1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

The pedosphere is the biotic / non-biotic link between
the lithosphere and the biosphere;
there is a two-way movement of water between the
pedosphere and the hydrosphere;
there is an exchange of atmospheric gases with the pedosphere;
atmospheric processes influence the pedosphere
(e.g. through soil erosion);
atmospheric factors will affect soil forming processes
(e.g leaching, weathering);
soil organisms are part of the biosphere but also part of the soil;
biosphere contributes detrital / organic matter to the soil;

5 max

Sandy soils are characterised by large grains and large pore spaces
whereas clay soils are characterised by small grains and small pore spaces;
sand soils are therefore freely drained (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but are subject to water logging);
clay soils have a better nutrient content due to the clay humus complex
whereas sand soils do not;
sand soils tend to have a blocky or crumb structure favouring root
growth whereas clay soils tend to have a platy structure which can
inhibit root growth;
clay soils are traditionally more difficult to work / plow (heavy and sticky
when wet, hard when dry), sandy soils are generally easier to work;
clay soils heat and cool quickly, sandy soils exhibit a slower
thermal response;

5 max

Award [1] for naming systems. e.g. N. America cereal farming
nomadic herding in Tanzania
Commercial measures tent to be large scale;
high technology;
and may be supported by government initiatives;
examples of measures:
addition of fertilizers;
crop rotation;
contour plowing;
plowing technology which leaves roots in soil;
strip cultivation;
tree belts as wind breaks;

1

subsistence measures tend to be small scale;
low technology;
ad hoc;
based on traditional practise;
and may be supported by grass-roots initiatives;
example of measures:
terraces;
application of organic fertilizers (manure);
debris dams;
shifting cultivation;
tree planting;
agroforestry;

7 max
[17]

2.

(a)

(i)

the mass of organic material in organisms or ecosystems,
usually per unit area;

1

dry weight measurements are taken;
these figures are then extrapolated to estimate total biomass;

2

(i)

tropical rainforest;

1

(ii)

ideal growing conditions due to high temperatures (typically 28 °C);
and high rates of precipitation (typically over 2000 mm p.a.);
continuous growing season;
due to geographical location in equatorial area with sun
directly overhead;
for much of the year and energy of sun therefore concentrated
in this zone;

3

biomass is per unit area, productivity is production per unit time;
NPP is the quantity of biomass potentially available to
consumers in an ecosystem;

2

(i)

temperature deciduous woodland;

1

(ii)

deep humus means lots of organic matter and this leads to greater
fertility than acid humus (due to pine needles), therefore
coniferous is less fertile;
this soil has less leaching than the temperate coniferous
– i.e. fewer minerals washed out;
and parent material not as weathered as in tropical rainforest;
therefore likely to be contributing more minerals;

(ii)

(b)

(iii)

(c)

3 max
[13]

2

3.

(a)

(i)

1

X
(ii)

(b)

(i)

(ii)

(c)

(d)

Y

population growth will eventually slow down as food supply
becomes a limiting factor;
population growth exponentially (geometric rate);
and food supply grows arithmetically / population
growth outstrips food supply increase;

1

2 max

as population grows more and more babies are born
and each one is able to have children and so
the rate of growth accelerates;
food supply does not growth as rapidly, this may be due
to a number of factors e.g. limits to soil fertility / availability
of technology / patterns of land ownership;

2

To obtain marks, candidates must refer to a specific named farming
which may be terrestrial or aquatic e.g. shifting cultivation,
South East Asia.
possible improvements could be in:
farming inputs e.g. green revolution;
irrigation;
storage or distribution;
social or organizational changes e.g. in land tenure or
cooperative harvesting;

3 max

introduce and encourage contraception;
setting up family planning clinics;
compulsory sterilization;
advertising campaigns;
making abortion legal;
cutting maternity benefits;
education of women to have greater personal
and economic independence;

2 max

3

(e)

attitudes to contraception e.g. religious objections;
traditional societies and the desire for male offspring;
early marriage ages;
and the desire to appear fertile;
lack of other opportunities for women;
Credit can be given for the use of examples / case
studies to illustrate these points.

3 max

[14]

4.

(a)

6
In s o la tio n
1972000

In s o la tio n
185000

O pen sea

F jo rd
3 4 7 0 P h y to p la n k to n

F a rm e d s h rim p

847

461
K aw ai

S a lm o n
26
4 .3

410

6 .2

572

In u it

4 .1 M a n a g in g s a lm o n

1 2 .5 O th e r h u m a n a c tiv itie s
1 4 M a n a g in g s h rim p fa rm

F is h in g fo r
k a w a i 6 .7

Award [1] for each two correct labels.

(b)

(i)

(ii)

the quantity of organic matter produced or solar energy
fixed, by photosynthesis in green plants per unit area
per unit time;

1

net primary productivity is GPP less the biomass / energy
lost by plants through respiration;

1

4

(iii)

(c)

nutrient and mineral availability;
temperauture;

kaway

2

847 – 572
× 100 = 32.5% ;
847

461 – 410
× 100 = 11.1% ;
461
kaway is more efficient;
salmon

(d)

3 max

in terrestrial systems most food is harvested from relatively
low tropic levels, but in aquatic systems most food is
harvested from higher trophic levels;
energy conversions along the food chain may be more
efficient in aquatic systems;
initial fixing or available solar energy by primary producers
tend to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection
of light by water;

3

(e)

salmon is a source of income as well as a food source;

1

(f)

technology likely to be simpler;
methods likely to be more traditional;
environmental impact will probably be smaller;
more likely to be sustainable in the long term;

3 max
[20]

5.

(a)

(b)

use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration;
and minimizes damage to the environment;
Give credit if concept of replenishable capital is mentioned.

2

Give full credit for either a brief discussion of several human
actions or a full discussion of one. Credit should be given
for use of examples / case studies.
Allow [5] for how resource has been managed unsustainably
and [5] for consequences for ecosystems.

5

soil resources
human actions could include:
overgrazing;
deforestation;
unsustainable irrigation;
land pollution;
acid deposition;
Or a more detailed discussion of one or more of these.

(c)

5 max

consequences could include:
soil degradation;
loss of soil structure;
desertification;
soil erosion;
loss of organic matter and consequences for primary productivity;
effects of acid deposition on nutrient content of soils;
loss of soil organisms;

5 max

water resources
human actions could include abstraction of ground water;
pollution;
eutrophication;
increased demand for water;
wastage of water resources;
Or a detailed discussion of one or more of these.

5 max

consequences could include:
loss of habitat;
role of water in soil formation and consequences for soil formation
if water shortage occurs (e.g. increased rates of salinisation;
increased rates of soil erosion as water table is lowered);
eutrophication consequences on aquatic ecosystem;
impact of pollutants on aquatic fauna (e.g. mutations, progressive,
concentration of pollutants along the food chain);
impact of pollutants on flora e.g. impact of acid rain on coniferous forests;

5 max

Soil resources
suggest possible soil conservation methods:
soil conditioners;
wind reduction techniques;
cultivation techniques;
efforts to stop plowing marginal lands;
crop rotation;
Credit should be given if reference is made to
specific farming systems.

5 max

6

the ecological footprint of an EMDC is likely to be larger then their land area.g. increased levels of technological development (associated with MEDCs for example) tend to be associated with larger ecological footprints. ecological footprint – the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living / the measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population. with respect to eutrophication. metering water. improvements in transports have enabled humans to import resources from outside their immediate environment increasing their local carrying capacity. Credit should be given if reference is made to specific case studies. in the areas of recycling and remanufacturing. and the assimilation of all wastes.OR Water resources suggest more sustainable practices. recycling. technological innovations. 4 technology development give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. pollution monitoring or control. 5 max [20] 6.g. with alternative fuel resources). (a) (b) carrying capacity – the maximum number of people that can be sustainably supported by a given environment.g. e. can increase carrying capacity. e. technological developments have enabled humans to substitute one resource for another if that resource becomes limiting (e. thus many economists argue that human carrying capacity can be expanded continuously without necessarily increasing the impact (load) on the environment. whereas the footprint of an ELDC is likely to be smaller than their land area. making it hard to calculate the carrying capacity for human populations. 5 max 7 . reducing water use. Credit should be given for the use of specific examples to support these statements.

(c) Clearly this question can be answered in a variety of ways. 1 max 8 . Credit should be given for answers which are balanced i. e. reducing total population size would therefore be a solution of sorts. these countries may not have the largest populations. Credit should be given if specific case studies are used to illustrate these points. however. e. and promotes stability.g. some resources are finite and therefore no amount of population control will make a difference ultimately to the availability of that resource. without negative feedback no ecosystem could be self-sustaining. 1 most ecosystems contain inbuilt checks and balances. (a) (i) (ii) (b) feedback that tends to damp down/neutralize/counteract any deviation from an equilibrium. a vicious cycle exists where population control will not be effective unless poverty and inequitable resource use is addresses first. in the sense that many resource management problems are that there are insufficient resources for the available population. resource management problems are often to do with distribution of resources (e.g. 1 feedback that amplifies/increases change (it leads to exponential deviation away from equilibrium). population pressure can be lead to resources being misused. soil being farmed too intensively / forests being cut too rapidly. 8 max [20] 7. the largest use of resources if found in the most economically developed countries of the world. candidate cannot gain full marks if only one side is argued.g. water resources are not distributed evenly across the globe) and therefore more equitable distribution is arguably what is required rather than population control. or the fastest population growth rates. all use of oil is ultimately unsustainable no matter what size the population is. without internal balance an ecosystem would spiral out of control. excessive population growth arguably occurs as a result of poverty (associated with inadequate resources).e.

g. more resources must be put into sustaining the population rather than development.(c) sm oke ste a m / w a te r v a p o u r / w a te r coal c o ld w a te r Three correct [2]. national debt.  total biomass   total biomass  at time t  1   at time t  energy energy     (b) SY =  (c) A range of answers may be acceptable e. war. countries’ resources are diverted to armies rather than invested in education/agriculture/development projects. whilst minimizing damage to the environment. political unrest. one or two correct [1]. population expansion. energy / e le c tr ic ity w a rm w a te r 2 max [5] 8. [1] for both factors and [1] each for brief description of each factor. culture may not have a philosophy of sustainability (consumerist culture of west or nomadic culture of Africa). paying off heavy foreign debts means less money left over for inward investment. (d) (i) 2 1 3 max renewable natural capital is natural resources that have a 9 . (a) use of a resource at a rate which allows for natural regeneration. cultural inertia. short-term thinking predominates but sustainable development is a long-term goal.

as algal blooms are decomposed by bacteria. –1 add more fertilizer. –1 = –6 kg ha (units needed). 2 [10] 9.sustainable yield/harvest  their natural productivity. consumed by animals (as a constituent of plant material) and removed by the animal from the field. plant legumes {e. 2 (ii) Renewable/replenishable Non-renewable food crops oil timber gas wind coal solar natural ore soil groundwater Mark vertically. 2 ryegrass: inputs – outputs = 298 – 304. [1] for each column. e. (i) (ii) The answer should clearly describe the process of eutrophication. 2 (ii) ryegrass: produces a net loss of nitrogen from the soil. 10 . 1 2 max 3 max 3 changing agricultural practice. contour plowing.g. water quality decreases. whereas non-renewable natural capital is natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment. plant crops in rotation. (a) (b) (c) (d) (i) maize: inputs – outputs = 298 – 294. respiration leads to diminishing oxygen levels. enhanced levels of N and P leads to increase in algal growth/algal blooms. so less oxygen for other organisms.g. clover). –1 = 4 kg ha (units needed). plant wheat/maize/other crops. 1 (i) 30 × 70 = 2100 kg ha . leached away. (ii) atmosphere: lost as nitrogen gas from the soil surface and plants. different crops.

