1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

The pedosphere is the biotic / non-biotic link between
the lithosphere and the biosphere;
there is a two-way movement of water between the
pedosphere and the hydrosphere;
there is an exchange of atmospheric gases with the pedosphere;
atmospheric processes influence the pedosphere
(e.g. through soil erosion);
atmospheric factors will affect soil forming processes
(e.g leaching, weathering);
soil organisms are part of the biosphere but also part of the soil;
biosphere contributes detrital / organic matter to the soil;

5 max

Sandy soils are characterised by large grains and large pore spaces
whereas clay soils are characterised by small grains and small pore spaces;
sand soils are therefore freely drained (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but are subject to water logging);
clay soils have a better nutrient content due to the clay humus complex
whereas sand soils do not;
sand soils tend to have a blocky or crumb structure favouring root
growth whereas clay soils tend to have a platy structure which can
inhibit root growth;
clay soils are traditionally more difficult to work / plow (heavy and sticky
when wet, hard when dry), sandy soils are generally easier to work;
clay soils heat and cool quickly, sandy soils exhibit a slower
thermal response;

5 max

Award [1] for naming systems. e.g. N. America cereal farming
nomadic herding in Tanzania
Commercial measures tent to be large scale;
high technology;
and may be supported by government initiatives;
examples of measures:
addition of fertilizers;
crop rotation;
contour plowing;
plowing technology which leaves roots in soil;
strip cultivation;
tree belts as wind breaks;

1

subsistence measures tend to be small scale;
low technology;
ad hoc;
based on traditional practise;
and may be supported by grass-roots initiatives;
example of measures:
terraces;
application of organic fertilizers (manure);
debris dams;
shifting cultivation;
tree planting;
agroforestry;

7 max
[17]

2.

(a)

(i)

the mass of organic material in organisms or ecosystems,
usually per unit area;

1

dry weight measurements are taken;
these figures are then extrapolated to estimate total biomass;

2

(i)

tropical rainforest;

1

(ii)

ideal growing conditions due to high temperatures (typically 28 °C);
and high rates of precipitation (typically over 2000 mm p.a.);
continuous growing season;
due to geographical location in equatorial area with sun
directly overhead;
for much of the year and energy of sun therefore concentrated
in this zone;

3

biomass is per unit area, productivity is production per unit time;
NPP is the quantity of biomass potentially available to
consumers in an ecosystem;

2

(i)

temperature deciduous woodland;

1

(ii)

deep humus means lots of organic matter and this leads to greater
fertility than acid humus (due to pine needles), therefore
coniferous is less fertile;
this soil has less leaching than the temperate coniferous
– i.e. fewer minerals washed out;
and parent material not as weathered as in tropical rainforest;
therefore likely to be contributing more minerals;

(ii)

(b)

(iii)

(c)

3 max
[13]

2

3.

(a)

(i)

1

X
(ii)

(b)

(i)

(ii)

(c)

(d)

Y

population growth will eventually slow down as food supply
becomes a limiting factor;
population growth exponentially (geometric rate);
and food supply grows arithmetically / population
growth outstrips food supply increase;

1

2 max

as population grows more and more babies are born
and each one is able to have children and so
the rate of growth accelerates;
food supply does not growth as rapidly, this may be due
to a number of factors e.g. limits to soil fertility / availability
of technology / patterns of land ownership;

2

To obtain marks, candidates must refer to a specific named farming
which may be terrestrial or aquatic e.g. shifting cultivation,
South East Asia.
possible improvements could be in:
farming inputs e.g. green revolution;
irrigation;
storage or distribution;
social or organizational changes e.g. in land tenure or
cooperative harvesting;

3 max

introduce and encourage contraception;
setting up family planning clinics;
compulsory sterilization;
advertising campaigns;
making abortion legal;
cutting maternity benefits;
education of women to have greater personal
and economic independence;

2 max

3

(e)

attitudes to contraception e.g. religious objections;
traditional societies and the desire for male offspring;
early marriage ages;
and the desire to appear fertile;
lack of other opportunities for women;
Credit can be given for the use of examples / case
studies to illustrate these points.

3 max

[14]

4.

(a)

6
In s o la tio n
1972000

In s o la tio n
185000

O pen sea

F jo rd
3 4 7 0 P h y to p la n k to n

F a rm e d s h rim p

847

461
K aw ai

S a lm o n
26
4 .3

410

6 .2

572

In u it

4 .1 M a n a g in g s a lm o n

1 2 .5 O th e r h u m a n a c tiv itie s
1 4 M a n a g in g s h rim p fa rm

F is h in g fo r
k a w a i 6 .7

Award [1] for each two correct labels.

(b)

(i)

(ii)

the quantity of organic matter produced or solar energy
fixed, by photosynthesis in green plants per unit area
per unit time;

1

net primary productivity is GPP less the biomass / energy
lost by plants through respiration;

1

4

(iii)

(c)

nutrient and mineral availability;
temperauture;

kaway

2

847 – 572
× 100 = 32.5% ;
847

461 – 410
× 100 = 11.1% ;
461
kaway is more efficient;
salmon

(d)

3 max

in terrestrial systems most food is harvested from relatively
low tropic levels, but in aquatic systems most food is
harvested from higher trophic levels;
energy conversions along the food chain may be more
efficient in aquatic systems;
initial fixing or available solar energy by primary producers
tend to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection
of light by water;

3

(e)

salmon is a source of income as well as a food source;

1

(f)

technology likely to be simpler;
methods likely to be more traditional;
environmental impact will probably be smaller;
more likely to be sustainable in the long term;

3 max
[20]

5.

(a)

(b)

use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration;
and minimizes damage to the environment;
Give credit if concept of replenishable capital is mentioned.

2

Give full credit for either a brief discussion of several human
actions or a full discussion of one. Credit should be given
for use of examples / case studies.
Allow [5] for how resource has been managed unsustainably
and [5] for consequences for ecosystems.

5

soil resources
human actions could include:
overgrazing;
deforestation;
unsustainable irrigation;
land pollution;
acid deposition;
Or a more detailed discussion of one or more of these.

(c)

5 max

consequences could include:
soil degradation;
loss of soil structure;
desertification;
soil erosion;
loss of organic matter and consequences for primary productivity;
effects of acid deposition on nutrient content of soils;
loss of soil organisms;

5 max

water resources
human actions could include abstraction of ground water;
pollution;
eutrophication;
increased demand for water;
wastage of water resources;
Or a detailed discussion of one or more of these.

5 max

consequences could include:
loss of habitat;
role of water in soil formation and consequences for soil formation
if water shortage occurs (e.g. increased rates of salinisation;
increased rates of soil erosion as water table is lowered);
eutrophication consequences on aquatic ecosystem;
impact of pollutants on aquatic fauna (e.g. mutations, progressive,
concentration of pollutants along the food chain);
impact of pollutants on flora e.g. impact of acid rain on coniferous forests;

5 max

Soil resources
suggest possible soil conservation methods:
soil conditioners;
wind reduction techniques;
cultivation techniques;
efforts to stop plowing marginal lands;
crop rotation;
Credit should be given if reference is made to
specific farming systems.

5 max

6

making it hard to calculate the carrying capacity for human populations.OR Water resources suggest more sustainable practices. in the areas of recycling and remanufacturing. Credit should be given for the use of specific examples to support these statements. with respect to eutrophication. Credit should be given if reference is made to specific case studies. 5 max [20] 6.g. 5 max 7 . technological developments have enabled humans to substitute one resource for another if that resource becomes limiting (e. can increase carrying capacity. e.g. pollution monitoring or control. increased levels of technological development (associated with MEDCs for example) tend to be associated with larger ecological footprints. reducing water use. e. the ecological footprint of an EMDC is likely to be larger then their land area. (a) (b) carrying capacity – the maximum number of people that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. metering water.g. ecological footprint – the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living / the measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population. improvements in transports have enabled humans to import resources from outside their immediate environment increasing their local carrying capacity. 4 technology development give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. with alternative fuel resources). technological innovations. and the assimilation of all wastes. whereas the footprint of an ELDC is likely to be smaller than their land area. thus many economists argue that human carrying capacity can be expanded continuously without necessarily increasing the impact (load) on the environment. recycling.

and promotes stability. Credit should be given if specific case studies are used to illustrate these points. without internal balance an ecosystem would spiral out of control. Credit should be given for answers which are balanced i. 8 max [20] 7. a vicious cycle exists where population control will not be effective unless poverty and inequitable resource use is addresses first. population pressure can be lead to resources being misused.(c) Clearly this question can be answered in a variety of ways. without negative feedback no ecosystem could be self-sustaining. 1 most ecosystems contain inbuilt checks and balances. in the sense that many resource management problems are that there are insufficient resources for the available population.g. water resources are not distributed evenly across the globe) and therefore more equitable distribution is arguably what is required rather than population control. all use of oil is ultimately unsustainable no matter what size the population is. e.e. however. e. the largest use of resources if found in the most economically developed countries of the world. reducing total population size would therefore be a solution of sorts. 1 feedback that amplifies/increases change (it leads to exponential deviation away from equilibrium).g. excessive population growth arguably occurs as a result of poverty (associated with inadequate resources). or the fastest population growth rates. resource management problems are often to do with distribution of resources (e. some resources are finite and therefore no amount of population control will make a difference ultimately to the availability of that resource. these countries may not have the largest populations.g. (a) (i) (ii) (b) feedback that tends to damp down/neutralize/counteract any deviation from an equilibrium. 1 max 8 . candidate cannot gain full marks if only one side is argued. soil being farmed too intensively / forests being cut too rapidly.

paying off heavy foreign debts means less money left over for inward investment. cultural inertia. culture may not have a philosophy of sustainability (consumerist culture of west or nomadic culture of Africa). countries’ resources are diverted to armies rather than invested in education/agriculture/development projects. short-term thinking predominates but sustainable development is a long-term goal. (a) use of a resource at a rate which allows for natural regeneration. one or two correct [1]. [1] for both factors and [1] each for brief description of each factor.g.  total biomass   total biomass  at time t  1   at time t  energy energy     (b) SY =  (c) A range of answers may be acceptable e. energy / e le c tr ic ity w a rm w a te r 2 max [5] 8. war.(c) sm oke ste a m / w a te r v a p o u r / w a te r coal c o ld w a te r Three correct [2]. national debt. population expansion. more resources must be put into sustaining the population rather than development. whilst minimizing damage to the environment. political unrest. (d) (i) 2 1 3 max renewable natural capital is natural resources that have a 9 .

enhanced levels of N and P leads to increase in algal growth/algal blooms.g. 10 . –1 add more fertilizer. 1 2 max 3 max 3 changing agricultural practice. consumed by animals (as a constituent of plant material) and removed by the animal from the field.g. contour plowing. leached away. e. [1] for each column. –1 = 4 kg ha (units needed). 2 ryegrass: inputs – outputs = 298 – 304. (ii) atmosphere: lost as nitrogen gas from the soil surface and plants. water quality decreases. plant wheat/maize/other crops. plant legumes {e. 1 (i) 30 × 70 = 2100 kg ha . (i) (ii) The answer should clearly describe the process of eutrophication. 2 [10] 9. 2 (ii) Renewable/replenishable Non-renewable food crops oil timber gas wind coal solar natural ore soil groundwater Mark vertically. (a) (b) (c) (d) (i) maize: inputs – outputs = 298 – 294. so less oxygen for other organisms. as algal blooms are decomposed by bacteria. plant crops in rotation. –1 = –6 kg ha (units needed). 2 (ii) ryegrass: produces a net loss of nitrogen from the soil.sustainable yield/harvest  their natural productivity. clover). different crops. respiration leads to diminishing oxygen levels. whereas non-renewable natural capital is natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment.

treating drainage water (removing N and P). and the clay humus complex for mineral retention. blood worm. Gammarus. should inform decision making. information and suggestions in EIA are often not acted upon. Asellus. adopting different fertilizer (synthetic. Give credit for references to actual EIA. and good drainage.). silt and clay particles. reference to the Trent biotic index or similar. peppered moth. polluted and unpolluted sites should be compared. oxygen enrich water course. rat tailed maggot. slow release). organism can be used as an indicator. by abundance of organism (either high or lower levels than expected)/ by colour of moths’ wings etc. 4 max 7 max 11 . harvest (remove) algae. baseline study . often all impacts are not identified.. should contain non-technical summary.important to know what the physical and biological environment is like. 3 max [20] 10. 3 max loam soils contain a good balance of sand. etc. water flea. there should be monitoring of environmental conditions during and after development.g. (a) (b) named organism (e. stonefly larvae. clean up and re-oxygenate water course. there should be an understanding of the development in terms of impact. therefore have airspaces for root penetration. and water retention.(e) timing fertilizer application to minimise impact. often difficult to put together a complete baseline study due to lack of data. there should be an assessment of impacts during and after development.

long-term change model.g. controlled culling/hunting of certain crocodile species now being considered. monitoring can be used to “police” the system and ensure non-infringement of standards. to be detected. trophies. caused by definitive environmental catastrophes e.(c) research provides baseline data. monitoring enables changes as a result of e. endangered because of habitat (forest) loss due to agriculture.. research provides data as an educational tool making society aware of what is happening to the environment. rights of species). the most notable example being the extinctions caused by glaciation. no longer endangered because of education (no longer seen as “evil”). climate induced change is the most likely cause.g. ban on hunting. volcanic eruptions. human guilt of allowing this to happen. pollution. loss of food source as traditional food source is being used by humans. and due to habitat degradation (loss of water quality). meat and trophies. animals/plants died from both the initial event and the short-term environmental turmoil that followed.g. meteorite strikes. medicine. was endangered due to excessive hunting for skins. legislative protection. ecological role is as top carnivore. research provides an understanding of complex interrelationships in ecosystems and enables them to be managed more sustainably.g. crocodile (now removed from endangered list). earthquakes etc. destroyed because regarded as a nuisance/pest. ecological role is as top carnivore. tiger (endangered). without research and monitoring it is difficult to argue objectively or legally that an environment is under threat. and due to threat to humans and livestock. 7 max 12 . e. loss would lead to an increase in herbivorous mammals. gradual environmental change leading to gradual species extinction yet apparent in a rock record (that provides a condensed view of time). hunting for hides. loss would lead to imbalance in food pyramid. ethical issues surrounding loss (rights of future generations. (b) 4 max e. (a) catastrophic extinction events. 6 Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 11. past extinctions occurred suddenly over relatively short time periods.

Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 12. captive breeding enables higher rates of reproductive success. however. enable “how much” not “why” questions to be answered. small genetic pool. helping management outside zoos. wide base indicates a high birth rate and expanding population.g. captive animals unable to adapt to life back in the wild. education of public through visits may make them more likely to support conservation campaigns. government policies. gender imbalances can be seen. proportions of fertile population can be seen. number of offspring surviving to adulthood is higher so species numbers increase more effectively. genetic monitoring can take place. arguments against zoos ethical arguments against keeping animals in captivity for profit. poor conditions or treatment in zoos leading to physiological and psychological problems with the animals. 6 max personal justification (needs to be more than just arguments for or against). conserving species is just used as an excuse. allow estimate of population numbers. studying species so understanding improves. use of contraception. the pyramids do not give specific information about socio-economic conditions. holding species while habitats are restored. all of these factors will affect population growth. benefit of artificial insemination.(c) arguments for zoos individual organisms are protected in a controlled environment. (a) age-sex pyramids are useful because they allow patterns to be clearly seen. 6 max 13 . e.

it is the inverse of carrying capacity. curbing population growth will produce a demographic population that is top-heavy (old people predominate) and dependent. ecological footprints tend to increase in size with socio-economic development. population growth is an indicator of an expanding resource base. [3 max] for discussions. arguments against population control goes against tradition and culture. as technology advances resources are used more efficiently. ethically it is wrong to overpopulate the planet (what right have we to disproportionately consume resources?). population control by society/government is an infringement on basic human freedom. 6 max Give credit for use of examples.g. smaller family size allows for greater/higher standard of living measured in capital resources.(b) the area of land (and water) required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. hunter-gatherer in Tanzania have a smaller footprint than urban population of New York. (c) 5 max arguments for population control population growth is not sustainable even with an expanding resource base. forced population control doesn’t always work. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14 . larger families are vital in a society where family labour is essential to domestic and economic survival. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and to assimilate all its wastes. Give credit for examples e. [2 max] for definition. therefore environment will be able to support a larger population. populations at a lower economic level have footprints that are easier to define (fewer resources used from outside their immediate area). technological advancement produces a larger footprint as more resources are needed and more waste is produced. greater environmental pressure on the planet is inevitable.

cultural inertia . environment later.9 % (accept 16 %). monitoring water quality in remote rural areas can be very difficult. 2 3 max 15 .whether or not a country can pay for sanitation and water purification. the Aral Sea. LEDCs: not enough protein. evaporation rates will change.reluctance to change the way in which resources have always been used.13. and local farming and fishing industries collapsed. high % of protein from animals. water was taken and used to irrigate cotton fields by the Soviet government. seasonality will vary which could be significant in water supply. protein mainly non-meat.4 % (accept 44 %). technological factors – if the technology is available. 6 max global warming will lead to changes in global water budget. MEDCs: eat more calories/energy intake higher than they need. this has had a knock-on effect on local communities as water supplies were decimated. LEDCs 15.g. often Governments will be reluctant to impose limits if multinational companies will then be deterred from locating there. (a) (b) (c) e. 6 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14. this has not happened in the Aral Sea which has been shrinking in size due to excessive removal of water from feeder rivers. Former Soviet Union. the political structure might favour short-term profits rather than long-term environmental protection. and pollution of remaining water resources. MEDCs: eat a lot of protein. increased flood risks in certain areas. (a) (i) (ii) MEDCs 44. and expanding desert zones with water shortage. sustainable use of water resources means using them at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment. LEDCs: do not eat enough calories/energy intake too low. with increased melting of glacial ice and ice caps. 5 max economic factors will be central . high rates of evaporation together with high applications of chemical fertilizers led to salinization. and will cause changes in precipitation (amounts and distribution). the political priority might be development first.

litter store is larger in the woodland. 1 max wind offshore technology is still at the experimental stage. and indirectly through the nitrogen fixing action of leguminous crops.g. Both needed for [1]. and may use animals for milk but not meat. 1 gas is cheap because it is relatively plentiful. legumes and fertilizers are additional inputs in mixed farming. no beef or pork) less likely to be an issue in MEDCs. input dissolved in rain is not shown for mixed farming. social expectations in MEDCs that meat will be an integral part of the diet. large output in mixed farming as harvested crops/livestock. waste can be burned directly to generate energy e. easily disrupted by rough seas. Accept lower if justification given in (ii) is appropriate e. burning straw. (iii) additional nutrients are added directly to the soil through fertilizers. e. can interrupt shipping lines. 3 max 1 3 max 2 [14] 15. 16 . new reserves discovered. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (c) cheapest = gas. most expensive = wind offshore. price subsidised by governments to enable fossil fuels to compete with renewables. many families in LEDCs are subsistence farmers. soil fertility for farming may be better in MEDCs so yields higher. (i) the biomass in Figure 3 is all the living material in the ecosystem.g. especially more expensive food. better technology. it can be burned directly without the need for refining. meat. 1 max organic waste decomposes and gives off methane gas which can be burned. better distribution systems in MEDCs so people have access to fresh food. 2 (i) 1 likely to be much higher.g. technology is already in place to access the gas and burn it in existing gas fired power stations.g. (ii) biomass store is larger in the woodland. religious restrictions (e.(iii) (b) greater wealth in MEDCs enables people to buy enough food.

easiest/most accessible resources will already have been mined. advantages: HEP does not involve release of pollutants. cost of building dams may be high leading to huge debts. in LEDCs food production used as a way to generate foreign currency. disadvantages: vast areas may be flooded involving loss of habitats. irrigation or fishing.e. environmental taxes to compensate for global warming will make fossil fuels more expensive. as more and more land is used for settlement and industry. may disrupt fish migratory paths. (a) increase in population growth as death rates lowered due to better medical care. increasing need to intensify production on existing farm land. 4 max 2 [14] 16. dams silt up. will not run out). farmland and/or displacement of people.(ii) (d) as stocks become depleted. (e) 2 max the more renewable energy resources that are used. desire for food security in turbulent political times. relatively cheap to run (once initial construction completed). may lead to increased erosion rates downstream. [2 max] for advantages and [2 max] for disadvantages. because in calculating ecological footprint amount of land required for absorbing waste carbon dioxide from fossil fuels is included. dams may be multipurpose e. dams may restrict flows of sediment affecting ecosystems or farming downstream. leaving resources most difficult to access which are more costly to reach. turbines can be switched on whenever energy is needed. for leisure. economics of food production systems mean that food production is a business and subsidies may guarantee prices no matter how much is produced. the smaller the ecological footprint of a population. 4 max 17 .g. renewable source (i. increased wealth means people are consuming more (sometimes more than they need). scarcity of resources will push costs up.

