system of the CI engine provides
generally excellent distribution of fuel to the cylinders.
Super charging: Both the SI and the CI engine may be super charged. The amount of
supercharging that can be used with the SI engine is limited by the detonation of the fuel. In CI
engine Supercharging tends to prevent detonation, and is limited by the amount of power required
to drive the supercharger.
Exhaust gas temperature: the thermal efficiency of the CI engine runs higher than that of the SI
engine, because of higher compression ratio used. The exhaust gas in the CI engine are therefore
returned to the atmosphere at lower temperature, since a greater position of the available energy
into useful work and the losses to the exhaust are lower
Starting: The CI engine is inherently more difficult to start than the SI engine, Primarily due to the
greater

cranking

effort

required

to

overcome

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the

higher

compression

ratio

used.

1.2.2 Comparison of performance characteristics:


Power output per unit weight: Because of the higher compression ratios and higher pressure
involved, CI engine requires stronger engine parts and are inherently heavier. They generally weigh
about 5 to 20 pounds or more per horse power delivered, where as the SI engine usually weigh
about 1 to 7 pounds per horse power.
Power output per unit piston displacement: Most of High Speed CI engines deliver
approximately 0.3 hp for each cubic inch of piston displacement, where as this ratio for automobiles
engines is around 0.5 and same SI aircraft engines reach 0.9 or more
Acceleration: The CI engines inherently produce the best acceleration since the injection system
offers direct control of the quantity of fuel injected, and a rapid positive means of charging this
quantity. A charge on the quantity of mixture supplied to the SI engine, on the other hand, is
accomplished through a relatively indirect control.
Reliability: Both CI and SI engine have been developed to the extent that they now are reliable
power plants. The CI engine has greater stamina and can generally stand rough duty. Operational
difficulties of the CI engines are usually concerned with such components as the costly injection
system or the complicated speed governor, whereas, in the SI engine, The ignition system or the
carburetor are inclined to create many of the difficulties.
Fuel Economy: Probably the greatest advantages occurring to the CI engines are better fuel
economy at the fuel economy at fuel and part load, as well as the safety of the fuel that can be
utilized.

1.3 Comparison of Fuel Economy and Fuel Used:


The CI engine is more economized than SI engine from the
standpoint of fuel consumption. Since the CI engine operates at higher compression ratios and the

14

Thermal efficiencies are higher, resulting in lower Specific fuel consumption or a greater Power
output per pound of fuel per hour.
At full throttle, the gain in specific fuel consumption for the CI engine over the SI engine
ranges around 10 to 25 percent.
At part throttle and at idling, the CI engine presents even more favorable relative fuel
consumption then the SI engine.
Under these Conditions, SI engine Specific fuel consumption rises rapidly, due primarily to
the throttling of the mixture. In the CI engine, the specific fuel consumption rises less rapidly, since
the fuel is injected directly and no throttling exists.
In addition to gaining through the lower fuel consumption, the CI engine utilizes fuels
which presently cost less than SI engine fuel, There by further reducing the relative operating fuel
expense.
Another, and very important, consideration advantageous to the use of the CI engine is the
reduced fuel fire Hazard.

1.4 Comparison of Other Operational Costs:


Initial cost of engine: due to the fact that the SI engine is not as sturdily built as the CI engine, and
since it has a less costly fuel supply system, The SI engine costs less initially then a comparable CI
engine
Maintenance Cost: The maintenance costs of the two engines types are generally about the same,
with the CI engine costs possibly slightly higher. Replacements of parts in CI injection system are
costly due to the close tolerances of involved.

