1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

The pedosphere is the biotic / non-biotic link between
the lithosphere and the biosphere;
there is a two-way movement of water between the
pedosphere and the hydrosphere;
there is an exchange of atmospheric gases with the pedosphere;
atmospheric processes influence the pedosphere
(e.g. through soil erosion);
atmospheric factors will affect soil forming processes
(e.g leaching, weathering);
soil organisms are part of the biosphere but also part of the soil;
biosphere contributes detrital / organic matter to the soil;

5 max

Sandy soils are characterised by large grains and large pore spaces
whereas clay soils are characterised by small grains and small pore spaces;
sand soils are therefore freely drained (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but are subject to water logging);
clay soils have a better nutrient content due to the clay humus complex
whereas sand soils do not;
sand soils tend to have a blocky or crumb structure favouring root
growth whereas clay soils tend to have a platy structure which can
inhibit root growth;
clay soils are traditionally more difficult to work / plow (heavy and sticky
when wet, hard when dry), sandy soils are generally easier to work;
clay soils heat and cool quickly, sandy soils exhibit a slower
thermal response;

5 max

Award [1] for naming systems. e.g. N. America cereal farming
nomadic herding in Tanzania
Commercial measures tent to be large scale;
high technology;
and may be supported by government initiatives;
examples of measures:
addition of fertilizers;
crop rotation;
contour plowing;
plowing technology which leaves roots in soil;
strip cultivation;
tree belts as wind breaks;

1

subsistence measures tend to be small scale;
low technology;
ad hoc;
based on traditional practise;
and may be supported by grass-roots initiatives;
example of measures:
terraces;
application of organic fertilizers (manure);
debris dams;
shifting cultivation;
tree planting;
agroforestry;

7 max
[17]

2.

(a)

(i)

the mass of organic material in organisms or ecosystems,
usually per unit area;

1

dry weight measurements are taken;
these figures are then extrapolated to estimate total biomass;

2

(i)

tropical rainforest;

1

(ii)

ideal growing conditions due to high temperatures (typically 28 °C);
and high rates of precipitation (typically over 2000 mm p.a.);
continuous growing season;
due to geographical location in equatorial area with sun
directly overhead;
for much of the year and energy of sun therefore concentrated
in this zone;

3

biomass is per unit area, productivity is production per unit time;
NPP is the quantity of biomass potentially available to
consumers in an ecosystem;

2

(i)

temperature deciduous woodland;

1

(ii)

deep humus means lots of organic matter and this leads to greater
fertility than acid humus (due to pine needles), therefore
coniferous is less fertile;
this soil has less leaching than the temperate coniferous
– i.e. fewer minerals washed out;
and parent material not as weathered as in tropical rainforest;
therefore likely to be contributing more minerals;

(ii)

(b)

(iii)

(c)

3 max
[13]

2

3.

(a)

(i)

1

X
(ii)

(b)

(i)

(ii)

(c)

(d)

Y

population growth will eventually slow down as food supply
becomes a limiting factor;
population growth exponentially (geometric rate);
and food supply grows arithmetically / population
growth outstrips food supply increase;

1

2 max

as population grows more and more babies are born
and each one is able to have children and so
the rate of growth accelerates;
food supply does not growth as rapidly, this may be due
to a number of factors e.g. limits to soil fertility / availability
of technology / patterns of land ownership;

2

To obtain marks, candidates must refer to a specific named farming
which may be terrestrial or aquatic e.g. shifting cultivation,
South East Asia.
possible improvements could be in:
farming inputs e.g. green revolution;
irrigation;
storage or distribution;
social or organizational changes e.g. in land tenure or
cooperative harvesting;

3 max

introduce and encourage contraception;
setting up family planning clinics;
compulsory sterilization;
advertising campaigns;
making abortion legal;
cutting maternity benefits;
education of women to have greater personal
and economic independence;

2 max

3

(e)

attitudes to contraception e.g. religious objections;
traditional societies and the desire for male offspring;
early marriage ages;
and the desire to appear fertile;
lack of other opportunities for women;
Credit can be given for the use of examples / case
studies to illustrate these points.

3 max

[14]

4.

(a)

6
In s o la tio n
1972000

In s o la tio n
185000

O pen sea

F jo rd
3 4 7 0 P h y to p la n k to n

F a rm e d s h rim p

847

461
K aw ai

S a lm o n
26
4 .3

410

6 .2

572

In u it

4 .1 M a n a g in g s a lm o n

1 2 .5 O th e r h u m a n a c tiv itie s
1 4 M a n a g in g s h rim p fa rm

F is h in g fo r
k a w a i 6 .7

Award [1] for each two correct labels.

(b)

(i)

(ii)

the quantity of organic matter produced or solar energy
fixed, by photosynthesis in green plants per unit area
per unit time;

1

net primary productivity is GPP less the biomass / energy
lost by plants through respiration;

1

4

(iii)

(c)

nutrient and mineral availability;
temperauture;

kaway

2

847 – 572
× 100 = 32.5% ;
847

461 – 410
× 100 = 11.1% ;
461
kaway is more efficient;
salmon

(d)

3 max

in terrestrial systems most food is harvested from relatively
low tropic levels, but in aquatic systems most food is
harvested from higher trophic levels;
energy conversions along the food chain may be more
efficient in aquatic systems;
initial fixing or available solar energy by primary producers
tend to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection
of light by water;

3

(e)

salmon is a source of income as well as a food source;

1

(f)

technology likely to be simpler;
methods likely to be more traditional;
environmental impact will probably be smaller;
more likely to be sustainable in the long term;

3 max
[20]

5.

(a)

(b)

use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration;
and minimizes damage to the environment;
Give credit if concept of replenishable capital is mentioned.

2

Give full credit for either a brief discussion of several human
actions or a full discussion of one. Credit should be given
for use of examples / case studies.
Allow [5] for how resource has been managed unsustainably
and [5] for consequences for ecosystems.

5

soil resources
human actions could include:
overgrazing;
deforestation;
unsustainable irrigation;
land pollution;
acid deposition;
Or a more detailed discussion of one or more of these.

(c)

5 max

consequences could include:
soil degradation;
loss of soil structure;
desertification;
soil erosion;
loss of organic matter and consequences for primary productivity;
effects of acid deposition on nutrient content of soils;
loss of soil organisms;

5 max

water resources
human actions could include abstraction of ground water;
pollution;
eutrophication;
increased demand for water;
wastage of water resources;
Or a detailed discussion of one or more of these.

5 max

consequences could include:
loss of habitat;
role of water in soil formation and consequences for soil formation
if water shortage occurs (e.g. increased rates of salinisation;
increased rates of soil erosion as water table is lowered);
eutrophication consequences on aquatic ecosystem;
impact of pollutants on aquatic fauna (e.g. mutations, progressive,
concentration of pollutants along the food chain);
impact of pollutants on flora e.g. impact of acid rain on coniferous forests;

5 max

Soil resources
suggest possible soil conservation methods:
soil conditioners;
wind reduction techniques;
cultivation techniques;
efforts to stop plowing marginal lands;
crop rotation;
Credit should be given if reference is made to
specific farming systems.

5 max

6

reducing water use.g.g. metering water. technological developments have enabled humans to substitute one resource for another if that resource becomes limiting (e. technological innovations. pollution monitoring or control. in the areas of recycling and remanufacturing. with respect to eutrophication. 4 technology development give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. making it hard to calculate the carrying capacity for human populations. e. Credit should be given for the use of specific examples to support these statements. and the assimilation of all wastes. thus many economists argue that human carrying capacity can be expanded continuously without necessarily increasing the impact (load) on the environment. improvements in transports have enabled humans to import resources from outside their immediate environment increasing their local carrying capacity. whereas the footprint of an ELDC is likely to be smaller than their land area. recycling.OR Water resources suggest more sustainable practices. e. (a) (b) carrying capacity – the maximum number of people that can be sustainably supported by a given environment.g. increased levels of technological development (associated with MEDCs for example) tend to be associated with larger ecological footprints. 5 max 7 . Credit should be given if reference is made to specific case studies. can increase carrying capacity. ecological footprint – the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living / the measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population. 5 max [20] 6. the ecological footprint of an EMDC is likely to be larger then their land area. with alternative fuel resources).

candidate cannot gain full marks if only one side is argued. and promotes stability.e. 8 max [20] 7. Credit should be given if specific case studies are used to illustrate these points. the largest use of resources if found in the most economically developed countries of the world. in the sense that many resource management problems are that there are insufficient resources for the available population. e.g. reducing total population size would therefore be a solution of sorts. e. Credit should be given for answers which are balanced i. population pressure can be lead to resources being misused. resource management problems are often to do with distribution of resources (e. without negative feedback no ecosystem could be self-sustaining. soil being farmed too intensively / forests being cut too rapidly. excessive population growth arguably occurs as a result of poverty (associated with inadequate resources). or the fastest population growth rates. these countries may not have the largest populations. some resources are finite and therefore no amount of population control will make a difference ultimately to the availability of that resource. 1 max 8 . however. a vicious cycle exists where population control will not be effective unless poverty and inequitable resource use is addresses first.g. 1 most ecosystems contain inbuilt checks and balances. all use of oil is ultimately unsustainable no matter what size the population is.(c) Clearly this question can be answered in a variety of ways. water resources are not distributed evenly across the globe) and therefore more equitable distribution is arguably what is required rather than population control. 1 feedback that amplifies/increases change (it leads to exponential deviation away from equilibrium).g. (a) (i) (ii) (b) feedback that tends to damp down/neutralize/counteract any deviation from an equilibrium. without internal balance an ecosystem would spiral out of control.

energy / e le c tr ic ity w a rm w a te r 2 max [5] 8. short-term thinking predominates but sustainable development is a long-term goal. national debt. (a) use of a resource at a rate which allows for natural regeneration. cultural inertia. countries’ resources are diverted to armies rather than invested in education/agriculture/development projects. war. culture may not have a philosophy of sustainability (consumerist culture of west or nomadic culture of Africa). whilst minimizing damage to the environment. [1] for both factors and [1] each for brief description of each factor.g. population expansion.(c) sm oke ste a m / w a te r v a p o u r / w a te r coal c o ld w a te r Three correct [2]. one or two correct [1]. paying off heavy foreign debts means less money left over for inward investment. more resources must be put into sustaining the population rather than development.  total biomass   total biomass  at time t  1   at time t  energy energy     (b) SY =  (c) A range of answers may be acceptable e. (d) (i) 2 1 3 max renewable natural capital is natural resources that have a 9 . political unrest.

water quality decreases. [1] for each column. –1 = –6 kg ha (units needed). (a) (b) (c) (d) (i) maize: inputs – outputs = 298 – 294. e. leached away. respiration leads to diminishing oxygen levels. clover). different crops.g. –1 = 4 kg ha (units needed). contour plowing. 1 (i) 30 × 70 = 2100 kg ha . whereas non-renewable natural capital is natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment. enhanced levels of N and P leads to increase in algal growth/algal blooms.sustainable yield/harvest  their natural productivity. 1 2 max 3 max 3 changing agricultural practice. 2 [10] 9. (i) (ii) The answer should clearly describe the process of eutrophication. 2 (ii) Renewable/replenishable Non-renewable food crops oil timber gas wind coal solar natural ore soil groundwater Mark vertically. –1 add more fertilizer. 2 ryegrass: inputs – outputs = 298 – 304. as algal blooms are decomposed by bacteria. plant crops in rotation. (ii) atmosphere: lost as nitrogen gas from the soil surface and plants. plant legumes {e. consumed by animals (as a constituent of plant material) and removed by the animal from the field.g. so less oxygen for other organisms. 2 (ii) ryegrass: produces a net loss of nitrogen from the soil. plant wheat/maize/other crops. 10 .

by abundance of organism (either high or lower levels than expected)/ by colour of moths’ wings etc. stonefly larvae. slow release). clean up and re-oxygenate water course. Gammarus.important to know what the physical and biological environment is like. oxygen enrich water course. and water retention. adopting different fertilizer (synthetic. there should be an understanding of the development in terms of impact. therefore have airspaces for root penetration. peppered moth. and good drainage.. information and suggestions in EIA are often not acted upon. 3 max loam soils contain a good balance of sand. there should be monitoring of environmental conditions during and after development.). blood worm. rat tailed maggot. treating drainage water (removing N and P). 3 max [20] 10. baseline study . often difficult to put together a complete baseline study due to lack of data. should contain non-technical summary. harvest (remove) algae. (a) (b) named organism (e. there should be an assessment of impacts during and after development. reference to the Trent biotic index or similar. should inform decision making. etc. often all impacts are not identified. Asellus. polluted and unpolluted sites should be compared.g. silt and clay particles. and the clay humus complex for mineral retention. Give credit for references to actual EIA. water flea. 4 max 7 max 11 .(e) timing fertilizer application to minimise impact. organism can be used as an indicator.

tiger (endangered). medicine. without research and monitoring it is difficult to argue objectively or legally that an environment is under threat. earthquakes etc. research provides data as an educational tool making society aware of what is happening to the environment. trophies.g. endangered because of habitat (forest) loss due to agriculture. ethical issues surrounding loss (rights of future generations. ecological role is as top carnivore. meat and trophies.g. destroyed because regarded as a nuisance/pest. hunting for hides. long-term change model.g. 7 max 12 . legislative protection. and due to habitat degradation (loss of water quality). monitoring enables changes as a result of e. (b) 4 max e. loss would lead to imbalance in food pyramid. gradual environmental change leading to gradual species extinction yet apparent in a rock record (that provides a condensed view of time).. no longer endangered because of education (no longer seen as “evil”). (a) catastrophic extinction events. caused by definitive environmental catastrophes e. 6 Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 11. was endangered due to excessive hunting for skins. rights of species). crocodile (now removed from endangered list). meteorite strikes. human guilt of allowing this to happen. climate induced change is the most likely cause.(c) research provides baseline data. ecological role is as top carnivore. ban on hunting.g. research provides an understanding of complex interrelationships in ecosystems and enables them to be managed more sustainably. to be detected. animals/plants died from both the initial event and the short-term environmental turmoil that followed. e. pollution. the most notable example being the extinctions caused by glaciation. past extinctions occurred suddenly over relatively short time periods. controlled culling/hunting of certain crocodile species now being considered. and due to threat to humans and livestock. loss of food source as traditional food source is being used by humans. loss would lead to an increase in herbivorous mammals. volcanic eruptions. monitoring can be used to “police” the system and ensure non-infringement of standards.

6 max 13 . captive animals unable to adapt to life back in the wild. enable “how much” not “why” questions to be answered. genetic monitoring can take place. use of contraception. education of public through visits may make them more likely to support conservation campaigns. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 12. studying species so understanding improves. 6 max personal justification (needs to be more than just arguments for or against). conserving species is just used as an excuse. gender imbalances can be seen.g. arguments against zoos ethical arguments against keeping animals in captivity for profit. e. holding species while habitats are restored. number of offspring surviving to adulthood is higher so species numbers increase more effectively. helping management outside zoos. wide base indicates a high birth rate and expanding population. small genetic pool. all of these factors will affect population growth. benefit of artificial insemination.(c) arguments for zoos individual organisms are protected in a controlled environment. the pyramids do not give specific information about socio-economic conditions. allow estimate of population numbers. captive breeding enables higher rates of reproductive success. (a) age-sex pyramids are useful because they allow patterns to be clearly seen. however. proportions of fertile population can be seen. poor conditions or treatment in zoos leading to physiological and psychological problems with the animals. government policies.

ethically it is wrong to overpopulate the planet (what right have we to disproportionately consume resources?). larger families are vital in a society where family labour is essential to domestic and economic survival.(b) the area of land (and water) required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. [3 max] for discussions. therefore environment will be able to support a larger population.g. hunter-gatherer in Tanzania have a smaller footprint than urban population of New York. Give credit for examples e. smaller family size allows for greater/higher standard of living measured in capital resources. populations at a lower economic level have footprints that are easier to define (fewer resources used from outside their immediate area). arguments against population control goes against tradition and culture. population control by society/government is an infringement on basic human freedom. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14 . curbing population growth will produce a demographic population that is top-heavy (old people predominate) and dependent. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and to assimilate all its wastes. as technology advances resources are used more efficiently. [2 max] for definition. ecological footprints tend to increase in size with socio-economic development. greater environmental pressure on the planet is inevitable. 6 max Give credit for use of examples. (c) 5 max arguments for population control population growth is not sustainable even with an expanding resource base. population growth is an indicator of an expanding resource base. technological advancement produces a larger footprint as more resources are needed and more waste is produced. forced population control doesn’t always work. it is the inverse of carrying capacity.

seasonality will vary which could be significant in water supply. 6 max global warming will lead to changes in global water budget. protein mainly non-meat. the Aral Sea. 2 3 max 15 . evaporation rates will change. sustainable use of water resources means using them at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment.4 % (accept 44 %). and expanding desert zones with water shortage. (a) (b) (c) e.g. (a) (i) (ii) MEDCs 44. cultural inertia . 6 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14.9 % (accept 16 %). this has had a knock-on effect on local communities as water supplies were decimated. the political structure might favour short-term profits rather than long-term environmental protection.13. LEDCs: not enough protein. high rates of evaporation together with high applications of chemical fertilizers led to salinization. monitoring water quality in remote rural areas can be very difficult. water was taken and used to irrigate cotton fields by the Soviet government. LEDCs: do not eat enough calories/energy intake too low. environment later. MEDCs: eat a lot of protein. MEDCs: eat more calories/energy intake higher than they need. and will cause changes in precipitation (amounts and distribution). technological factors – if the technology is available. LEDCs 15.reluctance to change the way in which resources have always been used.whether or not a country can pay for sanitation and water purification. with increased melting of glacial ice and ice caps. 5 max economic factors will be central . often Governments will be reluctant to impose limits if multinational companies will then be deterred from locating there. and local farming and fishing industries collapsed. and pollution of remaining water resources. Former Soviet Union. this has not happened in the Aral Sea which has been shrinking in size due to excessive removal of water from feeder rivers. high % of protein from animals. increased flood risks in certain areas. the political priority might be development first.