[4] for each problem. terracing. 2 max 18 . would point to “success” stories like Canada and Scandinavia who have good environmental records and are economically developed.g. this occurred during the 1930s in the US due to intensive farming on the prairies. addressing strategies related to a particular problem. e. depend on the problems chosen. organic farming methods applied and marketed effectively to consumers to compensate for higher production costs. specific strategies to reduce soil erosion e. a general answer: use of natural fertilizers (e. soil erosion: use of heavy machinery leads to compaction of soil. keeping stores of genetic material to ensure species diversity is not lost. (c) 8 max Answers may be general. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 17. controlling the amount of fertilizers that are applied to ensure excess is not washed into water bodies. (a) technocentrist because they tend to argue that economic development should precede environmental protection. and argue that society can find solutions for environmental problems through technology which comes when the economy is strong. manure) rather than chemical fertilizers. agro-forestry to reduce soil erosion. biological pest control rather than chemical control.(b) Answer will. e. organic material is gone and the fertility of the soil is reduced.g. even more erosion likely if wind breaks (hedgerows and walls) are removed. leads to lower yields and a vicious cycle as remaining soil may be even more intensively farmed by farmers to compensate. top soil is more easily removed by the agents of erosion (wind or water). of course.g. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies. encouraging polyculture to reduce vulnerability to disease. leading to the dust bowl as vast quantities of soil were blown away. so soil structure is lost.g. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies. covering a variety of strategies or more specific. once top soil is lost.

indigenous tribes in Amazonia/street kids recycling waste. surely we can and should learn from the mistakes made by richer countries?. e.g. people in poverty will often be forced to act with short-term perspective e.g.g. US. Scandinavia. loss of species diversity once gone its gone.g.(b) Arguments in favour of the statement: costly to change technology to more environmentally sustainable forms e.g. new power stations or investment in renewable technologies such as solar. people in poverty are often more intimately dependent on their environment – vital to protect it to help them. so if they set environmental controls they will lose jobs and income vital for development. UK. it is not fair to expect LEDCs to protect the environment. unsustainable use of the environment will only bring short-term economic growth not long-term economic growth. Japan. (very anthropocentric view) what about the rights of other living species to be unmolested?. often countries with best record of environmental protection are the most developed economically e. often LEDCs rely on weak pollution laws to attract multinationals to locate there. environment is the source of our resources for development so it is vital that the two go hand in hand – sustainable development. unsustainable use of forests in order to survive.g. rights to emit CO2 for example can be bought and sold (richer countries can afford to buy the right to emit more CO 2) which has implications for industrial development. environmental damage will have a knock-on effect on human societies that cannot wait until everyone has developed before we address it e. often the most sensible users of the environment are people who are considered “undeveloped economically”. Arguments against: some of the most economically developed countries have huge ecological footprints and are very wasteful e. as richer countries didn’t when they were going through their industrial revolutions. 10 max 19 .

e. preserving diversity. at the Antarctic stations in studying the ozone hole. efficient nutrient recycling. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 18. slap” educational campaign in Australia. “slip. competitive ecosystem results in many specialised niches and high diversity. slop. role of scientists e. ideal growing conditions – hot and wet all year round.g. local campaigns to encourage sunscreen use e.(c) Responses will depend on the choice of environmental issue but for full marks candidates should be able to name specific groups e. even during ice ages pockets of forest remained. issue: depletion of stratospheric ozone UNEP’s involvement in forging specific international agreements.g.g. 20 . 4 max Give credit if specific value for rainforest diversity is quoted. high in species diversity because they are ancient ecosystems – diversity has had a chance to build up over millions of years. discussion of steps taken by national governments to comply with international agreements. actual NGOs and international bodies rather than simply identify broad groups such as “local people” and “charities”. role of NGOs and pressure groups in monitoring. raising awareness and lobbying for solutions. so wide diversity of plants which support rest of the food chain.g. (a) tropical rainforests contain a large proportion of the world’s species.

ethical right or value of different species to exist unmolested (deep ecology). [7] for degradation by human activities. all of these make coral more vulnerable to natural threats such as disease/crown of thorns starfish/increased sea temperatures due to El Niño. overfishing can disrupt the balance of species in the food chain. make water cloudy reducing productivity.g. resource for future generations. and now recognised by UNEP too. or industrial products e.g. Australia. or breaking bits off for souvenirs. gums and rubber. ice cream flavours. nuts.). which has knock-on effects on the fish species which depend on the reef for food. protection and nurseries for young. (The measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and assimilation of all wastes. human activities such as tourism. 1 21 . [1] for naming case study. fruits. global warming increases sea temperatures leading to coral bleaching. coral very fragile and easily damaged by divers’ fins or touching coral. e. sewage and pollution from coastal settlements (such as Cairns) can lead to excessive nutrients and algal blooms.(b) Specific named area must be included or candidates cannot gain full marks.g. increased sedimentation due to deforestation of mangroves to make space for tourist developments. and can lead to coral bleaching. once species are lost they are gone forever. biodiversity is also a feature of the ecosystem which leads to environmental stability. Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland. and disrupting the interdependence of coral ecosystem with seagrass beds and mangrove ecosystems. runoff of fertilizers from sugar plantations on the coast. spiritual value of biodiversity recognised by many indigenous tribes. inadvertent damage from anchors and pollution from boats. and source of possible new medicines as yet undiscovered e.g. resins. (a) (i) the area of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. for AIDS perhaps. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 19. (c) 8 max biodiversity is an economic resource – a source of new food products e.

Accept other reasonable answers. education/better diet/improved health care/political stability/disease control. 1 1 22 . Award [1] for any two of the following. 1 (ii) Diagram should demonstrate a falling birth rate and a larger proportion of adults and aged persons. Accept other reasonable answers. 1 2 max Diagram should demonstrate high birth rate and high adult death rate.1  1. education/legislation/rising living standards/economic incentives.(ii) (iii) (b) (i) 1.6%. 5. Canada has higher consumer spending per capita.2 × 100 = 42. Canada – climate difference – more energy required for heating.4 Canada has a larger consumer driven economy. Canada has a greater car culture. 1 (c) (i) (ii) Award [1] for any two of the following.

it is less efficient to eat animal protein than plant material.g. resource value is dynamic/changes over time. as man advances (technologically. countries that have a high animal protein content in their diets potentially have a larger ecological footprint/OWTTE. e. (a) renewable: natural resources that have a sustainable yield or harvest equal to or less than their natural productivity. 1 (ii) year 5. non-renewable: natural resources which cannot be replenished within a time scale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment. year 6: 24500. Both needed for [1]. e.(iii) LEDCs tend to have a diet based on plant products/plants with little meat (12 % approximately) whereas MEDCs tend to have a greater amount of animal protein in their diet (30 % approximately). (b) (c) (d) use of (global) resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment/OWTTE. (i) 3 1 3 max year 2: 125. fossil fuels/minerals. flint used to be an important resource but now its redundant/ uranium only becomes a resource with the advent of the nuclear age. so greater surface area needed to produce the same amount of food. groundwater/ozone layer. e. food crops/timber in the long term/groundwater (over hundreds of years). 1 (iii) the population will ultimately crash. culturally) his resource base changes.g. 3 [11] 20.g. 1 23 . e.g. Accept any other reasonable answers. resources become more valuable as new technologies need them. replenishable: non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the sun for their replenishment. An example is required in each case in order to score the mark.

etc. 2. output = 900 kJ – 135kJ (15%) = 765kJ. 2 3 [11] 22. three or two correct [1]. precipitation. financial motives (greed) – exploitation of resources beyond sustainable limits for short-term financial gain (cod fishing). industry expanding and requiring more clean water (cooling processes. 4. transpiration/evapotranspiration.(iv) over population leading to unrealistic demands for limited resources. increase in water use by developing countries. 42 × 100 = 100%. Accept other reasonable answers. (a) (i) the natural or artificial enrichment of a body of water. award [2]. Four correct [2]. run-off/infiltration. (particularly with respect to nitrates and phosphates). 2 Correct answer on its own. that results in depletion of the oxygen content of the water/OWTTE. 1 1000 kJ – 100 kJ (10%) = 900 kJ. 3.). greater use of water for irrigation. globally. evaporation. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) energy is neither created nor destroyed/energy is conserved/OWTTE. use of resource beyond sustainable limits due to lack of knowledge of resource’s sustainable level. 2 (ii) too simplistic/no values/no indication of time/two dimensional. 2 1. 2 max [12] 21. (iii) 1960 = 2 × 10 km yr 2000 = 4 × 10 km yr . (iv) 3 3 –1 3 3 1 –1 increasing global population requiring more water. Accept other reasonable answers. 2 24 .

9935402 death of aerobic organisms.76. change crop varieties e. to increase productivity and so be better placed to compete in a world market. Accept other reasonable answers. shorter food chains. to increase productivity and so provide more food for increasing populations. loss of macrophytes. switch to organic farming. green tax on fertilizer making it more expensive. removable of algal mats/oxygen pumping/removal of contaminated sediments/flush systems with oxygenated water/chemically denature fertilizer. Accept other reasonable answers. 1 max 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 2 max 1 25 . use other methods of enhancing crop production e. organic compost. 27399990 D= = 2. Accept other reasonable answers. developing economies so need to increase productivity – cash crops.8/2. implement standards/control re run-off from agricultural land. Accept other reasonable answers.(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) do not allow agricultural waste (including fertilizers) to run into water courses/legislate against the use of fertilizer/ adopt less fertilizer intensive agricultural practices/install fertilizer (waste) traps in farm drainage networks. loss of diversity. N = (N – 1) = 5235 × 5234 = 27399990. composting.g.g. ∑n(n – 1) = 552 + 20 + 30 + 2248500 + 1438800 + 62475000 = 9935402. use a variety with lower phosphate requirements.

water resources will change and limit/expand crop production.(ii) difficult to manage infrastructure to collect organic waste. (a) Answer should demonstrate an understanding of atmospheric insulation and how this is achieved within the atmosphere. maintains an average Earth temperature of about 30°C. O3. Accept other reasonable answers. no market for end product. society: national resources base will change. cost may be prohibitive. cultural and social reluctance. All of the above should be supported by case study evidence or examples. biomes: north/south shift in biomes relative to the equator (latitude shift). apathy and inertia of public.g. (b) 4 max Answer should address biomes. social and cultural change. cultivation patterns will change. difficult to sort organic waste from other waste at source or further into process. changing global weather patterns will influence rain patterns and alter crop production dynamics. movement of biomes up slope (altitude shift). sea level rise may cause economic and social stress due to loss of land and resources (including migration). Two correct gases needed for [1]. e. gases include CO2. creates a “thermal blanket”. outgoing long wave radiation trapped/reflected by greenhouse gases. wheat belt in North America may move north. 2 max [16] 23. water resources will change. Accept any other reasonable answers. N2O. which is transparent to incoming radiation and absorbs out going radiation. crop types may change. agriculture: crop zones move north/south from equator. greenhouse gases transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation. CH4. Particular reference should be made to the role of carbon dioxide. which will drive economic. 7 max 26 . H2O and CFCs. global agriculture and human society.

e. Award [1] for each of the following. loss of vegetation leading to erosion. the removal of soil material at a rate greater than it can be replenished. e. model is less complex than reality. systems models are not always accurate. e. leading to loss of cover.(c) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. long-term data (10 000 years) show climate fluctuation cycles not overall rise. over irrigation leading to salinization. 6 max Accept any other reasonable answers. positive feedback – loss of cover leads to leaching of nutrients. genetically modified grain. modern plowing technology and practise. not all elements are known or understood. data series too short for confident predictions. present trend based on data collected since industrial revolution. soil degradation may also include loss of soil volume through erosion. the use of new crop strains. Accept other reasonable answers. (a) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. some models predict future rise others argue for future cooling. contour plowing. 7 max 3 max 27 . Award [2 max] for direct consequences: loss of soil depth leads to loss of productivity/loss of plant stability/loss of slope stability/loss of available nutrients/ reduction in water retention potential.g.g. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 24.g. landscape instability through soil erosion. Award [2 max] for indirect consequences: contamination of adjacent environments (particularly aquatic environments). the development of new devices. windbreaks and strategic shelter belts. (b) (i) technology and scientific techniques used to overcome soil degradation problems thus conserving soil. loss of fertility due to loss of nutrients caused by poor management.

g. adopt solutions that are holistic and environmentally friendly. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 25. Award [2 max] for technology. variation in water resource use. 3 max Accept other reasonable answers. The following points could be considered: comparison of the variation in technology and the implication for the system.(ii) ecocentric approach conservative. if farming system is not named award [5 max]. if food production system is not named award [5 max]. However. reluctance to use heavy machinery due to soil compaction and energy issues. reluctant to adopt new technology. However. No credit should be given for naming the food production system. application of organic fertilizers/crop rotations/shelter belts/farming on a smaller scale/non-industrial farming. No credit should be given for naming the farming system. (a) The system should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. Award [2 max] for resource outputs.g. energy input. technology may include machinery and organic technology e. Any other reasonable answers. reference to net and gross production. Award [2 max] for resource inputs. GM crops. 6 max 28 . Examples could compare salmon fishing in Norway with rice fish farming in Thailand. The following points could be considered: comparison of contrasting fertilizer use. The following points could be considered: consideration of variation in system productivity. the use of draft animals versus agricultural machinery. intensive beef farming in North America and Masai herding in Kenya. labour input. e.

rice fish farming: impacts on local biodiversity – both plants and animals. 5 max Answers must refer to both systems for full marks. salmon fishing in Norway: organic debris contamination of coastal waters from waste food and excreta. changes nutrients budget.2. Accept other reasonable answers. repeat previous step until similar mass/weight is obtained on two subsequent trials. (i) 2 max NPP = (39. increased productivity driven by new technology and farming initiatives. The nature of the systems chosen will dictate the content of the answer. (ii) environmental stress. use of GM crops. achievement of food resource change: adoption of new crop varieties. 29 . loss of diversity.2) × 4 = 15. introduces alien species. 4 max 2 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 26. as countries develop further their demand for a greater variety of food products (at a greater level) will expand.(b) Answers should clearly demonstrate the direct and indirect impact of the two farming systems on their immediate environment. agricultural intensification.0 – 35. (a) (b) weigh the sample in a previously weighed container. food resources needs: needs will change over the next 100 years as the global human population continues to increase. more land required for food production. Award [2 max] for any of the following. the addition of steroids and other chemical waste to the adjacent coastal waters. potentially introduces non-natural genetic variation. (c) (i) Award [2 max] for any of the following. change in productivity due to environmental degradation will further stress systems. impacts directly on natural resources/food within the system. accidental escape and the contamination of local gene pools. dry sample in an oven. and weigh again. dietary animal protein will increase/food fashion may change.

7 Both needed for [1]. Accept other reasonable answers.4. Accept other reasonable answers.8 g m yr . or 15.f.2 × 52 = 790. Answer must be rounded to the nearest 100 g for full marks.6 g m yr . –2 2 1 max 2 2 max –1 0. supplying more of our energetic needs from vegetables sources is more efficient. 1 2 max [12] 30 . (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) –2 –1 NPP = 15.1) × 4 = 8. –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 790.2 – 33.4 g m yr + 436. Allow ECF from (b)(i). eating animals raised on grain is inefficient. cattle should be raised on land that is not suitable for crops. temperature changes may inhibit/accelerate growth.26 is not acceptable because of incorrect s. 7  . Allow ECF.respiration = (35. GPP = NPP + R.) eating lower on the food chain makes it possible to feed more people on the same amount of land.8 g m yr = 1227.2 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr .6 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr .2 –2 –1 NPP = × 365 = 792.4 g m yr –2 –1 respiration = 8.1 × 790 = 79 g m yr .4 –2 –1 respiration ×365 = 438 g m yr . availability of water may be seasonal. or –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 792. insolation may vary seasonally. (79.4 × 52 = 436.6 g m yr + 438 g m yr = 1230.