15

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
In the past, many have tried to implement EGR in their vehicles later a fair number of car owners
disconnected their EGR systems in an attempt for better performance and some still do. The belief
is either EGR reduces power output; causes a build-up in the intake manifold, or believe that the
environmental impact of EGR outweighs the NOx emission reductions. Disconnecting an EGR
system is usually as simple as unplugging an electrically operated valve or inserting a ball bearing
into the vacuum line in a vacuum-operated EGR valve. In most modern engines, disabling the EGR
system will cause the computer to display a check engine light. In almost all cases, a disabled EGR
system will cause the car to fail an emissions test, and may cause the EGR passages in the cylinder
head and intake manifold to become blocked with carbon deposits, necessitating extensive engine
disassembly for cleaning.
In a typical automotive spark-ignited (SI) engine, 5 to 15 percent of the exhaust gas is routed back
to the intake as EGR. The maximum quantity is limited by the requirement of the mixture to sustain
a contiguous flame front during the combustion event; excessive EGR in an SI engine can cause
misfires and partial burns. Although EGR does measurably slow combustion, this can largely be
compensated for by advancing spark timing. The impact of EGR on engine efficiency largely
depends on the specific engine design, and sometimes leads to a compromise between efficiency
and NOx emissions. A properly operating EGR can theoretically increase the efficiency of gasoline
engines via several mechanisms:

Reduced throttling losses. The addition of inert exhaust gas into the intake system means
that for a given power output, the throttle plate must be opened further, resulting in
increased inlet manifold pressure and reduced throttling losses.

Reduced heat rejection. Lowered peak combustion temperatures not only reduce NOx
formation, it also reduces the loss of thermal energy to combustion chamber surfaces,
leaving more available for conversion to mechanical work during the expansion stroke.

16

Reduced chemical dissociation. The lower peak temperatures result in more of the released
energy remaining as sensible energy near TDC, rather than being bound up (early in the
expansion stroke) in the dissociation of combustion products. This effect is minor compared
to the first two.

It also decreases the efficiency of gasoline engines via at least one more mechanism:

Reduced specific heat ratio. A lean intake charge has a higher specific heat ratio than an
EGR mixture. A reduction of specific heat ratio reduces the amount of energy that can be
extracted by the piston.

Comparing to the SI engines, CI Engine performs well. EGR is typically not employed at high
loads because it would reduce peak power output. This is because it reduces the intake charge
density. EGR is also omitted at idle (low-speed, zero load) because it would cause unstable
combustion, resulting in rough idle.

In modern diesel engines, the EGR gas is cooled through a heat exchanger to allow the introduction
of a greater mass of re circulated gas. Unlike SI engines, diesels are not limited by the need for a
contiguous flame front; furthermore, since diesels always operate with excess air, they benefit from
EGR rates as high as 50% (at idle, where there is otherwise a very large amount of excess air) in
controlling NOx emissions.
Since diesel engines are UN throttled, EGR does not lower throttling losses in the way that it does
for SI engines (see above). However, exhaust gas (largely carbon dioxide and water vapor) has a
higher specific heat than air, and so it still serves to lower peak combustion temperatures; this aids
the diesel engine's efficiency by reduced heat rejection and dissociation.

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According to the survey on EGR in the SI Engines and CI Engines, The better result is obtained in
the CI Engines. So, we have taken the project on EGR in CI Engines.

2.1 Engine Performance Parameters:


In these, there are two categories, namely,
Dependant Parameters: Thermal efficiency, Brake power, torque, indicated power, Mechanical
efficiency, Brake specific fuel consumption etc.
Independent Parameters: Load, Speed, air-fuel ratio, Crank angle, Compression Ratio, Valve
Timing, Turbulence in Combustion Chamber, Mass of Inducted charge, heat losses, Dissociation,
Altitude Etc.
Brake Power:
The Brake Power is the useful power available at the Crank shaft or clutch shaft. The
Brake Power is less than the Indicated Power.
Mechanical energy losses due to friction, pumping power required driving auxiliaries and unaccounted the sum of all these losses, converted to power is called Friction Power (FP)
The remaining energy which is delivered to the drive shaft is useful energy for doing mechanical
work which is termed as Brake Power (B.P).
For calculating Brake Power, Torque is measured by coupling a device is called Dynamometer to
the engine Output shaft.
The Brake Power is expressed as

B.P=

HP;