legumes and fertilizers are additional inputs in mixed farming. meat. religious restrictions (e. and indirectly through the nitrogen fixing action of leguminous crops.g. large output in mixed farming as harvested crops/livestock. 1 max organic waste decomposes and gives off methane gas which can be burned. burning straw. technology is already in place to access the gas and burn it in existing gas fired power stations. 1 max wind offshore technology is still at the experimental stage. it can be burned directly without the need for refining. social expectations in MEDCs that meat will be an integral part of the diet. input dissolved in rain is not shown for mixed farming.g. litter store is larger in the woodland.(iii) (b) greater wealth in MEDCs enables people to buy enough food. 3 max 1 3 max 2 [14] 15. price subsidised by governments to enable fossil fuels to compete with renewables.g. (ii) biomass store is larger in the woodland. (iii) additional nutrients are added directly to the soil through fertilizers. Both needed for [1]. easily disrupted by rough seas. most expensive = wind offshore. (i) the biomass in Figure 3 is all the living material in the ecosystem. better distribution systems in MEDCs so people have access to fresh food. 16 . Accept lower if justification given in (ii) is appropriate e. many families in LEDCs are subsistence farmers. and may use animals for milk but not meat. 1 gas is cheap because it is relatively plentiful. 2 (i) 1 likely to be much higher.g. can interrupt shipping lines. waste can be burned directly to generate energy e. soil fertility for farming may be better in MEDCs so yields higher. especially more expensive food. new reserves discovered. better technology. e. no beef or pork) less likely to be an issue in MEDCs. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (c) cheapest = gas.

relatively cheap to run (once initial construction completed). leaving resources most difficult to access which are more costly to reach. because in calculating ecological footprint amount of land required for absorbing waste carbon dioxide from fossil fuels is included. easiest/most accessible resources will already have been mined. may lead to increased erosion rates downstream. farmland and/or displacement of people. increased wealth means people are consuming more (sometimes more than they need). (a) increase in population growth as death rates lowered due to better medical care. will not run out). economics of food production systems mean that food production is a business and subsidies may guarantee prices no matter how much is produced. advantages: HEP does not involve release of pollutants. in LEDCs food production used as a way to generate foreign currency. the smaller the ecological footprint of a population. dams may restrict flows of sediment affecting ecosystems or farming downstream. dams may be multipurpose e. (e) 2 max the more renewable energy resources that are used. environmental taxes to compensate for global warming will make fossil fuels more expensive. scarcity of resources will push costs up. cost of building dams may be high leading to huge debts.e. [2 max] for advantages and [2 max] for disadvantages.(ii) (d) as stocks become depleted. turbines can be switched on whenever energy is needed. for leisure. 4 max 17 .g. disadvantages: vast areas may be flooded involving loss of habitats. renewable source (i. desire for food security in turbulent political times. increasing need to intensify production on existing farm land. dams silt up. 4 max 2 [14] 16. may disrupt fish migratory paths. as more and more land is used for settlement and industry. irrigation or fishing.

encouraging polyculture to reduce vulnerability to disease. even more erosion likely if wind breaks (hedgerows and walls) are removed. leads to lower yields and a vicious cycle as remaining soil may be even more intensively farmed by farmers to compensate. addressing strategies related to a particular problem. controlling the amount of fertilizers that are applied to ensure excess is not washed into water bodies. e. (a) technocentrist because they tend to argue that economic development should precede environmental protection. organic farming methods applied and marketed effectively to consumers to compensate for higher production costs. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 17. and argue that society can find solutions for environmental problems through technology which comes when the economy is strong. terracing. biological pest control rather than chemical control. of course.(b) Answer will. e. a general answer: use of natural fertilizers (e. manure) rather than chemical fertilizers. 2 max 18 . specific strategies to reduce soil erosion e. agro-forestry to reduce soil erosion. soil erosion: use of heavy machinery leads to compaction of soil. covering a variety of strategies or more specific.g. this occurred during the 1930s in the US due to intensive farming on the prairies.g. [4] for each problem. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies.g. leading to the dust bowl as vast quantities of soil were blown away. would point to “success” stories like Canada and Scandinavia who have good environmental records and are economically developed.g. so soil structure is lost. top soil is more easily removed by the agents of erosion (wind or water). (c) 8 max Answers may be general. once top soil is lost. keeping stores of genetic material to ensure species diversity is not lost. depend on the problems chosen. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies. organic material is gone and the fertility of the soil is reduced.

it is not fair to expect LEDCs to protect the environment. UK.g.g. people in poverty will often be forced to act with short-term perspective e. often LEDCs rely on weak pollution laws to attract multinationals to locate there. environment is the source of our resources for development so it is vital that the two go hand in hand – sustainable development. people in poverty are often more intimately dependent on their environment – vital to protect it to help them. 10 max 19 . rights to emit CO2 for example can be bought and sold (richer countries can afford to buy the right to emit more CO 2) which has implications for industrial development.(b) Arguments in favour of the statement: costly to change technology to more environmentally sustainable forms e.g.g. as richer countries didn’t when they were going through their industrial revolutions.g. so if they set environmental controls they will lose jobs and income vital for development. new power stations or investment in renewable technologies such as solar. surely we can and should learn from the mistakes made by richer countries?. unsustainable use of the environment will only bring short-term economic growth not long-term economic growth. Scandinavia. Arguments against: some of the most economically developed countries have huge ecological footprints and are very wasteful e. often the most sensible users of the environment are people who are considered “undeveloped economically”. (very anthropocentric view) what about the rights of other living species to be unmolested?. unsustainable use of forests in order to survive. indigenous tribes in Amazonia/street kids recycling waste. US. loss of species diversity once gone its gone. e. Japan. environmental damage will have a knock-on effect on human societies that cannot wait until everyone has developed before we address it e. often countries with best record of environmental protection are the most developed economically e.g.

4 max Give credit if specific value for rainforest diversity is quoted. slap” educational campaign in Australia. local campaigns to encourage sunscreen use e. e. 20 . preserving diversity. “slip. ideal growing conditions – hot and wet all year round.g. efficient nutrient recycling. issue: depletion of stratospheric ozone UNEP’s involvement in forging specific international agreements. role of scientists e. actual NGOs and international bodies rather than simply identify broad groups such as “local people” and “charities”.g. so wide diversity of plants which support rest of the food chain.g. high in species diversity because they are ancient ecosystems – diversity has had a chance to build up over millions of years. discussion of steps taken by national governments to comply with international agreements. (a) tropical rainforests contain a large proportion of the world’s species. even during ice ages pockets of forest remained. raising awareness and lobbying for solutions.(c) Responses will depend on the choice of environmental issue but for full marks candidates should be able to name specific groups e. slop.g. at the Antarctic stations in studying the ozone hole. role of NGOs and pressure groups in monitoring. competitive ecosystem results in many specialised niches and high diversity. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 18.

and disrupting the interdependence of coral ecosystem with seagrass beds and mangrove ecosystems. coral very fragile and easily damaged by divers’ fins or touching coral. Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland. which has knock-on effects on the fish species which depend on the reef for food. overfishing can disrupt the balance of species in the food chain. Australia. biodiversity is also a feature of the ecosystem which leads to environmental stability.g. spiritual value of biodiversity recognised by many indigenous tribes. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 19. once species are lost they are gone forever. and source of possible new medicines as yet undiscovered e.g. resins. human activities such as tourism. ethical right or value of different species to exist unmolested (deep ecology). [1] for naming case study. increased sedimentation due to deforestation of mangroves to make space for tourist developments. or industrial products e. (c) 8 max biodiversity is an economic resource – a source of new food products e. or breaking bits off for souvenirs. runoff of fertilizers from sugar plantations on the coast. resource for future generations. (The measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and assimilation of all wastes. e. nuts. gums and rubber.). and now recognised by UNEP too. ice cream flavours. sewage and pollution from coastal settlements (such as Cairns) can lead to excessive nutrients and algal blooms. global warming increases sea temperatures leading to coral bleaching. and can lead to coral bleaching. inadvertent damage from anchors and pollution from boats. fruits.g. for AIDS perhaps. all of these make coral more vulnerable to natural threats such as disease/crown of thorns starfish/increased sea temperatures due to El Niño. [7] for degradation by human activities. 1 21 .(b) Specific named area must be included or candidates cannot gain full marks.g. protection and nurseries for young. (a) (i) the area of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. make water cloudy reducing productivity.

Accept other reasonable answers. education/legislation/rising living standards/economic incentives. 1 1 22 . 1 (c) (i) (ii) Award [1] for any two of the following. 5. Canada has higher consumer spending per capita.4 Canada has a larger consumer driven economy. 1 (ii) Diagram should demonstrate a falling birth rate and a larger proportion of adults and aged persons. 1 2 max Diagram should demonstrate high birth rate and high adult death rate. Canada – climate difference – more energy required for heating. education/better diet/improved health care/political stability/disease control.2 × 100 = 42. Accept other reasonable answers.(ii) (iii) (b) (i) 1. Award [1] for any two of the following.6%.1  1. Canada has a greater car culture.

as man advances (technologically.g. it is less efficient to eat animal protein than plant material. 1 23 . flint used to be an important resource but now its redundant/ uranium only becomes a resource with the advent of the nuclear age. 3 [11] 20.g. e. Both needed for [1]. so greater surface area needed to produce the same amount of food. food crops/timber in the long term/groundwater (over hundreds of years). e. groundwater/ozone layer. An example is required in each case in order to score the mark. replenishable: non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the sun for their replenishment.(iii) LEDCs tend to have a diet based on plant products/plants with little meat (12 % approximately) whereas MEDCs tend to have a greater amount of animal protein in their diet (30 % approximately). (b) (c) (d) use of (global) resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment/OWTTE.g. (i) 3 1 3 max year 2: 125. e. non-renewable: natural resources which cannot be replenished within a time scale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment. resource value is dynamic/changes over time. year 6: 24500. fossil fuels/minerals. (a) renewable: natural resources that have a sustainable yield or harvest equal to or less than their natural productivity. culturally) his resource base changes. Accept any other reasonable answers. resources become more valuable as new technologies need them. 1 (ii) year 5. 1 (iii) the population will ultimately crash.g. countries that have a high animal protein content in their diets potentially have a larger ecological footprint/OWTTE. e.

Four correct [2]. 2 Correct answer on its own. (particularly with respect to nitrates and phosphates). 4. (a) (i) the natural or artificial enrichment of a body of water.(iv) over population leading to unrealistic demands for limited resources. 1 1000 kJ – 100 kJ (10%) = 900 kJ. 2 1. greater use of water for irrigation. run-off/infiltration. three or two correct [1]. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) energy is neither created nor destroyed/energy is conserved/OWTTE. 2. industry expanding and requiring more clean water (cooling processes. 2 max [12] 21.). use of resource beyond sustainable limits due to lack of knowledge of resource’s sustainable level. (iii) 1960 = 2 × 10 km yr 2000 = 4 × 10 km yr . evaporation. increase in water use by developing countries. 2 (ii) too simplistic/no values/no indication of time/two dimensional. Accept other reasonable answers. transpiration/evapotranspiration. globally. output = 900 kJ – 135kJ (15%) = 765kJ. (iv) 3 3 –1 3 3 1 –1 increasing global population requiring more water. that results in depletion of the oxygen content of the water/OWTTE. 2 24 . Accept other reasonable answers. 2 3 [11] 22. precipitation. 3. 42 × 100 = 100%. award [2]. etc. financial motives (greed) – exploitation of resources beyond sustainable limits for short-term financial gain (cod fishing).

Accept other reasonable answers. loss of macrophytes. organic compost. removable of algal mats/oxygen pumping/removal of contaminated sediments/flush systems with oxygenated water/chemically denature fertilizer.76. use other methods of enhancing crop production e. developing economies so need to increase productivity – cash crops. use a variety with lower phosphate requirements. switch to organic farming. 9935402 death of aerobic organisms.8/2.g. Accept other reasonable answers. shorter food chains. to increase productivity and so provide more food for increasing populations. ∑n(n – 1) = 552 + 20 + 30 + 2248500 + 1438800 + 62475000 = 9935402. implement standards/control re run-off from agricultural land.g. change crop varieties e. 27399990 D= = 2. composting. loss of diversity. Accept other reasonable answers. green tax on fertilizer making it more expensive. 1 max 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 2 max 1 25 . Accept other reasonable answers. to increase productivity and so be better placed to compete in a world market.(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) do not allow agricultural waste (including fertilizers) to run into water courses/legislate against the use of fertilizer/ adopt less fertilizer intensive agricultural practices/install fertilizer (waste) traps in farm drainage networks. N = (N – 1) = 5235 × 5234 = 27399990.

N2O. cost may be prohibitive. which will drive economic. creates a “thermal blanket”. changing global weather patterns will influence rain patterns and alter crop production dynamics. biomes: north/south shift in biomes relative to the equator (latitude shift). society: national resources base will change. crop types may change.g. cultural and social reluctance. agriculture: crop zones move north/south from equator. (b) 4 max Answer should address biomes. no market for end product. e. cultivation patterns will change. greenhouse gases transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation. gases include CO2. H2O and CFCs. Accept other reasonable answers. Particular reference should be made to the role of carbon dioxide. difficult to sort organic waste from other waste at source or further into process. O3. maintains an average Earth temperature of about 30°C. apathy and inertia of public. water resources will change. Two correct gases needed for [1]. Accept any other reasonable answers. which is transparent to incoming radiation and absorbs out going radiation. water resources will change and limit/expand crop production. CH4. wheat belt in North America may move north. movement of biomes up slope (altitude shift). outgoing long wave radiation trapped/reflected by greenhouse gases. (a) Answer should demonstrate an understanding of atmospheric insulation and how this is achieved within the atmosphere.(ii) difficult to manage infrastructure to collect organic waste. All of the above should be supported by case study evidence or examples. global agriculture and human society. sea level rise may cause economic and social stress due to loss of land and resources (including migration). 2 max [16] 23. 7 max 26 . social and cultural change.

g. leading to loss of cover. 6 max Accept any other reasonable answers. genetically modified grain. the removal of soil material at a rate greater than it can be replenished. (a) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. over irrigation leading to salinization. the use of new crop strains. data series too short for confident predictions. long-term data (10 000 years) show climate fluctuation cycles not overall rise. Accept other reasonable answers. Award [2 max] for direct consequences: loss of soil depth leads to loss of productivity/loss of plant stability/loss of slope stability/loss of available nutrients/ reduction in water retention potential. contour plowing. present trend based on data collected since industrial revolution. loss of vegetation leading to erosion.g. soil degradation may also include loss of soil volume through erosion.(c) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. windbreaks and strategic shelter belts. model is less complex than reality. systems models are not always accurate. not all elements are known or understood. e. landscape instability through soil erosion. Award [2 max] for indirect consequences: contamination of adjacent environments (particularly aquatic environments). Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 24. the development of new devices.g. Award [1] for each of the following. e. loss of fertility due to loss of nutrients caused by poor management. modern plowing technology and practise. positive feedback – loss of cover leads to leaching of nutrients. some models predict future rise others argue for future cooling. (b) (i) technology and scientific techniques used to overcome soil degradation problems thus conserving soil. 7 max 3 max 27 . e.

GM crops. adopt solutions that are holistic and environmentally friendly.g. application of organic fertilizers/crop rotations/shelter belts/farming on a smaller scale/non-industrial farming.g.(ii) ecocentric approach conservative. (a) The system should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. 6 max 28 . energy input. reference to net and gross production. Award [2 max] for resource outputs. Award [2 max] for resource inputs. Any other reasonable answers. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 25. variation in water resource use. However. intensive beef farming in North America and Masai herding in Kenya. if farming system is not named award [5 max]. However. technology may include machinery and organic technology e. The following points could be considered: comparison of the variation in technology and the implication for the system. No credit should be given for naming the farming system. The following points could be considered: comparison of contrasting fertilizer use. Examples could compare salmon fishing in Norway with rice fish farming in Thailand. labour input. the use of draft animals versus agricultural machinery. 3 max Accept other reasonable answers. if food production system is not named award [5 max]. reluctance to use heavy machinery due to soil compaction and energy issues. Award [2 max] for technology. No credit should be given for naming the food production system. The following points could be considered: consideration of variation in system productivity. e. reluctant to adopt new technology.

(i) 2 max NPP = (39. impacts directly on natural resources/food within the system. accidental escape and the contamination of local gene pools. more land required for food production. use of GM crops. agricultural intensification.(b) Answers should clearly demonstrate the direct and indirect impact of the two farming systems on their immediate environment. 5 max Answers must refer to both systems for full marks. (c) (i) Award [2 max] for any of the following. 4 max 2 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 26. Award [2 max] for any of the following. (a) (b) weigh the sample in a previously weighed container. the addition of steroids and other chemical waste to the adjacent coastal waters. salmon fishing in Norway: organic debris contamination of coastal waters from waste food and excreta.2. change in productivity due to environmental degradation will further stress systems. achievement of food resource change: adoption of new crop varieties. introduces alien species. (ii) environmental stress. as countries develop further their demand for a greater variety of food products (at a greater level) will expand. potentially introduces non-natural genetic variation. loss of diversity. repeat previous step until similar mass/weight is obtained on two subsequent trials. dietary animal protein will increase/food fashion may change. changes nutrients budget.0 – 35. The nature of the systems chosen will dictate the content of the answer. food resources needs: needs will change over the next 100 years as the global human population continues to increase. Accept other reasonable answers. 29 . dry sample in an oven. rice fish farming: impacts on local biodiversity – both plants and animals. increased productivity driven by new technology and farming initiatives.2) × 4 = 15. and weigh again.

4 –2 –1 respiration ×365 = 438 g m yr .4 × 52 = 436.4 g m yr + 436.6 g m yr + 438 g m yr = 1230. or –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 792. Answer must be rounded to the nearest 100 g for full marks.4.6 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr . (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) –2 –1 NPP = 15. supplying more of our energetic needs from vegetables sources is more efficient. –2 2 1 max 2 2 max –1 0. availability of water may be seasonal. or 15.8 g m yr = 1227. GPP = NPP + R.26 is not acceptable because of incorrect s. Accept other reasonable answers. cattle should be raised on land that is not suitable for crops. 7 Both needed for [1].f.1) × 4 = 8.4 g m yr –2 –1 respiration = 8.2 –2 –1 NPP = × 365 = 792. 1 2 max [12] 30 .6 g m yr . (79. 7  . insolation may vary seasonally.2 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr . Allow ECF. temperature changes may inhibit/accelerate growth. Accept other reasonable answers.1 × 790 = 79 g m yr . eating animals raised on grain is inefficient.8 g m yr .2 × 52 = 790.respiration = (35. –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 790.) eating lower on the food chain makes it possible to feed more people on the same amount of land. Allow ECF from (b)(i).2 – 33.

one of the main contributors to organic matter in soil. 3 max 31 . (b) (c) producers convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis. [1] for two matter flows and [1] for two energy flows. (a) H eat C O H eat L ig h t H 2O O 2 2 T is s u e to o th e r tr o p h ic le v e ls TREE L itte r to s o il N u trie n ts 3 max W a te r Award [1] for tree in box. [2] for three appropriate species or [1] for two appropriate species. limiting factors low and so high productivity leading to high diversity. high number of endemic species. through symbiotic bacteria. (d) long-term stability leading to speciation/complexity..g. unless there is some identifying feature i. 2 max e.125 species km –2 versus 0. Do not accept rabbit. snowshoe hare and arctic fox.e. Accept other reasonable statements that show ecological knowledge. Chilean matorral p ro d u c e r A c a c ia c a v e n s C h ile a n th o rn tre e 3 max p rim a ry c o n s u m e r O c to d o n d e g u ro d en t / se co n d a ry co n su m e r F e lis g u ig n a / C h ile a n w ild c a t Award [1] for appropriately labelled trophic levels.0027 species km in temperate forests in North America). –2 high species number per unit area (South America 0. provide habitat for other organisms.27. fox etc. producers are significant in fixing nitrogen.

predator cannot increase in number without access to food and so must wait for increase in prey. form basis of decomposer food chain (which may be energetically more important in some ecosystems than grazing food chains). (± 50) Both needed for [1]. increases susceptibility of trees to stresses such as disease/ temperature/insects/fungal infection. occidentalis: 7. sexmaculatus: 1550. increase in solubility of nutrients facilitates leaching with consequent loss of productivity. as chemosynthetic autotrophs may form basis of food chain. release nutrients for reabsorption by producers.(e) (f) decomposers break down tissue. acid rain can damage foliage directly thus reducing photosynthesis. 1 (i) 25 to 30 September. (±1) E. (±3 days) 1 (ii) 10 December. through incomplete breakdown of organic material contribute to build up of humus and improve nutrient retention capacity in soil. availability of food facilitates reproduction of prey. 2 max primary productivity would decrease. Award [2 max] for the following. 3 max [16] 28. (a) (b) (c) (d) interval between 1st and 2nd peak is about 90 days and interval between 2nd and 3rd peak is approximately 75 days. 1 max 32 . are vital in nitrogen cycle. (±5 days) 1 (ii) the predator population takes some days to take advantage of the increase in prey. (±2 days) 1 (i) 15 days. 90  75 = 82.5 80 (± 4 days)/15 January + 80 days ≈ 20 April (± 5 days) 2 2 T.