(d) long-term stability leading to speciation/complexity. –2 high species number per unit area (South America 0. 2 max e. 3 max 31 . (b) (c) producers convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis. fox etc. (a) H eat C O H eat L ig h t H 2O O 2 2 T is s u e to o th e r tr o p h ic le v e ls TREE L itte r to s o il N u trie n ts 3 max W a te r Award [1] for tree in box. through symbiotic bacteria.. Chilean matorral p ro d u c e r A c a c ia c a v e n s C h ile a n th o rn tre e 3 max p rim a ry c o n s u m e r O c to d o n d e g u ro d en t / se co n d a ry co n su m e r F e lis g u ig n a / C h ile a n w ild c a t Award [1] for appropriately labelled trophic levels. unless there is some identifying feature i.125 species km –2 versus 0. [1] for two matter flows and [1] for two energy flows. Do not accept rabbit. provide habitat for other organisms.27. Accept other reasonable statements that show ecological knowledge.g.e. producers are significant in fixing nitrogen. one of the main contributors to organic matter in soil. limiting factors low and so high productivity leading to high diversity. snowshoe hare and arctic fox. high number of endemic species.0027 species km in temperate forests in North America). [2] for three appropriate species or [1] for two appropriate species.

release nutrients for reabsorption by producers.(e) (f) decomposers break down tissue. Award [2 max] for the following. (±3 days) 1 (ii) 10 December. (a) (b) (c) (d) interval between 1st and 2nd peak is about 90 days and interval between 2nd and 3rd peak is approximately 75 days. form basis of decomposer food chain (which may be energetically more important in some ecosystems than grazing food chains). 90  75 = 82. sexmaculatus: 1550. 2 max primary productivity would decrease. are vital in nitrogen cycle. 3 max [16] 28. (±2 days) 1 (i) 15 days. predator cannot increase in number without access to food and so must wait for increase in prey. (±5 days) 1 (ii) the predator population takes some days to take advantage of the increase in prey. (± 50) Both needed for [1]. increases susceptibility of trees to stresses such as disease/ temperature/insects/fungal infection. (±1) E. through incomplete breakdown of organic material contribute to build up of humus and improve nutrient retention capacity in soil. 1 max 32 . increase in solubility of nutrients facilitates leaching with consequent loss of productivity. as chemosynthetic autotrophs may form basis of food chain. 1 (i) 25 to 30 September.5 80 (± 4 days)/15 January + 80 days ≈ 20 April (± 5 days) 2 2 T. availability of food facilitates reproduction of prey. occidentalis: 7. acid rain can damage foliage directly thus reducing photosynthesis.

1 85. modern medicine decreasing effect of disease. increased evaporation leading to increased precipitation at poles triggering net cooling. increased efficiency in utilization of resources.8%. melting of tundra through warming causes release of methane causing more warming.6 + 41. Award [0] if temperate forest is stated without supporting calculations.4 + 18.9 × 100 = 89.5 + 18. 821. –2 tropical forest: 52. elimination of density-dependent limiting factors.2 1 temperate forest: 730.4 %. 211.0/122 g m . 821. leading to increase in temperature.(e) (i) the increase in prey leads to a corresponding increase in predator which corrects the trend towards increase in prey. 2 max elimination of predators/competitors. the periodic nature of the population curves indicates a feedback controlled interaction.3 g m .3 × 100 = 6.0%.1 112 tropical forest: × 100 = 57. 211. 2 max (ii) (f) [14] 29. the decrease in prey leads to a corresponding decrease in predator which corrects the trend towards decrease in prey. importation of food or resources from other areas to overcome shortages. 49. our ability to colonize almost any habitat.2 temperate forests have a larger percentage of nitrogen stored in soil.0 %.3 tropical forest: × 100 = 40. 3 max melting of polar ice caps causes lowering of planetary albedo thus increasing amount of solar energy at Earth’s surface.2 = 122. Both needed for [1].2 + 28. tools and technology. 1 temperate forest: 2 33 . (a) (i) (ii) (b) –2 temperate forest: 12.4 = 49.

(c)

(d)

high temperatures and year-round availability of water in tropical
forests allow for continuous breakdown of nitrogen containing
compounds;
resulting in very rapid turn around and reabsorption;
presence of mycorrhizae in tropical rainforest tree roots increases
rate of organic matter breakdown;
leading to rapid reabsorption of nitrogen, so very little found in soil;
in temperate forests breakdown slows down significantly during
winter months, causing nitrogen build up in soil;

2 max

temperate forest: 1. surface litter
2. biomass
3. soil
tropical forest:

1. surface litter
2. soil
3. biomass
Both lists needed for [1].
(e)

(f)

tropical rainforest would suffer more from clear-cutting;
a larger proportion of nitrogen is stored in living tissue which
would be lost through clear-cutting;
climatic conditions in tropical rainforests would wash away
soil quicker/leach the soil of nutrients;
(temperate forests) because:
tropical forests have some of the highest rates of primary productivity
but have relatively poor soils;
temperate forests have lower primary productivity rates but far
more fertile soils;
climatic factors are not limiting in TRF but nutrients (nitrogen)
may be;
cleared land in tropics is exposed to washing away of thin soil
and leaching of nutrients;
temperate forests have higher nitrogen content in the soil;
temperate forests store nitrogen as a result of incomplete
breakdown of organic matter resulting in availability of nitrogen
for crops;
Do not credit final point if already given in (c). For “temperate
forest” on it’s own award [0].

1

2 max

2 max

34

(g)

(h)

direct replacement of ecosystems with cropland and the resulting
loss of habitat;
monocultures reduce genetic diversity;
slash and burn techniques in TRF result in considerable impact
on diversity because of high diversity of these systems;
use of pesticides harms target and non-target insect species
and has an effect further up the food chain;
loss of hedgerows in England to facilitate plowing/accept
other valid example;
contamination of wild stock with modified genetic material
(hybridization);
Allow other valid points.
(i)
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

as population increases, forested area decreases and GNP
increases;

3 max

1

to produce land for housing for increasing population;
to provide land for agriculture to provide food for
increasing population;
for timber production, generating income from exports;
Accept other reasonable answers.

1 max

reduction in CO2 extraction by forests;
release of stored carbon through breakdown of forest biomass;
increased rates of breakdown in organic content in soils (due
to exposure to heat, water) resulting in release of CO 2;
CO2 is a greenhouse gas;

2 max

biomes will shift north and south from the equator;
e.g. North America wheat belt shifting north;
biomes shifting with altitude (e.g. tree line creeping upwards);
direct loss of low-lying biomes (e.g. mangrove swamps);
Accept other contributions to global warming related to
deforestation.

2 max
[20]

35

30.

(a)

Descriptions: [3 max]
oil use in MEDCs is almost 50 % greater than in LEDCs;
fossil fuels in MEDCs account for 85 % of energy use as
opposed to 58 % in LEDCs;
biomass use in LEDCs is more than ten times that of MEDCs;
use of coal and hydro/geo/solar is the same for both;
nuclear is five times more important in MEDCs than in LEDCs
and is the smallest contributor in both;
Accept other reasonable comparisons e.g. oil use in MEDCs is
11 % more than LEDCs.
Explanations: [2 max]
the relatively small contribution of nuclear power may be due to
the problems of disposing of nuclear fuel and the cost of nuclear
technology;
biomass is far more important in LEDCs as fuel for cooking;
automobiles are more prevalent in MEDCs thus explaining the
difference in oil use;
Accept other reasonable explanations.

(b)

use of fossil fuels is unsustainable because it implies liquidation of
a limited stock of the resource;
we can extend the lifetime of this resource, but it is ultimately
unsustainable;
solar energy is sustainable as the energy will be available to us
for any time frame that is reasonable to contemplate;
solar energy is currently more expensive than fossil fuels;
it is currently very expensive to turn solar energy into high
quality energy for manufacturing;
passive solar energy combined with insulation is much cheaper
for heating homes than fossil fuels;
fossil fuels are the most important contributor to build up of CO 2
and consequently global warming;
solar energy has the disadvantage that its usefulness is limited
in northern countries during winter months;
oil has the advantage that it can be delivered for use far from
its source through pipelines;
Accept other reasonable answers.

5 max

6 max

36

Abiotic: [2 max] testing of water for various parameters (e. 6 max 37 . Accept other reasonable answers.e. air speed and direction using anemometers. use of Lincoln Index/capture-mark-release-recapture to determine numbers of different animal species. scientific efforts should be devoted to removing CO 2 from atmosphere rather than curtailing economic growth. baseline studies are used to determine potential impacts on the environment of a project. 6 max Accept other reasonable answers. determination of biomass by removal and drying of plant tissue. economic systems have a vested interest in being efficient so the existing problems will self correct given enough time. nitrates/dissolved solids/BOD/DO) using testing kits and/or electrodes of various types.g. fossil fuels have problems associated with their use (i. (a) Baseline study: [2 max] a baseline study seeks to measure existing conditions prior to the implementation of a project in order to have a standard of comparison once the project is completed. Biotic: [2 max] use of transects to determine cover/abundance of fauna and flora. determination of soil pH using universal indicators. develop technology to reduce output of CO2 from fuel use rather than changing lifestyles to reduce use of fuel. determination of water flow throughout year using flow weirs.(c) the Cornucopian belief in the resourcefulness of humans and their ability to control their environment is the chief element in their optimism about the state of the world. use of quadrats to measure species abundance and diversity (application of diversity indices). Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 31. rely on science to find a useful alternative such as hydrogen fuel cells. this will eventually result in lowering of CO2 emission levels through market pressure. Accept other reasonable answers. global warming). good example of resource replacement. development (which requires energy) will increase standards of living thus increasing demand for healthy environment.

Accept other reasonable answers species is classified as extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. Accept “none left” (or similar) for [1 max] 1 2 max 2 max 38 . reduces stress on a finite resource. aluminum requires far less energy to recycle than to produce. as people enter a consumer society and turn away from subsistence level lifestyles footprint increases. seasonal. employs people (possibly no net loss of employment). recycling and re-manufacture reduce need for raw material. produces less waste. consequent increase in consumer good acquisition.(b) the ecological footprint will increase. annual) appropriate to life cycle and life form. (a) (i) 1920 accept answers between 1910 and 1940 1 (ii) exponential growth/rate of increase accelerates over time/ J curve (provided understanding of rate is demonstrated) 1 crude birth rate – crude death rate. 2 (iii) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) mammals  40 ( 3) both needed for [1]  birds  48  both show exponential increase. creates environmental awareness. availability of cash leads to greater purchasing power. since 1650 more bird species extinct than mammal species. (must be included for full marks). production of these goods requires energy that may release CO 2 thus increasing footprint. money may allow access to better homes resulting in less need for locally produced firewood thus decreasing footprint. (c) 6 max reuse. + 10. money allows people to buy more animal protein from grain fed animals. so the footprint increases. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 32. mammals’ rate of increase has been more irregular. when exhaustive surveys throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. surveys should be over a time frame (diurnal. reduce need to intervene rivers for hydroelectric power. 5 max Accept other reasonable answers. Accept other reasonable answers.

United Kingdom. Japan. Venezuela. Venezuela. as other countries have similar amounts of land. pollution. Norway. Indonesia. Japan. but are in deficit. Accept other reasonable suggestions. Germany. human population increase has caused increases in extinctions. Norway. Australia. Australia.3 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table 1 (iii) 6 1 (iv) a high proportion of people exist below the poverty line (i. Singapore. relatively low dependence on fossil fuels especially in terms of transport. 2 max 1 39 . (i) no it is not sustainable. Russian Federation. Germany. Do not accept “because they have a lot of available capacity”. India.(c) Award [1 max] for relationship human population growth and increasing extinctions are positively correlated/OWTTE. they have a developed economy that is not based on primary industries. very low rates of pollution per person perhaps because of high proportion of people in agriculture. 4 max [13] 33. Ethiopia. Rank for GDP [1] United States.4 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table (ii) United States = 10. United Kingdom. (a) (b) (c) –1 (i) Japan = –3. 2 (ii) countries with highest GDPs generally have the largest footprints 1 (iii) they depend on imports for resources. Award [3 max] for reasons humans have caused (exponential) increase in extinctions through habitat degradation/destruction/fragmentation. (i) –1 1 2 max Rank for footprints [1] United States. hunting/collecting/harvesting and thereby driving species to extinction. smaller populations. Indonesia. Ethiopia. they do not have all the resources they need). Russian Federation. India. soil is particularly fertile (volcanoes) and so they are able to support a lot of people by using the land very intensively.e. Singapore. they are sufficiently wealthy that they can afford to buy these resources in from abroad.

economic growth seen by ecocentrics as a cause of the problem. Accept other reasonable answers 2 max 4 max 4 max [20] 40 . we are looking at global footprint so cannot offset larger footprints against smaller ones as you can when looking at whether individual nations are sustainable. (ii) (iii) using technology to remanufacture or recycle can reduce the overall amount of resources consumed and so ecological footprint is reduced.1 hectares person available. economic growth seen as a solution to the problem. If only one is discussed award [2 max]. emphasis will be on humans to change their behaviour/ lifestyles. ecocentrist will see deficit as evidence that we are not living sustainably. Each way of decreasing footprint must be adequately described for [2]. through bottle banks. absolute reductions in energy and material use can reduce ecological footprint. through renewable/alternative energy technologies instead of fossil fuels. e. use of technology to intensify and therefore maximise production from available land.g. e.7 hectares person . energy efficiency initiatives. e. technocentrist will believe in human ability to find technological solutions for present and future deficits. For full marks. reduction in pollution by technological advances.–1 world footprint is 2. an answer must refer to attitudes of both technocentrist and ecocentrist. through GM crops.g.8 hectares person and there is only –1 2. e.g. If no justification is attempted award [0] Figures not necessary if candidate has demonstrated conceptual understanding. will stress the need to strive for greater social equality between people in LEDCs and MEDCs. technocentrist will stress importance of technology for addressing the deficit.g. –1 Earth currently in ecological deficit –0.

there are growing demands on water resources as populations increase. game. deforestation – removing vegetation. if appropriately managed. industrialization and domestic demand are all increasing. examples of unsustainable practice with regard to soils include: overgrazing – where the trampling and feeding of livestock leads to loss of vegetation. Give credit for named examples and case studies. societies become more affluent and expectations rise. 5 Water [7 max] or [6 max] water is replenishable natural capital (it is non–living but is dependent on the solar engine for renewal). all leave top soil vulnerable to erosion by wind and water. can produce a “natural income” of goods and services. and exposure of underlying soil. this has led to falling water tables. Answers which do not refer to the statement should be awarded [4 max]. the natural capital of a forest might provide a continuing natural income of timber. water and recreation. Soil [6 max] or [7 max] soils are renewable in that they will regenerate naturally given enough time. Wilson is advocating that countries should adopt this approach when assessing their resource base. only a small fraction of the Earth’s water supply is available as a readily usable resource for humans.g. 13 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 41 . sustainability – using global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment. (a) (b) natural capital is a term sometimes used by economists for natural resources that. however.34. withdrawal of water from underground aquifers is often occurring at a faster rate than it can be replenished. overcultivation – leading to a loss of soil fertility and structure. a lot of water is wasted or used inefficiently. misuse of soils by a variety of human activities is leading to degradation of soil resources at a faster rate than they can cope with. global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and supplies and make matters worse. irrigation. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. degradation of water supplies through pollution reduces the amounts which are available to us. excessive irrigation can lead to salinization and toxification. e. but globally it is being used at a faster rate than it can be replenished.

4 max [14] 36. setting seasons. and minimises damage to the environment. succession would occur: grass – scrub – trees. dynamic balance between rabbits and grass may result. award [1] for correct food web and one correct reason. fox population would crash and disappear without a food source. there is no organism dependant on a single food type. 1 3 max 42 . (ii) intensive agricultural system. there is more than one food source at each tropic level. 2 max if rabbits were removed grass would increase dramatically. pest and disease control. 2 max if foxes were removed the rabbit population would rise dramatically. baseline studies undertaken to find out how much krill there is. there are more tropic levels. high levels of inorganic fertilizer used per unit area. control on gear type). extensive and intensive weed. 2 (ii) fishing effort should be set at a level that will not deplete the overall krill population. rabbits would overgraze their food source (grass) and the rabbit population would crash. high yielding/management-intensive crop varieties (possibly GM types). size. efficient harvesting. krill should not be fished at a level beyond which they can naturally regenerate their population numbers. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (c) figure 2 – marine food webs because there are more links in the food web. Award [2] for correct food web and two correct reasons.35. setting quotas and limiting fishing effort (boat numbers. monitoring of krill populations/monitoring catch. USA. 2 max (i) A 1 (ii) C 1 (i) use of a global resource at a rate that allows natural regeneration. possibly irrigation. (a) (i) maize.

(iii)
Low Input Systems

High Input Systems

migratory pastoralists, Kenya

cattle, UK

shifting cultivation, Papua New Guinea

wheat, UK
maize, USA

5 correct [2], 4/3 correct [1], 2/1 correct [0]
(b)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

MEDCs have a greater proportion of animal protein in their
diet (approx 26%), whereas LEDCs are more dependant
on grain crops;
MEDCs generally have greater variation in their diets than LEDCs;

2 max

2

MEDCs tend to have larger ecological footprints than LEDCs;
because they have high “grain equivalent” food consumption
lifestyles;
they consume high levels of fossil fuel;
high CO2 emissions;
produce larger amounts of waste;
higher lifestyle expectations and possess more consumer goods;
use proportionately more raw materials;

4 max

limits biodiversity because of herbicide and pesticide
elimination of non-crop species;
introduces toxins through fertilizers/irrigation;
limits habitat type because of monoculture;
eutrophication due to fertilizer application;
risk of hybridization from GM maize;
aesthetic impact on landscape;

2 max

trampling from livestock leading to soil loss/desertification;
cause overgrazing and soil loss/desertification;
introduce diseases from herds to native species;

1 max
[15]

37.

(a)

There are a number of valid answers. Impact may be both
direct and indirect.
changing crop type will change soil cohesion and soil protection;
humans may change the nature of soil mechanically e.g. plowing/
lightening with sand;
humans may change the nature of soil chemically e.g. liming/
use of fertilizers/pesticides/fungicides;
human may alter slopes – terracing etc.;
Accept other reasonable answers.

(b)

(i)

3 max

global warming is caused by an increase in greenhouse
43

gases leading to an increase in mean global temperature;
due to the trapping of extra short wave radiation;
greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, ozone
and water vapour;
these are released as fossil fuels are burned/through
farming and industrial processes;
(ii)

(c)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

increase in temperature could lead to desiccation;
evaporation due to increased temperature may lead to the
accumulation of natural salts changing the chemistry and
structure of the soil (salinization);
lower temperatures may cause freeze–thaw processes to
break up soil and allow more rapid weathering;
increased rainfall may cause increased runoff and thus
soil erosion;
increased rainfall may cause leaching and erosion of
material from the soil profile;
decrease in rainfall will lead to aridification and make
soil surface prone to wind erosion;
increase in wind magnitude and frequency will increase
surface erosion (in terms of volume and rate);
Accept other reasonable answers.
any system that is open to energy and material outputs
and inputs and can be described as an open system;
e.g. a forest or ecosystem (to be ecological the example
must have biological inputs and outputs).
the Earth acts as a complex self-regulating organism via a
series of feedback mechanisms;
rather than being a passive object controlled by external
forces and chance;
theory by James Lovelock and demonstrated via his Daisy
World Model;
lacks quantitative values;
oversimplifies complex relationships;
lacks complex network connections;
Accept other reasonable answers.

3 max

4 max

2

2 max

1 max
[15]

44

38.