Where
T=W*R, N.m;
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W=Load, N;
R=Radius, m;
N=Speed, rpm;
B.P is sometimes also expressed in terms of brake mean effective (bmep) in bar. If bmep is defined as
that theoretical constant pressure exerted during each power stroke of the engine to produce a
power output equal to the brake power.
Indicated Power:
The Indicated Power is the power actually developed inside the engine cylinder. It is measured with
the help of an indicator diagram obtained from an instrument known as Indicator. The Indicator
diagram is a graphical Representation of Pressure-Volume Variations during the working of the
Cycle.
Indicated Power (IP) = Brake Power (BP) + Friction Power (FP);
Friction Power is obtained from Williams line.
Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ith): It is defined as the ratio of heat equivalent to indicated work
to the heat energy supplied in fuel, thus

ith =

Or

ith =

Where
Mf = mass of fuel supplied to engine per minute.
19

LCV= lower calorific value Kj/Kg;


Brake Thermal Efficiency (bth): It is defined as the ration of heat equivalent to useful work to the
heat energy supplied to the engine in fuel,
Thus
bth =

Or

bth =
Where
= Brake power in K.W,
LCV= lower calorific value Kj/Kg of fuel
Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC): specific fuel consumption is one of the most important
parameter for the composition of the engines. It is defined as the ratio of amount of Kg of fuel used
per hour by the engine to the power produced by the engine. When SFC based on BP, it is called
Bsfc
Thus,
Bsfc=

Where Mf= mass of fuel in Kg/h;


When SFC is based on the I.P produced. It is called Indicated specific fuel consumption (I.S.F.C).
Thus
Isfc =

The value of brake specific fuel consumption is approximately about 0.27 kg/kWh for diesel
engines and 0.34 kg/kWh for petrol engines.

20

SFC shows how efficiently an engine is converting fuel into work.


Air Fuel Ratio (A/F) & Fuel Air Ratio (F/A): The A/F & F/A ratios are defined as the mass ratio
which shows the relative proportions of air and fuel in the combustion chamber. Thus

A/F (air fuel ratio) =

F/A (fuel air ratio) =

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CHAPTER 3
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION
Over recent past years, stringent emission legislations have been imposed on NOx, smoke
and particulate emissions emitted from automotive diesel engines worldwide.
Diesel engines are typically characterized by low fuel consumption and very low CO
emissions. However, the NOx emissions from diesel engines still remain high. Hence, in order to
meet the environmental legislations, it is highly desirable to reduce the amount of NOx in the
exhaust gas.
Diesel engines are predominantly used to drive tractors, heavy Lorries and trucks. Owing to
their low fuel consumption, they have become increasingly attractive for smaller Lorries and
passenger cars also. But higher NOx emissions from diesel engine remain a major problem in the
pollution aspect.
For reducing vehicular emissions, baseline technologies are being used which include direct
injection, turbo-charging, air-to-air inter-cooling, combustion optimization with and without swirl
support, multi-valve cylinder head, advanced high pressure injection system i.e. split injection or
rate shaping, electronic management system, lube oil consumption control etc.
However, technologies like exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), soot traps and exhaust gas after
treatment are essential to cater to the challenges posed by increasingly stringent environmental
emission legislations.

3.1 Description:
In Diesel Engine, Pollutants formation is a highly temperature dependant phenomenon and takes
place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore in order to

22

reduce the pollutants emission in the exhaust it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures
under control.
One simple way of reducing the pollutants emissions of Diesel engine is by late injection of
fuel into the combustion chamber.
This technique is effective but increases fuel consumption by 10-15 %, which necessitates
the use of more effective pollutant reduction technique. Like Exhaust Gas Re-circulation
(EGR).
Re- circulating part of the exhaust gas helps in reducing the pollutants, but appreciable particulate
emissions are at high loads, hence there is tradeoff between a NOx and smoke emissions.

3.2 EGR Technique for NOx Reduction:


EGR is a useful technique for reducing NOx, COx, and HC formation in the combustion chamber.
Exhaust consists of CO2; N2 and water vapors mainly. When a part of this exhaust gas is recirculated to the cylinder, it acts as diluents to the combusting mixture. This also reduces the O2
concentration in the combustion chamber. The specific heat of the EGR is much higher than fresh
air; hence EGR increases the heat capacity (specific heat) of the intake charge, thus decreasing the
temperature rise for the same heat release in the combustion chamber,

%EGR

* 100:

Another way to define the EGR ratio is by the use of CO2 concentration (Baert et al 1999),
EGR ratio =