–2 tropical forest: 52. the periodic nature of the population curves indicates a feedback controlled interaction. 821. melting of tundra through warming causes release of methane causing more warming. (a) (i) (ii) (b) –2 temperate forest: 12. 2 max (ii) (f) [14] 29. elimination of density-dependent limiting factors.5 + 18. Award [0] if temperate forest is stated without supporting calculations.0/122 g m .2 = 122.4 = 49. the decrease in prey leads to a corresponding decrease in predator which corrects the trend towards decrease in prey.0 %. increased efficiency in utilization of resources. importation of food or resources from other areas to overcome shortages.2 + 28. 49. increased evaporation leading to increased precipitation at poles triggering net cooling. 1 temperate forest: 2 33 . our ability to colonize almost any habitat.6 + 41. tools and technology. 211. leading to increase in temperature.3 g m .0%. 2 max elimination of predators/competitors.(e) (i) the increase in prey leads to a corresponding increase in predator which corrects the trend towards increase in prey. 821.1 85. modern medicine decreasing effect of disease.8%.2 1 temperate forest: 730. 3 max melting of polar ice caps causes lowering of planetary albedo thus increasing amount of solar energy at Earth’s surface. Both needed for [1]. 211.2 temperate forests have a larger percentage of nitrogen stored in soil.3 tropical forest: × 100 = 40.3 × 100 = 6.9 × 100 = 89.4 + 18.4 %.1 112 tropical forest: × 100 = 57.

(c)

(d)

high temperatures and year-round availability of water in tropical
forests allow for continuous breakdown of nitrogen containing
compounds;
resulting in very rapid turn around and reabsorption;
presence of mycorrhizae in tropical rainforest tree roots increases
rate of organic matter breakdown;
leading to rapid reabsorption of nitrogen, so very little found in soil;
in temperate forests breakdown slows down significantly during
winter months, causing nitrogen build up in soil;

2 max

temperate forest: 1. surface litter
2. biomass
3. soil
tropical forest:

1. surface litter
2. soil
3. biomass
Both lists needed for [1].
(e)

(f)

tropical rainforest would suffer more from clear-cutting;
a larger proportion of nitrogen is stored in living tissue which
would be lost through clear-cutting;
climatic conditions in tropical rainforests would wash away
soil quicker/leach the soil of nutrients;
(temperate forests) because:
tropical forests have some of the highest rates of primary productivity
but have relatively poor soils;
temperate forests have lower primary productivity rates but far
more fertile soils;
climatic factors are not limiting in TRF but nutrients (nitrogen)
may be;
cleared land in tropics is exposed to washing away of thin soil
and leaching of nutrients;
temperate forests have higher nitrogen content in the soil;
temperate forests store nitrogen as a result of incomplete
breakdown of organic matter resulting in availability of nitrogen
for crops;
Do not credit final point if already given in (c). For “temperate
forest” on it’s own award [0].

1

2 max

2 max

34

(g)

(h)

direct replacement of ecosystems with cropland and the resulting
loss of habitat;
monocultures reduce genetic diversity;
slash and burn techniques in TRF result in considerable impact
on diversity because of high diversity of these systems;
use of pesticides harms target and non-target insect species
and has an effect further up the food chain;
loss of hedgerows in England to facilitate plowing/accept
other valid example;
contamination of wild stock with modified genetic material
(hybridization);
Allow other valid points.
(i)
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

as population increases, forested area decreases and GNP
increases;

3 max

1

to produce land for housing for increasing population;
to provide land for agriculture to provide food for
increasing population;
for timber production, generating income from exports;
Accept other reasonable answers.

1 max

reduction in CO2 extraction by forests;
release of stored carbon through breakdown of forest biomass;
increased rates of breakdown in organic content in soils (due
to exposure to heat, water) resulting in release of CO 2;
CO2 is a greenhouse gas;

2 max

biomes will shift north and south from the equator;
e.g. North America wheat belt shifting north;
biomes shifting with altitude (e.g. tree line creeping upwards);
direct loss of low-lying biomes (e.g. mangrove swamps);
Accept other contributions to global warming related to
deforestation.

2 max
[20]

35

30.

(a)

Descriptions: [3 max]
oil use in MEDCs is almost 50 % greater than in LEDCs;
fossil fuels in MEDCs account for 85 % of energy use as
opposed to 58 % in LEDCs;
biomass use in LEDCs is more than ten times that of MEDCs;
use of coal and hydro/geo/solar is the same for both;
nuclear is five times more important in MEDCs than in LEDCs
and is the smallest contributor in both;
Accept other reasonable comparisons e.g. oil use in MEDCs is
11 % more than LEDCs.
Explanations: [2 max]
the relatively small contribution of nuclear power may be due to
the problems of disposing of nuclear fuel and the cost of nuclear
technology;
biomass is far more important in LEDCs as fuel for cooking;
automobiles are more prevalent in MEDCs thus explaining the
difference in oil use;
Accept other reasonable explanations.

(b)

use of fossil fuels is unsustainable because it implies liquidation of
a limited stock of the resource;
we can extend the lifetime of this resource, but it is ultimately
unsustainable;
solar energy is sustainable as the energy will be available to us
for any time frame that is reasonable to contemplate;
solar energy is currently more expensive than fossil fuels;
it is currently very expensive to turn solar energy into high
quality energy for manufacturing;
passive solar energy combined with insulation is much cheaper
for heating homes than fossil fuels;
fossil fuels are the most important contributor to build up of CO 2
and consequently global warming;
solar energy has the disadvantage that its usefulness is limited
in northern countries during winter months;
oil has the advantage that it can be delivered for use far from
its source through pipelines;
Accept other reasonable answers.

5 max

6 max

36

baseline studies are used to determine potential impacts on the environment of a project. Accept other reasonable answers. nitrates/dissolved solids/BOD/DO) using testing kits and/or electrodes of various types. scientific efforts should be devoted to removing CO 2 from atmosphere rather than curtailing economic growth. development (which requires energy) will increase standards of living thus increasing demand for healthy environment. 6 max 37 .g. use of quadrats to measure species abundance and diversity (application of diversity indices). develop technology to reduce output of CO2 from fuel use rather than changing lifestyles to reduce use of fuel. 6 max Accept other reasonable answers. air speed and direction using anemometers. use of Lincoln Index/capture-mark-release-recapture to determine numbers of different animal species. this will eventually result in lowering of CO2 emission levels through market pressure. economic systems have a vested interest in being efficient so the existing problems will self correct given enough time. Biotic: [2 max] use of transects to determine cover/abundance of fauna and flora. determination of soil pH using universal indicators. good example of resource replacement. global warming). fossil fuels have problems associated with their use (i.(c) the Cornucopian belief in the resourcefulness of humans and their ability to control their environment is the chief element in their optimism about the state of the world. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 31. determination of biomass by removal and drying of plant tissue. (a) Baseline study: [2 max] a baseline study seeks to measure existing conditions prior to the implementation of a project in order to have a standard of comparison once the project is completed. Accept other reasonable answers. Abiotic: [2 max] testing of water for various parameters (e. rely on science to find a useful alternative such as hydrogen fuel cells.e. determination of water flow throughout year using flow weirs.

+ 10. reduce need to intervene rivers for hydroelectric power. (a) (i) 1920 accept answers between 1910 and 1940 1 (ii) exponential growth/rate of increase accelerates over time/ J curve (provided understanding of rate is demonstrated) 1 crude birth rate – crude death rate. (must be included for full marks). (c) 6 max reuse. so the footprint increases. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 32. mammals’ rate of increase has been more irregular. when exhaustive surveys throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. seasonal. surveys should be over a time frame (diurnal.(b) the ecological footprint will increase. Accept other reasonable answers species is classified as extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. creates environmental awareness. availability of cash leads to greater purchasing power. 5 max Accept other reasonable answers. 2 (iii) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) mammals  40 ( 3) both needed for [1]  birds  48  both show exponential increase. annual) appropriate to life cycle and life form. as people enter a consumer society and turn away from subsistence level lifestyles footprint increases. Accept other reasonable answers. Accept “none left” (or similar) for [1 max] 1 2 max 2 max 38 . aluminum requires far less energy to recycle than to produce. consequent increase in consumer good acquisition. reduces stress on a finite resource. production of these goods requires energy that may release CO 2 thus increasing footprint. produces less waste. recycling and re-manufacture reduce need for raw material. money may allow access to better homes resulting in less need for locally produced firewood thus decreasing footprint. money allows people to buy more animal protein from grain fed animals. since 1650 more bird species extinct than mammal species. employs people (possibly no net loss of employment).

Norway.3 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table 1 (iii) 6 1 (iv) a high proportion of people exist below the poverty line (i. United Kingdom. human population increase has caused increases in extinctions. hunting/collecting/harvesting and thereby driving species to extinction. soil is particularly fertile (volcanoes) and so they are able to support a lot of people by using the land very intensively. Australia. Russian Federation. (i) –1 1 2 max Rank for footprints [1] United States. Russian Federation. (i) no it is not sustainable. but are in deficit. (a) (b) (c) –1 (i) Japan = –3. Award [3 max] for reasons humans have caused (exponential) increase in extinctions through habitat degradation/destruction/fragmentation. Indonesia. Australia. Do not accept “because they have a lot of available capacity”.e. 2 max 1 39 . smaller populations. Accept other reasonable suggestions. Singapore. they have a developed economy that is not based on primary industries. Rank for GDP [1] United States. Ethiopia. 4 max [13] 33. Germany. Venezuela.(c) Award [1 max] for relationship human population growth and increasing extinctions are positively correlated/OWTTE. Venezuela. Japan. they are sufficiently wealthy that they can afford to buy these resources in from abroad. Germany. relatively low dependence on fossil fuels especially in terms of transport. they do not have all the resources they need). as other countries have similar amounts of land. Ethiopia. India. Indonesia. Japan. Singapore. Norway. United Kingdom. very low rates of pollution per person perhaps because of high proportion of people in agriculture. pollution. India. 2 (ii) countries with highest GDPs generally have the largest footprints 1 (iii) they depend on imports for resources.4 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table (ii) United States = 10.

absolute reductions in energy and material use can reduce ecological footprint. technocentrist will stress importance of technology for addressing the deficit. emphasis will be on humans to change their behaviour/ lifestyles. ecocentrist will see deficit as evidence that we are not living sustainably. If no justification is attempted award [0] Figures not necessary if candidate has demonstrated conceptual understanding.–1 world footprint is 2. If only one is discussed award [2 max]. reduction in pollution by technological advances. e. Each way of decreasing footprint must be adequately described for [2].g.g. through bottle banks. technocentrist will believe in human ability to find technological solutions for present and future deficits. through GM crops. we are looking at global footprint so cannot offset larger footprints against smaller ones as you can when looking at whether individual nations are sustainable. use of technology to intensify and therefore maximise production from available land. economic growth seen by ecocentrics as a cause of the problem. economic growth seen as a solution to the problem. –1 Earth currently in ecological deficit –0. Accept other reasonable answers 2 max 4 max 4 max [20] 40 . e. For full marks. through renewable/alternative energy technologies instead of fossil fuels.7 hectares person . e.8 hectares person and there is only –1 2. (ii) (iii) using technology to remanufacture or recycle can reduce the overall amount of resources consumed and so ecological footprint is reduced. energy efficiency initiatives.g.g. will stress the need to strive for greater social equality between people in LEDCs and MEDCs. an answer must refer to attitudes of both technocentrist and ecocentrist. e.1 hectares person available.

irrigation. Answers which do not refer to the statement should be awarded [4 max]. withdrawal of water from underground aquifers is often occurring at a faster rate than it can be replenished. global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and supplies and make matters worse. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. but globally it is being used at a faster rate than it can be replenished. excessive irrigation can lead to salinization and toxification.g. industrialization and domestic demand are all increasing. sustainability – using global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment. societies become more affluent and expectations rise. Wilson is advocating that countries should adopt this approach when assessing their resource base. 13 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 41 . a lot of water is wasted or used inefficiently. Give credit for named examples and case studies. overcultivation – leading to a loss of soil fertility and structure. the natural capital of a forest might provide a continuing natural income of timber. game. can produce a “natural income” of goods and services. all leave top soil vulnerable to erosion by wind and water. if appropriately managed. degradation of water supplies through pollution reduces the amounts which are available to us. misuse of soils by a variety of human activities is leading to degradation of soil resources at a faster rate than they can cope with. (a) (b) natural capital is a term sometimes used by economists for natural resources that. 5 Water [7 max] or [6 max] water is replenishable natural capital (it is non–living but is dependent on the solar engine for renewal).34. Soil [6 max] or [7 max] soils are renewable in that they will regenerate naturally given enough time. examples of unsustainable practice with regard to soils include: overgrazing – where the trampling and feeding of livestock leads to loss of vegetation. only a small fraction of the Earth’s water supply is available as a readily usable resource for humans. deforestation – removing vegetation. there are growing demands on water resources as populations increase. this has led to falling water tables. e. however. and exposure of underlying soil. water and recreation.

possibly irrigation. krill should not be fished at a level beyond which they can naturally regenerate their population numbers. succession would occur: grass – scrub – trees. 2 max if rabbits were removed grass would increase dramatically. pest and disease control. high levels of inorganic fertilizer used per unit area. high yielding/management-intensive crop varieties (possibly GM types). 2 (ii) fishing effort should be set at a level that will not deplete the overall krill population. (a) (i) maize. 4 max [14] 36. Award [2] for correct food web and two correct reasons. and minimises damage to the environment. setting quotas and limiting fishing effort (boat numbers. extensive and intensive weed. efficient harvesting. control on gear type). fox population would crash and disappear without a food source. baseline studies undertaken to find out how much krill there is. 1 3 max 42 . setting seasons. award [1] for correct food web and one correct reason. rabbits would overgraze their food source (grass) and the rabbit population would crash. there is more than one food source at each tropic level. there is no organism dependant on a single food type. 2 max (i) A 1 (ii) C 1 (i) use of a global resource at a rate that allows natural regeneration. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (c) figure 2 – marine food webs because there are more links in the food web. size. there are more tropic levels.35. dynamic balance between rabbits and grass may result. 2 max if foxes were removed the rabbit population would rise dramatically. USA. (ii) intensive agricultural system. monitoring of krill populations/monitoring catch.

(iii)
Low Input Systems

High Input Systems

migratory pastoralists, Kenya

cattle, UK

shifting cultivation, Papua New Guinea

wheat, UK
maize, USA

5 correct [2], 4/3 correct [1], 2/1 correct [0]
(b)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

MEDCs have a greater proportion of animal protein in their
diet (approx 26%), whereas LEDCs are more dependant
on grain crops;
MEDCs generally have greater variation in their diets than LEDCs;

2 max

2

MEDCs tend to have larger ecological footprints than LEDCs;
because they have high “grain equivalent” food consumption
lifestyles;
they consume high levels of fossil fuel;
high CO2 emissions;
produce larger amounts of waste;
higher lifestyle expectations and possess more consumer goods;
use proportionately more raw materials;

4 max

limits biodiversity because of herbicide and pesticide
elimination of non-crop species;
introduces toxins through fertilizers/irrigation;
limits habitat type because of monoculture;
eutrophication due to fertilizer application;
risk of hybridization from GM maize;
aesthetic impact on landscape;

2 max

trampling from livestock leading to soil loss/desertification;
cause overgrazing and soil loss/desertification;
introduce diseases from herds to native species;

1 max
[15]

37.

(a)

There are a number of valid answers. Impact may be both
direct and indirect.
changing crop type will change soil cohesion and soil protection;
humans may change the nature of soil mechanically e.g. plowing/
lightening with sand;
humans may change the nature of soil chemically e.g. liming/
use of fertilizers/pesticides/fungicides;
human may alter slopes – terracing etc.;
Accept other reasonable answers.

(b)

(i)

3 max

global warming is caused by an increase in greenhouse
43

gases leading to an increase in mean global temperature;
due to the trapping of extra short wave radiation;
greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, ozone
and water vapour;
these are released as fossil fuels are burned/through
farming and industrial processes;
(ii)

(c)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

increase in temperature could lead to desiccation;
evaporation due to increased temperature may lead to the
accumulation of natural salts changing the chemistry and
structure of the soil (salinization);
lower temperatures may cause freeze–thaw processes to
break up soil and allow more rapid weathering;
increased rainfall may cause increased runoff and thus
soil erosion;
increased rainfall may cause leaching and erosion of
material from the soil profile;
decrease in rainfall will lead to aridification and make
soil surface prone to wind erosion;
increase in wind magnitude and frequency will increase
surface erosion (in terms of volume and rate);
Accept other reasonable answers.
any system that is open to energy and material outputs
and inputs and can be described as an open system;
e.g. a forest or ecosystem (to be ecological the example
must have biological inputs and outputs).
the Earth acts as a complex self-regulating organism via a
series of feedback mechanisms;
rather than being a passive object controlled by external
forces and chance;
theory by James Lovelock and demonstrated via his Daisy
World Model;
lacks quantitative values;
oversimplifies complex relationships;
lacks complex network connections;
Accept other reasonable answers.

3 max

4 max

2

2 max

1 max
[15]

44

38.