(a)

(b)

If no examples used award [4 max]
habitat loss e.g. extinction of Tasmanian wolf due to expansion
of agriculture;
hunting e.g. passenger pigeon;
alien predation and introduced species;
environmental pollution;
pathogens and disease;
most extinctions may not be due to a single cause but a
combination of causes;
e.g. the wolf (Lupus lupus) in Europe and Britain became extinct
due to overhunting and habitat loss;
global warming leading to rapid changes in biomes;

6 max

evidence for past mass extinctions can be found in the fossil record;
it is clear that at certain times large numbers of species
disappeared from the fossil record;
Possible causes could be:
large meteor impact (e.g. Mexico strike) leading to dust in
atmosphere;
volcanic activity on a large scale (e.g. Decan trap eruptions)
causing environmental change;
global climate change e.g. ice age;

4 max

45

for fur. greater post-natal survival because threats to infants can be high in the wild. e. Evaluation [4 max] captive breeding strengths include: management of gene pool enables greater survivability of offspring because perceived strengths can be selected.g. lack of inhibition towards people. commercial – value of species if sustainably managed provide long-term resources e. species.e.g. genetic resource – provide present and future material for human resource needs for food. no natural selection so traits which are a disadvantage in the wild may be passed on.g. ecosystems depend on their component parts. artificial insemination increases fertility rate. i. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 46 . animals unable to cope in wild due to learned behaviour in captivity. medicine/diversity = more options. dolphins. weaknesses include: protecting animal without protecting habitat so not a long-term survival strategy.(c) Arguments for conserving [4 max] ethical – we have a moral obligation to species/species have as much right to exist as we do. aesthetic – creatures are beautiful and there is aesthetic value in their existence e.

biogas/biomass. GM crops. Award [5 max] for evaluation. it is accepted that if a population has an ecological footprint larger than the country’s land surface area. but major weakness is that it only takes certain aspects into account e. it allows quantitative ways of measuring impact and therefore setting limits to negate that impact. using waste crops as fuel e.g. focussed on carbon dioxide. if a population has an ecological footprint smaller than the country’s land surface area. reusing packaging/minimising packaging. using biotechnology to produce food more efficiently e.g. (a) (b) the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. electric cars. the population is living sustainably/ within its resource base.g.39. natural habitats will suffer.g.g. reducing dependency on fossil fuels/hydrocarbons. wind/hydroelectric/wave/solar. ignores land/water required to provide aquatic resources.g. recycling waste more efficiently. in conservation terms ecological footprinting allows for the identification of areas likely to suffer from ecological stress. by switching to nuclear power or more renewable power resources e. it is living beyond the country’s sustainable threshold. clear felling virgin forest/over harvesting marine resources. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by a population and to assimilate all wastes. Accept other reasonable suggestions.g. if people require more land area than the country possesses. but [3 max] if answer looks at only strengths or weaknesses. more efficient birth control to reduce population growth. e. ecological footprint is the opposite of carrying capacity. producing goods that last longer and run more efficiently/on renewable fuels e. 7 max 6 max 47 . e.

industrial revolution marked a critical phase in accelerating technological knowhow. technology will increase the effective life of a resource by allowing us to use it more efficiently e. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 40. fossil fuels. e. hydrogen fuel. medical care. econcentrism is best suited to achieving long-term sustainability. food supply and resource base. infant mortality decreases and life expectancy increases and therefore population grows rapidly. resources are presently only limited by lack of technological know-how.g. due to technological improvements to living standards. technocentrism does not accept that there are any limits to resource use. because long-term sustainability is intrinsic to the ecocentric philosophy. 4 max 48 . Credit should be given to answers which refer to demographic transition model and/or population pyramids. hygiene. technology will allow greater resource cycling. (a) over the last 2000 years death rates have fallen more rapidly than birthrates. For full marks answers must evaluate both philosophies.g. technology will help us find and develop new resources e.(c) Award [4 max] if there is no clear evidence of what the candidate thinks is the best environmental philosophy.g. though one is favoured. Answer must link evaluation to long-term sustainability. people have to restrain their resource use and live within their resource base.

Award comprehensive answer covering most of the above [4]. economic factors – large families needed to support parents in old age/work on farm/develop the country. advertising campaigns to challenge cultural norms about family size.e. these will be land. an unsustainable system. 7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 49 . over family size/male potency/status of women.(b) (c) exponential population growth will lead to an increase in demand for resources. food and materials. setting quotas e. legalising abortion.g. this will lead to environmental stress and over use of current resource base i. changing marriage ages. through alternative fuel sources. education/leading to the empowerment of women. resource base is finite so shortages will occur if demand outstrips supply. carrying capacity is a measure of an area’s ability to meet resource demand for a given population. Obstacles include: religious belief – contraception not natural. exponential growth in population is likely to exceed carrying capacity. access to contraception in remote rural areas/inefficient communication. China’s one child policy. 7 max Possible strategies could include: reducing birth rate with contraception. cultural inertia e.g. practical issues – e. many believe technology offers a way to enhance the resource base e.g. partial coverage [2] or [3].g. water. the idea of sustainable development is that we must ensure current use of resources does not compromise ability of future generations to meet their own needs. therefore there is an implication (see quote) that the current users of resources (few of whom are alive) hold resources in trust for future generations. reduction in infant mortality.

dependence on working animals. 1 50 . cash crops for export such as sugar cane. tobacco. wash down through the soil/paddy and are lost.41. Award [1] for any three of the above. different jobs done at different times of year. (a) (b) LEDC basic/lack of technology generally. rice farming is typical of LEDCs/where rice is often the staple crop. labour intensive (family labour). outputs: [1 max] jute/vegetables/mangoes/Jack fruit/Palm/coconut/sugar cane/spices/crops/waste/income/energy/rice/food/ Betel nuts/tobacco/cattle (livestock)/heat/oxygen/carbon dioxide/wheat/mustard. 1 process by which nitrogen in atmosphere is fixed to form nitrate by blue-green algae (and converted into a useable form for plants). Answers must be linked to variations in environment. 2 max inputs: [1 max] water/technology/cattle (livestock)/sunlight/rain/manure/ seed/labour/soil. Award [1] for any three of the above. rotation of crops to match seasonal rainfall patterns. mixed cropping on small scale. irrigation technology used in dry season. monsoonal climate so main crop is rice. processes: [1 max] planting/ploughing/harvesting/irrigating/repair/respiration/ run-off/labour. livestock fed differently at different times of year. LEDC but no reasons award [0]. Accept other reasonable answers. Award [1] for any three of the above. houses look fairly simple and made from local/cheap materials/ thatched roofs. (i) (ii) 3 max 2 max when nutrients. (c) (d) different crops planted at different levels. dissolved in water.

a brown gas that contributes to urban haze. Award [1 max] for problem and [2 max] for explanation. requires carbon dioxide. involves production of oxygen. Give credit for chemical equation. 2 2 max 1 3 max 1 1 max 51 . primary productivity is the conversion of solar energy whereas secondary involves feeding/absorption. urban air pollution caused by release of hydrocarbons (from unburned fuel) and nitrogen oxide. noise pollution/air pollution/global warming/acid rain. (e) zone D. chlorophyll and light. (a) (b) energy is dissipated/lost along the food chain/converted to less useful form. (c) coal/oil/natural gas. e. nitrogen oxide reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. 1 [11] 42.(e) (i) (ii) because the terraces are level there is little run-off by water so soil is not washed away/terraces prevent soil erosion/ soil collects in paddies. Award [1] for any two of the above. photosynthesis/primary production is the process by which green plants convert light energy into a usable form/chemical energy/food/organic matter. 1 oxygen is required by decomposers to break down organic matter (the oxidized zone is closer to the surface and richer in oxygen)/higher BOD in oxidized zone as more decomposers. e.g. water.g. and some is lost as heat/waste to the environment. thus more decomposition. (d) Accept any reasonable environmental problem. this is because species at each trophic level are using some of the energy for respiration. (f) primary productivity is the gain in energy/biomass by producers/autotrophs whereas secondary is gain by heterotrophic organisms.

6%. seen as security in old age (no social security system). e. deep oceans dark below surface limits productivity of plants. temperature e.0 and 8.9 × 100 = 18. tradition for large family.g. 1 (ii) population momentum. estuaries receive lots of sediment from rivers.g.3 = 1. lack of education about family planning. children seen as a source of income. Award [1 max] for no reference to the biomes in figure 3. but are unable to use family planning because of attitude of their societies (who value male fertility).g.9 1. tropical rainforests receive lots of rainfall each year whereas deserts have little rain which is limiting to plant growth. 2 max [12] 43. (a) (b) (i) Accept answers between 8. because of rural isolation and an inability to access family planning centers. high infant mortality rate so large families necessary to ensure survival of some. 10.2 – 8.g. farm labour.2 1 e. unwanted fertility – poor rural women in Nigeria may like to be able to limit their family size. desire for large family size in India patriarchal society and many offspring seen as a symbol of male fertility. few options for women. rainforests warm throughout the year so have a constant growing season and higher productivity. nutrient availability e.(g) availability of light e. religious intolerance to family planning.g. cultural expectation for sons.5 billion. 3 52 .g. availability of water e. Award [0] for naming countries. 1 (iii) 10.

conflict between short-term and long-term perspective (indigenous people). no need to mention acid rain. reserves left for indigenous people may be too small to sustain them. forest is cut down by outsiders ignoring the needs of indigenous people. conflict might exist because different groups see the resource differently. No mark scheme available 53 . greater access to family planning as communications/education/ wealth increases. 2 3 max [5] 45. (a) (b) perhaps cartoonist is suggesting that politicians/society refuse to act because they claim that more research needs to be done first.(c) natural resources/food will become so scarce that population is limited by hunger. Accept any other reasonable suggestions. economic value of timber/land is incompatible with leaving forest standing for other uses (indigenous cultures). growth rates can be expected to decline for a variety of socio-economic reasons. intrinsic value of forest (biorights) is ignored by exploitative users only interested in economic use.g. changing attitudes will reduce desire for large families. population limited by wars over scarce resources. government strategies/policies e. despite the fact that evidence (falling birds) is in front of their eyes. Accept similar interpretations of cartoon. as nations develop economically and move through stages of demographic transition. difference between sustainable use of forest (natural income) and users who exploit natural capital. indigenous tribes need large amounts of space in which to live sustainably. tax incentives. 2 max [8] 44.

so water is very cold/does not vary. and helps decision makers decide if the development should go ahead. Give credit if figures from resource booklet are used.46. hydrology – assess hydrological conditions in terms of volume/ discharge/flows/ water quality. Nutrient content of water in river decreased nutrients held with sediments behind dam. 2 max 3 max 5 max (d) Abiotic factor in the Colorado River Increased or decreased after construction of Glen Canyon Dam Reason for change decreased fewer fluctuations/variations in water flow. Award [2–3 max] for description and [2–3 max] for explanation. species and ecosystems to be predicted. 95% of sediment is trapped behind the Glen Canyon dam. Riverine habitat diversity Award [1] for decreased and a valid reason and [0] if decrease is given without a valid reason. soil – quality/fertility/pH. and if steps to mitigate effects should be put in place. overall amounts of water flowing in the Colorado River have declined since 1910. so much water is now extracted from the reservoirs that little water reaches the sea. land use – assess land use type/use coverage. amount of fluctuation between high flows and low flows has declined. human population – assess present population. 3 max 54 . Accept other reasonable responses. Water temperature range decreased water extracted from dam is too low for sun to penetrate. it enables possible impacts on habitats. the dam has allowed water flow to be controlled so fluctuations are minimized. habitat type and abundance – baseline survey would record total area of each habitat type. amount of sediment carried in the Colorado River shows a dramatic decline from the mid-1930s. estimate abundance. Award [1] for each variable with a reason if no reason award [1 max]. (a) (b) (c) (EIA) Environmental Impact Assessment is a process used to establish the impact of a project/development on the environment. species list – survey would record number of species (faunal and flora) present. list endangered species.

non-natives increasing in number as they outcompete native species for food.g. 3 max 3 max 55 . technocentric approach involves controlling natural processes rather than minimizing disturbance.(e) non-native species: e. non-natives could bring disease with them that native species are not resistant to. non-natives dominate as they are better suited to reservoir conditions and native species become extinct. Accept other reasonable responses. trout/green alga/cladophora/Bluegill/Sunfish/Channel Catfish. inter-breeding and potential loss of species. Award [2 max] if no reference to resource booklet. possible impacts: non-native are outcompeting native species because they are generalists whereas native species have more specific niches. emphasis on power in National Hydropower Association report. (f) dams are a technological solution to the challenge of managing water and energy demand. Award [1] for naming species and [2] for possible impacts. emphasis (in 1964) was on economic benefits and development goals rather than ecological impact. evidence from resource booklet could include figures for efficiency of production. prey on young of native species reducing their number.

often poorest communities (rural. possible that Lake Powell will silt up – all sediment trapped see figure 4 showing dramatic drop in sediment after dams constructed (point 7). indigenous. fruit and vegetables are provided for domestic economy (point 4). long-term water and energy demand can be met by this because HEP is a renewable resource (point 9). Mexican) who have benefited (point 2). Mexico benefits from the electricity – presumably it gave its consent for the dam to be built? (point 13). Award [4 max] if advantages and disadvantages of dam are merely listed with no reference to the checklist. no evidence from the resource booklet that there are safety or health issues (point 5 or 11).g. culture of indigenous people has been threatened e. Rainbow Bridge. and has caused native species to become extinct/endangered e. a “good” dam because: large sectors of population have benefited from water supply and electricity (point 2). not a “good” dam because: no environmental assessment was carried out prior to construction (point 1). indigenous people have benefited from water and electricity (point 10).(g) There must be some discussion of both sides to achieve [6 max] but answers can be weighted heavily towards one side or another. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (point 6).g. economic activities such as farming and tourism can be labour intensive and lots of jobs are provided (point 3). 6 max [25] 56 . the dam was constructed in a national park and adversely affected areas of scientific importance (World Heritage Site) (point 6). knock on effects on Mexico (point 13) and impact on delta may have had an impact on fisheries (point 12).

desire for more organic food in Europe has led to growth of organic farming to meet this demand. the Singaporean government invests a great deal in promoting new technologies in hydroponics. 8 max 57 . slash and burn agriculture where the conditions of the forest have encouraged shifting cultivation and social structures and cultural practices have developed in response to this. Award [4 max] if no evaluation is attempted or if no examples are used. and economic factors which will determine costs of inputs such as seeds and technology/access to credit. good growing conditions will favour intensive crop production.47.g.g.g. indirectly socio-cultural factors such as land ownership. in the case of Nomadic herders. of course all these factors are interconnected and socio-cultural features will often have developed in response to farming systems as well as shaping them e. in determining demand for food e. the Maasai. after WW2 there was a concern in Britain about self-sufficiency and this demand led to a drive for greater intensification of production (achieved through fertilizers and agribusiness techniques). soil fertility) will shape what farming systems develop e. growing trend for concern about animal welfare has affected the processes on some farms (e. levels of education will determine the amount of exchange of ideas and the extent to which new technologies can be applied e. socio-cultural factors can led to problems e. but of course socio-cultural factors are not the only ones and factors such as constraints of the natural environment (e. native American Indians did not believe that people could “own” land.g. fertile soil.g. with increasing levels of farm fragmentation in cultures where land is divided equally between sons.g. attitudes to land will have an impact on how land is used and the status of farmers and farming e.g. migration patterns. free range pens for chickens).g. where quantity (rather than quality) of cattle is a measure of wealth and so this has led to overgrazing and desertification. amounts of rainfall. (a) socio-cultural factors will have an influence on tastes/affect new markets e.g. socio-cultural factors can have a more general impact e. natural disasters.g. growing seasons.

urban (capitalist) elites: [5 max] rainforest seen as a resource for development. i. An answer which merely summarises the differences between ecocentric and technocentric paradigms should not be awarded more than [6 max].(b) Answers must be balanced and two appropriate societies contrasted. canoes and for medicines. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “ecocentric”. but farming is unsuccessful because of lack of fertility of the soil. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “technocentric”. indigenous shifting cultivator farmers in the Amazonian rainforest in Brazil and urban elites in Brasilia shifting cultivators: [5 max] lifestyle and practices are much more closely bound up with their natural environment. understanding of how the forest works so adapt farming practices e.g. lack of understanding for how the natural systems works mean political decisions can lead to wasteful/damaging actions e.g. e.g. in conclusion a less destructive and closer connection between social systems and ecological systems. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58 . which then become silted up. which encourage urban shanty dwellers to migrate and use the deforested land.e.g. political prestige projects and ideology (e. 10 max Obviously within these groups there will be subsets and individuals with different environmental paradigms. the frontier mentality about the interior of Brazil) can lead to “standing” value of rainforest being underestimated by urban elites. live “in tune” with the forest. establish policies. use agroforestry to mimic layering of the forest and protect ground crops from harsh sun and heavy downpours. construction of dams. recognition that soil is often infertile so farmers shift and allow small pockets of forest to regenerate before returning to the plot some 50 years later. a source of cash. utilising forest materials for construction of their homes. spiritual role of forest is also a feature of their cultural lives leading to respect for trees and other species.

48.g.g.g. some issues e. UNEP have the resources to mobilise and coordinate action e. especially LEDCs. so international cooperation in addressing them makes sense. e. bureaucratic and inappropriate. international agreements can help to motivate governments to take action and honour their commitments e. often the motivation for addressing problems starts at the local level i. international cooperation is vital e. to cut CO2 emissions. CITES. however. often problems are caused at local scale. smuggling of endangered species.g. Montreal Protocol.g. e. local solutions have a valuable role to play e. international organisations e. global warming is going to have far-reaching global impacts so a united response to monitoring and mitigation is more likely to be effective.g. Award [5 max] if no examples are used. rather than burying their head in the sand about an issue. recycling and landfill are local issues so a global strategy would be cumbersome. when problems cross borders e. might not have access to funds/expertise. so local people should be involved in addressing the problem.g. when individuals feel passionately about an issue. in environmental research. (a) some environmental problems are global in terms of the scale of the effects rather than local.g. when individual nations.g.e. the World Conservation Strategy recognises this. 8 max 59 .