23

Three popular explanations for the effect of EGR on NOx reduction are increased ignition delay,
increased heat capacity and dilution of the intake charge with inert gases.
The ignition delay hypothesis asserts that because EGR causes an increase in ignition delay, it has
the same effect as retarding the injection timing. The heat capacity hypothesis states that the
addition of the inert exhaust gas into the intake increases the heat capacity (specific heat) of the
non-reacting matter present during the combustion.
The increased heat capacity has the effect of lowering the peak combustion temperature. According
to the dilution theory, the effect of EGR on NOx is caused by increasing amounts of inert gases in
the mixture, which reduces the adiabatic flame temperature.
At high loads, it is difficult to employ EGR due to deterioration in diffusion combustion and this
may result in an excessive increase in smoke and particulate emissions.
At low loads, un-burnt hydrocarbons contained in the EGR would possibly re-burn in the mixture,
leading to lower un-burnt fuel in the exhaust and thus improved brake thermal efficiency. Apart
from this, hot EGR would raise the intake charge temperature, thereby influencing combustion and
exhaust emissions.
With the use of EGR, there is a trade-off between reduction in NOx and increase in soot, CO and
un-burnt hydrocarbons. A large number of studies have been conducted to investigate this. It is
indicated that for more than 50% EGR, particulate emissions increase significantly, and therefore
use of a particulate trap is recommended.
The change in oxygen concentration causes change in the structure of the flame and hence changes
the duration of combustion. It is suggested that flame temperature reduction is the most important
factor influencing NO formation. Figure 1 shows the reduction in NOx emission due to EGR at
different loads. Implementation of EGR in diesel engines has problems like (a) increased soot

24

emission, (b) introduction of particulate matter into the engine cylinders. When the engine
components come into contact with high velocity soot particulates, particulate abrasion may occur.
Sulphuric acid and condensed water in EGR also cause corrosion. Some studies have detected
damage on the cylinder walls due to the reduction in the oils lubrication capacity, which is
hampered due to the mixing of soot carried with the particulate laden re-circulated exhaust gas. This
necessitates the use of an efficient particular trap (Mehta et al 1994).
Studies have shown that EGR coupled with a high collection-efficiency particulate trap, controls
smoke, un-burnt hydrocarbon and NOx emissions simultaneously. The particulate trap, however,
needs to be regenerated since its pores get clogged by the trapped soot particles. Clogged soot traps
increase backpressure to the engine exhaust, thus affecting engine performance also. These traps
need to be regenerated from time to time using thermal or aerodynamic or electrostatic regeneration
techniques. Other methods of reducing the particulate emission from diesel engines include
multiple injections, supercharging and higher fuel injection pressure etc. The highest attention is
currently being paid to two self-regenerating systems: fuel additive-supported regeneration by using
cerium- or iron-based additives, and a continuous regeneration trap (CRT) using sulphur-free diesel
fuel.
During the last 20 years, plenty of research work has been done on EGR and its effects on the
engine performance in terms of fuel efficiency, volumetric efficiency, power generated etc. These
studies have been carried out at various loads, engine speed and variable engine parameters like
temperature and pressure, compression ratio etc.

3.3 Classification According to Different Factors:


3.3.1 Classification based on temperature:
(i) Hot Egr: Exhaust gas is re-circulated without being cooled, resulting in increased intake charge
temperature.

25

(ii) Fully Cooled Egr: Exhaust gas is fully cooled before mixing with fresh in take air using a
water-cooled heat exchanger. In this case, the moisture present in the exhaust gas may condense
and the resulting water droplets may cause undesirable effects inside the engine cylinder.
(iii) Partly Cooled Egr: To avoid water condensation, the temperature of the exhaust gas is kept
just above its dew point temperature.
3.3.2 Classification based on configuration:
(i) Long route system (LR): In an LR system the pressure drop across the air intake and the
stagnation pressure in the exhaust gas stream make the EGR possible. The exhaust gas velocity
creates a small stagnation pressure, which in combination with low pressure after the intake air,
gives rise to a pressure difference to accomplish EGR across the entire torque/speed envelop of the
engine.
(ii) Short route system (SR): These systems differed mainly in the method used to set up a
positive pressure difference across the EGR circuit.
Another way of controlling the EGR-rate is to use variable nozzle turbine (VNT). Most of the VNT
systems have single entrance, which reduce the efficiency of the system by exhaust pulse
separation. Cooled EGR should be supplied effectively. Lundquist and others used a variable
venturi, in which EGR-injector was allowed to move axially, thus varying the critical area was
used.
3.3.3 Classification based on pressure:
Two different routes for EGR, namely low-pressure and high-pressure route systems may be used.
(i) Low Pressure Route System: The passage for EGR is provided from downstream of the turbine
to the upstream side of the compressor.