(a)

(b)

If no examples used award [4 max]
habitat loss e.g. extinction of Tasmanian wolf due to expansion
of agriculture;
hunting e.g. passenger pigeon;
alien predation and introduced species;
environmental pollution;
pathogens and disease;
most extinctions may not be due to a single cause but a
combination of causes;
e.g. the wolf (Lupus lupus) in Europe and Britain became extinct
due to overhunting and habitat loss;
global warming leading to rapid changes in biomes;

6 max

evidence for past mass extinctions can be found in the fossil record;
it is clear that at certain times large numbers of species
disappeared from the fossil record;
Possible causes could be:
large meteor impact (e.g. Mexico strike) leading to dust in
atmosphere;
volcanic activity on a large scale (e.g. Decan trap eruptions)
causing environmental change;
global climate change e.g. ice age;

4 max

45

i. greater post-natal survival because threats to infants can be high in the wild. genetic resource – provide present and future material for human resource needs for food. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 46 . lack of inhibition towards people. artificial insemination increases fertility rate.(c) Arguments for conserving [4 max] ethical – we have a moral obligation to species/species have as much right to exist as we do. aesthetic – creatures are beautiful and there is aesthetic value in their existence e.e. Evaluation [4 max] captive breeding strengths include: management of gene pool enables greater survivability of offspring because perceived strengths can be selected. weaknesses include: protecting animal without protecting habitat so not a long-term survival strategy.g.g. ecosystems depend on their component parts. no natural selection so traits which are a disadvantage in the wild may be passed on. medicine/diversity = more options. dolphins. e. for fur. animals unable to cope in wild due to learned behaviour in captivity.g. commercial – value of species if sustainably managed provide long-term resources e. species.

g. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by a population and to assimilate all wastes.g. reusing packaging/minimising packaging. e. in conservation terms ecological footprinting allows for the identification of areas likely to suffer from ecological stress.39. (a) (b) the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. 7 max 6 max 47 .g.g. clear felling virgin forest/over harvesting marine resources.g.g. using biotechnology to produce food more efficiently e. ignores land/water required to provide aquatic resources.g. focussed on carbon dioxide. by switching to nuclear power or more renewable power resources e. producing goods that last longer and run more efficiently/on renewable fuels e. wind/hydroelectric/wave/solar. if people require more land area than the country possesses. biogas/biomass. it is living beyond the country’s sustainable threshold. e. GM crops. it allows quantitative ways of measuring impact and therefore setting limits to negate that impact. more efficient birth control to reduce population growth. natural habitats will suffer. reducing dependency on fossil fuels/hydrocarbons. it is accepted that if a population has an ecological footprint larger than the country’s land surface area. if a population has an ecological footprint smaller than the country’s land surface area. electric cars. Award [5 max] for evaluation. using waste crops as fuel e. but major weakness is that it only takes certain aspects into account e. Accept other reasonable suggestions. recycling waste more efficiently. ecological footprint is the opposite of carrying capacity. the population is living sustainably/ within its resource base. but [3 max] if answer looks at only strengths or weaknesses.

though one is favoured. hygiene. because long-term sustainability is intrinsic to the ecocentric philosophy. econcentrism is best suited to achieving long-term sustainability. food supply and resource base. technocentrism does not accept that there are any limits to resource use. Answer must link evaluation to long-term sustainability.g.(c) Award [4 max] if there is no clear evidence of what the candidate thinks is the best environmental philosophy. technology will allow greater resource cycling. people have to restrain their resource use and live within their resource base. industrial revolution marked a critical phase in accelerating technological knowhow. e.g. (a) over the last 2000 years death rates have fallen more rapidly than birthrates. due to technological improvements to living standards. For full marks answers must evaluate both philosophies. technology will help us find and develop new resources e. Credit should be given to answers which refer to demographic transition model and/or population pyramids. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 40. hydrogen fuel. resources are presently only limited by lack of technological know-how. fossil fuels. technology will increase the effective life of a resource by allowing us to use it more efficiently e. 4 max 48 . infant mortality decreases and life expectancy increases and therefore population grows rapidly. medical care.g.

7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 49 . legalising abortion. economic factors – large families needed to support parents in old age/work on farm/develop the country. this will lead to environmental stress and over use of current resource base i.g. partial coverage [2] or [3]. an unsustainable system.g. resource base is finite so shortages will occur if demand outstrips supply. setting quotas e. over family size/male potency/status of women. education/leading to the empowerment of women. many believe technology offers a way to enhance the resource base e. food and materials. therefore there is an implication (see quote) that the current users of resources (few of whom are alive) hold resources in trust for future generations. 7 max Possible strategies could include: reducing birth rate with contraception.g. advertising campaigns to challenge cultural norms about family size. exponential growth in population is likely to exceed carrying capacity.g. these will be land. water. the idea of sustainable development is that we must ensure current use of resources does not compromise ability of future generations to meet their own needs. changing marriage ages. through alternative fuel sources. practical issues – e. Obstacles include: religious belief – contraception not natural.e. China’s one child policy. reduction in infant mortality. access to contraception in remote rural areas/inefficient communication. carrying capacity is a measure of an area’s ability to meet resource demand for a given population. cultural inertia e. Award comprehensive answer covering most of the above [4].(b) (c) exponential population growth will lead to an increase in demand for resources.

dissolved in water. mixed cropping on small scale. Award [1] for any three of the above. 2 max inputs: [1 max] water/technology/cattle (livestock)/sunlight/rain/manure/ seed/labour/soil. 1 process by which nitrogen in atmosphere is fixed to form nitrate by blue-green algae (and converted into a useable form for plants). livestock fed differently at different times of year. dependence on working animals. cash crops for export such as sugar cane. (a) (b) LEDC basic/lack of technology generally. 1 50 . wash down through the soil/paddy and are lost. Award [1] for any three of the above. (i) (ii) 3 max 2 max when nutrients. monsoonal climate so main crop is rice. outputs: [1 max] jute/vegetables/mangoes/Jack fruit/Palm/coconut/sugar cane/spices/crops/waste/income/energy/rice/food/ Betel nuts/tobacco/cattle (livestock)/heat/oxygen/carbon dioxide/wheat/mustard. rotation of crops to match seasonal rainfall patterns. (c) (d) different crops planted at different levels. houses look fairly simple and made from local/cheap materials/ thatched roofs. Answers must be linked to variations in environment. Award [1] for any three of the above. Accept other reasonable answers. irrigation technology used in dry season. processes: [1 max] planting/ploughing/harvesting/irrigating/repair/respiration/ run-off/labour. tobacco. labour intensive (family labour).41. rice farming is typical of LEDCs/where rice is often the staple crop. LEDC but no reasons award [0]. different jobs done at different times of year.

involves production of oxygen.g. urban air pollution caused by release of hydrocarbons (from unburned fuel) and nitrogen oxide. chlorophyll and light. primary productivity is the conversion of solar energy whereas secondary involves feeding/absorption. (f) primary productivity is the gain in energy/biomass by producers/autotrophs whereas secondary is gain by heterotrophic organisms. this is because species at each trophic level are using some of the energy for respiration. requires carbon dioxide. (c) coal/oil/natural gas. Award [1] for any two of the above. e. a brown gas that contributes to urban haze. (a) (b) energy is dissipated/lost along the food chain/converted to less useful form. 2 2 max 1 3 max 1 1 max 51 . 1 oxygen is required by decomposers to break down organic matter (the oxidized zone is closer to the surface and richer in oxygen)/higher BOD in oxidized zone as more decomposers.(e) (i) (ii) because the terraces are level there is little run-off by water so soil is not washed away/terraces prevent soil erosion/ soil collects in paddies. and some is lost as heat/waste to the environment. photosynthesis/primary production is the process by which green plants convert light energy into a usable form/chemical energy/food/organic matter. water. noise pollution/air pollution/global warming/acid rain. Give credit for chemical equation. (e) zone D.g. (d) Accept any reasonable environmental problem. 1 [11] 42. thus more decomposition. Award [1 max] for problem and [2 max] for explanation. e. nitrogen oxide reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide.

2 max [12] 43. seen as security in old age (no social security system). Award [0] for naming countries.9 × 100 = 18.5 billion.g.(g) availability of light e. (a) (b) (i) Accept answers between 8. deep oceans dark below surface limits productivity of plants. few options for women. but are unable to use family planning because of attitude of their societies (who value male fertility). e.3 = 1. because of rural isolation and an inability to access family planning centers.2 – 8.2 1 e. cultural expectation for sons. 10. unwanted fertility – poor rural women in Nigeria may like to be able to limit their family size.6%.g. high infant mortality rate so large families necessary to ensure survival of some.g.0 and 8. 1 (ii) population momentum. tropical rainforests receive lots of rainfall each year whereas deserts have little rain which is limiting to plant growth. children seen as a source of income. temperature e.g. rainforests warm throughout the year so have a constant growing season and higher productivity. 1 (iii) 10.g. farm labour. Award [1 max] for no reference to the biomes in figure 3. availability of water e. nutrient availability e. desire for large family size in India patriarchal society and many offspring seen as a symbol of male fertility.9 1. tradition for large family. estuaries receive lots of sediment from rivers. 3 52 .g. religious intolerance to family planning. lack of education about family planning.

g. indigenous tribes need large amounts of space in which to live sustainably. (a) (b) perhaps cartoonist is suggesting that politicians/society refuse to act because they claim that more research needs to be done first. Accept any other reasonable suggestions. difference between sustainable use of forest (natural income) and users who exploit natural capital. reserves left for indigenous people may be too small to sustain them. conflict between short-term and long-term perspective (indigenous people). as nations develop economically and move through stages of demographic transition. economic value of timber/land is incompatible with leaving forest standing for other uses (indigenous cultures). conflict might exist because different groups see the resource differently. Accept similar interpretations of cartoon. intrinsic value of forest (biorights) is ignored by exploitative users only interested in economic use. growth rates can be expected to decline for a variety of socio-economic reasons. no need to mention acid rain. government strategies/policies e. despite the fact that evidence (falling birds) is in front of their eyes. No mark scheme available 53 . 2 3 max [5] 45. 2 max [8] 44. greater access to family planning as communications/education/ wealth increases. changing attitudes will reduce desire for large families. tax incentives. population limited by wars over scarce resources.(c) natural resources/food will become so scarce that population is limited by hunger. forest is cut down by outsiders ignoring the needs of indigenous people.

estimate abundance. the dam has allowed water flow to be controlled so fluctuations are minimized. 3 max 54 . so much water is now extracted from the reservoirs that little water reaches the sea. so water is very cold/does not vary.46. 95% of sediment is trapped behind the Glen Canyon dam. Water temperature range decreased water extracted from dam is too low for sun to penetrate. Award [1] for each variable with a reason if no reason award [1 max]. Nutrient content of water in river decreased nutrients held with sediments behind dam. habitat type and abundance – baseline survey would record total area of each habitat type. (a) (b) (c) (EIA) Environmental Impact Assessment is a process used to establish the impact of a project/development on the environment. land use – assess land use type/use coverage. soil – quality/fertility/pH. human population – assess present population. list endangered species. 2 max 3 max 5 max (d) Abiotic factor in the Colorado River Increased or decreased after construction of Glen Canyon Dam Reason for change decreased fewer fluctuations/variations in water flow. Accept other reasonable responses. and helps decision makers decide if the development should go ahead. Give credit if figures from resource booklet are used. overall amounts of water flowing in the Colorado River have declined since 1910. hydrology – assess hydrological conditions in terms of volume/ discharge/flows/ water quality. species list – survey would record number of species (faunal and flora) present. amount of sediment carried in the Colorado River shows a dramatic decline from the mid-1930s. amount of fluctuation between high flows and low flows has declined. Award [2–3 max] for description and [2–3 max] for explanation. species and ecosystems to be predicted. Riverine habitat diversity Award [1] for decreased and a valid reason and [0] if decrease is given without a valid reason. it enables possible impacts on habitats. and if steps to mitigate effects should be put in place.

Award [2 max] if no reference to resource booklet. Award [1] for naming species and [2] for possible impacts. evidence from resource booklet could include figures for efficiency of production. emphasis (in 1964) was on economic benefits and development goals rather than ecological impact. non-natives dominate as they are better suited to reservoir conditions and native species become extinct.g. non-natives could bring disease with them that native species are not resistant to. Accept other reasonable responses. technocentric approach involves controlling natural processes rather than minimizing disturbance. trout/green alga/cladophora/Bluegill/Sunfish/Channel Catfish. 3 max 3 max 55 . prey on young of native species reducing their number. possible impacts: non-native are outcompeting native species because they are generalists whereas native species have more specific niches. (f) dams are a technological solution to the challenge of managing water and energy demand. inter-breeding and potential loss of species.(e) non-native species: e. non-natives increasing in number as they outcompete native species for food. emphasis on power in National Hydropower Association report.

Mexican) who have benefited (point 2). Mexico benefits from the electricity – presumably it gave its consent for the dam to be built? (point 13). no evidence from the resource booklet that there are safety or health issues (point 5 or 11).(g) There must be some discussion of both sides to achieve [6 max] but answers can be weighted heavily towards one side or another. indigenous. and has caused native species to become extinct/endangered e.g. often poorest communities (rural. knock on effects on Mexico (point 13) and impact on delta may have had an impact on fisheries (point 12). fruit and vegetables are provided for domestic economy (point 4). culture of indigenous people has been threatened e. economic activities such as farming and tourism can be labour intensive and lots of jobs are provided (point 3). Award [4 max] if advantages and disadvantages of dam are merely listed with no reference to the checklist. long-term water and energy demand can be met by this because HEP is a renewable resource (point 9). indigenous people have benefited from water and electricity (point 10). a “good” dam because: large sectors of population have benefited from water supply and electricity (point 2). Rainbow Bridge. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (point 6). not a “good” dam because: no environmental assessment was carried out prior to construction (point 1). possible that Lake Powell will silt up – all sediment trapped see figure 4 showing dramatic drop in sediment after dams constructed (point 7).g. 6 max [25] 56 . the dam was constructed in a national park and adversely affected areas of scientific importance (World Heritage Site) (point 6).

and economic factors which will determine costs of inputs such as seeds and technology/access to credit. fertile soil.g.47. good growing conditions will favour intensive crop production.g. growing trend for concern about animal welfare has affected the processes on some farms (e. amounts of rainfall. Award [4 max] if no evaluation is attempted or if no examples are used. (a) socio-cultural factors will have an influence on tastes/affect new markets e. growing seasons. 8 max 57 . in the case of Nomadic herders.g. desire for more organic food in Europe has led to growth of organic farming to meet this demand. natural disasters. native American Indians did not believe that people could “own” land. of course all these factors are interconnected and socio-cultural features will often have developed in response to farming systems as well as shaping them e. with increasing levels of farm fragmentation in cultures where land is divided equally between sons. attitudes to land will have an impact on how land is used and the status of farmers and farming e. free range pens for chickens).g. indirectly socio-cultural factors such as land ownership. after WW2 there was a concern in Britain about self-sufficiency and this demand led to a drive for greater intensification of production (achieved through fertilizers and agribusiness techniques). the Singaporean government invests a great deal in promoting new technologies in hydroponics. socio-cultural factors can have a more general impact e.g.g. in determining demand for food e. levels of education will determine the amount of exchange of ideas and the extent to which new technologies can be applied e. slash and burn agriculture where the conditions of the forest have encouraged shifting cultivation and social structures and cultural practices have developed in response to this. migration patterns.g.g. but of course socio-cultural factors are not the only ones and factors such as constraints of the natural environment (e. soil fertility) will shape what farming systems develop e. the Maasai. socio-cultural factors can led to problems e.g. where quantity (rather than quality) of cattle is a measure of wealth and so this has led to overgrazing and desertification.g.

e. a source of cash. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “ecocentric”. recognition that soil is often infertile so farmers shift and allow small pockets of forest to regenerate before returning to the plot some 50 years later. utilising forest materials for construction of their homes. establish policies. canoes and for medicines. indigenous shifting cultivator farmers in the Amazonian rainforest in Brazil and urban elites in Brasilia shifting cultivators: [5 max] lifestyle and practices are much more closely bound up with their natural environment. An answer which merely summarises the differences between ecocentric and technocentric paradigms should not be awarded more than [6 max]. the frontier mentality about the interior of Brazil) can lead to “standing” value of rainforest being underestimated by urban elites. in conclusion a less destructive and closer connection between social systems and ecological systems. which then become silted up. e. 10 max Obviously within these groups there will be subsets and individuals with different environmental paradigms. spiritual role of forest is also a feature of their cultural lives leading to respect for trees and other species. which encourage urban shanty dwellers to migrate and use the deforested land.g. urban (capitalist) elites: [5 max] rainforest seen as a resource for development. construction of dams. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “technocentric”.(b) Answers must be balanced and two appropriate societies contrasted. i. lack of understanding for how the natural systems works mean political decisions can lead to wasteful/damaging actions e.g. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58 . political prestige projects and ideology (e. understanding of how the forest works so adapt farming practices e. but farming is unsuccessful because of lack of fertility of the soil.g. live “in tune” with the forest.g. use agroforestry to mimic layering of the forest and protect ground crops from harsh sun and heavy downpours.

local solutions have a valuable role to play e.g. might not have access to funds/expertise. (a) some environmental problems are global in terms of the scale of the effects rather than local. international organisations e. global warming is going to have far-reaching global impacts so a united response to monitoring and mitigation is more likely to be effective. often problems are caused at local scale. rather than burying their head in the sand about an issue. Montreal Protocol. some issues e. so international cooperation in addressing them makes sense.g. to cut CO2 emissions. international cooperation is vital e. so local people should be involved in addressing the problem. especially LEDCs. e. recycling and landfill are local issues so a global strategy would be cumbersome.g. UNEP have the resources to mobilise and coordinate action e.48. bureaucratic and inappropriate. international agreements can help to motivate governments to take action and honour their commitments e. smuggling of endangered species. Award [5 max] if no examples are used.g.e. often the motivation for addressing problems starts at the local level i. e.g. the World Conservation Strategy recognises this.g. when problems cross borders e. however. when individual nations.g. in environmental research. when individuals feel passionately about an issue. CITES.g.g. 8 max 59 .

e.e. biomes are being affected by human actions. scientists have to be able to undertake studies at a manageable level i. understanding relationship between two interdependent species will enable you to predict what will happen if one of them becomes extinct. in response to pollutants.g. you could not design a research programme that was just going to investigate “oceans”.(c) small-scale studies allow for in-depth detailed investigations. their concerns will not be taken seriously unless grounded in rigorous fieldwork and fact. on a practical level. this is one of the problems with conflicting evidence on the issue of global warming. similarly for political decisions to be taken there needs to be a body of evidence and understanding on which these decisions are based.g. lots of studies of small-scale ecosystems form jigsaw pieces in a bigger picture of how larger-scale ecosystems e. these studies can inform human actions to ensure that practices change in the right way to mitigate the problem e. by investigating specific hypotheses. Expression of ideas [2 max] [16] 60 .g. studies of consequences of applying lime to acidified lakes. 6 max Accept other reasonable responses. to be monitored over time. for groups lobbying about a particular environmental issue.g.g. understanding processes and interconnectedness at a local level is vital if threats to that ecosystem are to be effectively mitigated e. studying small-scale ecosystems enables environmental change e.