(c) small-scale studies allow for in-depth detailed investigations. by investigating specific hypotheses. scientists have to be able to undertake studies at a manageable level i.g. Expression of ideas [2 max] [16] 60 . lots of studies of small-scale ecosystems form jigsaw pieces in a bigger picture of how larger-scale ecosystems e.g. on a practical level. similarly for political decisions to be taken there needs to be a body of evidence and understanding on which these decisions are based. studying small-scale ecosystems enables environmental change e. 6 max Accept other reasonable responses. for groups lobbying about a particular environmental issue.g. e.g.g. these studies can inform human actions to ensure that practices change in the right way to mitigate the problem e. this is one of the problems with conflicting evidence on the issue of global warming. in response to pollutants. studies of consequences of applying lime to acidified lakes.e. biomes are being affected by human actions. understanding processes and interconnectedness at a local level is vital if threats to that ecosystem are to be effectively mitigated e. you could not design a research programme that was just going to investigate “oceans”. to be monitored over time. understanding relationship between two interdependent species will enable you to predict what will happen if one of them becomes extinct. their concerns will not be taken seriously unless grounded in rigorous fieldwork and fact.

g. socio-economic status e. Accept other reasonable responses. this will depend on their specialised knowledge and their level of education. most scientists are now convinced that there is a causal link between CO2 levels and global temperature change. others do not prioritise environmental issues including global warming. cultural/religious group e. whether we have any moral obligation to future generations).g. their attitudes to our relationship with the environment (e. young more concerned than old. opinions will depend to a large extent on what scientific evidence they find most convincing.g. whereas others argue that it is unreasonable to expect LEDCs to curb emissions until they have developed economically like the MEDCs have done. responses by organisms rather than people. overall awareness of the issue.g. some ordinary citizens feel they have a responsibility to change the way in which they live to reduce their personal contribution to the problem. near the sea. which can also depend on the profile of environmental issues in the media. environmental paradigms will stem from cultural context including prevailing religious attitudes (e. extreme poverty leads to short-term view/wealth leads to faith in money to solve problem. migration/extinction/ adoption. whereas some scientists argue that relationships are more complex and that the effects of global warming are unclear. age e. where people live might affect their views e. Allah is in control. the growth of the environmental movement (which has grown exponentially in profile and influence) has played a large role in raising awareness of the issue. whether we should live in harmony with it or control it using technology). to change lifestyles and plan to reduce fossil fuel dependence. others do not believe that actions at an individual level can make much difference. even that recent temperature changes are merely parts of natural fluctuations in the earth’s temperature.g. environmental paradigms can shape how they read scientific literature.49. 5 max 5 max 61 .g. (a) (b) some politicians believe action should be taken immediately by all nations to curb emissions of CO2.

g. e. it is determined by availability of resources (e.g. 8 max Award [2-3 max] for describing carrying capacity and [5-6 max] for role of technology. 2 (i) year: 2002. (a) (b) (c) animal waste products/old machinery e. developing alternative energy technologies to fossil fuels. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 50. 1 (ii) 65 × 100 520 12. a country is said to be overpopulated if the carrying capacity is exceeded.(c) carrying capacity is the maximum number of species that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. at a country level technology can help to ensure carrying capacity is not exceeded.g. = 142 million tonnes. by importing new resources with transport technology. to the population in an area. food. attitudes to resource use may need to be altered. but at a global level technology can be used to intensify the way in which we use resources e. 1 430 million/100 × (13% [industry] + 20% [agriculture]).5%. water. technology can also play a part in reducing human population size e. technology alone may not be the full solution.g. (do not accept 141. substitutions of resources e. Do not accept organic material. increased agricultural production on the same plot of land by using HYV rice. it is a problematic term for human populations because technology has a huge influence on the resources that are available to human populations. space.g. tractors/broken tools/ crop waste (stubble). through contraception/medicines (reducing infant mortality and thereby reducing the incentive for high birth rates in many poor countries). our tastes and demand for particular resources changes at such a rapid rate.9 tonnes) Answer must specify units. 1 62 .g.

farming/agriculture is becoming more technocentric. loss of marshland from drainage. less need for labour on farm. from 1984 until 2002 the amount of waste produced per person has increased. salinisation (over irrigation). e. loss of biodiversity. Norfolk grasslands UK. soil degradation and lowered productivity. greater agricultural industrialization/mechanization.g. slash and burn subsistence farming. prairie grassland US. improving irrigation. No mark scheme available 63 .g. economic incentives to be waste friendly. 2 max Award [1] for named agricultural system and associate impact.g. e. agriculture is becoming more mechanized.g. the use of GM crops and livestock.g.g. more laws preventing dumping. 2 max [7] 52. loss of soil due to soil erosion.g. decline in soil quality due to poor management e. soil management techniques e. agriculture may be more intensive. Accept other appropriate answers. (a) (b) (c) (d) as tractor use increase farm labour use goes down. shelter and salinisation of soil resource due to poor management. loss of forest habitat. better waste collection facilities. e. 2 max 1 [8] 51. use of high yielding crops and livestock. agroforestry. 1 max soil has become more valuable as it has become more scarce. government incentives to recycle waste. terracing. better environmental education. Accept other reasonable responses. e. extensive cattle farming east-Africa. farms becoming larger require more machinery. increasingly seen as a resource requiring protection with special techniques e. 2 max greater use of pesticides to protect crops and livestock. introduction of disease.(d) (e) better environmental awareness.

good reserves need to be large (as the Albufera marsh is). site 5 newer. biodiversity is high due to multiple habitat types. 2 max site 2 would demonstrate a much higher diversity index than site 4. site 4 may be a monoculture favouring few species. will include trees. water quality. agriculture/run-off pollution and drainage. If only two of the following threats are addressed. Award credit if data is cited. shrubs and ground cover. larger animals need large areas. site 2 is much more mature and has a range of habitats with a large range of niches for insects. multiple habitats have many edges. power station producing terrestrial and atmospheric pollution. 64 . background environmental conditions are good e. site 1 more stable. 4 max Albufera was designated the first national reserve in the Balearics by the Mallorcan government. further development. greater range of niches. site 1 older. (i) (ii) (d) (e) (f) 3 max 2 max site 1 will have a greater range of species. road/road kill/disturbance. dune erosion/habitat loss. the area is preserved and the biodiversity is proactively protected and encouraged. 2 max reserves are often controlled by the principle of island geography. the area is physically large. many niches for many species. Ramsar Convention recognition and registration raises the profile of the Albufera. (a) (b) (c) the Albufera has such high diversity due to a wide range of habitat types.g. edges provide new niches thus higher diversity.53. therefore. award [1 max]. organisms safely move in and out of the marsh. Answers need four of the following threats to receive [2 max]. species community more complex at site 1. tourist pressure causing disturbance and pollution. not gone through full succession. small reserves have problems supporting biodiversity. chemical pesticides may limit species in site 4. 2 max site 1 more mature. there is a mix of aquatic and terrestrial environments.

more people are also more revenue and more awareness. which may be positive factors. economics. protection has long-term benefits. the two geographically separate groups of snails may ultimately become separate species. continued tourism expansion may lead to increased pressures on local resources that will directly and indirectly affect the marsh. however. 2 max speciation may occur. educational activities encouraged. research takes place. cultural value encouraged. 2 2 max [25] 65 .local communities support the Albufera. more tourists mean more potential pollution. 2 max experience demonstrates that protection without considering other factors e. more tourists need more water and more water extraction may lower levels in the marsh and cause damage. people use it as an area of relaxation. (g) (i) (ii) (h) (i) 2 max Albufera is not just an area of wildlife protection.g. research. which may damage the marsh. more pressure for development land may lead to the marsh edges being developed. multiple use reserves are more popular and easier to fund. more sustainable. mixing education. culture and development is unlikely to be successful.

provides the park with security and infrastructure. contaminated land and water. society. helps educate those inside and those outside the park. manage park funding. government agencies: [2 max] government through its employees. provide resources.. pollutants. research identifies new hazards and new goals. punish poachers. toxins. loss of biodiversity is the loss of potential new resources. a society that ignores the need for high biodiversity/allows biodiversity to be lost.54. medicines. e. e. factors which cause low biodiversity also may lead to an environment unsuitable/stressful for humans. they monitor and control visitor numbers. opportunities for discovering new resources are more likely in areas with high diversity. (b) local support: [2 max] local guides and rangers earn a living assisting tourists within the park and prevent poaching. shows little respect for the environment. Award [3 max] if answer considers only one line of argument.g. low biodiversity is a measure of a stressed environment. co-ordinate anti-poaching activities. wildlife agencies. etc. highlights new information. a more diverse environment is likely to be more resource rich/abundant. biodiversity can be seen as a gauge for environmental quality. Award [4 max] for more than one line of argument. this attitude may also be reflected in its government’s care of its people. they have a positive vested interest in the park. rangers. non-government groups and international organizations. 66 . their economic future and the future of the park are intrinsically linked. areas of high diversity are more aesthetically pleasing than areas of low diversity. produces information that supports the parks existence and informs management decisions.g. 6 max Award [6 max] if arguments are supported with appropriate evidence. (a) low biodiversity reflects poor ecological/environmental conditions. liaise with local groups. research: [2 max] scientific research discovers change/damage/stress/new species/ monitors abiotic and biotic conditions within the park. thus better places to live. guides. drought. maintain communications. 6 max Award [4 max] if no named protect area. they have a respect and pride for the park that they view as theirs.

habitat protection for one species may protect many species. cattle and sheep).g. game reserves may have less disturbance. less alien species (e. usually organisms that possess strong aesthetic qualities. tigers. the massive growth rate consumes a high proportion of available O 2. habitats. controlling predators providing additional food. indirectly such management techniques may benefit many non-target species and the ecosystem per se. it can occur naturally but is often triggered by the addition of external anthropogenically derived material. though the animal is being maintained for economic gain and pleasure.(c) species based conservation: [3 max] concentrates on one or two key species. numbers are kept high by managing habitat. 6 max 67 . nutrients cause an explosion in algae/blue green algae within the water column. it is none the less being conserved. pretty birds etc. habitat conditions are maximized to meet the needs of the key species. waste fertilizer etc. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 55. thus the organism and not the habitat it belongs in is protected. (a) eutrophication represents the nutrient enrichment of a body of water. sewage waste. positive feedback situation. a species based approach may result in a species being conserved artificially outside its habitat. trophy hunting: [3 max] the protection of animals for sport/hunting may also be seen as a species based approach to conservation. bears.. physiological stress due to lack of O2 causes population crashes in many other aquatic organisms. ecosystems collapse. however. agricultural run-off rich in phosphates and nitrates and fisheries food and excrement all represent sources of nutrient enrichment within the aquatic system. food chains.. managing habitat for “game” may have benefits for many other species.

in LEDCs. addressing run-off and intercepting contaminated water. aquatic/marine systems are predominantly hunter-gatherer systems (sometimes on an industrial scale). in MEDCs social lifestyles require more water. the use of agricultural fertilizers in a way that prevents/reduces nitrate/phosphate loading e. terrestrial systems are predominantly farmed systems with food crops being planted. aquatic/marine systems harvest primarily animal protein (fish. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 56. water is a finite resource and countries are reaching their resource availability limit. removing un-eaten food and fish waste mechanically from the system. stocks are left to recover naturally after harvesting. (a) societies demand for water has continued to grow throughout the industrial period.) with some additional animal protein (livestock).g. general per person increase in water needs are making demands heavier. tended and harvested. managing the fishery such that stocking density of fish and fish feeding practice minimize nutrient enrichment within the system. birds. demand for water is expanding in both MEDCs and LEDCs.). mammals. root crops etc. controlling the rate and timing of fertilizer application and controlling the chemical content of fertilizer. crustaceans etc. aquatic systems generally harvest wild species. 5 max 68 . people wash more. e. water resources need to be managed more carefully. whereas terrestrial systems harvest primarily carbohydrates/plant material (cereals. water plants more. not applying fertilizers during rainy periods and using reduced phosphate fertilizers. aquatic/marine systems from much higher up.g. expanding populations/changing agricultural practice/ expanding industry (often heavy).(b) (c) treatment of sewage before entering the watercourse to remove organics and dissolved nitrates and phosphates will reduce enrichment. 6 max the key difference between aquatic and terrestrial food production systems is the level from which food is harvested. the use of filters and scrubbers to remove phosphates from domestic sewage. grains. terrestrial systems harvest the bulk of food from much lower in the food chain. wash cars more. e.g. terrestrial systems use domesticated plant and animal species. new water resources need to be found/resource use needs to be controlled.

synthetic water production/rain seeding/deep aquifer extraction. the ecocentric manager approach would highlight the overuse and misuse of water. e. MEDCs and LEDCs. in addition it can highlight sustainable and unsustainable lifestyles. (c) 5 max the technocentric manager approach to water resource management would suggest that future needs can be met by technology. technocentric managers would support desalination/iceberg capture and transport/wastewater purification. wildlife and the environment. both in industry and at a domestic level. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 57. populations with a larger footprint than actual land area are living beyond sustainable limits. e. would also look at innovative ways to reduce water use per se. monitoring use to remain within sustainable limits. 8 69 .g. (a) tourism can only be successful if it can have a long-term future. as a model for monitoring environmental impact the ecological footprint can allow for direct comparisons between groups and individuals. encouraging industry and society to use less water. the footprint size considers both resource needs and waste assimilation. up to [2 max]. tourism that values its environment. innovation and the ability to use “untapped” reserves. award [1] for each case study. a finite area can support a finite population. it must not pollute the local environment. encourage greater recycling. encourage water use that had few detrimental impacts on habitat. good tourism is sustainable tourism. In addition to the above points. it is the opposite of carrying capacity.(b) an ecological footprint represents the hypothetical area of land required by a society/group/individual to fulfill all their resource needs. ecotourism is often sustainable. technological advancement may reduce footprint size. a long-term future is only possible if the tourism enterprise is sustainable.g. to be sustainable the tourism venture must not deplete local resource bases by direct/indirect impact. encourage the conservation of water. encourage water use within sustainable level.

(b) (c) global warming will ultimately change weather patterns. development and sustainability in the mind of many economists are contradictory positions even though environmentalists hold the concept of “sustainable development” as the best way forward for society and the planet. sustainable development varies in definition depending on viewpoint. failing rains may make some resorts obsolete due to lack of water resources. economists view sustainable development in pure commercial terms whereas environmentalists will also include environmental quality as an element. some believe that development (particularly development designed to allow LEDCs to compete with MEDCs) can never be sustainable (within a free market). 5 sustainable development (a phrase coined in 1987 in Our Common Future) is defined as development that meets our current needs without depleting resources in the future. summer seasons may be extended (e. coastal resorts selling sun. (a) wave power/solar radiation/heat pumps/water wheels. 1 70 . winter sports holidays may be curtailed by lack of snow and ice. sustainable development also does not deplete the environmental quality of an area. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58. sea and sand may develop further north. coastal beach holidays). Supporting case studies or examples are relevant. Accept other suitable answers if appropriate.g.

no wind equals no energy. (only one limitation required) Wind Power Wind turbines are driven by available wind energy. 2 max 71 . wind. Award [1 max] if no named food production system.g. Produces emissions and requires large areas to grow biofuel crop.g. 2 good tidal range required/right shape of coastline/interferes with navigation/impact on wildlife/expensive. The electrical energy is supplied to an electrical grid to do work. Biofuel plant material burned directly to produce heat/transformed into ethanol (used as fuel)/converted to methane (methane digestion). (only one method required) (c) (d) MEDCs traditionally/culturally dependent on fossil fuels.g. rice paddies application of fertilizer. Do not accept e. insecticides. changing to renewable energy on a large scale requires massive capital investment/cultural inertia against change to renewables/ many renewables depend on environmental conditions that are not constant (e. agriculture.(b) Award [2] if both answers are correct and [1 max] if one or two partial answers are correct. changing crop type/variety. Dependent on the wind. Note: that food production system must be reasonably specific. waves). sunshine. Alternative How the energy is produced Major limitation renewable energy source Tidal Power Energy is produced by using the ebbing and/or flooding tide to turn turbines and produce electricity. The wind energy is turned into electrical energy via a generator. using GM crops. fossil fuels are energy-efficient/easy to transport/relatively cheap. irrigation. using herbicides. 3 named food production system: e.

(a) (b) (c) (d) the landmass has a low elevation/no land higher than 4 metres.(e) carrying capacity is the number of individuals/species/load an area of land/an environment can support (providing resources and absorbing waste). the islands are relatively small (less than 1 km across). nitrates – below WHO guidelines. when tourist needs outstrip supply. 2 max 3 4 max 2 72 . ecological footprint is a theoretical area whereas carrying capacity refers to a real area. they are the opposite/inverse of each other. Award [3 max] for description and [2 max] for two or more sources of contamination. freshwater from desalination – renewable. nitrates and chloride. tourism will have reached and gone beyond these limits. carrying capacity involves sustainable support of a population. phosphates. sources of contamination – domestic waste/agricultural waste/landfill waste/degrading organics/tsunami debris/sea water/sewage. (i) tourists consume relatively large amounts of freshwater/ Maldives has a finite amount of groundwater and annual rainwater budget. No mark scheme available 60. the islands are in a tectonically active ocean. Accept replenishable as a classification of rainwater. groundwater – replenishable. whereas footprints are not necessarily sustainable. rainwater – renewable. chloride – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 2 to × 5). Maldivian groundwater has been contaminated with ammonia. 3 [11] 59. ecological footprint is area of land (and water) required to support an individual/population (providing all resources and absorbing waste). not sheltered by large land masses. phosphate – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 3 to × 9). ammonia – two island exceeds WHO guidelines (× 4).

c o a s ta l p o llu tio n . d u e to d e v e lo p m e n t. Figures are not required.8%). 4 max 73 . but may guarantee sustainable environment and tourism for the future. (f) lo s s o f b io d iv e rs ity . strategy: development taxed to pay for habitat protection and conservation. in c re a s e d a g ric u ltu re . standing on coral/using waste excessively. c o ra l d a m a g e . fo s s il fu e l b u rn in g . c lim a te change. c o n fu s e s o rg a n is m s a t n ig h t. between 2000 and 2050 the percentage of people in the world suffering from chronic water scarcity will rise (from 3. Accept any other reasonable points and model design.(ii) (e) by 2050 the numbers of countries with a chronic scarcity (below –1 –1 2740 litres capita day ) of water will have increased. h a b ita t lo s s . w a s te fro m d e v e lo p m e n t. [2 max] if only one strategy addressed.g. e. Award [1] for each impact. lig h t p o llu tio n . however. Accept any other reasonable suggestions. also reduces tourist revenue. 2 strategy: tourist numbers could be limited. evaluation: environmentally aware tourist less likely to cause damage. im p o rt fo o d . 6 max Award [4 max] if only two strategies addressed. fis h in g . tra n s p o rt. up to [4 max]. T o u r s im to u ris t d iv in g . strategy: tourist environmental education.7% to 17. evaluation: may make tourism more expensive/less profitable. b rin g in d is e a s e s . evaluation: which reduces resource use and tourist pressures.

acid rain): [3 max] no local effects so difficult to stop people using sulfur-rich fossil fuels/ effects often felt in countries distant to source of pollution. description: (e. 6 74 . regulate and reduce pollution at source – add scrubbers to chimneys/capture CO2 at source/penalties for having sulfur-rich coal.g. legislation requires regulators to check compliance. evaluation: (e. 7 Award any other reasonable suggestions. liming treats symptoms.g. troposphere ozone: formed as secondary pollutant when photochemical reaction occurs between NOx and other pollutants.g. introduces people to new cultures. acid rain. algae/eye cataracts in sheep/humans/skin cancers in humans/tissue damage in photosynthetic organisms. mutation in cells e. generates job opportunities. highlights conservation issues and environmental problems. stratosphere ozone – depletion is the problem.g. 2 max [25] 61. ideas and environments. (a) named example: e. trees may die/damage to crops/causes irritation to skin and eyes in organisms/other respiratory problems.(g) tourism generates valuable hard currency/revenue for many LEDCs. so needs repeating. clean up and restore ecosystem – lime lakes/remove contaminated soil/lime surrounding landscapes/replant trees in affected ecosystems. Accept other reasonable responses. not cause. acid rain): [3 max] alter human activity – education of impact of burning coal/switch to non-fossil fuels/burn sulfur-free coal. societies. stratosphere ozone: depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs and other halogenated gases/ ozone depletion allows more UV light to reach the Earth. (b) troposphere ozone – increase is a problem.

justification: [4 max] humans are not prepared to reduce their standards of living. example 1: statement: [1 max] I do not believe sustainable development is possible in the long-term as we have finite resources and will not have enough for everyone to use as much as they want/non-renewable resources will run out. transport could use hydrogen powered engine using water as a fuel. cannot find new technologies fast enough to replace fossil fuels. 5 max Award [1] for a definition of sustainable development. example 2: statement: [1 max] I believe sustainable development is possible as we have the technology to use renewable resources for all our needs. not enough renewable resources. humankind will use less energy. 80 % live in LEDCs and are using more and more resources. technological developments in crop growing will mean more production. will provide energy for domestic homes and factories. justification: [4 max] micro generation using wind turbines and solar power etc. legislation will make us reuse and recycle more. insulate buildings more. humans are incapable of stopping population growth. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 75 .(c) Depends on the arguments used but responses require a statement of belief on sustainable development.