26

It is found that by using the low pressure route method, EGR is possible up to a high load region,
with significant reduction in NOx. However, some problems occur, which influence durability,
prohibitionary high compressor outlet temperature and intercooler clogging.
(ii) High Pressure Route System: The EGR is passed from upstream of the turbine to downstream
of the compressor.
In the high pressure route EGR method, although EGR is possible in the high load
Regions, the excess air ratio decreases and fuel consumption increases remarkably.

27

CHAPTER 4
ELEMENTS OF EXPERIMENT
The experiment consists of the following equipments, the successive arrangements of equipments
can be seen in the below figure.

Piping

Orifice meter

Control valve

Manometer

Dynamometer

4.1 Piping
Piping helps in Re-circulating the Exhaust gas from the outlet to the Engine inlet along with the air
for the better performance.
These are the Instruments used for the Re-circulating the exhaust gas from the outlet.
CI Pipe of diameter 1 inch as outlet has diameter of 1 inches
Reducer T joint (1 inches to inches)
Reducer L joint (1 inches to inches)
Control valve (Ball Valve)
Brass Nipple

28

Fig 4.1(a) L- Bend

Fig 4.1(b) T- Joint

Fig 4.1(c) Nipple

The maximum Exhaust gas re-circulation is done is up to 30 % for the best performance of the
engine. Due to the Un-equal T- bends and L- joints to discharge gas few losses are to be considered
under experimentation.

4.1.1 Losses in pipes:


These are the following losses which can be observed in the pipes
1. Sudden expansion
2. Sudden contraction
3. Bending Losses

On considering the following losses are up to 3-5 % such that the maximum allowance can be
obtained is 25-27% which is in the safe region.

4.2 Control Valve: (Ball Valve)


Control valves are valves used mainly within industrial plants to control operating conditions such
as flow, pressure, temperature, and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in response
to signals received from controllers that compare a "set point" to a "process variable" whose value
is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions.

29

The

opening

or

closing

of

control

valves

is

done

by

means

of electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic systems. Positoners are used to control the opening or closing
of the actuator based on Electric, or Pneumatic Signals.
Ball Valve: A ball valve is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the
valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends
of the valve, flow will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the
valve, and flow is blocked. The handle or lever will be in line with the port position letting you
"see" the valve's position. The ball valve, along with the butterfly valve and plug valve, are part of
the family of quarter turn valves.
Types of ball valve:
There are four general body styles of ball valves: single body, split body, top entry, and welded.
There are four general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, reduced port, and v port.

A full port ball valve has an over sized ball so that the hole in the ball is the same size as
the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss. Flow is unrestricted, but the valve is larger.

Fig: 4.3 (a): Full port ball valve

In reduced port ball valves, flow through the valve is one pipe size smaller than the valve's
pipe size resulting in restricted flow.

30

Fig: 4.3 (b): reduced port ball valve

A v port ball valve has either a 'v' shaped ball or a 'v' shaped seat. This allows the orifice to
be opened and closed in a more controlled manner with a closer to linear flow characteristic.

Fig: 4.3(c): v port ball valve

A trunnion ball valve has a mechanical means of anchoring the ball at the top and the
bottom, this design is usually applied on larger and higher pressure valves (say, 4" and
above 600 psi and above).