). 3 max loam soils contain a good balance of sand. and good drainage. slow release). organism can be used as an indicator. treating drainage water (removing N and P). should inform decision making. rat tailed maggot.(e) timing fertilizer application to minimise impact. stonefly larvae. peppered moth. harvest (remove) algae. often all impacts are not identified. Asellus. blood worm. etc. silt and clay particles. information and suggestions in EIA are often not acted upon. (a) (b) named organism (e.g. 4 max 7 max 11 . Gammarus.. reference to the Trent biotic index or similar. should contain non-technical summary. by abundance of organism (either high or lower levels than expected)/ by colour of moths’ wings etc. there should be an assessment of impacts during and after development. water flea. often difficult to put together a complete baseline study due to lack of data. Give credit for references to actual EIA. clean up and re-oxygenate water course. baseline study . therefore have airspaces for root penetration. there should be monitoring of environmental conditions during and after development. adopting different fertilizer (synthetic. there should be an understanding of the development in terms of impact.important to know what the physical and biological environment is like. and the clay humus complex for mineral retention. 3 max [20] 10. polluted and unpolluted sites should be compared. and water retention. oxygen enrich water course.

meteorite strikes. loss would lead to imbalance in food pyramid. legislative protection. the most notable example being the extinctions caused by glaciation.g. without research and monitoring it is difficult to argue objectively or legally that an environment is under threat.. research provides data as an educational tool making society aware of what is happening to the environment. gradual environmental change leading to gradual species extinction yet apparent in a rock record (that provides a condensed view of time). climate induced change is the most likely cause. ecological role is as top carnivore. e.g. controlled culling/hunting of certain crocodile species now being considered. pollution. crocodile (now removed from endangered list). (b) 4 max e. tiger (endangered). destroyed because regarded as a nuisance/pest. rights of species). monitoring enables changes as a result of e. loss would lead to an increase in herbivorous mammals. monitoring can be used to “police” the system and ensure non-infringement of standards.g. meat and trophies. ban on hunting. long-term change model. and due to threat to humans and livestock. was endangered due to excessive hunting for skins. (a) catastrophic extinction events. ethical issues surrounding loss (rights of future generations. 7 max 12 . caused by definitive environmental catastrophes e. no longer endangered because of education (no longer seen as “evil”).g. earthquakes etc. volcanic eruptions. to be detected. medicine. and due to habitat degradation (loss of water quality). endangered because of habitat (forest) loss due to agriculture. trophies. research provides an understanding of complex interrelationships in ecosystems and enables them to be managed more sustainably. past extinctions occurred suddenly over relatively short time periods. animals/plants died from both the initial event and the short-term environmental turmoil that followed. human guilt of allowing this to happen. hunting for hides. 6 Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 11.(c) research provides baseline data. loss of food source as traditional food source is being used by humans. ecological role is as top carnivore.

small genetic pool. e. arguments against zoos ethical arguments against keeping animals in captivity for profit. government policies. enable “how much” not “why” questions to be answered. gender imbalances can be seen. education of public through visits may make them more likely to support conservation campaigns. allow estimate of population numbers. 6 max 13 . conserving species is just used as an excuse.g. proportions of fertile population can be seen. genetic monitoring can take place. captive animals unable to adapt to life back in the wild. poor conditions or treatment in zoos leading to physiological and psychological problems with the animals. all of these factors will affect population growth. holding species while habitats are restored. wide base indicates a high birth rate and expanding population. helping management outside zoos. (a) age-sex pyramids are useful because they allow patterns to be clearly seen. however. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 12. number of offspring surviving to adulthood is higher so species numbers increase more effectively. studying species so understanding improves.(c) arguments for zoos individual organisms are protected in a controlled environment. the pyramids do not give specific information about socio-economic conditions. 6 max personal justification (needs to be more than just arguments for or against). captive breeding enables higher rates of reproductive success. use of contraception. benefit of artificial insemination.

ethically it is wrong to overpopulate the planet (what right have we to disproportionately consume resources?). curbing population growth will produce a demographic population that is top-heavy (old people predominate) and dependent. greater environmental pressure on the planet is inevitable. populations at a lower economic level have footprints that are easier to define (fewer resources used from outside their immediate area). therefore environment will be able to support a larger population. it is the inverse of carrying capacity. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and to assimilate all its wastes. hunter-gatherer in Tanzania have a smaller footprint than urban population of New York. technological advancement produces a larger footprint as more resources are needed and more waste is produced. [3 max] for discussions.g. [2 max] for definition. as technology advances resources are used more efficiently. (c) 5 max arguments for population control population growth is not sustainable even with an expanding resource base. smaller family size allows for greater/higher standard of living measured in capital resources.(b) the area of land (and water) required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. population growth is an indicator of an expanding resource base. larger families are vital in a society where family labour is essential to domestic and economic survival. Give credit for examples e. forced population control doesn’t always work. 6 max Give credit for use of examples. population control by society/government is an infringement on basic human freedom. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14 . ecological footprints tend to increase in size with socio-economic development. arguments against population control goes against tradition and culture.

monitoring water quality in remote rural areas can be very difficult. technological factors – if the technology is available. this has had a knock-on effect on local communities as water supplies were decimated. LEDCs 15. high % of protein from animals.whether or not a country can pay for sanitation and water purification. 6 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14. often Governments will be reluctant to impose limits if multinational companies will then be deterred from locating there.g. (a) (i) (ii) MEDCs 44. seasonality will vary which could be significant in water supply. 5 max economic factors will be central . MEDCs: eat more calories/energy intake higher than they need. and will cause changes in precipitation (amounts and distribution). with increased melting of glacial ice and ice caps. MEDCs: eat a lot of protein. and local farming and fishing industries collapsed. LEDCs: do not eat enough calories/energy intake too low. LEDCs: not enough protein. protein mainly non-meat. environment later. Former Soviet Union. cultural inertia . (a) (b) (c) e. 6 max global warming will lead to changes in global water budget. the political structure might favour short-term profits rather than long-term environmental protection. high rates of evaporation together with high applications of chemical fertilizers led to salinization. the political priority might be development first.13. 2 3 max 15 . this has not happened in the Aral Sea which has been shrinking in size due to excessive removal of water from feeder rivers. water was taken and used to irrigate cotton fields by the Soviet government.reluctance to change the way in which resources have always been used. and expanding desert zones with water shortage.4 % (accept 44 %). sustainable use of water resources means using them at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment.9 % (accept 16 %). evaporation rates will change. increased flood risks in certain areas. and pollution of remaining water resources. the Aral Sea.

waste can be burned directly to generate energy e.g. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (c) cheapest = gas. social expectations in MEDCs that meat will be an integral part of the diet. legumes and fertilizers are additional inputs in mixed farming. meat. most expensive = wind offshore. no beef or pork) less likely to be an issue in MEDCs.(iii) (b) greater wealth in MEDCs enables people to buy enough food. e. 1 gas is cheap because it is relatively plentiful. and indirectly through the nitrogen fixing action of leguminous crops. better technology. religious restrictions (e. (i) the biomass in Figure 3 is all the living material in the ecosystem.g. it can be burned directly without the need for refining. soil fertility for farming may be better in MEDCs so yields higher. easily disrupted by rough seas. many families in LEDCs are subsistence farmers. burning straw. and may use animals for milk but not meat. can interrupt shipping lines. technology is already in place to access the gas and burn it in existing gas fired power stations. input dissolved in rain is not shown for mixed farming. (iii) additional nutrients are added directly to the soil through fertilizers. 3 max 1 3 max 2 [14] 15. 1 max wind offshore technology is still at the experimental stage. 2 (i) 1 likely to be much higher. Both needed for [1].g. price subsidised by governments to enable fossil fuels to compete with renewables. litter store is larger in the woodland. (ii) biomass store is larger in the woodland. better distribution systems in MEDCs so people have access to fresh food. Accept lower if justification given in (ii) is appropriate e. new reserves discovered. 1 max organic waste decomposes and gives off methane gas which can be burned. especially more expensive food. large output in mixed farming as harvested crops/livestock. 16 .g.

dams may be multipurpose e. turbines can be switched on whenever energy is needed. as more and more land is used for settlement and industry. [2 max] for advantages and [2 max] for disadvantages. relatively cheap to run (once initial construction completed). for leisure. dams may restrict flows of sediment affecting ecosystems or farming downstream. easiest/most accessible resources will already have been mined. increased wealth means people are consuming more (sometimes more than they need). cost of building dams may be high leading to huge debts. leaving resources most difficult to access which are more costly to reach. environmental taxes to compensate for global warming will make fossil fuels more expensive. the smaller the ecological footprint of a population. irrigation or fishing. farmland and/or displacement of people. advantages: HEP does not involve release of pollutants. economics of food production systems mean that food production is a business and subsidies may guarantee prices no matter how much is produced. because in calculating ecological footprint amount of land required for absorbing waste carbon dioxide from fossil fuels is included. may disrupt fish migratory paths. will not run out). increasing need to intensify production on existing farm land. desire for food security in turbulent political times. disadvantages: vast areas may be flooded involving loss of habitats. in LEDCs food production used as a way to generate foreign currency.(ii) (d) as stocks become depleted. 4 max 17 .e. renewable source (i. scarcity of resources will push costs up. 4 max 2 [14] 16. (e) 2 max the more renewable energy resources that are used. dams silt up. (a) increase in population growth as death rates lowered due to better medical care. may lead to increased erosion rates downstream.g.

Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies.g. encouraging polyculture to reduce vulnerability to disease. biological pest control rather than chemical control. depend on the problems chosen. (a) technocentrist because they tend to argue that economic development should precede environmental protection. top soil is more easily removed by the agents of erosion (wind or water). and argue that society can find solutions for environmental problems through technology which comes when the economy is strong. specific strategies to reduce soil erosion e. so soil structure is lost. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies. leads to lower yields and a vicious cycle as remaining soil may be even more intensively farmed by farmers to compensate.g. controlling the amount of fertilizers that are applied to ensure excess is not washed into water bodies. covering a variety of strategies or more specific.g.(b) Answer will. this occurred during the 1930s in the US due to intensive farming on the prairies. manure) rather than chemical fertilizers. leading to the dust bowl as vast quantities of soil were blown away. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 17. organic material is gone and the fertility of the soil is reduced. addressing strategies related to a particular problem. of course. a general answer: use of natural fertilizers (e. e. agro-forestry to reduce soil erosion. (c) 8 max Answers may be general. keeping stores of genetic material to ensure species diversity is not lost. even more erosion likely if wind breaks (hedgerows and walls) are removed. terracing. soil erosion: use of heavy machinery leads to compaction of soil. would point to “success” stories like Canada and Scandinavia who have good environmental records and are economically developed.g. once top soil is lost. [4] for each problem. e. 2 max 18 . organic farming methods applied and marketed effectively to consumers to compensate for higher production costs.

new power stations or investment in renewable technologies such as solar. often LEDCs rely on weak pollution laws to attract multinationals to locate there.g. so if they set environmental controls they will lose jobs and income vital for development. 10 max 19 . loss of species diversity once gone its gone. as richer countries didn’t when they were going through their industrial revolutions.g. surely we can and should learn from the mistakes made by richer countries?. often the most sensible users of the environment are people who are considered “undeveloped economically”. people in poverty will often be forced to act with short-term perspective e. Scandinavia.g.g. people in poverty are often more intimately dependent on their environment – vital to protect it to help them. environmental damage will have a knock-on effect on human societies that cannot wait until everyone has developed before we address it e. rights to emit CO2 for example can be bought and sold (richer countries can afford to buy the right to emit more CO 2) which has implications for industrial development. unsustainable use of forests in order to survive.g.g. (very anthropocentric view) what about the rights of other living species to be unmolested?. it is not fair to expect LEDCs to protect the environment.(b) Arguments in favour of the statement: costly to change technology to more environmentally sustainable forms e. often countries with best record of environmental protection are the most developed economically e. unsustainable use of the environment will only bring short-term economic growth not long-term economic growth. US. environment is the source of our resources for development so it is vital that the two go hand in hand – sustainable development. indigenous tribes in Amazonia/street kids recycling waste. UK. e. Arguments against: some of the most economically developed countries have huge ecological footprints and are very wasteful e. Japan.

high in species diversity because they are ancient ecosystems – diversity has had a chance to build up over millions of years. role of NGOs and pressure groups in monitoring.(c) Responses will depend on the choice of environmental issue but for full marks candidates should be able to name specific groups e. 20 . efficient nutrient recycling. “slip. role of scientists e. issue: depletion of stratospheric ozone UNEP’s involvement in forging specific international agreements. at the Antarctic stations in studying the ozone hole. competitive ecosystem results in many specialised niches and high diversity. so wide diversity of plants which support rest of the food chain. slop.g. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 18. e. 4 max Give credit if specific value for rainforest diversity is quoted.g. actual NGOs and international bodies rather than simply identify broad groups such as “local people” and “charities”. even during ice ages pockets of forest remained.g. preserving diversity.g. ideal growing conditions – hot and wet all year round. (a) tropical rainforests contain a large proportion of the world’s species. raising awareness and lobbying for solutions. local campaigns to encourage sunscreen use e. slap” educational campaign in Australia. discussion of steps taken by national governments to comply with international agreements.

nuts. e. [7] for degradation by human activities. and can lead to coral bleaching.g. (The measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and assimilation of all wastes. make water cloudy reducing productivity. Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland. once species are lost they are gone forever. global warming increases sea temperatures leading to coral bleaching. inadvertent damage from anchors and pollution from boats.). which has knock-on effects on the fish species which depend on the reef for food. ice cream flavours. biodiversity is also a feature of the ecosystem which leads to environmental stability.g. overfishing can disrupt the balance of species in the food chain. coral very fragile and easily damaged by divers’ fins or touching coral. [1] for naming case study. resins. protection and nurseries for young. for AIDS perhaps. fruits. and now recognised by UNEP too.g. and disrupting the interdependence of coral ecosystem with seagrass beds and mangrove ecosystems. runoff of fertilizers from sugar plantations on the coast. (a) (i) the area of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. sewage and pollution from coastal settlements (such as Cairns) can lead to excessive nutrients and algal blooms.(b) Specific named area must be included or candidates cannot gain full marks. and source of possible new medicines as yet undiscovered e. 1 21 . Australia. (c) 8 max biodiversity is an economic resource – a source of new food products e. or breaking bits off for souvenirs. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 19. gums and rubber. ethical right or value of different species to exist unmolested (deep ecology). all of these make coral more vulnerable to natural threats such as disease/crown of thorns starfish/increased sea temperatures due to El Niño. spiritual value of biodiversity recognised by many indigenous tribes.g. resource for future generations. or industrial products e. increased sedimentation due to deforestation of mangroves to make space for tourist developments. human activities such as tourism.

Canada has a greater car culture. education/legislation/rising living standards/economic incentives.6%. Accept other reasonable answers. Canada – climate difference – more energy required for heating. Award [1] for any two of the following. 1 1 22 . education/better diet/improved health care/political stability/disease control. Accept other reasonable answers. 1 (c) (i) (ii) Award [1] for any two of the following.(ii) (iii) (b) (i) 1. 1 (ii) Diagram should demonstrate a falling birth rate and a larger proportion of adults and aged persons. Canada has higher consumer spending per capita. 1 2 max Diagram should demonstrate high birth rate and high adult death rate.4 Canada has a larger consumer driven economy.2 × 100 = 42.1  1. 5.

non-renewable: natural resources which cannot be replenished within a time scale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment.g. resource value is dynamic/changes over time. flint used to be an important resource but now its redundant/ uranium only becomes a resource with the advent of the nuclear age. culturally) his resource base changes. as man advances (technologically. so greater surface area needed to produce the same amount of food.g. e. groundwater/ozone layer. Accept any other reasonable answers. fossil fuels/minerals. resources become more valuable as new technologies need them. 3 [11] 20. (b) (c) (d) use of (global) resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment/OWTTE. replenishable: non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the sun for their replenishment.g.(iii) LEDCs tend to have a diet based on plant products/plants with little meat (12 % approximately) whereas MEDCs tend to have a greater amount of animal protein in their diet (30 % approximately). food crops/timber in the long term/groundwater (over hundreds of years). (a) renewable: natural resources that have a sustainable yield or harvest equal to or less than their natural productivity. countries that have a high animal protein content in their diets potentially have a larger ecological footprint/OWTTE. 1 (iii) the population will ultimately crash. year 6: 24500. e. 1 (ii) year 5.g. Both needed for [1]. e. 1 23 . (i) 3 1 3 max year 2: 125. it is less efficient to eat animal protein than plant material. e. An example is required in each case in order to score the mark.

(iv) over population leading to unrealistic demands for limited resources. use of resource beyond sustainable limits due to lack of knowledge of resource’s sustainable level. 2 1. Accept other reasonable answers. 2 3 [11] 22. globally. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) energy is neither created nor destroyed/energy is conserved/OWTTE. evaporation. greater use of water for irrigation. award [2]. (iii) 1960 = 2 × 10 km yr 2000 = 4 × 10 km yr . 2 (ii) too simplistic/no values/no indication of time/two dimensional. that results in depletion of the oxygen content of the water/OWTTE. 2 max [12] 21. 1 1000 kJ – 100 kJ (10%) = 900 kJ. 2 Correct answer on its own. (particularly with respect to nitrates and phosphates). increase in water use by developing countries. 42 × 100 = 100%.). etc. precipitation. (iv) 3 3 –1 3 3 1 –1 increasing global population requiring more water. 2 24 . Four correct [2]. Accept other reasonable answers. three or two correct [1]. transpiration/evapotranspiration. output = 900 kJ – 135kJ (15%) = 765kJ. 2. industry expanding and requiring more clean water (cooling processes. 4. financial motives (greed) – exploitation of resources beyond sustainable limits for short-term financial gain (cod fishing). run-off/infiltration. (a) (i) the natural or artificial enrichment of a body of water. 3.

implement standards/control re run-off from agricultural land. loss of diversity. 9935402 death of aerobic organisms.8/2. change crop varieties e. composting. N = (N – 1) = 5235 × 5234 = 27399990. 27399990 D= = 2. switch to organic farming. Accept other reasonable answers. developing economies so need to increase productivity – cash crops. to increase productivity and so be better placed to compete in a world market. use other methods of enhancing crop production e. green tax on fertilizer making it more expensive.g. shorter food chains. loss of macrophytes. to increase productivity and so provide more food for increasing populations.g. Accept other reasonable answers. organic compost.(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) do not allow agricultural waste (including fertilizers) to run into water courses/legislate against the use of fertilizer/ adopt less fertilizer intensive agricultural practices/install fertilizer (waste) traps in farm drainage networks.76. Accept other reasonable answers. ∑n(n – 1) = 552 + 20 + 30 + 2248500 + 1438800 + 62475000 = 9935402. Accept other reasonable answers. use a variety with lower phosphate requirements. removable of algal mats/oxygen pumping/removal of contaminated sediments/flush systems with oxygenated water/chemically denature fertilizer. 1 max 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 2 max 1 25 .

Two correct gases needed for [1]. water resources will change. no market for end product. which will drive economic. Particular reference should be made to the role of carbon dioxide. society: national resources base will change. (b) 4 max Answer should address biomes. 7 max 26 . movement of biomes up slope (altitude shift). CH4. gases include CO2. water resources will change and limit/expand crop production. wheat belt in North America may move north. maintains an average Earth temperature of about 30°C. crop types may change. difficult to sort organic waste from other waste at source or further into process. biomes: north/south shift in biomes relative to the equator (latitude shift). greenhouse gases transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation. cultivation patterns will change.(ii) difficult to manage infrastructure to collect organic waste. Accept other reasonable answers. O3. All of the above should be supported by case study evidence or examples. e. N2O. agriculture: crop zones move north/south from equator. Accept any other reasonable answers. changing global weather patterns will influence rain patterns and alter crop production dynamics. creates a “thermal blanket”. sea level rise may cause economic and social stress due to loss of land and resources (including migration). (a) Answer should demonstrate an understanding of atmospheric insulation and how this is achieved within the atmosphere. outgoing long wave radiation trapped/reflected by greenhouse gases. social and cultural change. H2O and CFCs. which is transparent to incoming radiation and absorbs out going radiation. 2 max [16] 23. global agriculture and human society. cost may be prohibitive.g. apathy and inertia of public. cultural and social reluctance.