to change lifestyles and plan to reduce fossil fuel dependence. (a) (b) some politicians believe action should be taken immediately by all nations to curb emissions of CO2. most scientists are now convinced that there is a causal link between CO2 levels and global temperature change. the growth of the environmental movement (which has grown exponentially in profile and influence) has played a large role in raising awareness of the issue. whereas others argue that it is unreasonable to expect LEDCs to curb emissions until they have developed economically like the MEDCs have done. whether we have any moral obligation to future generations).g. opinions will depend to a large extent on what scientific evidence they find most convincing. this will depend on their specialised knowledge and their level of education. others do not prioritise environmental issues including global warming. socio-economic status e. which can also depend on the profile of environmental issues in the media. environmental paradigms will stem from cultural context including prevailing religious attitudes (e.g. young more concerned than old. age e. extreme poverty leads to short-term view/wealth leads to faith in money to solve problem. Accept other reasonable responses. migration/extinction/ adoption. 5 max 5 max 61 . their attitudes to our relationship with the environment (e. overall awareness of the issue. responses by organisms rather than people.g.g. even that recent temperature changes are merely parts of natural fluctuations in the earth’s temperature. near the sea.g. others do not believe that actions at an individual level can make much difference. where people live might affect their views e.49. cultural/religious group e. whether we should live in harmony with it or control it using technology).g. environmental paradigms can shape how they read scientific literature. Allah is in control. whereas some scientists argue that relationships are more complex and that the effects of global warming are unclear. some ordinary citizens feel they have a responsibility to change the way in which they live to reduce their personal contribution to the problem.

at a country level technology can help to ensure carrying capacity is not exceeded. developing alternative energy technologies to fossil fuels.5%. e. through contraception/medicines (reducing infant mortality and thereby reducing the incentive for high birth rates in many poor countries). but at a global level technology can be used to intensify the way in which we use resources e. 2 (i) year: 2002. technology alone may not be the full solution.g. 1 (ii) 65 × 100 520 12. tractors/broken tools/ crop waste (stubble). water. space. it is a problematic term for human populations because technology has a huge influence on the resources that are available to human populations. substitutions of resources e.g. food. Do not accept organic material.g. our tastes and demand for particular resources changes at such a rapid rate. it is determined by availability of resources (e.g. 1 62 . Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 50. 1 430 million/100 × (13% [industry] + 20% [agriculture]). attitudes to resource use may need to be altered.(c) carrying capacity is the maximum number of species that can be sustainably supported by a given environment.g.9 tonnes) Answer must specify units. = 142 million tonnes. technology can also play a part in reducing human population size e. (do not accept 141. increased agricultural production on the same plot of land by using HYV rice.g. (a) (b) (c) animal waste products/old machinery e. 8 max Award [2-3 max] for describing carrying capacity and [5-6 max] for role of technology. a country is said to be overpopulated if the carrying capacity is exceeded. to the population in an area. by importing new resources with transport technology.

2 max Award [1] for named agricultural system and associate impact.g.g. better waste collection facilities. better environmental education. 2 max [7] 52.g. increasingly seen as a resource requiring protection with special techniques e. e. government incentives to recycle waste. use of high yielding crops and livestock.g. loss of soil due to soil erosion. (a) (b) (c) (d) as tractor use increase farm labour use goes down. soil degradation and lowered productivity. prairie grassland US. extensive cattle farming east-Africa. agriculture is becoming more mechanized. introduction of disease. e. No mark scheme available 63 . loss of biodiversity. terracing. farms becoming larger require more machinery. improving irrigation. greater agricultural industrialization/mechanization.g. decline in soil quality due to poor management e.g.g. slash and burn subsistence farming. 1 max soil has become more valuable as it has become more scarce. from 1984 until 2002 the amount of waste produced per person has increased. loss of forest habitat. soil management techniques e. e. more laws preventing dumping. farming/agriculture is becoming more technocentric. Accept other appropriate answers. agriculture may be more intensive. Accept other reasonable responses. loss of marshland from drainage. salinisation (over irrigation). agroforestry. Norfolk grasslands UK. economic incentives to be waste friendly. 2 max greater use of pesticides to protect crops and livestock. less need for labour on farm. e. the use of GM crops and livestock. 2 max 1 [8] 51.(d) (e) better environmental awareness. shelter and salinisation of soil resource due to poor management.

multiple habitats have many edges. dune erosion/habitat loss. site 4 may be a monoculture favouring few species. 2 max reserves are often controlled by the principle of island geography. Answers need four of the following threats to receive [2 max]. (i) (ii) (d) (e) (f) 3 max 2 max site 1 will have a greater range of species. background environmental conditions are good e. If only two of the following threats are addressed. site 5 newer. shrubs and ground cover. chemical pesticides may limit species in site 4. edges provide new niches thus higher diversity. the area is physically large. further development. 2 max site 1 more mature. organisms safely move in and out of the marsh. will include trees.53. biodiversity is high due to multiple habitat types. 2 max site 2 would demonstrate a much higher diversity index than site 4. (a) (b) (c) the Albufera has such high diversity due to a wide range of habitat types. site 1 older. good reserves need to be large (as the Albufera marsh is). power station producing terrestrial and atmospheric pollution.g. award [1 max]. agriculture/run-off pollution and drainage. species community more complex at site 1. many niches for many species. larger animals need large areas. there is a mix of aquatic and terrestrial environments. the area is preserved and the biodiversity is proactively protected and encouraged. Award credit if data is cited. 4 max Albufera was designated the first national reserve in the Balearics by the Mallorcan government. tourist pressure causing disturbance and pollution. site 1 more stable. not gone through full succession. site 2 is much more mature and has a range of habitats with a large range of niches for insects. road/road kill/disturbance. greater range of niches. water quality. small reserves have problems supporting biodiversity. 64 . Ramsar Convention recognition and registration raises the profile of the Albufera. therefore.

more people are also more revenue and more awareness. multiple use reserves are more popular and easier to fund. more tourists mean more potential pollution. (g) (i) (ii) (h) (i) 2 max Albufera is not just an area of wildlife protection. continued tourism expansion may lead to increased pressures on local resources that will directly and indirectly affect the marsh.local communities support the Albufera. mixing education. protection has long-term benefits. culture and development is unlikely to be successful. 2 2 max [25] 65 . more pressure for development land may lead to the marsh edges being developed. research takes place. however. which may damage the marsh. people use it as an area of relaxation. more sustainable. cultural value encouraged. economics. 2 max speciation may occur. 2 max experience demonstrates that protection without considering other factors e. which may be positive factors. educational activities encouraged.g. more tourists need more water and more water extraction may lower levels in the marsh and cause damage. the two geographically separate groups of snails may ultimately become separate species. research.

guides. e. wildlife agencies. produces information that supports the parks existence and informs management decisions. medicines. liaise with local groups. low biodiversity is a measure of a stressed environment. highlights new information. a society that ignores the need for high biodiversity/allows biodiversity to be lost. areas of high diversity are more aesthetically pleasing than areas of low diversity. co-ordinate anti-poaching activities. a more diverse environment is likely to be more resource rich/abundant. thus better places to live.. opportunities for discovering new resources are more likely in areas with high diversity. contaminated land and water. Award [3 max] if answer considers only one line of argument. research: [2 max] scientific research discovers change/damage/stress/new species/ monitors abiotic and biotic conditions within the park.g. factors which cause low biodiversity also may lead to an environment unsuitable/stressful for humans. shows little respect for the environment. maintain communications. (a) low biodiversity reflects poor ecological/environmental conditions. 66 . provides the park with security and infrastructure. drought. they monitor and control visitor numbers. their economic future and the future of the park are intrinsically linked. Award [4 max] for more than one line of argument. rangers. punish poachers. e. they have a positive vested interest in the park. government agencies: [2 max] government through its employees. loss of biodiversity is the loss of potential new resources. biodiversity can be seen as a gauge for environmental quality. (b) local support: [2 max] local guides and rangers earn a living assisting tourists within the park and prevent poaching. manage park funding. helps educate those inside and those outside the park. non-government groups and international organizations. pollutants. provide resources. 6 max Award [4 max] if no named protect area. this attitude may also be reflected in its government’s care of its people. toxins. they have a respect and pride for the park that they view as theirs. etc. society. 6 max Award [6 max] if arguments are supported with appropriate evidence. research identifies new hazards and new goals.54.g.

agricultural run-off rich in phosphates and nitrates and fisheries food and excrement all represent sources of nutrient enrichment within the aquatic system.(c) species based conservation: [3 max] concentrates on one or two key species. pretty birds etc. 6 max 67 .. it can occur naturally but is often triggered by the addition of external anthropogenically derived material. the massive growth rate consumes a high proportion of available O 2. it is none the less being conserved. habitat conditions are maximized to meet the needs of the key species. sewage waste. waste fertilizer etc. (a) eutrophication represents the nutrient enrichment of a body of water. trophy hunting: [3 max] the protection of animals for sport/hunting may also be seen as a species based approach to conservation. tigers. physiological stress due to lack of O2 causes population crashes in many other aquatic organisms. a species based approach may result in a species being conserved artificially outside its habitat. food chains. habitat protection for one species may protect many species. cattle and sheep). thus the organism and not the habitat it belongs in is protected. habitats. less alien species (e. indirectly such management techniques may benefit many non-target species and the ecosystem per se. bears. game reserves may have less disturbance. however. managing habitat for “game” may have benefits for many other species.. numbers are kept high by managing habitat. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 55. positive feedback situation. though the animal is being maintained for economic gain and pleasure. usually organisms that possess strong aesthetic qualities.g. controlling predators providing additional food. ecosystems collapse. nutrients cause an explosion in algae/blue green algae within the water column.

controlling the rate and timing of fertilizer application and controlling the chemical content of fertilizer. in LEDCs. water plants more. water resources need to be managed more carefully. whereas terrestrial systems harvest primarily carbohydrates/plant material (cereals. aquatic systems generally harvest wild species.).g. grains. (a) societies demand for water has continued to grow throughout the industrial period. the use of filters and scrubbers to remove phosphates from domestic sewage. aquatic/marine systems harvest primarily animal protein (fish. managing the fishery such that stocking density of fish and fish feeding practice minimize nutrient enrichment within the system. general per person increase in water needs are making demands heavier.g. crustaceans etc. wash cars more. terrestrial systems harvest the bulk of food from much lower in the food chain.) with some additional animal protein (livestock). root crops etc. e. terrestrial systems use domesticated plant and animal species. tended and harvested. e. aquatic/marine systems from much higher up. terrestrial systems are predominantly farmed systems with food crops being planted.g. 6 max the key difference between aquatic and terrestrial food production systems is the level from which food is harvested. people wash more. addressing run-off and intercepting contaminated water. 5 max 68 . expanding populations/changing agricultural practice/ expanding industry (often heavy). the use of agricultural fertilizers in a way that prevents/reduces nitrate/phosphate loading e. in MEDCs social lifestyles require more water. not applying fertilizers during rainy periods and using reduced phosphate fertilizers. birds. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 56.(b) (c) treatment of sewage before entering the watercourse to remove organics and dissolved nitrates and phosphates will reduce enrichment. removing un-eaten food and fish waste mechanically from the system. stocks are left to recover naturally after harvesting. mammals. demand for water is expanding in both MEDCs and LEDCs. new water resources need to be found/resource use needs to be controlled. aquatic/marine systems are predominantly hunter-gatherer systems (sometimes on an industrial scale). water is a finite resource and countries are reaching their resource availability limit.

populations with a larger footprint than actual land area are living beyond sustainable limits. encourage water use that had few detrimental impacts on habitat. (c) 5 max the technocentric manager approach to water resource management would suggest that future needs can be met by technology.g. encourage greater recycling. encourage water use within sustainable level. (a) tourism can only be successful if it can have a long-term future. the footprint size considers both resource needs and waste assimilation. to be sustainable the tourism venture must not deplete local resource bases by direct/indirect impact. monitoring use to remain within sustainable limits. good tourism is sustainable tourism. ecotourism is often sustainable.g. a long-term future is only possible if the tourism enterprise is sustainable. encouraging industry and society to use less water. as a model for monitoring environmental impact the ecological footprint can allow for direct comparisons between groups and individuals. would also look at innovative ways to reduce water use per se. technocentric managers would support desalination/iceberg capture and transport/wastewater purification. it must not pollute the local environment. e. in addition it can highlight sustainable and unsustainable lifestyles. innovation and the ability to use “untapped” reserves. synthetic water production/rain seeding/deep aquifer extraction. up to [2 max]. encourage the conservation of water. wildlife and the environment. 8 69 . technological advancement may reduce footprint size. both in industry and at a domestic level. it is the opposite of carrying capacity. award [1] for each case study.(b) an ecological footprint represents the hypothetical area of land required by a society/group/individual to fulfill all their resource needs. e. the ecocentric manager approach would highlight the overuse and misuse of water. In addition to the above points. MEDCs and LEDCs. a finite area can support a finite population. tourism that values its environment. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 57.

(b) (c) global warming will ultimately change weather patterns. coastal beach holidays). sustainable development varies in definition depending on viewpoint. winter sports holidays may be curtailed by lack of snow and ice. sustainable development also does not deplete the environmental quality of an area. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58. summer seasons may be extended (e. coastal resorts selling sun. 5 sustainable development (a phrase coined in 1987 in Our Common Future) is defined as development that meets our current needs without depleting resources in the future. Accept other suitable answers if appropriate. sea and sand may develop further north. development and sustainability in the mind of many economists are contradictory positions even though environmentalists hold the concept of “sustainable development” as the best way forward for society and the planet. 1 70 . some believe that development (particularly development designed to allow LEDCs to compete with MEDCs) can never be sustainable (within a free market). economists view sustainable development in pure commercial terms whereas environmentalists will also include environmental quality as an element. Supporting case studies or examples are relevant.g. failing rains may make some resorts obsolete due to lack of water resources. (a) wave power/solar radiation/heat pumps/water wheels.

Dependent on the wind. fossil fuels are energy-efficient/easy to transport/relatively cheap. The wind energy is turned into electrical energy via a generator. using herbicides.g. The electrical energy is supplied to an electrical grid to do work. insecticides. sunshine. (only one method required) (c) (d) MEDCs traditionally/culturally dependent on fossil fuels. Note: that food production system must be reasonably specific. Award [1 max] if no named food production system. 2 max 71 . agriculture. Do not accept e. using GM crops. irrigation. rice paddies application of fertilizer. Biofuel plant material burned directly to produce heat/transformed into ethanol (used as fuel)/converted to methane (methane digestion). Alternative How the energy is produced Major limitation renewable energy source Tidal Power Energy is produced by using the ebbing and/or flooding tide to turn turbines and produce electricity. no wind equals no energy. (only one limitation required) Wind Power Wind turbines are driven by available wind energy. 3 named food production system: e. wind. changing to renewable energy on a large scale requires massive capital investment/cultural inertia against change to renewables/ many renewables depend on environmental conditions that are not constant (e. changing crop type/variety.g. 2 good tidal range required/right shape of coastline/interferes with navigation/impact on wildlife/expensive. Produces emissions and requires large areas to grow biofuel crop. waves).g.(b) Award [2] if both answers are correct and [1 max] if one or two partial answers are correct.

ecological footprint is area of land (and water) required to support an individual/population (providing all resources and absorbing waste). sources of contamination – domestic waste/agricultural waste/landfill waste/degrading organics/tsunami debris/sea water/sewage. the islands are relatively small (less than 1 km across).(e) carrying capacity is the number of individuals/species/load an area of land/an environment can support (providing resources and absorbing waste). nitrates and chloride. Accept replenishable as a classification of rainwater. Maldivian groundwater has been contaminated with ammonia. the islands are in a tectonically active ocean. (i) tourists consume relatively large amounts of freshwater/ Maldives has a finite amount of groundwater and annual rainwater budget. tourism will have reached and gone beyond these limits. ecological footprint is a theoretical area whereas carrying capacity refers to a real area. chloride – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 2 to × 5). when tourist needs outstrip supply. 3 [11] 59. 2 max 3 4 max 2 72 . ammonia – two island exceeds WHO guidelines (× 4). not sheltered by large land masses. Award [3 max] for description and [2 max] for two or more sources of contamination. No mark scheme available 60. rainwater – renewable. freshwater from desalination – renewable. phosphate – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 3 to × 9). nitrates – below WHO guidelines. groundwater – replenishable. carrying capacity involves sustainable support of a population. (a) (b) (c) (d) the landmass has a low elevation/no land higher than 4 metres. whereas footprints are not necessarily sustainable. phosphates. they are the opposite/inverse of each other.

evaluation: which reduces resource use and tourist pressures. standing on coral/using waste excessively. b rin g in d is e a s e s . c o n fu s e s o rg a n is m s a t n ig h t. im p o rt fo o d . h a b ita t lo s s . w a s te fro m d e v e lo p m e n t.(ii) (e) by 2050 the numbers of countries with a chronic scarcity (below –1 –1 2740 litres capita day ) of water will have increased. c o a s ta l p o llu tio n . fo s s il fu e l b u rn in g . Accept any other reasonable points and model design. but may guarantee sustainable environment and tourism for the future.8%).7% to 17. evaluation: environmentally aware tourist less likely to cause damage. (f) lo s s o f b io d iv e rs ity . strategy: development taxed to pay for habitat protection and conservation. e. lig h t p o llu tio n . 2 strategy: tourist numbers could be limited. 4 max 73 . strategy: tourist environmental education. [2 max] if only one strategy addressed. up to [4 max]. fis h in g . c lim a te change. T o u r s im to u ris t d iv in g . however. in c re a s e d a g ric u ltu re . Figures are not required. tra n s p o rt. between 2000 and 2050 the percentage of people in the world suffering from chronic water scarcity will rise (from 3. d u e to d e v e lo p m e n t. also reduces tourist revenue. evaluation: may make tourism more expensive/less profitable. c o ra l d a m a g e . Accept any other reasonable suggestions. Award [1] for each impact.g. 6 max Award [4 max] if only two strategies addressed.