(a) succession: orderly change over time in an ecosystem. over a distance.62. [1] for example and [1] for a diagram of each process. changes in ecosystems up a mountain with increasing altitude.g. succession e. into parallel/sub-parallel bands in response to change. in some environmental factor. Accept other reasonable responses. zonation e. zonation: the arrangement/patterning of plant communities/ecosystems. 76 .g. temperate forest development. 6 max Award [1] for definition.

g. grazing animals. threats: [3 max] pollution – kills some species. wheat harvested before production:respiration = 1. heat. both wheat fields and woodlands have low initial productivity. human activities – burning/building. plentiful abiotic factors e. natural ecosystem e. different nutrient and energy pathways. 6 max Award credit if named examples are used. natural woodland consumer community increases so naturally high productivity is balanced by consumption and respiration. minimal pollution. various niches. deciduous woodland. little human activity.g.g. Award [2 max] for examples and [4 max] for comparisons. hunting of top carnivores.(b) food production system e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 63. large size. (c) 6 max characteristics: [3 max] greater habitat diversity. woodland reaches climax when production: respiration = 1/all productivity is balance by respiration. herbivores controlled or isolated from the food production system. 77 . light. water. complex ecosystem. increases rapidly as biomass accumulates. selective logging. (a) population pyramids give age/sex structure for country. intensive wheat production. climate change. different trophic levels. makes conditions impossible for others/Trent Biotic Index organisms/degradation of ecosystems.

measures the size/structure of a population over time. economic growth means demand for resources is increasing so cost increases (crude oil). e. gender ratios. etc. must use resources more effectively. number in fertile age bracket. technology can increase carrying capacity e. wars. 6 78 . impact of events. expanding/contracting population.g.g.age/sex pyramids identify percentage of providers and dependents within a country. Accept any other reasonable suggestions. GM crops/fertilizers/ alternative energy sources. allows for monitoring change in dependent to provider ratio. may not be sustainable in the long-term. birth rate and death rate. 5 max Award [1] for a diagram. disease. as resources are depleted they become more economically expensive. (b) global population continues to rise/per capita resources consumption increasing/resource exploitation is reaching its limits.

contain more organic material.(c) Advantages Disadvantages reducing use resources are conserved/last longer.g. 1 [6] 79 . reduces landfill/increased environmental awareness. leading often to greater complexity. 1 max soils will become more mature. changes in the community of organisms cause changes in the physical environment. aluminium recycling versus energy efficient. processing or recycling. this allows another community to become established and replace the former through competition. reusing reduces resources use. 7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 64.g. develop distinct horizons. Award credit for relevant examples. 2 max positive feedback. recycling reduces resource use e. saves energy in extraction. e. hard to do/slows economic growth/reduces standard of living in present consumer culture. 2 max time. health and safety issues/loss of technological edge. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) the orderly process of change over time in a community. Award [1] for each advantage and disadvantage. plastics/paper/lower quality materials.g. not economic as lot of energy required to recycle e. distance (from sea). become more complex. soils will be deeper. aluminium cans/bottles.

additional benefit that they are working animals. feces. taste and culture affect demand. 893. therefore it is more efficient.4 × 100. produce diverse products (milk/meat/blood/wool). animals convert vegetation to food that would not be available to humans directly.65. crop production harvests food from lower down in the food web than harvesting fish from the top. 2 max heat. Award [2] for correct final answer. 2 max animals provide a source of protein (essential for the human diet). (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) 900 – 6. fish harvesting utilizes a resource that is several steps away from primary production. 2 there is energy lost from respiration and waste production at each level within a food web. crops capture energy directly from primary source. 3 max 80 .3% loss. respiration.4 kcal lost.6 = 893. 900 = 99.

2 max 1 81 . for milk production IN P U T S In p u t O U TPU TS O u tp u t fo o d / g ra s s / s ila g e Im p a c t p o s s ib le p o llu tio n o f w a te r c o u r s e s fr o m f e r t i l is e r s a n d e f f l u e n t In p u t m ilk Im p a c t tra n s p o rt o f m ilk a n d su b se q u e n t p ro c es sin g u s e s fu e l a n d th u s h a s a n im p a c t O u tp u t w a s te d ru g s a n d s u p p le m e n ts Im p a c t d ru g s m a y e n te r h u m a n fo o d c h a in Im p a c t w a s te m a y e n te r w a te r c o u rs e s a n d c au s e e n ric h m e n t Accept any other reasonable answers. country A has a larger population than country B.g. e. country A has low proportion of elderly/narrow top whereas country B has a higher proportion of elderly people/wider top. Award [1] for two outputs. 4 max [13] 66. whereas country B is a declining population. (a) (b) country A is an expanding population. Award [1] for each two associated impacts. Both answers needed to receive [1]. (i) country A: footprint X. whereas country B has a low proportion of young people/narrowing base. country B: footprint Y. country A has a high proportion of young people/wide base.(ii) Award [1] for two inputs. Award [1] for each two associated impacts.

1 (iii) 4/tertiary consumer/carnivore. (a) (b) (c) (i) insufficient light lower down for photosynthesis. 1 Possible adaptations could include: red colouration. ability to produce bioluminescence. people use more resources/more imported goods/generate more pollution. cultural change towards greater personal hygiene. agricultural development so greater use of water in irrigation (for intensive) farming. increased economic development so more water used in industry. To achieve [1] answer must begin with vent/hydrogen sulfide followed by bacteria. 2 max 1 82 . (a) water consumption has increased at a faster rate than population growth. long legs. washing machines/swimming pools. (i) vent/hydrogen sulfide → bacteria → shrimp/crabs/worms. 1 max [4] 67. 1 2 max [3] 68. people use fewer resources/more local resources/generate less pollution. 1 (ii) depth/light/temperature/pressure.(ii) country A is an LEDC and therefore. No mark scheme available 69. Figures are not needed. (b) increased demand for domestic goods/luxury items e.g. whereas country B is an MEDC and therefore.

(f) 9 (i) 39 000 gigatonnes/39 × 10 tonnes. upwelling currents. ecocentric: [2 max] small-scale technology should be adopted e. high level of interdependence. community fisheries. Both answers needed to receive [1]. limits on catch size. short food chains. harsh environmental conditions. 1 max initial increase followed by gradual decline. wide net mesh. consumer restraint. over fishing of stocks meant reduction in young fish and decline in populations. through technology e. Award [2] for each environmental philosophy.g.(ii) (iii) (d) (i) (ii) specialized species (they are vulnerable if niche is lost). intensive fish farming as an alternative. interest in species increased in early years as new technology allowed targeting of species. scientific research in monitoring populations. ice caps/glaciers melting. 2 max fish removed by fishing industry. slow growing organisms/late maturity/low fecundity. (iii) 3 thermal expansion. 4 max 1 1 1 83 .g. birds eating fish/plankton. fishing quotas. technocentric: [2 max] stress role of market (costs increase as stocks dwindle so fewer will be fished). Units needed. (ii) possible way to offset global warming as large amounts of carbon could be stored/locked away.

(g) why little pressure [3 max] no country has ownership of the deep ocean and therefore. require approximations to be made. Award [3 max] if only why little public pressure or need for conservation is addressed. little is known about the system. difficult to control/legislate for/police. the need for conservation [3 max] deep-ocean systems represent an important biological resource. 2 max 84 . (a) a simplified description. designed to show the structure/workings of an object/system/concept. deep-ocean systems are potentially fragile and susceptible to damage from outside influences. deep-ocean systems are not occupied by humans. the deep ocean is remote and not visible to most people. therefore. 4 max [23] 70. conservation issues are not raised/ known about. deep-ocean systems represent a biological resource that has not yet been fully understood.

but not all countries conform to the stages identified. e. demographic transition model shows how population growth is linked to economic development. stresses the systems approach and interconnectedness of eco and social systems.g. war/disease. assessing demands human populations make on their environments: [3 max] ecological footprints can be effective for comparing environmental impacts of different societies. able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. per capita CO2 emissions. from this rates of natural increase can be calculated and population total predicted. enables the reasons for population growth to be understood. a quantification of what can be a very complex set of factors. To receive full marks answers must have a balance of strengths and weaknesses. very difficult to calculate figures e. Accept other examples of feedback.g.g. and may not reflect the complex and unpredictable factors which affect growth rates e. population pyramids enable policy makers to chart what proportion of the population are in the fertile age bracket helping to predict likely birth rates. predicting climate change: [3 max] models can demonstrate anticipated changes to climate based on carbon emissions. hugely complex in terms of numbers of factors involved in atmospheric systems so in process of oversimplification accuracy is lost. can be useful tools for getting people to think about their impact. 9 max 85 . role of feedback/ocean systems not fully understood. model only as good as the data that goes in and it may be suspect.(b) predicting the growth of human populations: [3 max] growth of human population depends (at a simple level) on birth rates and death rates. models are hugely simplified. Award credit if other relevant models are evaluated. conflicting models can show different effects in same place.

education and economic development are important factors in bringing about cultural change. rural communities may not be enough – programmes to educate males to be willing to use the contraception are also needed. then long-term harvest (or pollution) rates should not exceed rates of capital renewal. 7 max Award [4 max] if no examples are used.g. if human well-being is dependent on the goods and services provided by certain forms of natural capital.g. on the “interest” or sustainable income generated by natural capital. e. education and employment opportunities for women lead to delayed marriages and lower birth rates. sustainability means living within the means of nature.(c) strategies for controlling growth include availability of contraception/ financial incentives/public information/legislative changes (e. inheritance by male heirs and dowries for females. making abortion illegal). cultural norms may be ingrained/deeply felt and policies need to address these at the deepest level to change attitudes e. and minimizes damage to the environment. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 71. any society that supports itself in part by depleting essential forms of natural capital is unsustainable. religious beliefs in catholic countries.g. provision of contraception in e. 3 max 86 . often the reasons for family size can be attributed to cultural factors so for policies to be effective they need to understand the underlying reasons why people decide to have a certain number of children. sometimes cultural factors indirectly play a role in fertility rates e.g.g.g. Examples can be of cultural practices and do not need to be located in named geographical contexts. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. culture and tradition evolve over time/cultural change can occur and governments can be a part of this. (a) use of resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration. remote. the need for male children in some cultures is linked to the traditional practices and structures e.

UN commissioned the Brundtland Report. in terms of shaping public opinion media can also be important e. Award [3 max] if summits are described but not evaluated. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson was pivotal. countries can break these agreements and there is little the international community can do. which set out key policies. 1972 was the first time that the international community met to consider global environment and development needs.g. UN Conference on Human Environment/Stockholm. Accept any other reasonable answers. organizations and individuals. and to legally binding conventions e.g.g. they may act as a catalyst in changing the attitudes of governments. and can play a pivotal role in setting targets and shaping action at both an international and local level e. attitude change may occur without summits e. which established initial definition for sustainable development. on climate change/ Montreal (1987). however. however. summits may not achieve their initial goals.g. Rio Earth summit (in 1992) led to Agenda 21 and Rio declaration.(b) global summits can play a leading role in shaping attitudes to sustainability e.g. 5 max 87 .

g. changing awareness of environmental implications of fossil fuel exploitation has increased demand for renewable. cultural fears based on perception of nuclear accidents/waste have made this an unpopular choice politically. which has sometimes been extremely controversial for social/environmental reasons e. say. e. Accept other reasonable responses. wind and tidal. it is the traditional source of energy. despite the aesthetic and environmental implications.g. specifically hydroelectric power. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 88 . Narmada dam. non-polluting sources. which has always been used. fossil fuels in UK availability – large oil. economic. and technology such as solar powered stoves is not available/ affordable. as the most easily accessible reserves have been used up. but energy sources should be. as public awareness of threats of global warming has increased there has been a shift in attitudes towards. 10 max Award credit if figures are used. leading to greater investment and research into alternatives e.(c) factors could include availability. wind power. environmental and technological factors: e. Award [5 max] if no societies are referred to. Societies do not need to be contrasting.g. firewood in India in India a huge proportion of population rely on local sources of firewood for energy because it is most readily available/cheap. in a drive to develop economically the Indian government has sought to harness other sources of cheap energy to stimulate industrial development. coal and gas reserves in UK have historically meant they were an obvious choice for exploitation.g. the costs of exploitation have increased and alternative sources have been sought. cultural.

g. in a peat bog (denitrification). by planting leguminous crops e. water will flow through soil (infiltration) to replenish groundwater (transfer). then the poorly decomposed matter forms peat on the surface e. but people can also add nitrogen to the soil in the form of artificial fertilizers. in decaying remains/in the soil. to form nitrates which can be taken in by the plants in solution with water in the ground (nitrification). soil water may evaporate back into the atmosphere (transformation). excessive flow of water through a very porous soil will wash away the nitrates into rivers and sea (leaching). water can flow from soil into plants by uptake into roots. the soil is the home of bacteria and if it becomes waterlogged near the surface the bacteria are unable to break down the decaying plant and animal matter. which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. these bacteria exist. few plants have the ability to absorb atmospheric nitrogen directly.g. (a) Transfers: [3 max] transfers normally flow through a system and involve a change in location. peas/beans/clover. Transformation: [3 max] lead to an interaction within a system in the formation of a new end product/involve a change of state. 5 max 89 . so it has to be converted by bacteria.72.

Award [4 max] if no named systems are mentioned.g. GM crops with shorter stalks to minimize wind damage and exposure of soil. Award [1] for naming commercial and subsistence farming systems. vegetable farming in Thailand – manure from working livestock allowed to fertilize soil. small-scale agriculture e.(b) large-scale cereal cultivation in the prairies.g. but system can break down when population pressure leads to abandonment of traditional methods. tend to be low tech and simple. terraces built by hand to reduce run-off. shelterbelts of trees planted. Accept any other reasonable answers. commercial farming system relies on a technological approach to managing the soil (technocentric). application of manure. Answer needs to show comparison. which have evolved over time as people live on the land (ecocentric) e. shortage of firewood means manure is burnt for fuel instead of being returned to land. USA – high technology approach to minimizing wind erosion. If systems are simply described award [6 max] 8 max 90 . variety of crops grown reduces the likelihood of exposure of soil at different times. e. application of fertilizer to retain fertility of soil. e.g. use of specially adapted ploughs. whereas subsistence depends more on traditional practices. fields allowed to be fallow/rest by crop rotation/soil is rested.g.

bringing new land under production e. GM crops to increase yields/farm machinery. Accept any other reasonable responses. less vegetation → greater wind speeds → more soil erosion → less top soil → less vegetation etc. systems approach stresses the interconnectedness of soils and emphasizes the knock-on impact that actions can have. 5 max Do not accept arguments that are not linked to the concept of systems.g. and the importance of returning nutrients through the use of fertilizers. some processes of degradation are examples of positive feedback e. seeing soils as renewable resources in equilibrium (inputs of nutrients through rain and organic matter) and outputs through natural leaching. additional fertilizers to increase yield. 1 1 max 2 max 91 .(c) systems are models with inputs. better storage (as less food decays). input of technology e. unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation.. Do not accept suggestions to limit food consumption as the question is about meeting increases in demand. toxification and salinization. (a) accept answers between 10 and 14 billion. deforestation on nearby slopes can have an impact on water flows and likelihood of soil erosion in flash flood conditions. understanding this can help farmers to break the cycle. activities such as overgrazing. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 73. (c) more intense production. with overgrazing an understanding of the balance of animals that can be supported before the critical threshold is reached will help farmers plan herd size. but only if they lead to an increase in yield. deforestation. more efficient transport (as less food decays). these include soil erosion. Accept responses with a step by step description that demonstrates that the rate of increase is increasing. understanding that soils are living systems which are integral parts of ecosystems will help farmers to take a broader perspective when managing their land e. outputs and storages. (b) exponential.g. rate of population increase increases over time.g. will help farmers to compensate for the losses to overall nutrient balance by removing crops.g. through irrigation/hydroponics.

g. religious resistance to contraception e. exact natures of the causal relationships are not explained. and is dependent in some way on a healthy population. 2 max 92 . Accept any other reasonable responses. Award [1 max] for general responses in which specific gases are not identified.g. in farming countries causes increased birth rate to secure a son. for large family sizes. (a) nitrogen oxides/carbon dioxide from power station as fossil fuels are burned. pressure for sons e.g. easy to see the connections. but in this context it suggests development which has a positive role in enhancing the environment. but far too simple. traditionally defined as development which meets the needs of the current generation without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs.(d) traditions e. Award [1] for a strength and [1] for a weakness. shows clearly how actions in one area can have a knock-on effect on the original development. 2 max [6] 74. remote areas with no access to information/contraceptives. detail of what constitutes sustainable as opposed to inappropriate development is not clear. economic costs of funding family planning/medical improvements. few alternatives for women. value of large populations for economic growth. methane from ruminants (not shown on diagram). Catholic countries. 1 2 max 2 max [5] 75. can distinguish between positive and negative actions and consequences. simple. lack of education. Award [0] if no reason is given for positive feedback. (a) (b) (c) positive feedback because the effects of the problem make the problem worse. Award [1 max] if no reference is made implicitly or explicitly to figure 2. emission of gases as food is processed/packaged. greenhouse gases emitted in transportation and distribution as exhaust fumes.