positive feedback – loss of cover leads to leaching of nutrients. Award [2 max] for indirect consequences: contamination of adjacent environments (particularly aquatic environments). windbreaks and strategic shelter belts. long-term data (10 000 years) show climate fluctuation cycles not overall rise. Accept other reasonable answers. the development of new devices. 7 max 3 max 27 .(c) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. Award [1] for each of the following. present trend based on data collected since industrial revolution.g.g. e. (b) (i) technology and scientific techniques used to overcome soil degradation problems thus conserving soil. over irrigation leading to salinization. soil degradation may also include loss of soil volume through erosion. 6 max Accept any other reasonable answers. e. not all elements are known or understood. the removal of soil material at a rate greater than it can be replenished. loss of vegetation leading to erosion. systems models are not always accurate. modern plowing technology and practise. landscape instability through soil erosion. some models predict future rise others argue for future cooling. data series too short for confident predictions. Award [2 max] for direct consequences: loss of soil depth leads to loss of productivity/loss of plant stability/loss of slope stability/loss of available nutrients/ reduction in water retention potential. leading to loss of cover. (a) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. e. genetically modified grain. contour plowing. loss of fertility due to loss of nutrients caused by poor management. the use of new crop strains.g. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 24. model is less complex than reality.

labour input. application of organic fertilizers/crop rotations/shelter belts/farming on a smaller scale/non-industrial farming. e. adopt solutions that are holistic and environmentally friendly. Award [2 max] for resource inputs.g. 6 max 28 . The following points could be considered: consideration of variation in system productivity. reluctant to adopt new technology. (a) The system should be both terrestrial or both aquatic.(ii) ecocentric approach conservative. Examples could compare salmon fishing in Norway with rice fish farming in Thailand. No credit should be given for naming the food production system.g. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 25. technology may include machinery and organic technology e. variation in water resource use. reference to net and gross production. The following points could be considered: comparison of the variation in technology and the implication for the system. 3 max Accept other reasonable answers. No credit should be given for naming the farming system. intensive beef farming in North America and Masai herding in Kenya. if food production system is not named award [5 max]. Any other reasonable answers. Award [2 max] for resource outputs. However. GM crops. However. The following points could be considered: comparison of contrasting fertilizer use. energy input. if farming system is not named award [5 max]. reluctance to use heavy machinery due to soil compaction and energy issues. the use of draft animals versus agricultural machinery. Award [2 max] for technology.

use of GM crops. change in productivity due to environmental degradation will further stress systems. potentially introduces non-natural genetic variation. rice fish farming: impacts on local biodiversity – both plants and animals.0 – 35. 4 max 2 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 26.2) × 4 = 15. the addition of steroids and other chemical waste to the adjacent coastal waters. salmon fishing in Norway: organic debris contamination of coastal waters from waste food and excreta. 5 max Answers must refer to both systems for full marks. food resources needs: needs will change over the next 100 years as the global human population continues to increase. The nature of the systems chosen will dictate the content of the answer. (i) 2 max NPP = (39. loss of diversity.(b) Answers should clearly demonstrate the direct and indirect impact of the two farming systems on their immediate environment. agricultural intensification. achievement of food resource change: adoption of new crop varieties. repeat previous step until similar mass/weight is obtained on two subsequent trials. accidental escape and the contamination of local gene pools. (c) (i) Award [2 max] for any of the following. more land required for food production. introduces alien species. dry sample in an oven. and weigh again. (ii) environmental stress. 29 . (a) (b) weigh the sample in a previously weighed container. Award [2 max] for any of the following. impacts directly on natural resources/food within the system. as countries develop further their demand for a greater variety of food products (at a greater level) will expand. increased productivity driven by new technology and farming initiatives.2. dietary animal protein will increase/food fashion may change. changes nutrients budget. Accept other reasonable answers.

4 g m yr + 436.2 – 33.2 × 52 = 790. 1 2 max [12] 30 . or –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 792. cattle should be raised on land that is not suitable for crops.2 –2 –1 NPP = × 365 = 792. or 15. supplying more of our energetic needs from vegetables sources is more efficient.f. –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 790.4 g m yr –2 –1 respiration = 8. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) –2 –1 NPP = 15.4.6 g m yr .26 is not acceptable because of incorrect s.6 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr . Allow ECF. temperature changes may inhibit/accelerate growth.4 –2 –1 respiration ×365 = 438 g m yr . eating animals raised on grain is inefficient.respiration = (35. (79. –2 2 1 max 2 2 max –1 0.4 × 52 = 436. 7 Both needed for [1].6 g m yr + 438 g m yr = 1230. Accept other reasonable answers. Answer must be rounded to the nearest 100 g for full marks.8 g m yr = 1227. availability of water may be seasonal.2 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr . insolation may vary seasonally.1) × 4 = 8. Allow ECF from (b)(i).1 × 790 = 79 g m yr . Accept other reasonable answers. GPP = NPP + R.) eating lower on the food chain makes it possible to feed more people on the same amount of land. 7  .8 g m yr .

provide habitat for other organisms. through symbiotic bacteria. producers are significant in fixing nitrogen. –2 high species number per unit area (South America 0. [2] for three appropriate species or [1] for two appropriate species. high number of endemic species. (d) long-term stability leading to speciation/complexity. one of the main contributors to organic matter in soil.e.0027 species km in temperate forests in North America). Accept other reasonable statements that show ecological knowledge. Chilean matorral p ro d u c e r A c a c ia c a v e n s C h ile a n th o rn tre e 3 max p rim a ry c o n s u m e r O c to d o n d e g u ro d en t / se co n d a ry co n su m e r F e lis g u ig n a / C h ile a n w ild c a t Award [1] for appropriately labelled trophic levels. 2 max e. snowshoe hare and arctic fox. limiting factors low and so high productivity leading to high diversity. [1] for two matter flows and [1] for two energy flows.g. (a) H eat C O H eat L ig h t H 2O O 2 2 T is s u e to o th e r tr o p h ic le v e ls TREE L itte r to s o il N u trie n ts 3 max W a te r Award [1] for tree in box.27. unless there is some identifying feature i..125 species km –2 versus 0. fox etc. (b) (c) producers convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis. 3 max 31 . Do not accept rabbit.

(±2 days) 1 (i) 15 days. (±1) E. (a) (b) (c) (d) interval between 1st and 2nd peak is about 90 days and interval between 2nd and 3rd peak is approximately 75 days. (± 50) Both needed for [1]. 1 max 32 . availability of food facilitates reproduction of prey. are vital in nitrogen cycle. Award [2 max] for the following. acid rain can damage foliage directly thus reducing photosynthesis. form basis of decomposer food chain (which may be energetically more important in some ecosystems than grazing food chains).5 80 (± 4 days)/15 January + 80 days ≈ 20 April (± 5 days) 2 2 T. (±3 days) 1 (ii) 10 December. 3 max [16] 28. (±5 days) 1 (ii) the predator population takes some days to take advantage of the increase in prey. through incomplete breakdown of organic material contribute to build up of humus and improve nutrient retention capacity in soil. increase in solubility of nutrients facilitates leaching with consequent loss of productivity. occidentalis: 7. increases susceptibility of trees to stresses such as disease/ temperature/insects/fungal infection. release nutrients for reabsorption by producers. predator cannot increase in number without access to food and so must wait for increase in prey. as chemosynthetic autotrophs may form basis of food chain. sexmaculatus: 1550. 90  75 = 82. 2 max primary productivity would decrease. 1 (i) 25 to 30 September.(e) (f) decomposers break down tissue.

3 g m .9 × 100 = 89. (a) (i) (ii) (b) –2 temperate forest: 12.8%. 3 max melting of polar ice caps causes lowering of planetary albedo thus increasing amount of solar energy at Earth’s surface. elimination of density-dependent limiting factors. tools and technology.2 + 28. leading to increase in temperature. 49. the periodic nature of the population curves indicates a feedback controlled interaction. 2 max (ii) (f) [14] 29. importation of food or resources from other areas to overcome shortages. increased evaporation leading to increased precipitation at poles triggering net cooling.4 %. modern medicine decreasing effect of disease. increased efficiency in utilization of resources. –2 tropical forest: 52.(e) (i) the increase in prey leads to a corresponding increase in predator which corrects the trend towards increase in prey. Award [0] if temperate forest is stated without supporting calculations.4 + 18.3 tropical forest: × 100 = 40.3 × 100 = 6.1 112 tropical forest: × 100 = 57.6 + 41. Both needed for [1].1 85.0/122 g m .0%.2 1 temperate forest: 730.2 = 122. 2 max elimination of predators/competitors. melting of tundra through warming causes release of methane causing more warming. 1 temperate forest: 2 33 . the decrease in prey leads to a corresponding decrease in predator which corrects the trend towards decrease in prey.2 temperate forests have a larger percentage of nitrogen stored in soil.0 %. our ability to colonize almost any habitat.5 + 18. 211. 821. 211.4 = 49. 821.

(c)

(d)

high temperatures and year-round availability of water in tropical
forests allow for continuous breakdown of nitrogen containing
compounds;
resulting in very rapid turn around and reabsorption;
presence of mycorrhizae in tropical rainforest tree roots increases
rate of organic matter breakdown;
leading to rapid reabsorption of nitrogen, so very little found in soil;
in temperate forests breakdown slows down significantly during
winter months, causing nitrogen build up in soil;

2 max

temperate forest: 1. surface litter
2. biomass
3. soil
tropical forest:

1. surface litter
2. soil
3. biomass
Both lists needed for [1].
(e)

(f)

tropical rainforest would suffer more from clear-cutting;
a larger proportion of nitrogen is stored in living tissue which
would be lost through clear-cutting;
climatic conditions in tropical rainforests would wash away
soil quicker/leach the soil of nutrients;
(temperate forests) because:
tropical forests have some of the highest rates of primary productivity
but have relatively poor soils;
temperate forests have lower primary productivity rates but far
more fertile soils;
climatic factors are not limiting in TRF but nutrients (nitrogen)
may be;
cleared land in tropics is exposed to washing away of thin soil
and leaching of nutrients;
temperate forests have higher nitrogen content in the soil;
temperate forests store nitrogen as a result of incomplete
breakdown of organic matter resulting in availability of nitrogen
for crops;
Do not credit final point if already given in (c). For “temperate
forest” on it’s own award [0].

1

2 max

2 max

34

(g)

(h)

direct replacement of ecosystems with cropland and the resulting
loss of habitat;
monocultures reduce genetic diversity;
slash and burn techniques in TRF result in considerable impact
on diversity because of high diversity of these systems;
use of pesticides harms target and non-target insect species
and has an effect further up the food chain;
loss of hedgerows in England to facilitate plowing/accept
other valid example;
contamination of wild stock with modified genetic material
(hybridization);
Allow other valid points.
(i)
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

as population increases, forested area decreases and GNP
increases;

3 max

1

to produce land for housing for increasing population;
to provide land for agriculture to provide food for
increasing population;
for timber production, generating income from exports;
Accept other reasonable answers.

1 max

reduction in CO2 extraction by forests;
release of stored carbon through breakdown of forest biomass;
increased rates of breakdown in organic content in soils (due
to exposure to heat, water) resulting in release of CO 2;
CO2 is a greenhouse gas;

2 max

biomes will shift north and south from the equator;
e.g. North America wheat belt shifting north;
biomes shifting with altitude (e.g. tree line creeping upwards);
direct loss of low-lying biomes (e.g. mangrove swamps);
Accept other contributions to global warming related to
deforestation.

2 max
[20]

35

30.