acid rain): [3 max] alter human activity – education of impact of burning coal/switch to non-fossil fuels/burn sulfur-free coal. generates job opportunities. clean up and restore ecosystem – lime lakes/remove contaminated soil/lime surrounding landscapes/replant trees in affected ecosystems. 7 Award any other reasonable suggestions. 6 74 . trees may die/damage to crops/causes irritation to skin and eyes in organisms/other respiratory problems. liming treats symptoms. stratosphere ozone – depletion is the problem. Accept other reasonable responses. so needs repeating. stratosphere ozone: depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs and other halogenated gases/ ozone depletion allows more UV light to reach the Earth. regulate and reduce pollution at source – add scrubbers to chimneys/capture CO2 at source/penalties for having sulfur-rich coal. (a) named example: e.g. not cause. societies. algae/eye cataracts in sheep/humans/skin cancers in humans/tissue damage in photosynthetic organisms.(g) tourism generates valuable hard currency/revenue for many LEDCs. 2 max [25] 61. evaluation: (e. mutation in cells e. (b) troposphere ozone – increase is a problem.g. legislation requires regulators to check compliance. troposphere ozone: formed as secondary pollutant when photochemical reaction occurs between NOx and other pollutants. highlights conservation issues and environmental problems. introduces people to new cultures.g. description: (e. ideas and environments. acid rain.g. acid rain): [3 max] no local effects so difficult to stop people using sulfur-rich fossil fuels/ effects often felt in countries distant to source of pollution.

example 2: statement: [1 max] I believe sustainable development is possible as we have the technology to use renewable resources for all our needs. humans are incapable of stopping population growth. not enough renewable resources. transport could use hydrogen powered engine using water as a fuel. example 1: statement: [1 max] I do not believe sustainable development is possible in the long-term as we have finite resources and will not have enough for everyone to use as much as they want/non-renewable resources will run out. justification: [4 max] humans are not prepared to reduce their standards of living. 5 max Award [1] for a definition of sustainable development. humankind will use less energy. cannot find new technologies fast enough to replace fossil fuels.(c) Depends on the arguments used but responses require a statement of belief on sustainable development. justification: [4 max] micro generation using wind turbines and solar power etc. will provide energy for domestic homes and factories. 80 % live in LEDCs and are using more and more resources. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 75 . insulate buildings more. technological developments in crop growing will mean more production. legislation will make us reuse and recycle more.

succession e.g.62. zonation e. Accept other reasonable responses.g. 76 . changes in ecosystems up a mountain with increasing altitude. (a) succession: orderly change over time in an ecosystem. temperate forest development. in some environmental factor. 6 max Award [1] for definition. over a distance. [1] for example and [1] for a diagram of each process. into parallel/sub-parallel bands in response to change. zonation: the arrangement/patterning of plant communities/ecosystems.

wheat harvested before production:respiration = 1. little human activity. plentiful abiotic factors e. makes conditions impossible for others/Trent Biotic Index organisms/degradation of ecosystems. 6 max Award credit if named examples are used. light. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 63. human activities – burning/building. increases rapidly as biomass accumulates. various niches. both wheat fields and woodlands have low initial productivity. Award [2 max] for examples and [4 max] for comparisons. different nutrient and energy pathways. 77 .(b) food production system e. threats: [3 max] pollution – kills some species. heat. large size. selective logging. hunting of top carnivores. intensive wheat production. deciduous woodland. grazing animals. (a) population pyramids give age/sex structure for country.g. natural woodland consumer community increases so naturally high productivity is balanced by consumption and respiration.g. natural ecosystem e. water. minimal pollution.g. different trophic levels. (c) 6 max characteristics: [3 max] greater habitat diversity. climate change. complex ecosystem. woodland reaches climax when production: respiration = 1/all productivity is balance by respiration. herbivores controlled or isolated from the food production system.

as resources are depleted they become more economically expensive. disease. birth rate and death rate.age/sex pyramids identify percentage of providers and dependents within a country. must use resources more effectively. Accept any other reasonable suggestions. impact of events.g. etc. (b) global population continues to rise/per capita resources consumption increasing/resource exploitation is reaching its limits. economic growth means demand for resources is increasing so cost increases (crude oil). expanding/contracting population. allows for monitoring change in dependent to provider ratio. number in fertile age bracket. gender ratios. measures the size/structure of a population over time.g. 5 max Award [1] for a diagram. e. technology can increase carrying capacity e. may not be sustainable in the long-term. wars. 6 78 . GM crops/fertilizers/ alternative energy sources.

g. leading often to greater complexity. plastics/paper/lower quality materials.(c) Advantages Disadvantages reducing use resources are conserved/last longer. health and safety issues/loss of technological edge. aluminium recycling versus energy efficient. hard to do/slows economic growth/reduces standard of living in present consumer culture. e. 1 max soils will become more mature. 2 max time. saves energy in extraction. Award credit for relevant examples. distance (from sea). aluminium cans/bottles. changes in the community of organisms cause changes in the physical environment. become more complex. 2 max positive feedback. processing or recycling. 1 [6] 79 . reusing reduces resources use. this allows another community to become established and replace the former through competition. 7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 64.g. not economic as lot of energy required to recycle e. contain more organic material. recycling reduces resource use e. reduces landfill/increased environmental awareness.g. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) the orderly process of change over time in a community. Award [1] for each advantage and disadvantage. develop distinct horizons. soils will be deeper.

3 max 80 . produce diverse products (milk/meat/blood/wool). respiration. crops capture energy directly from primary source.4 kcal lost. 893.6 = 893. additional benefit that they are working animals.65.4 × 100. Award [2] for correct final answer. fish harvesting utilizes a resource that is several steps away from primary production.3% loss. 2 max animals provide a source of protein (essential for the human diet). animals convert vegetation to food that would not be available to humans directly. therefore it is more efficient. 900 = 99. 2 max heat. 2 there is energy lost from respiration and waste production at each level within a food web. feces. taste and culture affect demand. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) 900 – 6. crop production harvests food from lower down in the food web than harvesting fish from the top.

for milk production IN P U T S In p u t O U TPU TS O u tp u t fo o d / g ra s s / s ila g e Im p a c t p o s s ib le p o llu tio n o f w a te r c o u r s e s fr o m f e r t i l is e r s a n d e f f l u e n t In p u t m ilk Im p a c t tra n s p o rt o f m ilk a n d su b se q u e n t p ro c es sin g u s e s fu e l a n d th u s h a s a n im p a c t O u tp u t w a s te d ru g s a n d s u p p le m e n ts Im p a c t d ru g s m a y e n te r h u m a n fo o d c h a in Im p a c t w a s te m a y e n te r w a te r c o u rs e s a n d c au s e e n ric h m e n t Accept any other reasonable answers. 4 max [13] 66. Both answers needed to receive [1]. e. whereas country B is a declining population. Award [1] for each two associated impacts. country A has a high proportion of young people/wide base. Award [1] for two outputs. (a) (b) country A is an expanding population. (i) country A: footprint X. country A has low proportion of elderly/narrow top whereas country B has a higher proportion of elderly people/wider top. Award [1] for each two associated impacts. whereas country B has a low proportion of young people/narrowing base. country A has a larger population than country B. 2 max 1 81 .(ii) Award [1] for two inputs.g. country B: footprint Y.

long legs. 1 2 max [3] 68. (a) water consumption has increased at a faster rate than population growth. whereas country B is an MEDC and therefore. washing machines/swimming pools. 2 max 1 82 . agricultural development so greater use of water in irrigation (for intensive) farming. cultural change towards greater personal hygiene. 1 Possible adaptations could include: red colouration. No mark scheme available 69. ability to produce bioluminescence. (a) (b) (c) (i) insufficient light lower down for photosynthesis. 1 (ii) depth/light/temperature/pressure.g. people use more resources/more imported goods/generate more pollution. Figures are not needed. (i) vent/hydrogen sulfide → bacteria → shrimp/crabs/worms. (b) increased demand for domestic goods/luxury items e.(ii) country A is an LEDC and therefore. people use fewer resources/more local resources/generate less pollution. 1 max [4] 67. To achieve [1] answer must begin with vent/hydrogen sulfide followed by bacteria. 1 (iii) 4/tertiary consumer/carnivore. increased economic development so more water used in industry.

upwelling currents. short food chains. scientific research in monitoring populations. Award [2] for each environmental philosophy.(ii) (iii) (d) (i) (ii) specialized species (they are vulnerable if niche is lost). slow growing organisms/late maturity/low fecundity. (f) 9 (i) 39 000 gigatonnes/39 × 10 tonnes. harsh environmental conditions. limits on catch size. 1 max initial increase followed by gradual decline. ice caps/glaciers melting. 2 max fish removed by fishing industry. 4 max 1 1 1 83 . Both answers needed to receive [1]. high level of interdependence. wide net mesh. technocentric: [2 max] stress role of market (costs increase as stocks dwindle so fewer will be fished). consumer restraint. through technology e. community fisheries. ecocentric: [2 max] small-scale technology should be adopted e.g. (iii) 3 thermal expansion. intensive fish farming as an alternative. Units needed. over fishing of stocks meant reduction in young fish and decline in populations. (ii) possible way to offset global warming as large amounts of carbon could be stored/locked away. birds eating fish/plankton. interest in species increased in early years as new technology allowed targeting of species. fishing quotas.g.

4 max [23] 70. deep-ocean systems are not occupied by humans. Award [3 max] if only why little public pressure or need for conservation is addressed. deep-ocean systems represent a biological resource that has not yet been fully understood. deep-ocean systems are potentially fragile and susceptible to damage from outside influences. little is known about the system. therefore. the deep ocean is remote and not visible to most people. the need for conservation [3 max] deep-ocean systems represent an important biological resource. difficult to control/legislate for/police. 2 max 84 . designed to show the structure/workings of an object/system/concept. require approximations to be made.(g) why little pressure [3 max] no country has ownership of the deep ocean and therefore. (a) a simplified description. conservation issues are not raised/ known about.

g. To receive full marks answers must have a balance of strengths and weaknesses. war/disease. enables the reasons for population growth to be understood. conflicting models can show different effects in same place. stresses the systems approach and interconnectedness of eco and social systems. per capita CO2 emissions.g. Award credit if other relevant models are evaluated.(b) predicting the growth of human populations: [3 max] growth of human population depends (at a simple level) on birth rates and death rates. and may not reflect the complex and unpredictable factors which affect growth rates e. can be useful tools for getting people to think about their impact. role of feedback/ocean systems not fully understood. from this rates of natural increase can be calculated and population total predicted. Accept other examples of feedback. but not all countries conform to the stages identified. able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. hugely complex in terms of numbers of factors involved in atmospheric systems so in process of oversimplification accuracy is lost. model only as good as the data that goes in and it may be suspect. demographic transition model shows how population growth is linked to economic development. very difficult to calculate figures e. a quantification of what can be a very complex set of factors. population pyramids enable policy makers to chart what proportion of the population are in the fertile age bracket helping to predict likely birth rates. 9 max 85 . e.g. predicting climate change: [3 max] models can demonstrate anticipated changes to climate based on carbon emissions. models are hugely simplified. assessing demands human populations make on their environments: [3 max] ecological footprints can be effective for comparing environmental impacts of different societies.

g. 7 max Award [4 max] if no examples are used. e. religious beliefs in catholic countries. culture and tradition evolve over time/cultural change can occur and governments can be a part of this. cultural norms may be ingrained/deeply felt and policies need to address these at the deepest level to change attitudes e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 71. (a) use of resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration. often the reasons for family size can be attributed to cultural factors so for policies to be effective they need to understand the underlying reasons why people decide to have a certain number of children. inheritance by male heirs and dowries for females.g. making abortion illegal). provision of contraception in e. 3 max 86 . if human well-being is dependent on the goods and services provided by certain forms of natural capital.(c) strategies for controlling growth include availability of contraception/ financial incentives/public information/legislative changes (e.g. education and employment opportunities for women lead to delayed marriages and lower birth rates. rural communities may not be enough – programmes to educate males to be willing to use the contraception are also needed. then long-term harvest (or pollution) rates should not exceed rates of capital renewal. the need for male children in some cultures is linked to the traditional practices and structures e.g. education and economic development are important factors in bringing about cultural change. sustainability means living within the means of nature.g. Examples can be of cultural practices and do not need to be located in named geographical contexts. remote. on the “interest” or sustainable income generated by natural capital. any society that supports itself in part by depleting essential forms of natural capital is unsustainable. sometimes cultural factors indirectly play a role in fertility rates e. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. and minimizes damage to the environment.g.

g. organizations and individuals. attitude change may occur without summits e. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson was pivotal.g. summits may not achieve their initial goals. in terms of shaping public opinion media can also be important e. and to legally binding conventions e. countries can break these agreements and there is little the international community can do.g. Rio Earth summit (in 1992) led to Agenda 21 and Rio declaration. which established initial definition for sustainable development. Award [3 max] if summits are described but not evaluated. on climate change/ Montreal (1987). Accept any other reasonable answers.(b) global summits can play a leading role in shaping attitudes to sustainability e. however. UN Conference on Human Environment/Stockholm. however. 1972 was the first time that the international community met to consider global environment and development needs. 5 max 87 . and can play a pivotal role in setting targets and shaping action at both an international and local level e.g. they may act as a catalyst in changing the attitudes of governments. which set out key policies. UN commissioned the Brundtland Report.g.

as public awareness of threats of global warming has increased there has been a shift in attitudes towards. specifically hydroelectric power. say. economic. which has sometimes been extremely controversial for social/environmental reasons e.(c) factors could include availability. the costs of exploitation have increased and alternative sources have been sought. changing awareness of environmental implications of fossil fuel exploitation has increased demand for renewable. Accept other reasonable responses. and technology such as solar powered stoves is not available/ affordable. cultural. Narmada dam. environmental and technological factors: e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 88 .g. which has always been used. Societies do not need to be contrasting. firewood in India in India a huge proportion of population rely on local sources of firewood for energy because it is most readily available/cheap. wind and tidal. Award [5 max] if no societies are referred to.g. wind power. non-polluting sources. coal and gas reserves in UK have historically meant they were an obvious choice for exploitation.g. despite the aesthetic and environmental implications. 10 max Award credit if figures are used. in a drive to develop economically the Indian government has sought to harness other sources of cheap energy to stimulate industrial development. leading to greater investment and research into alternatives e. but energy sources should be.g. cultural fears based on perception of nuclear accidents/waste have made this an unpopular choice politically. as the most easily accessible reserves have been used up. it is the traditional source of energy. e. fossil fuels in UK availability – large oil.

g. excessive flow of water through a very porous soil will wash away the nitrates into rivers and sea (leaching). soil water may evaporate back into the atmosphere (transformation). to form nitrates which can be taken in by the plants in solution with water in the ground (nitrification).g. by planting leguminous crops e. few plants have the ability to absorb atmospheric nitrogen directly.72. the soil is the home of bacteria and if it becomes waterlogged near the surface the bacteria are unable to break down the decaying plant and animal matter. so it has to be converted by bacteria. these bacteria exist. (a) Transfers: [3 max] transfers normally flow through a system and involve a change in location. water will flow through soil (infiltration) to replenish groundwater (transfer). peas/beans/clover. 5 max 89 . but people can also add nitrogen to the soil in the form of artificial fertilizers. in a peat bog (denitrification). then the poorly decomposed matter forms peat on the surface e. Transformation: [3 max] lead to an interaction within a system in the formation of a new end product/involve a change of state. in decaying remains/in the soil. water can flow from soil into plants by uptake into roots. which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen.

shortage of firewood means manure is burnt for fuel instead of being returned to land. application of fertilizer to retain fertility of soil. commercial farming system relies on a technological approach to managing the soil (technocentric). whereas subsistence depends more on traditional practices. Award [1] for naming commercial and subsistence farming systems.(b) large-scale cereal cultivation in the prairies. USA – high technology approach to minimizing wind erosion. which have evolved over time as people live on the land (ecocentric) e. If systems are simply described award [6 max] 8 max 90 . GM crops with shorter stalks to minimize wind damage and exposure of soil. small-scale agriculture e. variety of crops grown reduces the likelihood of exposure of soil at different times.g. tend to be low tech and simple.g. fields allowed to be fallow/rest by crop rotation/soil is rested. shelterbelts of trees planted. use of specially adapted ploughs. terraces built by hand to reduce run-off. application of manure. e. Award [4 max] if no named systems are mentioned. but system can break down when population pressure leads to abandonment of traditional methods. vegetable farming in Thailand – manure from working livestock allowed to fertilize soil. Answer needs to show comparison. e. Accept any other reasonable answers.g.g.

(c) more intense production. less vegetation → greater wind speeds → more soil erosion → less top soil → less vegetation etc. understanding that soils are living systems which are integral parts of ecosystems will help farmers to take a broader perspective when managing their land e. bringing new land under production e. 5 max Do not accept arguments that are not linked to the concept of systems. unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. outputs and storages. through irrigation/hydroponics. GM crops to increase yields/farm machinery.g. systems approach stresses the interconnectedness of soils and emphasizes the knock-on impact that actions can have. and the importance of returning nutrients through the use of fertilizers.(c) systems are models with inputs. these include soil erosion. Accept responses with a step by step description that demonstrates that the rate of increase is increasing.g.g. 1 1 max 2 max 91 . Accept any other reasonable responses.g. activities such as overgrazing. (a) accept answers between 10 and 14 billion. some processes of degradation are examples of positive feedback e. additional fertilizers to increase yield. deforestation on nearby slopes can have an impact on water flows and likelihood of soil erosion in flash flood conditions. understanding this can help farmers to break the cycle. will help farmers to compensate for the losses to overall nutrient balance by removing crops. toxification and salinization. more efficient transport (as less food decays). with overgrazing an understanding of the balance of animals that can be supported before the critical threshold is reached will help farmers plan herd size. better storage (as less food decays). seeing soils as renewable resources in equilibrium (inputs of nutrients through rain and organic matter) and outputs through natural leaching. input of technology e. but only if they lead to an increase in yield. deforestation. (b) exponential. rate of population increase increases over time.. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 73. Do not accept suggestions to limit food consumption as the question is about meeting increases in demand.

methane from ruminants (not shown on diagram). remote areas with no access to information/contraceptives. greenhouse gases emitted in transportation and distribution as exhaust fumes. 2 max 92 . simple. pressure for sons e. and is dependent in some way on a healthy population.g. but far too simple. emission of gases as food is processed/packaged. Catholic countries. lack of education. Award [1] for a strength and [1] for a weakness. detail of what constitutes sustainable as opposed to inappropriate development is not clear. economic costs of funding family planning/medical improvements.g. 1 2 max 2 max [5] 75. shows clearly how actions in one area can have a knock-on effect on the original development. few alternatives for women. (a) nitrogen oxides/carbon dioxide from power station as fossil fuels are burned. religious resistance to contraception e.(d) traditions e. 2 max [6] 74. Award [0] if no reason is given for positive feedback. value of large populations for economic growth. traditionally defined as development which meets the needs of the current generation without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (a) (b) (c) positive feedback because the effects of the problem make the problem worse.g. for large family sizes. Accept any other reasonable responses. exact natures of the causal relationships are not explained. Award [1 max] for general responses in which specific gases are not identified. Award [1 max] if no reference is made implicitly or explicitly to figure 2. but in this context it suggests development which has a positive role in enhancing the environment. easy to see the connections. in farming countries causes increased birth rate to secure a son. can distinguish between positive and negative actions and consequences.