Award [0] if specific gases are not named. as energy will have been lost along the food chain due to respiration and excretion/10 % rule/second law of thermodynamics. more food/nutrients provided for species. 2 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 [12] 76. renewable resources are not able to meet current demand. allowing plants and trees to grow alongside streams will increase the range of habitats for insect/bird species. nitrogen dioxide absorbs sunlight and breaks up to release oxygen atoms that combine with oxygen in the air to form ozone. fossil fuel resources are still economically cheaper to exploit. product processing and packaging is on a grander scale in MEDCs. Accept any other reasonable responses. MEDC because fertilizers and pesticides are factory produced. the technology to harness renewable sources not available on a large scale. sewage treatment.(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) a pollutant is any substance/agent (such as heat) added to the environment by human activity. when fossil fuels are burned nitrogen oxide is released. (b) (i) reducing lawn size – lawns are restricted to grass species and succession cannot occur as they are cut regularly. Award [1 max] if no distinction is made between the terms. whereas organic wastes can be treated and recycled back into the system in a positive way. livestock more processing required and therefore more energy. it reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. locations for renewable energy sources are limited by available sites/politics. 1 2 93 . inertia/culture/tradition means that non-renewable resources are favoured. complex system. at a rate greater than that at which it can be rendered harmless by the environment/and which has an negative effect on the organisms within it. Award [0] if MEDC stated with no reason. Award [0] if no reason given. (a) stops organic residues entering streams and causing pollution/eutrophication. arable more energy efficient than the livestock. Award [1 max] if the response has identified that pollutants are harmful to the environment but organic wastes do not need to be.

high productivity can support numerous trophic levels. less likely to cause eutophication than artificial fertilizers. historic isolation has allowed speciation leading to high endemism. (a) (i) (ii) (b) a range of ecosystems offering a range of habitats/niches. more niches so more alternative food sources within the food web should anything happen to an individual species. hot/high insolation and humid/ high precipitation. principles of island geography apply. 2 max 2 max 1 94 . greater genetic diversity so better able to withstand diseases/change. No mark scheme available 78. a way of reducing overall waste/resources/energy used. island colonized relatively recently so species have not developed escape/evade strategies/not afraid of man. so there will be a net loss of nutrients. after Madagascar broke away from Gondwanaland. artificial fertilizers lead to release of greenhouse gases as they are produced. natural fertilizers may contribute positively to soil structure. many niches so potential for new speciation is high. a more sustainable strategy. favourable abiotic conditions.(ii) (c) provides greater stability. 2 max 2 max [7] 77. Award [2] if response links ideas: “great length of time for speciation and isolation from the mainland”. species evolved independently in response to local conditions. removing grass cuttings takes nutrients away from the soil. complex food webs allow many niches. aesthetic/potential economic value of greater diversity. cheaper. natural fertilizers less likely to contain harmful toxins which may build up in species (biomagnification).

some species may only be present in forested areas as this is where they find food e.g.01%/3% . nets. or the fact that soil is naturally poor. site 1 is a disturbed habitat with few trees and arrested succession so lower diversity. Accept flow diagrams. soil loses fertility and can no longer support plants. better survival of residual trees so niches/species protected. Award [1 max] for responses not given in the form of a model. ecotourism can be put back into conservation programmes. Award [3 max] if no climatic factors are mentioned. Madagascar is a poor country and economic development is naturally a priority. protective forest cover removed. Award [1 max] if response is not explicitly linked to sustainability. incentive for local people to preserve local ecosystems if they can see the economic benefit. an economic alternative to harmful actions. recovery of natural systems after disturbance is more likely. (ii) promotion of development and conservation is the favoured approach of the World Conservation strategy. funds from e. soil exposed to high temperatures and baked/dried out. maintains more canopy so soil is protected from rain/sun. 4 max 2 max (i) (18 482 ÷ 600 461 × 100 =) 3. directly by logging/farming/mining/industry/settlement. nutrients leached away. (in principle) natural interest can be harvested whilst natural capital is preserved. Scorpions favour drier conditions and therefore inhabit the grassland site (1). 2 max site 2 is a pristine (climatic) climax habitat so exhibits greatest diversity. spider diagrams. site 3 will experience some disturbance but less than site 1. Lemurs.g.(c) (d) (e) (f) Response should be presented as a model. soil degraded and useless as a resource for humans. 3 max (i) 1 95 . etc. soil exposed to rain and easily washed away/eroded.

Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed. (ii) yes. reducing birth rates is often seen as being an important feature of countries that are further along in demographic transition. already rich in species/high biodiversity/biological hotspot. through technology which will develop as the country develops economically. provided resources are used sustainably there is no reason why populations should not grow. to be most effective other reserves needed in other locations. only one ecosystem type presented here. larger reserves are better. government should because population growth rate is high (3 %) and population is putting increasing pressure on limited resources. government should not because population growth rate will naturally stabilize as the country develops. isolated from human activity so less chance of disturbance. continuing population growth may lead to expansion and increased pressure from the settlement. Madagascar will be able to increase its carrying capacity. not clear whether there are economic opportunities in the reserve for local people. Award credit for other reasonable arguments.(ii) strengths: 2 reserve is relatively large (50 km ). overpopulation is to do with numbers of people compared to resource use. large population is needed to develop the country economically. remote so difficult to police. weaknesses: remote so access for research/monitoring could be difficult. (g) (i) 36 million. one large reserve generally better than lots of little ones. no. many of which provide important goods and services and need to be protected. reserve surrounded by forest which acts as a natural buffer zone. 3 max 1 2 max [23] 96 . more people means more pressure will be put on fragile ecosystems. yes because carrying capacity is likely to be exceeded.

LEDCs are often characterized by lower consumption as people have less to spend. this is partly because people in MEDCs have more disposable income. and is a quantitative representation of carrying capacity. Award [4 max] if no mention is made of specific case studies.79. this means demand for energy resources is high. it should be sustainable over time. Award up to [2 max] for reference to a specific example (could be on an individual’s own ecological footprint or for a country). (a) (b) Responses should be constructed around a case study. MEDCs (in general) have much greater rates of resource consumption than LEDCs. ecological footprint is the (hypothetical) amount of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. MEDCs produce far more waste/pollution as a by-product of production. an individual/a country. 5 max 7 max 97 . and assimilate its waste. named country. Award [2 max] if no reference is made to an example. this defined population could be at any scale e. informal economy in LEDCs is responsible for recycling many resources. to meet its resource needs. Award [1 max] if response quotes specific data about an ecological footprint.g. as LEDCs develop the difference between footprint size diminishes. and also because resource use is often wasteful.

(c) Award [1] for any of the following.g. as societies develop water needs increase. reduced by reducing amounts of resources that are used. reusing resources. (a) describing water budget: [3 max] only 2. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 80. e. etc. technology can be applied to all aspects of resource use e. over 80 % is in ice caps and glaciers. but some indication of relative amounts is. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity.6 % is groundwater. rest of is made up of lakes. many societies are now dependent primarily on groundwater which is non-renewable. greater demands are made on water resources. 0. the pace of technological change is speeding up which suggests new solutions will be found in the future to current resource problems. improving efficiency of resource use. as populations grow. e. the funding to support technological change exists in MEDCs which currently face the biggest problem with their ecological footprints. 7 max 98 . many innovations are still in earlier stages e. recycling resources. availability of water for drinking.g. so there is a real incentive to address the issue. Award [3 max] for justifying which is most likely to succeed. Precise figures are not required. to intensify land use/ cope more efficiently with waste. up to [3 max]. GM crops for example can be used to increase yields on the same amount of land.6 % is fresh water. explaining why possible source of conflict: [5 max] water resources are now becoming a limiting factor in many societies. populations will be forced to take drastic steps. rivers. when water supplies fail.g. reducing population to reduce resources use. reducing amount of pollution produced.. mass migration/civil unrest/wars may result. transporting waste to other countries to deal with. renewable technologies but these could potentially have a huge impact on ecological footprints in the future.g. importing more resources from other countries. industry and agriculture needs to be considered. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity technology can increase carrying capacity to cope with increased demand for resources as populations grow.

it also means working with natural processes.(b) (c) ecocentrism involves an holistic world view. local awareness campaigns. locally built micro dams.g. low technology irrigation. fertilizers/pesticides. Award [1 max] for any statement which explains what a technocentric strategy might be. ecocentric involves emphasis on small-scale e. reuse of bath water. high economic outlay. may include both engineering solutions and biotechnology solutions. local tube well. Award [1 max] for any correct reference to Boserup’s theory. evaluation: [3 max] techno solutions may represent the only way to increase yield to meet demand. this implies individuals/local groups making changes which affect the whole. Features of ecocentrism do not need to be stated explicitly.g. Award [2 max] if ecocentrism is discussed without reference to local application. ecocentric involves emphasis on community involvement e. may have environmental costs/not be environmentally sustainable. as the choice of strategy may imply these. 6 max Award [4 max] if there is no evaluation.4 times larger than the size of the country. ecocentric involves self-imposed restraint e. (a) (i) a country consuming resources and assimilating its wastes by using a land area 2.g. agribusiness/industrial agriculture. mechanization. rice with genes to produce more proteins and vitamins. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 81. 5 max description: [3 max] irrigation using pumped groundwater reserves.g. and therefore not an option for LEDC. genetically modified plant species. ecocentric involves education e. hydroponics is a good example of a technological solution. 1 99 . disease-resistant cereals. ecocentric focuses on basic needs of those below subsistence e.g.

less reliance smaller size.(ii) (b) (i) level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. size of population. change in our natural environment/albedo by humans including deforestation/agricultural activity/urbanization may have changed climate indirectly. per capita consumption of food. the addition of various atmospheric pollutants from industry may have changed our atmosphere (and as a consequence climate). more imported resource. greater – larger footprint. more transport – larger footprint. level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. urban living) may have changed atmospheric systems (leading to global climate change). per capita production of carbon waste. Accept the converse form of any of the above e. greater – smaller footprint. efficiency of agriculture. technology can equally reduce the footprint if it improves efficiency of agricultural production/energy use/alternative energy sources/reduces carbon pollution. a country’s level of technology will influence its footprint. methane from rice growing/cattle farming is a greenhouse gas. CO2 from burning fossil fuels is a greenhouse gas. use of alternative energy technology. meat/vegetable rich diets. greater – larger footprint. Answers must specifically identify the link between man and climate for mark to be awarded. greater reliance – greater size.g. productivity of local biome. greater – larger footprint. greater – smaller footprint. Atmospheric pollution would not be acceptable however atmospheric pollution caused by industry would gain a mark. heat produced by human activity (industry. more technology more resources therefore larger footprint. greater – smaller footprint. meat-rich – larger footprint. 3 max 1 max 100 .

plate tectonics shift position of land masses.g. e. ocean current changes leading to global energy change.g. UK climate becoming warmer and wetter/Ethiopia becoming hotter and drier. e. volcanic activity leading to changes in atmospheric composition. sunspot activity.(ii) Sketch graph should show the following: steady rise over last 100 years. temperature fluctuations over the last 2000 years. 3 2 max 1 101 . natural dynamic variation in the atmospheric system leading to climate change. (iii) (c) (i) changes in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun changing the amount of available incoming radiation thus influencing global climate.  (accuracy in the position  both high points and low points  of points is not essential) annotation e. plate tectonics causing mountain building and affecting air flows. industrial revolution/marking of little ice age.g. changes in the Sun’s radiation output.

due to increased temperature more energy used for air conditioning thus larger footprint.g. e.g. 1 (ii) N = total number of organisms within a population. method must allow for the collection of data on species present.g.(ii) e. thus larger footprint. (a) (b) (i) the number of species and their abundance found within a habitat. arable farming is limited to geographical bands which have sufficient sunshine and temperature levels and moderate amounts of precipitation. multiple 1 metre quadrats). warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local agriculture and therefore reduce footprint size. and abundance within species (expressed as number of individuals/ percentage cover). new climate may require new building styles. warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local natural vegetation and therefore reduce footprint size. which require resources which may increase footprint size. 1 (i) (ii) biomes are defined by climatic conditions/amount of available light. dealing with changing climate conditions. method must include expression of data analysis. Accept other reasonable answers of equivalent weight and validity. No mark scheme available 102 . 2 max [13] 82. more flooding. Simpson’s index would be used to quantify diversity. temperature and available precipitation. UK: climate change will cause policy change which will change behaviour and influence footprint size. 4 biological area(s) exhibiting a similar climate/weather that supports a distinctive flora and fauna. e. 3 max [10] 83. rice fields require high levels of precipitation and high light and temperatures.g. 1 (iii) Candidates may describe a number of possible methods but their design should include the following: method must allow for the collection of data that is scientifically representative and appropriate (e. indigenous agriculture is dictated by climate. may require more flood defenses and thus more resources. warmer temperatures may require less heating thus smaller footprint. crop type and livestock are suited to climatic conditions.

logging processes and transport may aid in dispersal of Ficus/fig trees. may be less effective in raising sufficient revenue/ gaining support from local people.84. 68 331 logged: × 100% = 96%. 2 max 2 max 103 . 2 max difference: influence: difference: influence: (i) (ii) 60 × 100 = 88%. 345 Award [2] if both correct values are given. strict reserve is (proportionally) smaller and so. influence: is more vulnerable to unmanaged human activity outside park. production zone is (proportionally) smaller and so. through ecotourism/education. difference: buffer zone is in direct contact with edge at some points and so. (a) (b) (c) reduces direct impact/edge effects of more rigorous human activity in production zone. Ficus/fig trees may establish themselves more easily with increased light/ reduced canopy due to logging. Award [2] if answers include both a difference and an influence on success. allows research and thus more understanding of threatened species and their protection. raises revenue from ecotourism to support conservation management. logging may selectively remove competitors of Ficus/fig trees. Award [1 max] if either one or both values are incorrect but working is shown correctly. difference: overall shape is more elongated/boundary more reticulated and so. 2 max unlogged: logging likely to remove larger Ficus/fig trees in harvesting host trees. encourages support of local communities by making some provision for them. less protection for forest species. raises awareness of conservation issues. influence: is more vulnerable to edge effects.

it removes nutrients stored in harvested biomass. abundance of Black and white colobus is more in logged area/less in unlogged.g. Award [2] if it is shown that more than two groups depend upon it and [1] if it is shown that two other groups depend upon it. they prefer lower tree density.g.g.g. that size of groups is similar in both areas. that data was recorded at same season/year. 1 max (iii) (f) abundance of six/most species is less in logged area/more in unlogged area.g. Karusandara/Dura/Nkongooro. Bigodi/Busiriba. 2 max 104 . 1 max it interferes with the success of other species than the crop species e. “trees” is not acceptable but “pine trees” would be. 1 max adjacent areas are similar in all other relevant respects. some parishes have very little direct access to park at all/minimal boundary to the park e.g. some parishes may benefit financially from tourist traffic outside park and so not dependent on park resources e. that areas are indeed adjacent (map would suggest that they are at least 10–15 km apart). Kigaraale. Ficus/fig trees.(d) (e) any appropriate example in which it is shown that many other species within ecosystem depend upon it.e. (i) (ii) (g) 2 (Black and white colobus more abundant in logged area because) less competition from other primates. Be lenient with any strict sense of a “species” i. it causes incidental damage through e. they feed on trees not harvested by loggers. Award [0] if no species is identified. it limits growth of mature keystone species e. transport/noise/soil compaction/erosion. 2 max (while all four parishes given make direct contact with a large production zone in the park) other parishes only in contact with buffer zone/have no access to production zone (where management is less stringent) e. primates. Award [1] for each valid difference with appropriate named location up to [2 max]. they form smaller but more numerous groups in lower density forest.

strategy: revenue sharing. difference: more SOs promoting research. difference: more DGs monitoring illegal forest use. difference: more DGs forming policy and law.(h) cause: have traditionally depended upon forest resources for subsistence. 2 max Award [1] for any acceptable cause and [1] for a relevant strategy. strategy: offer agreements whereby they can obtain certain traditional resources. reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs/more personnel/ resources available. reason: less direct benefit to them possibly than more localized PAs working together/less technical understanding than SOs. 2 max 105 . reason: have more international contacts. cause: damage to crops from park animals. difference: more SOs seeking funding. cause: cannot achieve sustainable provision outside of forest. reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs. strategy: develop methods of preventing animals from entering crops. reason: have more technical understanding. (i) difference: fewer DGs involved in energy conservation technology. Award [1] for any acceptable significant difference and [1] for an appropriate explanation. strategy: offer practical/financial assistance to set up sustainable projects. cause: poverty in the face of great wealth evident in park management/tourists.

g. evidence: many decentralized groups/local parishes do have an environmental agenda – figure 9/figure 10. renewable are biotic and depend on biotic processes. replenishable are non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the Sun for their replenishment. evidence: incentives such as controlling crop damage/sustainable projects/revenue sharing are in place to encourage support of locals – figure 8. timber).(j) evidence: strict reserve has been established – figure 2. evidence: letters show awareness/support among local people – figure 7. renewable are natural resources that have a sustainable yield/harvest equal to/less than their natural productivity. [25] 85. food crops. letters also indicate there are still infringements of restrictions. (a) non-renewable are natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment and used (e. 4 max Award [1] for any reasonable evidence derived from resource material and [1] for any appropriate point of discussion. study only reports how groups see their own role without any objective assessment.g. (e. discussion: revenue sharing provides very little money. discussion: small number of letters/anecdotal/from only three parishes. 3 max 106 . but this is a major hurdle. evidence: some parishes have signed agreements – figure 8. Award [3 max] if no figure numbers are given. fossil fuels). discussion: provides good holistic approach to conservation. (e. groundwater). evidence: many aspects of original model are implemented – figure 2. discussion: no mention in these reports of this being associated with Kibale specifically. so impressive achievement. discussion: only 29 % of population by time of report. Award [2 max] if no discussion is given. discussion: less than recommended in model.g. rainforest ecosystem of particular global significance. whereas replenishable are abiotic and depend on abiotic processes.

for ozone: human actions damaging resource: human activity releases ozone depleting substances such as CFCs/ halons/NOx. so a thinning/hole allows more UVB wavelengths through. higher costs of water for industry. with knock on effects for economy. which has knock-on effects for their consumers (zooplankton)/for food chains/webs. ozone depletion has lead to “holes” in the ozone layer e.g. possible effects: reduced availability of water resources. further contaminating supply. over Antarctica.(b) Award [1] for a named example of replenishable natural capital. pollutants enhance the rate of destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. damage to plant tissues. possible effects: ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths (270–315 nm) of ultraviolet light from passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. and reduction of plankton populations. knock-on impacts on agriculture. e. excessive abstraction/extraction/groundwater mining means water tables are lowered. can lead to salt water intrusion in coastal areas. e. sources of pollution include agricultural products.g. ozone depleting substances already released remain active for long periods. excessive use of surface water means that groundwater supplies are not being replenished. for groundwater: human actions damaging resource (examples need to be related to groundwater not other water resources): human activity is releasing pollutants so water quality is lost. and underground storage tanks/landfills/septic tanks/mining run-off. e. increase in tensions/conflict over the limited resource.g. this has consequences such as increases in skin cancer/increased mutations.g. Award up to [5 max] for human actions damaging resource and up to [5 max] for possible effects. there has been a decline in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere of about 4 % every ten years. 8 max 107 . as less water is available for irrigation and yields decline. CFCs are found in refrigerants and propellants. ozone/groundwater.

so that future generations can continue to use the resource. 7 max Evaluation needs strengths and weaknesses. global perspective is useful because many problems have global consequences e. human actions can be culturally specific e.(c) description: Award [3 max] the Gaia hypothesis was developed by James Lovelock.g. some environmental problems are local in nature e. sometimes problems need international agreements e.g.g. and so a more local perspective is sometimes appropriate. individual/small-scale community action can be very effective for managing resources sustainably e. traditional farming methods. and that the earth is a global control system of surface temperature. understanding that our actions can have an impact on others is good for getting societies to think about impacts on different generations. CITES for trade across boundaries to ensure populations are big enough to sustain the species. so understanding knock-on effects outside of national boundaries helps governments to be more responsible. not just in different countries. Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed. hydrological cycle/ atmospheric system. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 108 . it compares the Earth to a living organism in which feedback mechanisms maintain equilibrium. global warming. often local methods have evolved to be more sustainable/appropriate for the local environment.g.g.g. the initial hypothesis was that the biomass modifies the conditions on the planet to make conditions on the planet more hospitable (full homeostasis). weaknesses: but ecosystems can exist at many scales. evaluation: Award [5 max] strengths: sustainable management means ensuring resources are not degraded/ natural capital is not used up. ecosystems are affected by global processes e. global perspective stresses the interrelationships between systems so knock-on effects are reduced. point source pollution. recycling. atmospheric composition and ocean salinity.