(a)

Descriptions: [3 max]
oil use in MEDCs is almost 50 % greater than in LEDCs;
fossil fuels in MEDCs account for 85 % of energy use as
opposed to 58 % in LEDCs;
biomass use in LEDCs is more than ten times that of MEDCs;
use of coal and hydro/geo/solar is the same for both;
nuclear is five times more important in MEDCs than in LEDCs
and is the smallest contributor in both;
Accept other reasonable comparisons e.g. oil use in MEDCs is
11 % more than LEDCs.
Explanations: [2 max]
the relatively small contribution of nuclear power may be due to
the problems of disposing of nuclear fuel and the cost of nuclear
technology;
biomass is far more important in LEDCs as fuel for cooking;
automobiles are more prevalent in MEDCs thus explaining the
difference in oil use;
Accept other reasonable explanations.

(b)

use of fossil fuels is unsustainable because it implies liquidation of
a limited stock of the resource;
we can extend the lifetime of this resource, but it is ultimately
unsustainable;
solar energy is sustainable as the energy will be available to us
for any time frame that is reasonable to contemplate;
solar energy is currently more expensive than fossil fuels;
it is currently very expensive to turn solar energy into high
quality energy for manufacturing;
passive solar energy combined with insulation is much cheaper
for heating homes than fossil fuels;
fossil fuels are the most important contributor to build up of CO 2
and consequently global warming;
solar energy has the disadvantage that its usefulness is limited
in northern countries during winter months;
oil has the advantage that it can be delivered for use far from
its source through pipelines;
Accept other reasonable answers.

5 max

6 max

36

6 max Accept other reasonable answers. Accept other reasonable answers. use of quadrats to measure species abundance and diversity (application of diversity indices).(c) the Cornucopian belief in the resourcefulness of humans and their ability to control their environment is the chief element in their optimism about the state of the world. baseline studies are used to determine potential impacts on the environment of a project. development (which requires energy) will increase standards of living thus increasing demand for healthy environment. Abiotic: [2 max] testing of water for various parameters (e. fossil fuels have problems associated with their use (i.g. Biotic: [2 max] use of transects to determine cover/abundance of fauna and flora. economic systems have a vested interest in being efficient so the existing problems will self correct given enough time. determination of water flow throughout year using flow weirs. nitrates/dissolved solids/BOD/DO) using testing kits and/or electrodes of various types.e. global warming). develop technology to reduce output of CO2 from fuel use rather than changing lifestyles to reduce use of fuel. Accept other reasonable answers. air speed and direction using anemometers. determination of soil pH using universal indicators. good example of resource replacement. (a) Baseline study: [2 max] a baseline study seeks to measure existing conditions prior to the implementation of a project in order to have a standard of comparison once the project is completed. determination of biomass by removal and drying of plant tissue. 6 max 37 . rely on science to find a useful alternative such as hydrogen fuel cells. use of Lincoln Index/capture-mark-release-recapture to determine numbers of different animal species. this will eventually result in lowering of CO2 emission levels through market pressure. scientific efforts should be devoted to removing CO 2 from atmosphere rather than curtailing economic growth. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 31.

consequent increase in consumer good acquisition. recycling and re-manufacture reduce need for raw material. produces less waste. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 32. + 10. (c) 6 max reuse. availability of cash leads to greater purchasing power. as people enter a consumer society and turn away from subsistence level lifestyles footprint increases. production of these goods requires energy that may release CO 2 thus increasing footprint. 2 (iii) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) mammals  40 ( 3) both needed for [1]  birds  48  both show exponential increase. when exhaustive surveys throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. mammals’ rate of increase has been more irregular. creates environmental awareness. surveys should be over a time frame (diurnal. aluminum requires far less energy to recycle than to produce. Accept other reasonable answers species is classified as extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. (a) (i) 1920 accept answers between 1910 and 1940 1 (ii) exponential growth/rate of increase accelerates over time/ J curve (provided understanding of rate is demonstrated) 1 crude birth rate – crude death rate. since 1650 more bird species extinct than mammal species. seasonal. employs people (possibly no net loss of employment). money allows people to buy more animal protein from grain fed animals. reduces stress on a finite resource. reduce need to intervene rivers for hydroelectric power. so the footprint increases. Accept “none left” (or similar) for [1 max] 1 2 max 2 max 38 .(b) the ecological footprint will increase. (must be included for full marks). annual) appropriate to life cycle and life form. 5 max Accept other reasonable answers. money may allow access to better homes resulting in less need for locally produced firewood thus decreasing footprint. Accept other reasonable answers.

smaller populations. Japan. Do not accept “because they have a lot of available capacity”. Ethiopia. they have a developed economy that is not based on primary industries. (i) –1 1 2 max Rank for footprints [1] United States. Award [3 max] for reasons humans have caused (exponential) increase in extinctions through habitat degradation/destruction/fragmentation. India. very low rates of pollution per person perhaps because of high proportion of people in agriculture. Germany. Indonesia. human population increase has caused increases in extinctions. 2 (ii) countries with highest GDPs generally have the largest footprints 1 (iii) they depend on imports for resources. Norway. 2 max 1 39 . Singapore. Japan. they are sufficiently wealthy that they can afford to buy these resources in from abroad. pollution. (i) no it is not sustainable. Russian Federation. relatively low dependence on fossil fuels especially in terms of transport. Germany. as other countries have similar amounts of land. Australia. Norway. Venezuela. United Kingdom. Russian Federation. but are in deficit. Accept other reasonable suggestions.e. Singapore. soil is particularly fertile (volcanoes) and so they are able to support a lot of people by using the land very intensively. Ethiopia.3 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table 1 (iii) 6 1 (iv) a high proportion of people exist below the poverty line (i.4 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table (ii) United States = 10. hunting/collecting/harvesting and thereby driving species to extinction. India. they do not have all the resources they need).(c) Award [1 max] for relationship human population growth and increasing extinctions are positively correlated/OWTTE. 4 max [13] 33. Indonesia. Australia. United Kingdom. (a) (b) (c) –1 (i) Japan = –3. Venezuela. Rank for GDP [1] United States.

g.–1 world footprint is 2. emphasis will be on humans to change their behaviour/ lifestyles. through bottle banks. through GM crops. absolute reductions in energy and material use can reduce ecological footprint. through renewable/alternative energy technologies instead of fossil fuels. technocentrist will stress importance of technology for addressing the deficit.g. we are looking at global footprint so cannot offset larger footprints against smaller ones as you can when looking at whether individual nations are sustainable. energy efficiency initiatives. –1 Earth currently in ecological deficit –0. e. ecocentrist will see deficit as evidence that we are not living sustainably. an answer must refer to attitudes of both technocentrist and ecocentrist. reduction in pollution by technological advances. For full marks. will stress the need to strive for greater social equality between people in LEDCs and MEDCs.g. e. (ii) (iii) using technology to remanufacture or recycle can reduce the overall amount of resources consumed and so ecological footprint is reduced.g. technocentrist will believe in human ability to find technological solutions for present and future deficits.8 hectares person and there is only –1 2. use of technology to intensify and therefore maximise production from available land. Each way of decreasing footprint must be adequately described for [2]. economic growth seen by ecocentrics as a cause of the problem. Accept other reasonable answers 2 max 4 max 4 max [20] 40 . economic growth seen as a solution to the problem.1 hectares person available.7 hectares person . e. If only one is discussed award [2 max]. If no justification is attempted award [0] Figures not necessary if candidate has demonstrated conceptual understanding. e.

and exposure of underlying soil. Soil [6 max] or [7 max] soils are renewable in that they will regenerate naturally given enough time. sustainability – using global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment. misuse of soils by a variety of human activities is leading to degradation of soil resources at a faster rate than they can cope with. however. all leave top soil vulnerable to erosion by wind and water. game. industrialization and domestic demand are all increasing. deforestation – removing vegetation. e. water and recreation. there are growing demands on water resources as populations increase. (a) (b) natural capital is a term sometimes used by economists for natural resources that. only a small fraction of the Earth’s water supply is available as a readily usable resource for humans. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. examples of unsustainable practice with regard to soils include: overgrazing – where the trampling and feeding of livestock leads to loss of vegetation. 5 Water [7 max] or [6 max] water is replenishable natural capital (it is non–living but is dependent on the solar engine for renewal). a lot of water is wasted or used inefficiently. overcultivation – leading to a loss of soil fertility and structure. Give credit for named examples and case studies. the natural capital of a forest might provide a continuing natural income of timber. excessive irrigation can lead to salinization and toxification. irrigation. if appropriately managed. this has led to falling water tables.34.g. withdrawal of water from underground aquifers is often occurring at a faster rate than it can be replenished. global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and supplies and make matters worse. Answers which do not refer to the statement should be awarded [4 max]. societies become more affluent and expectations rise. but globally it is being used at a faster rate than it can be replenished. can produce a “natural income” of goods and services. Wilson is advocating that countries should adopt this approach when assessing their resource base. 13 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 41 . degradation of water supplies through pollution reduces the amounts which are available to us.

krill should not be fished at a level beyond which they can naturally regenerate their population numbers. 2 max if rabbits were removed grass would increase dramatically. possibly irrigation. there is no organism dependant on a single food type. monitoring of krill populations/monitoring catch. high levels of inorganic fertilizer used per unit area. 1 3 max 42 . (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (c) figure 2 – marine food webs because there are more links in the food web. (a) (i) maize. size. (ii) intensive agricultural system. fox population would crash and disappear without a food source. dynamic balance between rabbits and grass may result. setting seasons. 4 max [14] 36. control on gear type). 2 (ii) fishing effort should be set at a level that will not deplete the overall krill population. 2 max if foxes were removed the rabbit population would rise dramatically. succession would occur: grass – scrub – trees. there are more tropic levels. USA. 2 max (i) A 1 (ii) C 1 (i) use of a global resource at a rate that allows natural regeneration. high yielding/management-intensive crop varieties (possibly GM types). rabbits would overgraze their food source (grass) and the rabbit population would crash. extensive and intensive weed. and minimises damage to the environment. setting quotas and limiting fishing effort (boat numbers. efficient harvesting. baseline studies undertaken to find out how much krill there is. pest and disease control. there is more than one food source at each tropic level. Award [2] for correct food web and two correct reasons.35. award [1] for correct food web and one correct reason.

(iii)
Low Input Systems

High Input Systems

migratory pastoralists, Kenya

cattle, UK

shifting cultivation, Papua New Guinea

wheat, UK
maize, USA

5 correct [2], 4/3 correct [1], 2/1 correct [0]
(b)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

MEDCs have a greater proportion of animal protein in their
diet (approx 26%), whereas LEDCs are more dependant
on grain crops;
MEDCs generally have greater variation in their diets than LEDCs;

2 max

2

MEDCs tend to have larger ecological footprints than LEDCs;
because they have high “grain equivalent” food consumption
lifestyles;
they consume high levels of fossil fuel;
high CO2 emissions;
produce larger amounts of waste;
higher lifestyle expectations and possess more consumer goods;
use proportionately more raw materials;

4 max

limits biodiversity because of herbicide and pesticide
elimination of non-crop species;
introduces toxins through fertilizers/irrigation;
limits habitat type because of monoculture;
eutrophication due to fertilizer application;
risk of hybridization from GM maize;
aesthetic impact on landscape;

2 max

trampling from livestock leading to soil loss/desertification;
cause overgrazing and soil loss/desertification;
introduce diseases from herds to native species;

1 max
[15]

37.