1 2 93 . Accept any other reasonable responses. allowing plants and trees to grow alongside streams will increase the range of habitats for insect/bird species. inertia/culture/tradition means that non-renewable resources are favoured. nitrogen dioxide absorbs sunlight and breaks up to release oxygen atoms that combine with oxygen in the air to form ozone. more food/nutrients provided for species. Award [1 max] if the response has identified that pollutants are harmful to the environment but organic wastes do not need to be. product processing and packaging is on a grander scale in MEDCs. Award [0] if specific gases are not named. livestock more processing required and therefore more energy. as energy will have been lost along the food chain due to respiration and excretion/10 % rule/second law of thermodynamics. it reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. Award [0] if MEDC stated with no reason. at a rate greater than that at which it can be rendered harmless by the environment/and which has an negative effect on the organisms within it. arable more energy efficient than the livestock.(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) a pollutant is any substance/agent (such as heat) added to the environment by human activity. complex system. when fossil fuels are burned nitrogen oxide is released. sewage treatment. Award [0] if no reason given. MEDC because fertilizers and pesticides are factory produced. renewable resources are not able to meet current demand. the technology to harness renewable sources not available on a large scale. 2 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 [12] 76. fossil fuel resources are still economically cheaper to exploit. (b) (i) reducing lawn size – lawns are restricted to grass species and succession cannot occur as they are cut regularly. whereas organic wastes can be treated and recycled back into the system in a positive way. locations for renewable energy sources are limited by available sites/politics. (a) stops organic residues entering streams and causing pollution/eutrophication. Award [1 max] if no distinction is made between the terms.

many niches so potential for new speciation is high. high productivity can support numerous trophic levels. historic isolation has allowed speciation leading to high endemism. principles of island geography apply. a more sustainable strategy. removing grass cuttings takes nutrients away from the soil. after Madagascar broke away from Gondwanaland. a way of reducing overall waste/resources/energy used. artificial fertilizers lead to release of greenhouse gases as they are produced. 2 max 2 max [7] 77. so there will be a net loss of nutrients. species evolved independently in response to local conditions. cheaper. less likely to cause eutophication than artificial fertilizers. No mark scheme available 78. aesthetic/potential economic value of greater diversity. Award [2] if response links ideas: “great length of time for speciation and isolation from the mainland”. favourable abiotic conditions.(ii) (c) provides greater stability. complex food webs allow many niches. (a) (i) (ii) (b) a range of ecosystems offering a range of habitats/niches. hot/high insolation and humid/ high precipitation. 2 max 2 max 1 94 . natural fertilizers less likely to contain harmful toxins which may build up in species (biomagnification). more niches so more alternative food sources within the food web should anything happen to an individual species. natural fertilizers may contribute positively to soil structure. island colonized relatively recently so species have not developed escape/evade strategies/not afraid of man. greater genetic diversity so better able to withstand diseases/change.

funds from e. 4 max 2 max (i) (18 482 ÷ 600 461 × 100 =) 3. Award [1 max] for responses not given in the form of a model. Accept flow diagrams. Award [3 max] if no climatic factors are mentioned. 2 max site 2 is a pristine (climatic) climax habitat so exhibits greatest diversity. incentive for local people to preserve local ecosystems if they can see the economic benefit. or the fact that soil is naturally poor. maintains more canopy so soil is protected from rain/sun. directly by logging/farming/mining/industry/settlement. etc. an economic alternative to harmful actions. (ii) promotion of development and conservation is the favoured approach of the World Conservation strategy. Lemurs. protective forest cover removed. nutrients leached away. soil exposed to rain and easily washed away/eroded. recovery of natural systems after disturbance is more likely. some species may only be present in forested areas as this is where they find food e. site 3 will experience some disturbance but less than site 1.01%/3% . site 1 is a disturbed habitat with few trees and arrested succession so lower diversity. 3 max (i) 1 95 .g. soil degraded and useless as a resource for humans. soil exposed to high temperatures and baked/dried out. (in principle) natural interest can be harvested whilst natural capital is preserved. soil loses fertility and can no longer support plants.(c) (d) (e) (f) Response should be presented as a model. better survival of residual trees so niches/species protected. Scorpions favour drier conditions and therefore inhabit the grassland site (1). spider diagrams. nets. Award [1 max] if response is not explicitly linked to sustainability. Madagascar is a poor country and economic development is naturally a priority.g. ecotourism can be put back into conservation programmes.

reserve surrounded by forest which acts as a natural buffer zone. isolated from human activity so less chance of disturbance. already rich in species/high biodiversity/biological hotspot. 3 max 1 2 max [23] 96 . continuing population growth may lead to expansion and increased pressure from the settlement. Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed. through technology which will develop as the country develops economically. Award credit for other reasonable arguments. reducing birth rates is often seen as being an important feature of countries that are further along in demographic transition. no. many of which provide important goods and services and need to be protected. only one ecosystem type presented here.(ii) strengths: 2 reserve is relatively large (50 km ). Madagascar will be able to increase its carrying capacity. overpopulation is to do with numbers of people compared to resource use. government should not because population growth rate will naturally stabilize as the country develops. provided resources are used sustainably there is no reason why populations should not grow. more people means more pressure will be put on fragile ecosystems. (g) (i) 36 million. to be most effective other reserves needed in other locations. (ii) yes. one large reserve generally better than lots of little ones. government should because population growth rate is high (3 %) and population is putting increasing pressure on limited resources. remote so difficult to police. weaknesses: remote so access for research/monitoring could be difficult. not clear whether there are economic opportunities in the reserve for local people. yes because carrying capacity is likely to be exceeded. large population is needed to develop the country economically. larger reserves are better.

informal economy in LEDCs is responsible for recycling many resources. this means demand for energy resources is high. to meet its resource needs. an individual/a country. this defined population could be at any scale e. ecological footprint is the (hypothetical) amount of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. Award up to [2 max] for reference to a specific example (could be on an individual’s own ecological footprint or for a country). LEDCs are often characterized by lower consumption as people have less to spend. this is partly because people in MEDCs have more disposable income. Award [2 max] if no reference is made to an example. MEDCs produce far more waste/pollution as a by-product of production. 5 max 7 max 97 .g. (a) (b) Responses should be constructed around a case study. Award [4 max] if no mention is made of specific case studies. MEDCs (in general) have much greater rates of resource consumption than LEDCs. Award [1 max] if response quotes specific data about an ecological footprint. it should be sustainable over time. and is a quantitative representation of carrying capacity. named country. as LEDCs develop the difference between footprint size diminishes. and assimilate its waste. and also because resource use is often wasteful.79.

mass migration/civil unrest/wars may result. to intensify land use/ cope more efficiently with waste. recycling resources. (a) describing water budget: [3 max] only 2. so there is a real incentive to address the issue. rivers. many societies are now dependent primarily on groundwater which is non-renewable. greater demands are made on water resources. the funding to support technological change exists in MEDCs which currently face the biggest problem with their ecological footprints. 7 max 98 . rest of is made up of lakes. when water supplies fail. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity technology can increase carrying capacity to cope with increased demand for resources as populations grow. availability of water for drinking. reducing population to reduce resources use.(c) Award [1] for any of the following. etc. importing more resources from other countries. populations will be forced to take drastic steps.6 % is groundwater. GM crops for example can be used to increase yields on the same amount of land. reusing resources. 0. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 80. Precise figures are not required.6 % is fresh water.. technology can be applied to all aspects of resource use e. reduced by reducing amounts of resources that are used. improving efficiency of resource use. explaining why possible source of conflict: [5 max] water resources are now becoming a limiting factor in many societies. e. as populations grow. industry and agriculture needs to be considered. over 80 % is in ice caps and glaciers. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity.g. transporting waste to other countries to deal with. but some indication of relative amounts is. up to [3 max]. reducing amount of pollution produced. many innovations are still in earlier stages e.g.g. e.g. the pace of technological change is speeding up which suggests new solutions will be found in the future to current resource problems. as societies develop water needs increase. renewable technologies but these could potentially have a huge impact on ecological footprints in the future. Award [3 max] for justifying which is most likely to succeed.

local awareness campaigns. Award [1 max] for any correct reference to Boserup’s theory.g. mechanization. 5 max description: [3 max] irrigation using pumped groundwater reserves. 1 99 . this implies individuals/local groups making changes which affect the whole. Features of ecocentrism do not need to be stated explicitly. ecocentric focuses on basic needs of those below subsistence e. local tube well. may include both engineering solutions and biotechnology solutions. 6 max Award [4 max] if there is no evaluation. (a) (i) a country consuming resources and assimilating its wastes by using a land area 2. and therefore not an option for LEDC.g. it also means working with natural processes. reuse of bath water. rice with genes to produce more proteins and vitamins. disease-resistant cereals.4 times larger than the size of the country.g.(b) (c) ecocentrism involves an holistic world view. low technology irrigation.g. ecocentric involves emphasis on community involvement e. high economic outlay. hydroponics is a good example of a technological solution. genetically modified plant species.g. evaluation: [3 max] techno solutions may represent the only way to increase yield to meet demand. ecocentric involves self-imposed restraint e. ecocentric involves education e. ecocentric involves emphasis on small-scale e. may have environmental costs/not be environmentally sustainable. Award [1 max] for any statement which explains what a technocentric strategy might be. fertilizers/pesticides. locally built micro dams. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 81. Award [2 max] if ecocentrism is discussed without reference to local application. agribusiness/industrial agriculture. as the choice of strategy may imply these.

greater – smaller footprint. level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. a country’s level of technology will influence its footprint. urban living) may have changed atmospheric systems (leading to global climate change). per capita consumption of food. Answers must specifically identify the link between man and climate for mark to be awarded. more transport – larger footprint. per capita production of carbon waste. CO2 from burning fossil fuels is a greenhouse gas. more imported resource. technology can equally reduce the footprint if it improves efficiency of agricultural production/energy use/alternative energy sources/reduces carbon pollution.g. Atmospheric pollution would not be acceptable however atmospheric pollution caused by industry would gain a mark. methane from rice growing/cattle farming is a greenhouse gas. greater reliance – greater size. the addition of various atmospheric pollutants from industry may have changed our atmosphere (and as a consequence climate).(ii) (b) (i) level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. greater – larger footprint. greater – smaller footprint. greater – larger footprint. use of alternative energy technology. 3 max 1 max 100 . size of population. heat produced by human activity (industry. more technology more resources therefore larger footprint. change in our natural environment/albedo by humans including deforestation/agricultural activity/urbanization may have changed climate indirectly. productivity of local biome. greater – larger footprint. meat/vegetable rich diets. greater – smaller footprint. less reliance smaller size. efficiency of agriculture. Accept the converse form of any of the above e. meat-rich – larger footprint.

g.  (accuracy in the position  both high points and low points  of points is not essential) annotation e. sunspot activity. volcanic activity leading to changes in atmospheric composition. plate tectonics shift position of land masses. UK climate becoming warmer and wetter/Ethiopia becoming hotter and drier. 3 2 max 1 101 . changes in the Sun’s radiation output.(ii) Sketch graph should show the following: steady rise over last 100 years. ocean current changes leading to global energy change.g. temperature fluctuations over the last 2000 years. industrial revolution/marking of little ice age. e. e. natural dynamic variation in the atmospheric system leading to climate change. (iii) (c) (i) changes in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun changing the amount of available incoming radiation thus influencing global climate.g. plate tectonics causing mountain building and affecting air flows.

e.g. 1 (i) (ii) biomes are defined by climatic conditions/amount of available light. method must include expression of data analysis. warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local natural vegetation and therefore reduce footprint size.g. warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local agriculture and therefore reduce footprint size. rice fields require high levels of precipitation and high light and temperatures. Accept other reasonable answers of equivalent weight and validity. 4 biological area(s) exhibiting a similar climate/weather that supports a distinctive flora and fauna. 1 (ii) N = total number of organisms within a population. arable farming is limited to geographical bands which have sufficient sunshine and temperature levels and moderate amounts of precipitation. temperature and available precipitation. UK: climate change will cause policy change which will change behaviour and influence footprint size. method must allow for the collection of data on species present. crop type and livestock are suited to climatic conditions. due to increased temperature more energy used for air conditioning thus larger footprint. No mark scheme available 102 . more flooding.g. (a) (b) (i) the number of species and their abundance found within a habitat. 2 max [13] 82. 1 (iii) Candidates may describe a number of possible methods but their design should include the following: method must allow for the collection of data that is scientifically representative and appropriate (e. new climate may require new building styles. thus larger footprint.g. warmer temperatures may require less heating thus smaller footprint. e. which require resources which may increase footprint size. dealing with changing climate conditions. multiple 1 metre quadrats). may require more flood defenses and thus more resources.(ii) e. indigenous agriculture is dictated by climate. 3 max [10] 83. Simpson’s index would be used to quantify diversity. and abundance within species (expressed as number of individuals/ percentage cover).

Award [1 max] if either one or both values are incorrect but working is shown correctly. Award [2] if answers include both a difference and an influence on success. 2 max difference: influence: difference: influence: (i) (ii) 60 × 100 = 88%. production zone is (proportionally) smaller and so. strict reserve is (proportionally) smaller and so. raises revenue from ecotourism to support conservation management. difference: overall shape is more elongated/boundary more reticulated and so. 68 331 logged: × 100% = 96%. allows research and thus more understanding of threatened species and their protection. logging processes and transport may aid in dispersal of Ficus/fig trees. 345 Award [2] if both correct values are given. influence: is more vulnerable to unmanaged human activity outside park.84. encourages support of local communities by making some provision for them. difference: buffer zone is in direct contact with edge at some points and so. less protection for forest species. (a) (b) (c) reduces direct impact/edge effects of more rigorous human activity in production zone. 2 max 2 max 103 . Ficus/fig trees may establish themselves more easily with increased light/ reduced canopy due to logging. through ecotourism/education. 2 max unlogged: logging likely to remove larger Ficus/fig trees in harvesting host trees. raises awareness of conservation issues. influence: is more vulnerable to edge effects. logging may selectively remove competitors of Ficus/fig trees. may be less effective in raising sufficient revenue/ gaining support from local people.

Be lenient with any strict sense of a “species” i. they feed on trees not harvested by loggers. it limits growth of mature keystone species e. abundance of Black and white colobus is more in logged area/less in unlogged.g. that size of groups is similar in both areas. (i) (ii) (g) 2 (Black and white colobus more abundant in logged area because) less competition from other primates.(d) (e) any appropriate example in which it is shown that many other species within ecosystem depend upon it. they form smaller but more numerous groups in lower density forest. Award [2] if it is shown that more than two groups depend upon it and [1] if it is shown that two other groups depend upon it. that areas are indeed adjacent (map would suggest that they are at least 10–15 km apart). it causes incidental damage through e. 1 max (iii) (f) abundance of six/most species is less in logged area/more in unlogged area. Award [0] if no species is identified. 2 max (while all four parishes given make direct contact with a large production zone in the park) other parishes only in contact with buffer zone/have no access to production zone (where management is less stringent) e. transport/noise/soil compaction/erosion.g. “trees” is not acceptable but “pine trees” would be. it removes nutrients stored in harvested biomass. they prefer lower tree density. 1 max adjacent areas are similar in all other relevant respects. Award [1] for each valid difference with appropriate named location up to [2 max]. 2 max 104 . primates.g.e. that data was recorded at same season/year. some parishes have very little direct access to park at all/minimal boundary to the park e. Karusandara/Dura/Nkongooro. some parishes may benefit financially from tourist traffic outside park and so not dependent on park resources e.g. Kigaraale. 1 max it interferes with the success of other species than the crop species e.g. Ficus/fig trees. Bigodi/Busiriba.g.

strategy: offer practical/financial assistance to set up sustainable projects. 2 max Award [1] for any acceptable cause and [1] for a relevant strategy. (i) difference: fewer DGs involved in energy conservation technology. difference: more DGs forming policy and law. strategy: offer agreements whereby they can obtain certain traditional resources. cause: poverty in the face of great wealth evident in park management/tourists. 2 max 105 . reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs/more personnel/ resources available. difference: more SOs promoting research. reason: have more international contacts. strategy: revenue sharing. difference: more SOs seeking funding.(h) cause: have traditionally depended upon forest resources for subsistence. reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs. cause: cannot achieve sustainable provision outside of forest. strategy: develop methods of preventing animals from entering crops. cause: damage to crops from park animals. reason: have more technical understanding. difference: more DGs monitoring illegal forest use. Award [1] for any acceptable significant difference and [1] for an appropriate explanation. reason: less direct benefit to them possibly than more localized PAs working together/less technical understanding than SOs.

evidence: incentives such as controlling crop damage/sustainable projects/revenue sharing are in place to encourage support of locals – figure 8. evidence: many aspects of original model are implemented – figure 2. discussion: small number of letters/anecdotal/from only three parishes. but this is a major hurdle. study only reports how groups see their own role without any objective assessment. evidence: many decentralized groups/local parishes do have an environmental agenda – figure 9/figure 10.g. whereas replenishable are abiotic and depend on abiotic processes. evidence: letters show awareness/support among local people – figure 7. renewable are natural resources that have a sustainable yield/harvest equal to/less than their natural productivity. letters also indicate there are still infringements of restrictions. 4 max Award [1] for any reasonable evidence derived from resource material and [1] for any appropriate point of discussion. (a) non-renewable are natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment and used (e. (e. so impressive achievement.g. 3 max 106 . groundwater). discussion: provides good holistic approach to conservation. replenishable are non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the Sun for their replenishment.g. Award [2 max] if no discussion is given. food crops. discussion: less than recommended in model. [25] 85. timber). rainforest ecosystem of particular global significance. discussion: only 29 % of population by time of report. (e. Award [3 max] if no figure numbers are given. renewable are biotic and depend on biotic processes. fossil fuels). discussion: no mention in these reports of this being associated with Kibale specifically.(j) evidence: strict reserve has been established – figure 2. evidence: some parishes have signed agreements – figure 8. discussion: revenue sharing provides very little money.