5 max 4 max 109 . if carrying capacity is exceeded there will be consequences in terms of demand for resources not being met. generally however per capita resource consumption increases over time. winter.g. (a) (b) as population increases this tends to increase resource consumption. where a change in density leads to inhibition/reversal of that change. Award [4 max] if statement is not referred to. this limit can be. total resource consumption increases even faster than population. density-independent factors are not influenced by changes in population density and so do not lead directly to stability.86. i. thus. this in turn limits population growth and/or per capita resource consumption. density-independent factors are of particular importance for r-strategists. fluctuations can be dramatic.e. bush fire). in order for resource consumption to be sustainable population growth must remain within the limits of the carrying capacity. which are necessary to reduce population to a level within the control of density-dependent factors. this statement is suggesting that as well as managing resource use. however they are often responsible for high mortalities (e. hence when density-dependent factors do change. and may be either internal or external. more energy is needed to supply goods/services to more people/ more land is needed to feed these people. carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum number of a species/load that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. if resources are used more frugally/efficiently then carrying capacity can support a larger population. societies/ governments need to manage the numbers of people in order to support populations indefinitely. carrying capacity tends to limit the total resource consumption. populations either have to stop growing or consume less. and is. unless per capita resource consumption is reduced. seasonal flooding. density-dependent factors operate as negative feedback mechanisms leading to stability. it can also be exceeded in the short term but not sustainably. both factors usually operate on populations. exceeded in human populations due to import of resources from other systems.

9 max Award [1] for any point of equal weight and validity about the importance of understanding equilibrium and [1] for any example of an ecosystem used to show how equilibrium has been upset by human activities.g.g. human activities can be the source of high levels of disturbance and thus ecosystems are pushed beyond a point of no return/ equilibrium is irreversibly changed. e.(c) a steady-state equilibrium is a common property of most ecosystems. e. e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 110 . it may leave a system more vulnerable to natural disturbance. successful ecological management involves recognizing how much disturbance an ecosystem can cope with. ecosystems have a tendency to return to their original equilibrium following natural disturbance/most ecosystems are able to cope with natural changes to their equilibrium. e. agroforestry/small-scale shifting cultivation is a method of farming which mimics natural processes so that ecosystems can regenerate/equilibrium can be restored. e. human activities can be tailored to match and fit in with natural levels of disturbance within ecosystems. succession). some ecosystems undergo long-term changes to their equilibrium while retaining integrity to the system (e.g.g. Award [5 max] if no examples are mentioned. equilibrium of aquatic ecosystems can be upset by the addition of excessive nutrients/through eutrophication. grazing/burning arrests the succession of forest.g. coral reefs coping with storm damage/grassland ecosystems coping with bushfires/tropical rainforest coping with loss of big trees due to storms. the climatic climax. is not reached (plagioclimax). where the nutrient balance becomes upset.g. human activities can interrupt succession so that the ultimate equilibrium. combination of human activities on reefs through overfishing/ coral bleaching/ pollution have weakened the reefs so that they are less able to cope with natural threats like El Niño events. e.g. tropical deforestation on a grand scale does not allow regeneration to take place. and that while human activity may not directly cause loss of equilibrium.

High: 106 tonnes and low: 106 tonnes (units required). renewable resource/once turbines built it is cheap. wind. Both correct values required for [1]. Accept any reasonable advantages or disadvantages. Accept other reasonable responses. Award [1 max] for natural gas/wind. people desire a better lifestyle which is equated with wanting more e. country wishes to increase diversity of energy sources. HEP. some resources not continuously available. bigger car/having a fridge. 3 max 2 max 2 max 1 max [8] 88. only available when wind blows/not always near population centres. education. burning releases carbon dioxide/non-renewable. Do not credit “cheap” with no qualifier. 1 1 111 . standby on electrical equipment/phantom loads. (a) (i) (ii) Sustainable yield: rate of increase is natural capital/resource that can be exploited/taken/harvested without depleting the original stock.g. pressure to meet quotas for renewable energy.87. Do not credit answers which just state the second law without relating it to environmental systems. (a) Energy source Advantage Disadvantage natural gas. (do not accept “don’t know better”) environmental systems increase their disorder/all energy ends up as heat. (b) (c) (d) inertia/satisfied with existing system. people are selfish/inertia/tragedy of the commons. poor design of equipment/buildings e. near sea for wave. plentiful supply at present/cheaper than burning coal or oil. OWTTE. environmental systems increase their order so go against the law for a short time. Credit advantages and disadvantages for an incorrect source to avoid error carried forward. country does not have that resource e. Award [1] for each pair of correct responses of advantages and/or disadvantages.g.g.

2 2 max Terrestrial: most food harvested from lower trophic levels/as crops/plants/ herbivores/ cattle etc. if starving will break the law to catch food/hard for law-keepers to monitor catch. international boundaries make legislation difficult.g. 1 1 Award [1] for diagram which shows contracting population and large numbers of older people. miscalculation of how many are available. oceans are huge/vast areas. short-term gain is more important than longer-term growth of the industry. 112 . Aquatic: most food from higher trophic levels/bigger fish/higher up food chain so much energy has been lost/energy conversions more efficient as fewer warm-blooded animals which use most energy to keep body temperature stable/more efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy). the share of global population is decreasing because the rate of increase is much higher in LEDCs. Accept other reasonable responses. (d) 1 fish farming/change fishing grounds/eat alternative food sources/ new technologies to ensure immature fish not caught/less wastage/ research into alternative fish species/monitoring population numbers carefully to check stocks/research in GM fish (suitable for aquaculture). ignorance of how “in danger” a stock is. Do not credit reasons why birth rates are decreasing. (a) (b) (c) Crude death rate: number of deaths per thousand individuals in a population per year. 2 1 [10] 89. because more fish are left in the sea to breed and increase stocks/ the trend in low intensity is to have larger catch in year 4 compared with year 4 in high intensity. e.(iii) (iv) (b) (c)  48  24   100  = 100% difference  24   low intensity. Accept other reasonable responses. so less heat/respiratory losses/more efficient fixation of solar energy as does not have to get through water first/ less efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy).

no longer care about saving energy/resources/consume the same as middle-aged adults whereas children consume less. population size on x axis. need to consider aesthetic or intrinsic value which is subjective. views can be diverse and hard to assess. 2 2 max 113 . Natural capital: natural resources that can produce goods and services/the natural stock/storage of a resource. are more aware of environmental impacts so use less energy. 1 smaller footprint because: older people eat less/go out less/fly less/ travel less. larger footprint because: older people have more leisure time so fly/have more holidays/live in larger houses. (b) it has no economic value/not easy to quantify. age ranges on y axis. Accept other reasonable responses. value of resource usually measured in economic terms. 2 max [7] 90.F e m a le A g e ra n g e M a le (d) (e) P o p u la tio n Award [1] for labels – male. (a) Natural income: yield/output that can be used by people without diminishing the capital/ same as sustainable yield. female. 2 (total fertility is) the (average) number of children per woman in her lifetime/her reproductive years.

drier/lower precipitation in the summer/June to August in both periods. Accept converse answer in each case but do not credit both. by tropospheric ozone damaging forests. chimneys/car parks may be built and are visual pollutants. 1 114 . Award [2 max] if either precipitation or air temperature are not mentioned. (i) 1 2 max warmer in summer/June to September in both periods. it is dark for 4 months of the year. temperatures consistently higher in 1991–2004. No mark scheme available 92. 3 max Accept any other reasonable suggestion. infertile soil due to low temperatures/acidity/waterlogging/low nutrient turnover. total precipitation lower in 1991–2004. precipitation rates are low. photochemical smog obscures the view. precipitation lower in every month in 1991–2004. temperature above freezing/warmer earlier in 1991–2004. anomalously low precipitation in October 1991–2004. Accept any other reasonable suggestion. (ii) climate change/global warming/natural variation/increased combustion of fossil fuels. global warming changing vegetation and glaciers melting. water is frozen for most of year in permafrost. temperature is low due to low intensity of solar insolation. especially in winter months/November to April. (ii) water/light/temperature is limiting. 2 max [6] 91. snow cover prevents light reaching plants for part of year.(c) by acid deposition which kills conifers. smaller temperature ranges in 1991–2004. precipitation is lowest in months when light levels are highest. air pollution can cause breathing difficulties/produce bad smell which spoils experience of people at viewpoint. total precipitation is more evenly distributed in 1991–2004. atmospheric particulates obscure the view. (a) (b) (i) tundra.

Do not award mark for stating wild reindeer food chain is less stable. no predators to manage/control Svalbard reindeer population. low nutrient value of food. it has fewer trophic levels/interrelationships are simpler/ chain not web. Accept other valid reasons. Svalbard’s food chain is less stable because. Award [1 max]. positive feedback amplifies/increases change/leads to (exponential) deviation away from an equilibrium. Svalbard reindeer: (solar insolation) → small arctic plants → reindeer . habitat covers a smaller land area. human impact on Svalbard may destabilize that food chain. 2 max Do not award marks if arrows are drawn onto the table in the incorrect direction. OTTWE 2 max w o lf w a rb le fly 2 max 1 115 . Mainland reindeer: (solar insolation) → reindeer moss/lichen → wild reindeer (iii) (d) (i) Award [1 max].(c) (i) (ii) geographical isolation/no interbreeding with mainland reindeer. whereas negative feedback damps down/ neutralizes/counteracts any deviation away from an equilibrium. smaller populations are more likely to crash. adaptation to local conditions/no predators so no need for long legs/natural selection. Do not credit food chain for mainland reindeer if warble flies are missing. Accept any other reasonable suggestion.

methane gas is released so temperatures increase further. (e) (i) (ii) (f) (i) very cold/permafrost/frozen.g. low running costs/little electricity used. so cannot produce viable seed for farmers to plant the following season. so the genetic diversity they provided for development of new varieties is lost. albedo is further reduced. 2 max latitude: 76° (accept 75°–77°) – 81° (accept 80°–82°) North/N. so frozen soil thaws. maintaining genetic diversity of food crops is vital for breeding new varieties to cope with disease/adverse conditions. as permafrost melts. 4 max 2 max many rare/endangered wild plants are threatened with extinction by human activity/natural hazards. ecosystems may become unstable if key species disappear/ diversity is reduced. 1 116 . jobs/tourism revenue. so atmospheric dust/precipitation levels return to normal. releasing more methane so temperature increases further. with no snow cover. wild plants are often used for developing new drugs/providing genes to give disease resistance/ability to withstand adverse conditions to other species. Do not accept answers which relate to general advantages of having a seed vault or benefits to Svalbard e. the species and/or genetic diversity of wild plants may be culturally and aesthetically significant (and therefore worth preserving).(ii) Positive feedback: [2 max] methane gas released from mining increases global warming/ greenhouse effect. Negative feedback: [2 max] dust particles in the atmosphere act as condensation nuclei leading to more precipitation. coal dust deposited on snow or ice reduces albedo/reflection of solar energy/increases solar energy absorbed so ice and snow melt. many older varieties of food crops are no longer grown. higher temperatures melt permafrost. some transgenic crop varieties have a “terminator” gene. dust particles washed out of atmosphere by extra precipitation. little chance of civil unrest/little human disturbance. Accept any other valid example. few natural hazards.

river water has been harvested for irrigation and used at a rate greater than it can be replenished by fresh water. 2 6 max 117 . improved technology is now available for coping with difficult Arctic weather and subsea conditions. 2 max [25] 93. therefore water resources need to be managed to ensure demand does not exceed supply. Award [1] for naming an appropriate case study. yet the capacity of fresh water stores to replenish themselves is not unlimited. this has had knock-on effects on lake species/water supplies for lake communities/fishing industries/local climate. increasing demand for resources to sustain increased expectations of higher standards of living. demands on water resources are increasing due to population increase/ increasing demands by agriculture/industry.(ii) exploitation of more inaccessible resources becomes economically more viable as reserves diminish/prices rise. insufficient water reached the Aral causing it to shrink to a third of its original size. hence. the two rivers (Syr Darya and Amu Darya) which input water into the Aral Sea had been diverted to irrigate cotton fields upstream in Uzbekistan. and minimizes damage to the environment. recently discovered new reserves in the area. water has become contaminated with pesticide run-off and salt due to evaporation and reduced freshwater supplies. which has shrunk in size and been degraded by unsustainable use of water resources. an example where this has not happened is the Aral Sea (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). increased demand for oil and gas encourages further exploitation in new areas. Answers must relate to an increasing trend. increasing demand for resources due to population growth. access becomes easier as ice thins/areas become ice free for more of the year. countries want their own oil and gas supply for strategic reasons. Examples may demonstrate sustainable or unsustainable use. (a) (b) use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration.

subsistence depends on harnessing the power of the bush through work. but the bush is also the home of potentially vindictive spirits. ecosystems are seen as economic resources which can be exploited through work in order to develop economies/ meet needs. but the scale and technological power of these systems means that in the past this has led to exploitation of resources at unsustainable rates e. the ecosystem (bushland) surrounding their settlement is seen as the source of all the resources (food. and so quotas are set. trees are particularly respected. the Dogon people in West Africa and industrial capitalism of Western Europe. just as in the Dogon system. e. the massive deforestation of ancient forests in Europe for fuel and building materials. Award [1] for stating two societies which demonstrate significant differences. building materials. but increasingly it is being argued that ecosystems should be seen as natural capital which can yield an income if exploited sustainably. for example for fishing catches.g. the Dogon operate a mixed farming system with cultivation of millet and tobacco. e. respect is an essential part of the relationship between the Dogon and their environment. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 118 .g. in industrial capitalism economic growth (and the consumption patterns that sustain growth) can be idealized/worshipped in place of the spiritual dimension of an ecosystem. 10 max Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to relate the value system to how the resources are used. wood is not wasted and wooden objects are left to deteriorate once no longer useful.g. Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to compare the societies.(c) e.g. livestock herding and hunter gathering. Award [5 max] for each society. fuel and medicine) that they need. to preserve the natural capital.

so the ban allows natural balance to be restored. pyramid structure of ecosystems means that non-biodegradable toxins can become concentrated in upper levels. because DDT becomes more concentrated along food chains (bioconcentration) top carnivores tend to be most affected and these may play a very significant role in maintaining balance of whole ecosystem. Award [2 max]. hunting. 6 max 119 .94. pyramid of biomass represents the standing stock of each trophic level measured in units such as grams of biomass or energy per sq m. it also demonstrates why there is a limit to the number of trophic levels that can be supported. (b) 4 max Disadvantages of banning DDT: [3 max] DDT effectively killed malarial mosquitoes. e.g. and since the ban populations of mosquitoes have increased. e. Advantages of banning DDT: [3 max] environmental side-effects of DDT have been avoided by banning its use. a continent least able to deal with the socio-economic consequences of the disease. but DDT also kills other insects which may be natural predators of the mosquitoes. target insects can develop resistance. (units required) pyramid of numbers represents the number of individuals in each trophic level within a food chain.g. incidence of malaria has increased as a result. (a) Award [2 max]. 90% of all malaria cases are in Africa. and why species at the top of the pyramid may be more vulnerable to e.g. malaria is a disease to which children are particularly vulnerable and has huge socio-economic implications. DDT is not biodegradable and accumulates in the tissues of living organisms (bioaccumulation) damaging or even eliminating populations.

whereas technocentric might use chemical fertilizers. avoiding over-compaction of soil through use of appropriate/low impact technology. avoiding over-intensive farming by allowing fields fallow/rest periods. improving nitrogen fixation by planting leguminous crops e. reducing loss of nutrients/topsoil due to wind erosion by planting shelter belts.g. Contrasting approaches of ecocentric and technocentric farmers: both ecocentric and technocentric farmers might apply fertilizers. beans. technocentrics might favour high tech solutions such as GM crops whereas ecocentrics might be concerned about the ethical issues of GM. ecocentrics often express a lack of faith in large-scale technology so might oppose strategies used by agribusiness e. but choice of fertilizer might reflect their values e. Award [6 max] if no contrast is made between ecocentric and technocentric farmers. reducing losses due to pests/disease with chemical treatments. 8 max Award credit for any other answers of equivalent validity. high-tech irrigation systems. use of GM/Green Revolution crops e. avoiding depletion of nutrients by rotating crops. Allocation of marks can be split flexibly for part (c). reducing loss of nutrients due to soil erosion by terracing fields.g. ecocentric using manure (to work with natural processes). Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 120 . relevance and substance. higher yielding varieties of rice.g. improving yields through irrigation. through removal of hedgerows. reducing wastage by increasing field size e.(c) Methods for improving productivity of soil: improving fertility of the soil with (organic fertilizers/manure/chemical) fertilizers.g.g.

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