(a)

There are a number of valid answers. Impact may be both
direct and indirect.
changing crop type will change soil cohesion and soil protection;
humans may change the nature of soil mechanically e.g. plowing/
lightening with sand;
humans may change the nature of soil chemically e.g. liming/
use of fertilizers/pesticides/fungicides;
human may alter slopes – terracing etc.;
Accept other reasonable answers.

(b)

(i)

3 max

global warming is caused by an increase in greenhouse
43

gases leading to an increase in mean global temperature;
due to the trapping of extra short wave radiation;
greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, ozone
and water vapour;
these are released as fossil fuels are burned/through
farming and industrial processes;
(ii)

(c)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

increase in temperature could lead to desiccation;
evaporation due to increased temperature may lead to the
accumulation of natural salts changing the chemistry and
structure of the soil (salinization);
lower temperatures may cause freeze–thaw processes to
break up soil and allow more rapid weathering;
increased rainfall may cause increased runoff and thus
soil erosion;
increased rainfall may cause leaching and erosion of
material from the soil profile;
decrease in rainfall will lead to aridification and make
soil surface prone to wind erosion;
increase in wind magnitude and frequency will increase
surface erosion (in terms of volume and rate);
Accept other reasonable answers.
any system that is open to energy and material outputs
and inputs and can be described as an open system;
e.g. a forest or ecosystem (to be ecological the example
must have biological inputs and outputs).
the Earth acts as a complex self-regulating organism via a
series of feedback mechanisms;
rather than being a passive object controlled by external
forces and chance;
theory by James Lovelock and demonstrated via his Daisy
World Model;
lacks quantitative values;
oversimplifies complex relationships;
lacks complex network connections;
Accept other reasonable answers.

3 max

4 max

2

2 max

1 max
[15]

44

38.

(a)

(b)

If no examples used award [4 max]
habitat loss e.g. extinction of Tasmanian wolf due to expansion
of agriculture;
hunting e.g. passenger pigeon;
alien predation and introduced species;
environmental pollution;
pathogens and disease;
most extinctions may not be due to a single cause but a
combination of causes;
e.g. the wolf (Lupus lupus) in Europe and Britain became extinct
due to overhunting and habitat loss;
global warming leading to rapid changes in biomes;

6 max

evidence for past mass extinctions can be found in the fossil record;
it is clear that at certain times large numbers of species
disappeared from the fossil record;
Possible causes could be:
large meteor impact (e.g. Mexico strike) leading to dust in
atmosphere;
volcanic activity on a large scale (e.g. Decan trap eruptions)
causing environmental change;
global climate change e.g. ice age;

4 max

45

genetic resource – provide present and future material for human resource needs for food. aesthetic – creatures are beautiful and there is aesthetic value in their existence e. artificial insemination increases fertility rate. animals unable to cope in wild due to learned behaviour in captivity. commercial – value of species if sustainably managed provide long-term resources e. Evaluation [4 max] captive breeding strengths include: management of gene pool enables greater survivability of offspring because perceived strengths can be selected. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 46 . ecosystems depend on their component parts. medicine/diversity = more options. e.(c) Arguments for conserving [4 max] ethical – we have a moral obligation to species/species have as much right to exist as we do. lack of inhibition towards people.g. no natural selection so traits which are a disadvantage in the wild may be passed on. greater post-natal survival because threats to infants can be high in the wild. i.e. for fur.g. weaknesses include: protecting animal without protecting habitat so not a long-term survival strategy. species.g. dolphins.

by switching to nuclear power or more renewable power resources e.g. if a population has an ecological footprint smaller than the country’s land surface area. ecological footprint is the opposite of carrying capacity.39. it is living beyond the country’s sustainable threshold. e. it allows quantitative ways of measuring impact and therefore setting limits to negate that impact. using waste crops as fuel e. ignores land/water required to provide aquatic resources. focussed on carbon dioxide. producing goods that last longer and run more efficiently/on renewable fuels e. more efficient birth control to reduce population growth.g. reusing packaging/minimising packaging. but [3 max] if answer looks at only strengths or weaknesses. Award [5 max] for evaluation. Accept other reasonable suggestions. (a) (b) the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. electric cars. e. clear felling virgin forest/over harvesting marine resources. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by a population and to assimilate all wastes. if people require more land area than the country possesses. reducing dependency on fossil fuels/hydrocarbons. natural habitats will suffer.g. biogas/biomass. wind/hydroelectric/wave/solar. but major weakness is that it only takes certain aspects into account e. it is accepted that if a population has an ecological footprint larger than the country’s land surface area. the population is living sustainably/ within its resource base. 7 max 6 max 47 .g. GM crops. using biotechnology to produce food more efficiently e.g.g. in conservation terms ecological footprinting allows for the identification of areas likely to suffer from ecological stress. recycling waste more efficiently.g.

because long-term sustainability is intrinsic to the ecocentric philosophy. infant mortality decreases and life expectancy increases and therefore population grows rapidly. (a) over the last 2000 years death rates have fallen more rapidly than birthrates. econcentrism is best suited to achieving long-term sustainability. For full marks answers must evaluate both philosophies. fossil fuels. 4 max 48 . though one is favoured.g. hygiene. technology will allow greater resource cycling. technology will help us find and develop new resources e.g. technology will increase the effective life of a resource by allowing us to use it more efficiently e.(c) Award [4 max] if there is no clear evidence of what the candidate thinks is the best environmental philosophy. hydrogen fuel. industrial revolution marked a critical phase in accelerating technological knowhow. Answer must link evaluation to long-term sustainability. resources are presently only limited by lack of technological know-how. technocentrism does not accept that there are any limits to resource use. e. medical care. due to technological improvements to living standards.g. food supply and resource base. people have to restrain their resource use and live within their resource base. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 40. Credit should be given to answers which refer to demographic transition model and/or population pyramids.

reduction in infant mortality. exponential growth in population is likely to exceed carrying capacity. setting quotas e. partial coverage [2] or [3]. resource base is finite so shortages will occur if demand outstrips supply. these will be land. China’s one child policy.g. carrying capacity is a measure of an area’s ability to meet resource demand for a given population. water. 7 max Possible strategies could include: reducing birth rate with contraception.g. access to contraception in remote rural areas/inefficient communication.(b) (c) exponential population growth will lead to an increase in demand for resources. this will lead to environmental stress and over use of current resource base i.g. therefore there is an implication (see quote) that the current users of resources (few of whom are alive) hold resources in trust for future generations. 7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 49 . many believe technology offers a way to enhance the resource base e. economic factors – large families needed to support parents in old age/work on farm/develop the country. legalising abortion. practical issues – e.g. Award comprehensive answer covering most of the above [4]. cultural inertia e. Obstacles include: religious belief – contraception not natural. changing marriage ages. through alternative fuel sources. the idea of sustainable development is that we must ensure current use of resources does not compromise ability of future generations to meet their own needs. over family size/male potency/status of women. food and materials.e. an unsustainable system. education/leading to the empowerment of women. advertising campaigns to challenge cultural norms about family size.

irrigation technology used in dry season. outputs: [1 max] jute/vegetables/mangoes/Jack fruit/Palm/coconut/sugar cane/spices/crops/waste/income/energy/rice/food/ Betel nuts/tobacco/cattle (livestock)/heat/oxygen/carbon dioxide/wheat/mustard. Accept other reasonable answers. mixed cropping on small scale. labour intensive (family labour). tobacco. Award [1] for any three of the above. 1 50 . monsoonal climate so main crop is rice. (c) (d) different crops planted at different levels. Award [1] for any three of the above.41. (a) (b) LEDC basic/lack of technology generally. 1 process by which nitrogen in atmosphere is fixed to form nitrate by blue-green algae (and converted into a useable form for plants). LEDC but no reasons award [0]. livestock fed differently at different times of year. wash down through the soil/paddy and are lost. Answers must be linked to variations in environment. (i) (ii) 3 max 2 max when nutrients. dependence on working animals. houses look fairly simple and made from local/cheap materials/ thatched roofs. different jobs done at different times of year. Award [1] for any three of the above. cash crops for export such as sugar cane. 2 max inputs: [1 max] water/technology/cattle (livestock)/sunlight/rain/manure/ seed/labour/soil. processes: [1 max] planting/ploughing/harvesting/irrigating/repair/respiration/ run-off/labour. dissolved in water. rotation of crops to match seasonal rainfall patterns. rice farming is typical of LEDCs/where rice is often the staple crop.

(e) zone D. urban air pollution caused by release of hydrocarbons (from unburned fuel) and nitrogen oxide. nitrogen oxide reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. e.(e) (i) (ii) because the terraces are level there is little run-off by water so soil is not washed away/terraces prevent soil erosion/ soil collects in paddies. (f) primary productivity is the gain in energy/biomass by producers/autotrophs whereas secondary is gain by heterotrophic organisms. photosynthesis/primary production is the process by which green plants convert light energy into a usable form/chemical energy/food/organic matter. a brown gas that contributes to urban haze. requires carbon dioxide. 1 oxygen is required by decomposers to break down organic matter (the oxidized zone is closer to the surface and richer in oxygen)/higher BOD in oxidized zone as more decomposers. (d) Accept any reasonable environmental problem. involves production of oxygen. primary productivity is the conversion of solar energy whereas secondary involves feeding/absorption. and some is lost as heat/waste to the environment.g. (a) (b) energy is dissipated/lost along the food chain/converted to less useful form. noise pollution/air pollution/global warming/acid rain. thus more decomposition. e. this is because species at each trophic level are using some of the energy for respiration. Award [1] for any two of the above. water. Award [1 max] for problem and [2 max] for explanation. (c) coal/oil/natural gas. chlorophyll and light. 1 [11] 42. Give credit for chemical equation. 2 2 max 1 3 max 1 1 max 51 .g.

religious intolerance to family planning. deep oceans dark below surface limits productivity of plants.2 1 e. seen as security in old age (no social security system). estuaries receive lots of sediment from rivers. e. farm labour. tradition for large family. 1 (iii) 10.g. unwanted fertility – poor rural women in Nigeria may like to be able to limit their family size.(g) availability of light e.5 billion. nutrient availability e. few options for women. Award [1 max] for no reference to the biomes in figure 3.0 and 8. but are unable to use family planning because of attitude of their societies (who value male fertility). because of rural isolation and an inability to access family planning centers.g.9 × 100 = 18. cultural expectation for sons. (a) (b) (i) Accept answers between 8.g. lack of education about family planning.9 1. 10. high infant mortality rate so large families necessary to ensure survival of some. desire for large family size in India patriarchal society and many offspring seen as a symbol of male fertility. temperature e.2 – 8. 3 52 .g. 2 max [12] 43. 1 (ii) population momentum.3 = 1.g. children seen as a source of income.g. Award [0] for naming countries.6%. availability of water e. tropical rainforests receive lots of rainfall each year whereas deserts have little rain which is limiting to plant growth. rainforests warm throughout the year so have a constant growing season and higher productivity.