Fig: 4.3(d): Trunnion ball valve

4.3 Orifice Meter:


An orifice meter is used to measure the discharge in a pipe. An orifice meter, in its simplest form,
consists of a plate having a sharp edged circular hole known as an orifice. This plate is fixed inside
a pipe s shown in figure
31

Fig: 4.4: Orifice Meter

A mercury manometer is inserted to know the difference of pressure between the


pipe and the throat.
Let
H= Reading on the mercury manometer,
P1= pressure at inlet,
V1= Velocity of fluid at inlet,
A1= Area of pipe at inlet, and
P2, V2, A2 = corresponding valves at throat,
Now applying Bernoullis Equation for inlet of the pipe and the throat,
Z1. (2g) + V12 + h1. (2g)= Z2. (2g) + V22 + h2. (2g)
(h1-h2)2.g = (V22 -V12) ---------------> 1

We know from the equation of continuity


A1.V1= A2.V2 ---------------------> 2
On solving both the equation we get
V2 =

32

----------------------->3

We know that the Discharge,


Q= co-efficient of orifice meter x A2.V2;
Q=

); ---------------------------->4

4.4 Manometer:
A manometer could also be referring to a pressure measuring instrument, usually limited to
measuring pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is often used to refer specifically to
liquid column hydrostatic instruments.
Liquid column gauges consist of a vertical column of liquid in a tube whose ends are exposed to
different pressures. The column will rise or fall until its weight is in equilibrium with the pressure
differential between the two ends of the tube.
A very simple version is a U-shaped tube half-full of liquid, one side of which is connected to the
region of interest while the reference pressure (which might be the pressure or a vacuum) is applied
to the other. The difference in liquid level represents the applied pressure. The pressure exerted by a
column of fluid of height h and density is given by the hydrostatic pressure equation, P = hg.
Therefore the pressure difference between the applied pressure Pa and the reference pressure Po in
a U-tube manometer can be found by solving

Pa Po = hg.

If the fluid being measured is significantly dense, hydrostatic corrections may have to be made for
the height between the moving surface of the manometer working fluid and the location where the
pressure measurement is desired.

33

Fig: 4.5: U- Tube Manometers

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Fig:4.6

34

CHAPTER 5
EXPERIMENTATION
The following experiments had been done in the process of calculating the efficiency of the diesel
engine.
5.1) EMISSION CONTROL TEST (At different speeds)

TABLE 5.1: READINGS OF EMISSION CONTROL TEST AT 1250 RPM:


Sl
no.

Speed

% of recirculation

Manometer readings

Emission

Rpm
H1
Mercury

H2
Water

COx
(gr/Km)

HC
ppm

3.3

0.64

2120

3.7

0.2

0.62

1960

10

3.7

1.2

0.61

1920

15

3.6

1.8

0.59

1910

20

3.6

2.7

0.59

1900

25

3.6

2.9

0.58

1910

30

3.6

3.1

0.58

1920

1250

35

TABLE 5.2: READINGS OF EMISSION CONTROL TEST AT 1200 RPM:


Sl
no.

Speed

% of recirculation

Manometer readings

Emission

Rpm
H1
Mercury

H2
Water

COx
(gr/Km)

HC
ppm

2.8

0.62

1890

0.4

0.60

1880

10

3.2

1.4

0.59

1875

15

2.2

0.58

1868

20

3.1

2.5

0.58

1860

25

3.2

2.7

0.578

1870

30

3.2

2.9

0.575

1880

1200

36

TABLE 5.3: READINGS OF EMISSION CONTROL TEST AT 1100 RPM:


Sl
no.

Speed

% of recirculation

Manometer readings

Emission

Rpm
H1
Mercury

H2
Water

COx
(gr/Km)

HC
ppm

2.6

0.69

1920

2.6

0.4

0.67

1900

10

2.7

1.3

0.66

1900

15

2.7

1.6

0.655

1880

20

2.9

2.2

0.65

1870

25

2.3

0.645

1870

30

3.2

2.6

0.64

1880

1100

37

TABLE 5.4: READINGS OF EMISSION CONTROL TEST AT 1000 RPM:


Sl
no.