ozone depleting substances already released remain active for long periods. damage to plant tissues.(b) Award [1] for a named example of replenishable natural capital. so a thinning/hole allows more UVB wavelengths through. over Antarctica. possible effects: ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths (270–315 nm) of ultraviolet light from passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. Award up to [5 max] for human actions damaging resource and up to [5 max] for possible effects. excessive use of surface water means that groundwater supplies are not being replenished. increase in tensions/conflict over the limited resource.g.g. which has knock-on effects for their consumers (zooplankton)/for food chains/webs. higher costs of water for industry. pollutants enhance the rate of destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. and underground storage tanks/landfills/septic tanks/mining run-off. further contaminating supply.g. sources of pollution include agricultural products. as less water is available for irrigation and yields decline. 8 max 107 . ozone depletion has lead to “holes” in the ozone layer e. e. there has been a decline in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere of about 4 % every ten years.g. knock-on impacts on agriculture. e. for groundwater: human actions damaging resource (examples need to be related to groundwater not other water resources): human activity is releasing pollutants so water quality is lost. for ozone: human actions damaging resource: human activity releases ozone depleting substances such as CFCs/ halons/NOx. CFCs are found in refrigerants and propellants. possible effects: reduced availability of water resources. can lead to salt water intrusion in coastal areas. ozone/groundwater. e. with knock on effects for economy. excessive abstraction/extraction/groundwater mining means water tables are lowered. this has consequences such as increases in skin cancer/increased mutations. and reduction of plankton populations.

ecosystems are affected by global processes e.(c) description: Award [3 max] the Gaia hypothesis was developed by James Lovelock. atmospheric composition and ocean salinity. sometimes problems need international agreements e. so that future generations can continue to use the resource. and so a more local perspective is sometimes appropriate. traditional farming methods. point source pollution. individual/small-scale community action can be very effective for managing resources sustainably e. 7 max Evaluation needs strengths and weaknesses. and that the earth is a global control system of surface temperature. not just in different countries. so understanding knock-on effects outside of national boundaries helps governments to be more responsible. it compares the Earth to a living organism in which feedback mechanisms maintain equilibrium. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 108 . the initial hypothesis was that the biomass modifies the conditions on the planet to make conditions on the planet more hospitable (full homeostasis).g. global perspective is useful because many problems have global consequences e. recycling.g. hydrological cycle/ atmospheric system.g. CITES for trade across boundaries to ensure populations are big enough to sustain the species. evaluation: Award [5 max] strengths: sustainable management means ensuring resources are not degraded/ natural capital is not used up. often local methods have evolved to be more sustainable/appropriate for the local environment.g. Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed. some environmental problems are local in nature e. understanding that our actions can have an impact on others is good for getting societies to think about impacts on different generations.g. global perspective stresses the interrelationships between systems so knock-on effects are reduced. global warming. human actions can be culturally specific e.g. weaknesses: but ecosystems can exist at many scales.

if carrying capacity is exceeded there will be consequences in terms of demand for resources not being met.86.e. exceeded in human populations due to import of resources from other systems. bush fire). this in turn limits population growth and/or per capita resource consumption. generally however per capita resource consumption increases over time. total resource consumption increases even faster than population. this limit can be. (a) (b) as population increases this tends to increase resource consumption. Award [4 max] if statement is not referred to. however they are often responsible for high mortalities (e. which are necessary to reduce population to a level within the control of density-dependent factors. i. thus. unless per capita resource consumption is reduced. density-independent factors are of particular importance for r-strategists. density-dependent factors operate as negative feedback mechanisms leading to stability. carrying capacity tends to limit the total resource consumption. where a change in density leads to inhibition/reversal of that change. fluctuations can be dramatic. this statement is suggesting that as well as managing resource use. 5 max 4 max 109 . populations either have to stop growing or consume less.g. seasonal flooding. hence when density-dependent factors do change. more energy is needed to supply goods/services to more people/ more land is needed to feed these people. it can also be exceeded in the short term but not sustainably. in order for resource consumption to be sustainable population growth must remain within the limits of the carrying capacity. winter. and is. carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum number of a species/load that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. societies/ governments need to manage the numbers of people in order to support populations indefinitely. density-independent factors are not influenced by changes in population density and so do not lead directly to stability. both factors usually operate on populations. if resources are used more frugally/efficiently then carrying capacity can support a larger population. and may be either internal or external.

g. succession). Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 110 .g. e.(c) a steady-state equilibrium is a common property of most ecosystems. 9 max Award [1] for any point of equal weight and validity about the importance of understanding equilibrium and [1] for any example of an ecosystem used to show how equilibrium has been upset by human activities. grazing/burning arrests the succession of forest. tropical deforestation on a grand scale does not allow regeneration to take place. e.g. Award [5 max] if no examples are mentioned. human activities can be the source of high levels of disturbance and thus ecosystems are pushed beyond a point of no return/ equilibrium is irreversibly changed. e. the climatic climax. coral reefs coping with storm damage/grassland ecosystems coping with bushfires/tropical rainforest coping with loss of big trees due to storms. agroforestry/small-scale shifting cultivation is a method of farming which mimics natural processes so that ecosystems can regenerate/equilibrium can be restored. e. e. human activities can interrupt succession so that the ultimate equilibrium.g. and that while human activity may not directly cause loss of equilibrium. where the nutrient balance becomes upset. some ecosystems undergo long-term changes to their equilibrium while retaining integrity to the system (e.g. it may leave a system more vulnerable to natural disturbance. successful ecological management involves recognizing how much disturbance an ecosystem can cope with. equilibrium of aquatic ecosystems can be upset by the addition of excessive nutrients/through eutrophication. combination of human activities on reefs through overfishing/ coral bleaching/ pollution have weakened the reefs so that they are less able to cope with natural threats like El Niño events.g. e.g. ecosystems have a tendency to return to their original equilibrium following natural disturbance/most ecosystems are able to cope with natural changes to their equilibrium. human activities can be tailored to match and fit in with natural levels of disturbance within ecosystems. is not reached (plagioclimax).

1 1 111 . some resources not continuously available. education. burning releases carbon dioxide/non-renewable. Both correct values required for [1]. standby on electrical equipment/phantom loads. plentiful supply at present/cheaper than burning coal or oil. Award [1] for each pair of correct responses of advantages and/or disadvantages. near sea for wave. Do not credit “cheap” with no qualifier. people are selfish/inertia/tragedy of the commons. Award [1 max] for natural gas/wind. people desire a better lifestyle which is equated with wanting more e. environmental systems increase their order so go against the law for a short time.g. only available when wind blows/not always near population centres. Do not credit answers which just state the second law without relating it to environmental systems. renewable resource/once turbines built it is cheap. 3 max 2 max 2 max 1 max [8] 88. wind. (b) (c) (d) inertia/satisfied with existing system. bigger car/having a fridge.87. (a) Energy source Advantage Disadvantage natural gas.g. (a) (i) (ii) Sustainable yield: rate of increase is natural capital/resource that can be exploited/taken/harvested without depleting the original stock. Credit advantages and disadvantages for an incorrect source to avoid error carried forward. pressure to meet quotas for renewable energy. High: 106 tonnes and low: 106 tonnes (units required). OWTTE. (do not accept “don’t know better”) environmental systems increase their disorder/all energy ends up as heat. Accept other reasonable responses. HEP. country wishes to increase diversity of energy sources. poor design of equipment/buildings e.g. country does not have that resource e. Accept any reasonable advantages or disadvantages.

1 1 Award [1] for diagram which shows contracting population and large numbers of older people. short-term gain is more important than longer-term growth of the industry. Accept other reasonable responses. because more fish are left in the sea to breed and increase stocks/ the trend in low intensity is to have larger catch in year 4 compared with year 4 in high intensity. (a) (b) (c) Crude death rate: number of deaths per thousand individuals in a population per year. e. so less heat/respiratory losses/more efficient fixation of solar energy as does not have to get through water first/ less efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy). oceans are huge/vast areas. Aquatic: most food from higher trophic levels/bigger fish/higher up food chain so much energy has been lost/energy conversions more efficient as fewer warm-blooded animals which use most energy to keep body temperature stable/more efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy). 2 2 max Terrestrial: most food harvested from lower trophic levels/as crops/plants/ herbivores/ cattle etc. if starving will break the law to catch food/hard for law-keepers to monitor catch. miscalculation of how many are available. the share of global population is decreasing because the rate of increase is much higher in LEDCs. 2 1 [10] 89. Do not credit reasons why birth rates are decreasing. international boundaries make legislation difficult. ignorance of how “in danger” a stock is.(iii) (iv) (b) (c)  48  24   100  = 100% difference  24   low intensity.g. Accept other reasonable responses. (d) 1 fish farming/change fishing grounds/eat alternative food sources/ new technologies to ensure immature fish not caught/less wastage/ research into alternative fish species/monitoring population numbers carefully to check stocks/research in GM fish (suitable for aquaculture). 112 .

2 max [7] 90. population size on x axis. 2 (total fertility is) the (average) number of children per woman in her lifetime/her reproductive years. larger footprint because: older people have more leisure time so fly/have more holidays/live in larger houses. (b) it has no economic value/not easy to quantify. need to consider aesthetic or intrinsic value which is subjective. Natural capital: natural resources that can produce goods and services/the natural stock/storage of a resource. (a) Natural income: yield/output that can be used by people without diminishing the capital/ same as sustainable yield. value of resource usually measured in economic terms.F e m a le A g e ra n g e M a le (d) (e) P o p u la tio n Award [1] for labels – male. Accept other reasonable responses. no longer care about saving energy/resources/consume the same as middle-aged adults whereas children consume less. 2 2 max 113 . female. age ranges on y axis. 1 smaller footprint because: older people eat less/go out less/fly less/ travel less. views can be diverse and hard to assess. are more aware of environmental impacts so use less energy.

smaller temperature ranges in 1991–2004. snow cover prevents light reaching plants for part of year. atmospheric particulates obscure the view. temperatures consistently higher in 1991–2004. No mark scheme available 92. total precipitation is more evenly distributed in 1991–2004. total precipitation lower in 1991–2004. precipitation is lowest in months when light levels are highest. (ii) climate change/global warming/natural variation/increased combustion of fossil fuels. precipitation rates are low. photochemical smog obscures the view. 2 max [6] 91. 1 114 . air pollution can cause breathing difficulties/produce bad smell which spoils experience of people at viewpoint. anomalously low precipitation in October 1991–2004. global warming changing vegetation and glaciers melting. (i) 1 2 max warmer in summer/June to September in both periods. (ii) water/light/temperature is limiting. especially in winter months/November to April. it is dark for 4 months of the year. precipitation lower in every month in 1991–2004. by tropospheric ozone damaging forests. infertile soil due to low temperatures/acidity/waterlogging/low nutrient turnover. Accept converse answer in each case but do not credit both. (a) (b) (i) tundra. 3 max Accept any other reasonable suggestion. Accept any other reasonable suggestion. temperature above freezing/warmer earlier in 1991–2004. temperature is low due to low intensity of solar insolation. chimneys/car parks may be built and are visual pollutants. water is frozen for most of year in permafrost.(c) by acid deposition which kills conifers. drier/lower precipitation in the summer/June to August in both periods. Award [2 max] if either precipitation or air temperature are not mentioned.

no predators to manage/control Svalbard reindeer population. smaller populations are more likely to crash. 2 max Do not award marks if arrows are drawn onto the table in the incorrect direction. Accept other valid reasons. whereas negative feedback damps down/ neutralizes/counteracts any deviation away from an equilibrium. low nutrient value of food. Svalbard reindeer: (solar insolation) → small arctic plants → reindeer . Accept any other reasonable suggestion. it has fewer trophic levels/interrelationships are simpler/ chain not web. Do not credit food chain for mainland reindeer if warble flies are missing. Do not award mark for stating wild reindeer food chain is less stable. adaptation to local conditions/no predators so no need for long legs/natural selection. human impact on Svalbard may destabilize that food chain. Mainland reindeer: (solar insolation) → reindeer moss/lichen → wild reindeer (iii) (d) (i) Award [1 max]. OTTWE 2 max w o lf w a rb le fly 2 max 1 115 . Svalbard’s food chain is less stable because. Award [1 max]. positive feedback amplifies/increases change/leads to (exponential) deviation away from an equilibrium.(c) (i) (ii) geographical isolation/no interbreeding with mainland reindeer. habitat covers a smaller land area.

coal dust deposited on snow or ice reduces albedo/reflection of solar energy/increases solar energy absorbed so ice and snow melt. albedo is further reduced. the species and/or genetic diversity of wild plants may be culturally and aesthetically significant (and therefore worth preserving). low running costs/little electricity used. methane gas is released so temperatures increase further. little chance of civil unrest/little human disturbance. some transgenic crop varieties have a “terminator” gene. jobs/tourism revenue. so the genetic diversity they provided for development of new varieties is lost. so cannot produce viable seed for farmers to plant the following season.g. (e) (i) (ii) (f) (i) very cold/permafrost/frozen. higher temperatures melt permafrost. so frozen soil thaws. 4 max 2 max many rare/endangered wild plants are threatened with extinction by human activity/natural hazards. wild plants are often used for developing new drugs/providing genes to give disease resistance/ability to withstand adverse conditions to other species. dust particles washed out of atmosphere by extra precipitation. 1 116 .(ii) Positive feedback: [2 max] methane gas released from mining increases global warming/ greenhouse effect. Do not accept answers which relate to general advantages of having a seed vault or benefits to Svalbard e. maintaining genetic diversity of food crops is vital for breeding new varieties to cope with disease/adverse conditions. 2 max latitude: 76° (accept 75°–77°) – 81° (accept 80°–82°) North/N. few natural hazards. Accept any other valid example. so atmospheric dust/precipitation levels return to normal. ecosystems may become unstable if key species disappear/ diversity is reduced. many older varieties of food crops are no longer grown. as permafrost melts. with no snow cover. Negative feedback: [2 max] dust particles in the atmosphere act as condensation nuclei leading to more precipitation. releasing more methane so temperature increases further.

increasing demand for resources to sustain increased expectations of higher standards of living. access becomes easier as ice thins/areas become ice free for more of the year. which has shrunk in size and been degraded by unsustainable use of water resources. river water has been harvested for irrigation and used at a rate greater than it can be replenished by fresh water. recently discovered new reserves in the area. and minimizes damage to the environment. hence. increasing demand for resources due to population growth. yet the capacity of fresh water stores to replenish themselves is not unlimited. water has become contaminated with pesticide run-off and salt due to evaporation and reduced freshwater supplies. demands on water resources are increasing due to population increase/ increasing demands by agriculture/industry. the two rivers (Syr Darya and Amu Darya) which input water into the Aral Sea had been diverted to irrigate cotton fields upstream in Uzbekistan. Examples may demonstrate sustainable or unsustainable use. Answers must relate to an increasing trend. countries want their own oil and gas supply for strategic reasons. increased demand for oil and gas encourages further exploitation in new areas. improved technology is now available for coping with difficult Arctic weather and subsea conditions. Award [1] for naming an appropriate case study. (a) (b) use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration. this has had knock-on effects on lake species/water supplies for lake communities/fishing industries/local climate. 2 max [25] 93. insufficient water reached the Aral causing it to shrink to a third of its original size.(ii) exploitation of more inaccessible resources becomes economically more viable as reserves diminish/prices rise. therefore water resources need to be managed to ensure demand does not exceed supply. an example where this has not happened is the Aral Sea (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). 2 6 max 117 .

but the bush is also the home of potentially vindictive spirits.g. but the scale and technological power of these systems means that in the past this has led to exploitation of resources at unsustainable rates e.g. Award [1] for stating two societies which demonstrate significant differences. but increasingly it is being argued that ecosystems should be seen as natural capital which can yield an income if exploited sustainably. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 118 .g. 10 max Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to relate the value system to how the resources are used. building materials. wood is not wasted and wooden objects are left to deteriorate once no longer useful. the Dogon operate a mixed farming system with cultivation of millet and tobacco. Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to compare the societies. the Dogon people in West Africa and industrial capitalism of Western Europe. respect is an essential part of the relationship between the Dogon and their environment. the ecosystem (bushland) surrounding their settlement is seen as the source of all the resources (food. fuel and medicine) that they need. just as in the Dogon system.g. for example for fishing catches. the massive deforestation of ancient forests in Europe for fuel and building materials. livestock herding and hunter gathering. in industrial capitalism economic growth (and the consumption patterns that sustain growth) can be idealized/worshipped in place of the spiritual dimension of an ecosystem. subsistence depends on harnessing the power of the bush through work. e. trees are particularly respected.(c) e. to preserve the natural capital. e. Award [5 max] for each society. and so quotas are set. ecosystems are seen as economic resources which can be exploited through work in order to develop economies/ meet needs.

(a) Award [2 max].g. Advantages of banning DDT: [3 max] environmental side-effects of DDT have been avoided by banning its use. DDT is not biodegradable and accumulates in the tissues of living organisms (bioaccumulation) damaging or even eliminating populations.94. pyramid structure of ecosystems means that non-biodegradable toxins can become concentrated in upper levels. 6 max 119 . and since the ban populations of mosquitoes have increased. e. pyramid of biomass represents the standing stock of each trophic level measured in units such as grams of biomass or energy per sq m. Award [2 max]. e. because DDT becomes more concentrated along food chains (bioconcentration) top carnivores tend to be most affected and these may play a very significant role in maintaining balance of whole ecosystem.g. so the ban allows natural balance to be restored.g. it also demonstrates why there is a limit to the number of trophic levels that can be supported. a continent least able to deal with the socio-economic consequences of the disease. (units required) pyramid of numbers represents the number of individuals in each trophic level within a food chain. hunting. incidence of malaria has increased as a result. malaria is a disease to which children are particularly vulnerable and has huge socio-economic implications. 90% of all malaria cases are in Africa. but DDT also kills other insects which may be natural predators of the mosquitoes. and why species at the top of the pyramid may be more vulnerable to e. target insects can develop resistance. (b) 4 max Disadvantages of banning DDT: [3 max] DDT effectively killed malarial mosquitoes.

whereas technocentric might use chemical fertilizers.g. 8 max Award credit for any other answers of equivalent validity. through removal of hedgerows.g. use of GM/Green Revolution crops e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 120 . avoiding depletion of nutrients by rotating crops. reducing loss of nutrients/topsoil due to wind erosion by planting shelter belts. technocentrics might favour high tech solutions such as GM crops whereas ecocentrics might be concerned about the ethical issues of GM. relevance and substance. beans. Contrasting approaches of ecocentric and technocentric farmers: both ecocentric and technocentric farmers might apply fertilizers. improving yields through irrigation. higher yielding varieties of rice. avoiding over-intensive farming by allowing fields fallow/rest periods. reducing loss of nutrients due to soil erosion by terracing fields. Award [6 max] if no contrast is made between ecocentric and technocentric farmers. high-tech irrigation systems. improving nitrogen fixation by planting leguminous crops e. reducing wastage by increasing field size e. ecocentrics often express a lack of faith in large-scale technology so might oppose strategies used by agribusiness e. avoiding over-compaction of soil through use of appropriate/low impact technology.g. reducing losses due to pests/disease with chemical treatments.g. Allocation of marks can be split flexibly for part (c).g. but choice of fertilizer might reflect their values e.(c) Methods for improving productivity of soil: improving fertility of the soil with (organic fertilizers/manure/chemical) fertilizers. ecocentric using manure (to work with natural processes).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.