Accept similar interpretations of cartoon. (a) (b) perhaps cartoonist is suggesting that politicians/society refuse to act because they claim that more research needs to be done first. despite the fact that evidence (falling birds) is in front of their eyes. indigenous tribes need large amounts of space in which to live sustainably.(c) natural resources/food will become so scarce that population is limited by hunger. intrinsic value of forest (biorights) is ignored by exploitative users only interested in economic use. greater access to family planning as communications/education/ wealth increases. population limited by wars over scarce resources. No mark scheme available 53 . forest is cut down by outsiders ignoring the needs of indigenous people. reserves left for indigenous people may be too small to sustain them. as nations develop economically and move through stages of demographic transition. conflict might exist because different groups see the resource differently. changing attitudes will reduce desire for large families. 2 max [8] 44. economic value of timber/land is incompatible with leaving forest standing for other uses (indigenous cultures). Accept any other reasonable suggestions. tax incentives. conflict between short-term and long-term perspective (indigenous people). no need to mention acid rain. government strategies/policies e.g. growth rates can be expected to decline for a variety of socio-economic reasons. difference between sustainable use of forest (natural income) and users who exploit natural capital. 2 3 max [5] 45.

species list – survey would record number of species (faunal and flora) present. soil – quality/fertility/pH. land use – assess land use type/use coverage. amount of sediment carried in the Colorado River shows a dramatic decline from the mid-1930s. estimate abundance. the dam has allowed water flow to be controlled so fluctuations are minimized. Give credit if figures from resource booklet are used.46. so water is very cold/does not vary. Nutrient content of water in river decreased nutrients held with sediments behind dam. and helps decision makers decide if the development should go ahead. 95% of sediment is trapped behind the Glen Canyon dam. overall amounts of water flowing in the Colorado River have declined since 1910. list endangered species. it enables possible impacts on habitats. (a) (b) (c) (EIA) Environmental Impact Assessment is a process used to establish the impact of a project/development on the environment. amount of fluctuation between high flows and low flows has declined. so much water is now extracted from the reservoirs that little water reaches the sea. Riverine habitat diversity Award [1] for decreased and a valid reason and [0] if decrease is given without a valid reason. human population – assess present population. Accept other reasonable responses. 2 max 3 max 5 max (d) Abiotic factor in the Colorado River Increased or decreased after construction of Glen Canyon Dam Reason for change decreased fewer fluctuations/variations in water flow. Award [2–3 max] for description and [2–3 max] for explanation. hydrology – assess hydrological conditions in terms of volume/ discharge/flows/ water quality. habitat type and abundance – baseline survey would record total area of each habitat type. and if steps to mitigate effects should be put in place. 3 max 54 . species and ecosystems to be predicted. Award [1] for each variable with a reason if no reason award [1 max]. Water temperature range decreased water extracted from dam is too low for sun to penetrate.

non-natives increasing in number as they outcompete native species for food. non-natives could bring disease with them that native species are not resistant to. emphasis (in 1964) was on economic benefits and development goals rather than ecological impact. Award [1] for naming species and [2] for possible impacts. (f) dams are a technological solution to the challenge of managing water and energy demand.g.(e) non-native species: e. trout/green alga/cladophora/Bluegill/Sunfish/Channel Catfish. evidence from resource booklet could include figures for efficiency of production. prey on young of native species reducing their number. Accept other reasonable responses. technocentric approach involves controlling natural processes rather than minimizing disturbance. Award [2 max] if no reference to resource booklet. inter-breeding and potential loss of species. 3 max 3 max 55 . non-natives dominate as they are better suited to reservoir conditions and native species become extinct. possible impacts: non-native are outcompeting native species because they are generalists whereas native species have more specific niches. emphasis on power in National Hydropower Association report.

not a “good” dam because: no environmental assessment was carried out prior to construction (point 1). a “good” dam because: large sectors of population have benefited from water supply and electricity (point 2). indigenous people have benefited from water and electricity (point 10). possible that Lake Powell will silt up – all sediment trapped see figure 4 showing dramatic drop in sediment after dams constructed (point 7). Rainbow Bridge. knock on effects on Mexico (point 13) and impact on delta may have had an impact on fisheries (point 12). the dam was constructed in a national park and adversely affected areas of scientific importance (World Heritage Site) (point 6). Award [4 max] if advantages and disadvantages of dam are merely listed with no reference to the checklist. culture of indigenous people has been threatened e. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (point 6). Mexican) who have benefited (point 2). long-term water and energy demand can be met by this because HEP is a renewable resource (point 9).g. economic activities such as farming and tourism can be labour intensive and lots of jobs are provided (point 3). indigenous. 6 max [25] 56 .(g) There must be some discussion of both sides to achieve [6 max] but answers can be weighted heavily towards one side or another.g. fruit and vegetables are provided for domestic economy (point 4). often poorest communities (rural. no evidence from the resource booklet that there are safety or health issues (point 5 or 11). and has caused native species to become extinct/endangered e. Mexico benefits from the electricity – presumably it gave its consent for the dam to be built? (point 13).

socio-cultural factors can have a more general impact e. fertile soil. and economic factors which will determine costs of inputs such as seeds and technology/access to credit. levels of education will determine the amount of exchange of ideas and the extent to which new technologies can be applied e. natural disasters. native American Indians did not believe that people could “own” land. the Maasai. amounts of rainfall. Award [4 max] if no evaluation is attempted or if no examples are used. in determining demand for food e. free range pens for chickens).g. (a) socio-cultural factors will have an influence on tastes/affect new markets e. of course all these factors are interconnected and socio-cultural features will often have developed in response to farming systems as well as shaping them e. growing trend for concern about animal welfare has affected the processes on some farms (e. with increasing levels of farm fragmentation in cultures where land is divided equally between sons. the Singaporean government invests a great deal in promoting new technologies in hydroponics.g.g. growing seasons.g. in the case of Nomadic herders. attitudes to land will have an impact on how land is used and the status of farmers and farming e. 8 max 57 .g.47. migration patterns.g. socio-cultural factors can led to problems e.g. but of course socio-cultural factors are not the only ones and factors such as constraints of the natural environment (e. slash and burn agriculture where the conditions of the forest have encouraged shifting cultivation and social structures and cultural practices have developed in response to this. indirectly socio-cultural factors such as land ownership.g.g. where quantity (rather than quality) of cattle is a measure of wealth and so this has led to overgrazing and desertification. after WW2 there was a concern in Britain about self-sufficiency and this demand led to a drive for greater intensification of production (achieved through fertilizers and agribusiness techniques). good growing conditions will favour intensive crop production. desire for more organic food in Europe has led to growth of organic farming to meet this demand.g. soil fertility) will shape what farming systems develop e.

the frontier mentality about the interior of Brazil) can lead to “standing” value of rainforest being underestimated by urban elites. urban (capitalist) elites: [5 max] rainforest seen as a resource for development.(b) Answers must be balanced and two appropriate societies contrasted. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58 . which then become silted up. use agroforestry to mimic layering of the forest and protect ground crops from harsh sun and heavy downpours. which encourage urban shanty dwellers to migrate and use the deforested land. political prestige projects and ideology (e.g. i. establish policies. indigenous shifting cultivator farmers in the Amazonian rainforest in Brazil and urban elites in Brasilia shifting cultivators: [5 max] lifestyle and practices are much more closely bound up with their natural environment. understanding of how the forest works so adapt farming practices e. construction of dams. in conclusion a less destructive and closer connection between social systems and ecological systems. a source of cash. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “technocentric”. recognition that soil is often infertile so farmers shift and allow small pockets of forest to regenerate before returning to the plot some 50 years later.g. but farming is unsuccessful because of lack of fertility of the soil.e. lack of understanding for how the natural systems works mean political decisions can lead to wasteful/damaging actions e. spiritual role of forest is also a feature of their cultural lives leading to respect for trees and other species. utilising forest materials for construction of their homes. e. live “in tune” with the forest.g. canoes and for medicines. An answer which merely summarises the differences between ecocentric and technocentric paradigms should not be awarded more than [6 max]. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “ecocentric”.g. 10 max Obviously within these groups there will be subsets and individuals with different environmental paradigms.

in environmental research. however. international agreements can help to motivate governments to take action and honour their commitments e.g. when problems cross borders e. especially LEDCs. local solutions have a valuable role to play e. might not have access to funds/expertise. global warming is going to have far-reaching global impacts so a united response to monitoring and mitigation is more likely to be effective. smuggling of endangered species. the World Conservation Strategy recognises this. when individual nations. international cooperation is vital e.e. some issues e.g.g.g. CITES. to cut CO2 emissions. 8 max 59 . when individuals feel passionately about an issue. so local people should be involved in addressing the problem. so international cooperation in addressing them makes sense. bureaucratic and inappropriate. (a) some environmental problems are global in terms of the scale of the effects rather than local.g. rather than burying their head in the sand about an issue.g. Award [5 max] if no examples are used. Montreal Protocol. often problems are caused at local scale.g. e.g. international organisations e. often the motivation for addressing problems starts at the local level i.48. recycling and landfill are local issues so a global strategy would be cumbersome.g. e. UNEP have the resources to mobilise and coordinate action e.

understanding processes and interconnectedness at a local level is vital if threats to that ecosystem are to be effectively mitigated e. these studies can inform human actions to ensure that practices change in the right way to mitigate the problem e.g. for groups lobbying about a particular environmental issue.e. biomes are being affected by human actions. by investigating specific hypotheses. similarly for political decisions to be taken there needs to be a body of evidence and understanding on which these decisions are based. understanding relationship between two interdependent species will enable you to predict what will happen if one of them becomes extinct. studies of consequences of applying lime to acidified lakes. scientists have to be able to undertake studies at a manageable level i. e. this is one of the problems with conflicting evidence on the issue of global warming. on a practical level.g. 6 max Accept other reasonable responses.g. their concerns will not be taken seriously unless grounded in rigorous fieldwork and fact. studying small-scale ecosystems enables environmental change e.g. lots of studies of small-scale ecosystems form jigsaw pieces in a bigger picture of how larger-scale ecosystems e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [16] 60 . to be monitored over time. you could not design a research programme that was just going to investigate “oceans”. in response to pollutants.g.(c) small-scale studies allow for in-depth detailed investigations.

which can also depend on the profile of environmental issues in the media. whereas some scientists argue that relationships are more complex and that the effects of global warming are unclear. near the sea. where people live might affect their views e. cultural/religious group e. Allah is in control. extreme poverty leads to short-term view/wealth leads to faith in money to solve problem. overall awareness of the issue. others do not prioritise environmental issues including global warming. migration/extinction/ adoption. environmental paradigms will stem from cultural context including prevailing religious attitudes (e. whether we should live in harmony with it or control it using technology).g. Accept other reasonable responses. young more concerned than old. responses by organisms rather than people.49. environmental paradigms can shape how they read scientific literature. (a) (b) some politicians believe action should be taken immediately by all nations to curb emissions of CO2. 5 max 5 max 61 . others do not believe that actions at an individual level can make much difference. age e. whereas others argue that it is unreasonable to expect LEDCs to curb emissions until they have developed economically like the MEDCs have done. whether we have any moral obligation to future generations). this will depend on their specialised knowledge and their level of education.g.g.g.g. even that recent temperature changes are merely parts of natural fluctuations in the earth’s temperature. to change lifestyles and plan to reduce fossil fuel dependence. most scientists are now convinced that there is a causal link between CO2 levels and global temperature change.g. their attitudes to our relationship with the environment (e. socio-economic status e. the growth of the environmental movement (which has grown exponentially in profile and influence) has played a large role in raising awareness of the issue. some ordinary citizens feel they have a responsibility to change the way in which they live to reduce their personal contribution to the problem. opinions will depend to a large extent on what scientific evidence they find most convincing.