Speed

% of recirculation

Manometer readings

Emission

Rpm
H1
Mercury

H2
Water

COx
(gr/Km)

HC
ppm

2.5

0.69

1920

2.4

0.4

0.68

1910

10

2.6

0.69

1910

15

2.7

1.7

0.66

1910

20

2.5

1.9

0.66

1900

25

2.6

2.1

0.65

1910

30

2.4

2.1

0.6

1920

1000

38

5.1.1) MODEL CALCULATIONS:


Amount of exhaust gas taken
Q=

);

Coefficient of discharge Cd
=0.5;
d1= Diameter of Inlet pipe
= 38.1
d2= Diameter of outlet Orifice = 19
A1 = Area of inlet

mm;
mm;

= d12/4
= [3.14 x (0.0381)2]/ 4
= 1.073 x 10-3 m2;

A2= Area of Outlet = d22/4


= [3.14 x (0.019)2]/ 4
=2.834 x 10-4 m2;
Q1 =

= 0.5 x

x[

= 0.4066 m3/sec;
Q2 =

= 0.5 x

x[

= 0.0991 m3/sec;
%RE-CIRCULATION =
=
=

* 100
;
= 24.32 %

39

5.1.2) GRAPHS: EMISSION CONTROL TEST at Different speeds

Graph 1: EMISSION CONTROL TEST at 1250 rpm Graph 2: EMISSION CONTROL TEST at 1200 rpm

40

Graph 3: EMISSION CONTROL TEST at 1100 rpm Graph 4: EMISSION CONTROL TEST at 1000 rpm

41

5.2.1 CONSTANT SPEED LOAD TEST WITHOUT EGR:


Table 5.5: CONSTANT SPEED LOAD TEST WITHOUT EGR at 1200 rpm:
Sl
no.

Loa
d

Time
for 5
cc of
fuel
(Sec)

H
BP
(h1-h2)
(cm)

(Kg)

TFC

IP

FP

(HP) (Kg/h (HP) (HP)


r)

SFC

Efficiency

(Kg/
Mecha
Kwh) n-ical
%

Indicat
ed
Therm
al
%

Brake
Therma
l
%

46

1.8

0.32

1.8

1.8

35.88

0.5

38

1.8

0.55

0.398

2.35

1.8

0.833

23.66

39.80

9.41

34

1.8

1.11

0.423

2.92

1.8

0.514

38.29

43.99

16.84

24

1.8

2.23

0.6

4.03

1.8

0.364

55.39

42.9

23.76

2.5

18

1.8

2.79

0.8

4.59

1.8

0.389

60.81

36.63

22.28

15.5

1.8

3.35

0.929

5.15

1.8

0.376

65.06

35.39

23.02

3.5

13.5

1.8

3.91

1.067

5.71

1.8

0.370
9

68.48

34.14

23.38

42

5.2.1.1) MODEL CALCULATION:


WITHOUT EGR: At 3.5 kg
BRAKE POWER
BP

= Load on the engine;

= Radius of Brake drum;

= Speed of the engine;

Where T = W xgxr = 3.5 x 9.81 x 0.136= 4.66 N-m;


BP

3.911

HP;

FUEL CONSUMPTION:
Specific Gravity of Fuel

k=0.8;

Density of fuel

d =0.8x103 kg/m3;

Volume of Fuel Consumed v=5x10-6 m3;


m= vxd= 5x10-6 x 0.8x103= 4x10-3 Kg;

Mass of Fuel

Time taken for this volume t= 13.7 sec;


FC = m/t = (4x10-3)/ 13.7;

Fuel consumption

Theoretical Fuel consumption = TFC= mf = FCx3600


=2.95x10-4x3600
= 1.067 Kg/h.
Friction power

FP

1.8 HP (from the Williams Line);

Indicated power

IP

= BP+ FP;
=3.911+1.8= 5.711 HP.

43

SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION:


SFC= TFC/ BP =

= 0.3709 kg/K
mech =mechanical efficiency

X100;

100

= 68.48 %;
ith =Indicated thermal efficiency =

100;

100;

= 34.14 %;

bthe =break thermal efficiency =

= 23.38 %

44

5.2.1.2) Graphs: CONSTANT SPEED LOAD TEST WITHOUT EGR

Graph 5: BP Vs TFC

45

Graph 6: 1) BP Vs

Graph 7: 1) BP Vs

2) BP Vs

2) BP Vs

46

47

Table 5.6: CONSTANT SPEED LOAD TEST WITH EGR at 1200 rpm:

38

0.7

0.378

1.5

1.5

25.31

0.5

30

0.7

0.55

0.48

2.08

1.5

1.16

26.72

27.75

7.41

23

0.7

1.11

0.636

2.61

1.5

0.774

42.79

26.18

11.20

20

0.7

2.23

0.72

3.75

1.5

0.437

59.83

33.09

19.80

2.5

16

0.7

2.79

0.9

4.29

1.5

0.4379

65.06

30.44

19.807

12

0.7

3.35

1.2

4.83

1.5

0.486

69.09

25.80

17.82

3.5

10.7

0.7

3.91

1.345

5.41

1.5

0.467

72.27

25.66

18.55

5.2.2.1) WITH EGR:


At 3.5 kg
BRAKE POWER
BP

= Load on the engine;

= Radius of Brake drum;


48

= Speed of the engine;

Where T = W xgxr = 3.5 x 9.81 x 0.136= 4.66 N-m;


BP =

3.911

HP;

FUEL CONSUMPTION:
Specific Gravity of Fuel

k=0.8;

Density of fuel

d=0.8x103 kg/m3;

Volume of Fuel Consumed

v=5x10-6 m3;

Mass of Fuel

m= vxd= 5x10-6 x 0.8x103= 4x10-3 Kg;

Time taken for this volume

t= 10.7 sec;
FC= m/t = (4x10-3)/ 10.7;

Fuel consumption

Theoretical Fuel consumption =TFC= mf = FCx3600


=3.738x10-4x3600
= 1.345 Kg/h.

Friction power
Indicated power

FP
IP

=1.5 HP (from the Williams Line);


= BP+ FP;
=3.911+1.5 = 5.411 HP.

SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION:


SFC= TFC/ BP =
= 0.467 kg/Kwh;
mech = mechanical efficiency

=
=

X100;
100

49

= 72.27 %;

ith =Indicated thermal efficiency =

100;

100;

= 25.66 %;

bthe =break thermal efficiency

= 18.55 %

50

6.2.2.2) Graphs: CONSTANT SPEED LOAD TEST WITH EGR

Graph 8: BP Vs TFC

51

Graph 9: 1) BP Vs

Graph 10: 1) BP Vs

2) BP Vs

2) BP Vs

52

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS

It is observed that the amount of the exhaust emission i.e. COx is 0.58 g/Km, HC is 1920
ppm at Engine speed of 1250 rpm
It is observed that the amount of the exhaust emission i.e. COx is .575 g/Km, HC is 1880
ppm at Engine speed of 1200 rpm
It is observed that the amount of the exhaust emission i.e. COx is 0.64 g/Km, HC is 1880
ppm at Engine speed of 1100 rpm
It is observed that the amount of the exhaust emission i.e. COx is 0.65 g/Km, HC is 1920
ppm at Engine speed of 1000 rpm
Minimum amount of Pollutants observed at 1200 rpm.
From Constant speed load test at 1200 rpm, Mechanical efficiency is increased by 3.79 %
with Using Exhaust gas recirculation when compared to the load test without EGR.
From Constant speed load test at 1200 rpm, Indicated Thermal efficiency is decreased by
8.48 % with Using Exhaust gas recirculation when compared to the load test without EGR.
From Constant speed load test at 1200 rpm, Brake Thermal efficiency is decreased by 4.83
% with Using Exhaust gas recirculation when compared to the load test without EGR.
When Exhaust Gas Recirculation is used to control emissions, Fuel Consumption has
increased.

53

REFERENCES

Fundamentals of Internal Combustion Engines, By Paul W.Gill, James H. Smith, and


Jr.Eugene J.Ziurys 4th revised edition, 1959.

Thermodynamics and Heat Engines, By R.Yadav Vol (ii), Third Revised Edition,
1981.

Internal Combustion Engines, By V.Ganeshan, 4th Revised Edition.

Automobile engineering, By Dr. Kirpal Singh vol (ii), Tenth Edition, 2007.

Heywood, John B., "Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals," McGraw Hill, 1988.

Van Basshuysen, Richard, and Schfer, Fred, "Internal Combustion Engine Handbook,"
SAE International, 2004.

"Bosch Automotive Handbook," 3rd Edition, Robert Bosch GmbH, 1993.

54