= 142 million tonnes.5%. 1 430 million/100 × (13% [industry] + 20% [agriculture]).g. increased agricultural production on the same plot of land by using HYV rice.g. it is determined by availability of resources (e. technology can also play a part in reducing human population size e. 8 max Award [2-3 max] for describing carrying capacity and [5-6 max] for role of technology. developing alternative energy technologies to fossil fuels. but at a global level technology can be used to intensify the way in which we use resources e.g. tractors/broken tools/ crop waste (stubble). e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 50. 1 62 . 1 (ii) 65 × 100 520 12. our tastes and demand for particular resources changes at such a rapid rate. by importing new resources with transport technology. Do not accept organic material. food. (a) (b) (c) animal waste products/old machinery e. space.g. technology alone may not be the full solution. water.g.9 tonnes) Answer must specify units.(c) carrying capacity is the maximum number of species that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. a country is said to be overpopulated if the carrying capacity is exceeded. through contraception/medicines (reducing infant mortality and thereby reducing the incentive for high birth rates in many poor countries). to the population in an area. substitutions of resources e. at a country level technology can help to ensure carrying capacity is not exceeded.g. 2 (i) year: 2002. attitudes to resource use may need to be altered. (do not accept 141. it is a problematic term for human populations because technology has a huge influence on the resources that are available to human populations.

g. agriculture may be more intensive. Accept other appropriate answers. loss of biodiversity. e. shelter and salinisation of soil resource due to poor management. 2 max Award [1] for named agricultural system and associate impact. 1 max soil has become more valuable as it has become more scarce.g.g. government incentives to recycle waste. Accept other reasonable responses. improving irrigation. extensive cattle farming east-Africa. introduction of disease. 2 max [7] 52. less need for labour on farm.g. 2 max greater use of pesticides to protect crops and livestock. agroforestry. prairie grassland US. greater agricultural industrialization/mechanization. No mark scheme available 63 .g. loss of soil due to soil erosion.g. e. terracing. e. better environmental education. agriculture is becoming more mechanized. farming/agriculture is becoming more technocentric. farms becoming larger require more machinery.(d) (e) better environmental awareness. economic incentives to be waste friendly. the use of GM crops and livestock. use of high yielding crops and livestock. 2 max 1 [8] 51. e. loss of marshland from drainage. decline in soil quality due to poor management e. soil degradation and lowered productivity. increasingly seen as a resource requiring protection with special techniques e. from 1984 until 2002 the amount of waste produced per person has increased. more laws preventing dumping. loss of forest habitat. slash and burn subsistence farming. salinisation (over irrigation). better waste collection facilities.g. soil management techniques e. (a) (b) (c) (d) as tractor use increase farm labour use goes down. Norfolk grasslands UK.

site 5 newer. agriculture/run-off pollution and drainage. site 4 may be a monoculture favouring few species. water quality. the area is physically large. 2 max reserves are often controlled by the principle of island geography. Award credit if data is cited. shrubs and ground cover. Answers need four of the following threats to receive [2 max]. multiple habitats have many edges. further development. site 1 more stable. dune erosion/habitat loss. road/road kill/disturbance. 4 max Albufera was designated the first national reserve in the Balearics by the Mallorcan government. species community more complex at site 1. (a) (b) (c) the Albufera has such high diversity due to a wide range of habitat types. chemical pesticides may limit species in site 4. award [1 max]. biodiversity is high due to multiple habitat types. tourist pressure causing disturbance and pollution. greater range of niches. good reserves need to be large (as the Albufera marsh is).g. edges provide new niches thus higher diversity. will include trees. 2 max site 2 would demonstrate a much higher diversity index than site 4. site 1 older. If only two of the following threats are addressed. many niches for many species. small reserves have problems supporting biodiversity. larger animals need large areas. (i) (ii) (d) (e) (f) 3 max 2 max site 1 will have a greater range of species. therefore. site 2 is much more mature and has a range of habitats with a large range of niches for insects. organisms safely move in and out of the marsh. power station producing terrestrial and atmospheric pollution. 64 .53. 2 max site 1 more mature. the area is preserved and the biodiversity is proactively protected and encouraged. Ramsar Convention recognition and registration raises the profile of the Albufera. there is a mix of aquatic and terrestrial environments. background environmental conditions are good e. not gone through full succession.

economics. which may damage the marsh. more sustainable. educational activities encouraged. cultural value encouraged. protection has long-term benefits. 2 max experience demonstrates that protection without considering other factors e.local communities support the Albufera. more pressure for development land may lead to the marsh edges being developed. which may be positive factors. more tourists need more water and more water extraction may lower levels in the marsh and cause damage. continued tourism expansion may lead to increased pressures on local resources that will directly and indirectly affect the marsh. mixing education.g. culture and development is unlikely to be successful. however. the two geographically separate groups of snails may ultimately become separate species. 2 max speciation may occur. research. 2 2 max [25] 65 . (g) (i) (ii) (h) (i) 2 max Albufera is not just an area of wildlife protection. multiple use reserves are more popular and easier to fund. more tourists mean more potential pollution. more people are also more revenue and more awareness. people use it as an area of relaxation. research takes place.

low biodiversity is a measure of a stressed environment. 6 max Award [6 max] if arguments are supported with appropriate evidence. shows little respect for the environment.g. provide resources. 66 . their economic future and the future of the park are intrinsically linked. contaminated land and water. co-ordinate anti-poaching activities. wildlife agencies. rangers. 6 max Award [4 max] if no named protect area. produces information that supports the parks existence and informs management decisions.54. maintain communications. this attitude may also be reflected in its government’s care of its people. provides the park with security and infrastructure. non-government groups and international organizations. (a) low biodiversity reflects poor ecological/environmental conditions. factors which cause low biodiversity also may lead to an environment unsuitable/stressful for humans. (b) local support: [2 max] local guides and rangers earn a living assisting tourists within the park and prevent poaching. society. opportunities for discovering new resources are more likely in areas with high diversity. manage park funding. punish poachers. liaise with local groups. government agencies: [2 max] government through its employees. they monitor and control visitor numbers. e.g. they have a positive vested interest in the park. e. etc. areas of high diversity are more aesthetically pleasing than areas of low diversity. Award [3 max] if answer considers only one line of argument. pollutants. thus better places to live. drought. toxins. Award [4 max] for more than one line of argument. a more diverse environment is likely to be more resource rich/abundant. guides. medicines. they have a respect and pride for the park that they view as theirs. loss of biodiversity is the loss of potential new resources. research identifies new hazards and new goals. a society that ignores the need for high biodiversity/allows biodiversity to be lost. biodiversity can be seen as a gauge for environmental quality. research: [2 max] scientific research discovers change/damage/stress/new species/ monitors abiotic and biotic conditions within the park.. helps educate those inside and those outside the park. highlights new information.

waste fertilizer etc. ecosystems collapse. indirectly such management techniques may benefit many non-target species and the ecosystem per se. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 55. controlling predators providing additional food.. however. game reserves may have less disturbance. (a) eutrophication represents the nutrient enrichment of a body of water. 6 max 67 . sewage waste. it is none the less being conserved. numbers are kept high by managing habitat. physiological stress due to lack of O2 causes population crashes in many other aquatic organisms. habitats. a species based approach may result in a species being conserved artificially outside its habitat. though the animal is being maintained for economic gain and pleasure. trophy hunting: [3 max] the protection of animals for sport/hunting may also be seen as a species based approach to conservation. pretty birds etc. food chains. it can occur naturally but is often triggered by the addition of external anthropogenically derived material. nutrients cause an explosion in algae/blue green algae within the water column.g. tigers. habitat protection for one species may protect many species.(c) species based conservation: [3 max] concentrates on one or two key species. habitat conditions are maximized to meet the needs of the key species.. usually organisms that possess strong aesthetic qualities. the massive growth rate consumes a high proportion of available O 2. agricultural run-off rich in phosphates and nitrates and fisheries food and excrement all represent sources of nutrient enrichment within the aquatic system. bears. less alien species (e. positive feedback situation. managing habitat for “game” may have benefits for many other species. cattle and sheep). thus the organism and not the habitat it belongs in is protected.

removing un-eaten food and fish waste mechanically from the system. in LEDCs. people wash more.). whereas terrestrial systems harvest primarily carbohydrates/plant material (cereals. (a) societies demand for water has continued to grow throughout the industrial period.(b) (c) treatment of sewage before entering the watercourse to remove organics and dissolved nitrates and phosphates will reduce enrichment. crustaceans etc. aquatic systems generally harvest wild species. not applying fertilizers during rainy periods and using reduced phosphate fertilizers. stocks are left to recover naturally after harvesting. demand for water is expanding in both MEDCs and LEDCs. controlling the rate and timing of fertilizer application and controlling the chemical content of fertilizer. managing the fishery such that stocking density of fish and fish feeding practice minimize nutrient enrichment within the system. aquatic/marine systems are predominantly hunter-gatherer systems (sometimes on an industrial scale). aquatic/marine systems harvest primarily animal protein (fish. water is a finite resource and countries are reaching their resource availability limit. wash cars more. mammals. 6 max the key difference between aquatic and terrestrial food production systems is the level from which food is harvested.g.) with some additional animal protein (livestock). in MEDCs social lifestyles require more water. terrestrial systems harvest the bulk of food from much lower in the food chain. the use of agricultural fertilizers in a way that prevents/reduces nitrate/phosphate loading e. general per person increase in water needs are making demands heavier. terrestrial systems use domesticated plant and animal species. grains. e. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 56. addressing run-off and intercepting contaminated water. 5 max 68 . root crops etc. tended and harvested. expanding populations/changing agricultural practice/ expanding industry (often heavy). water resources need to be managed more carefully. e. water plants more. birds. terrestrial systems are predominantly farmed systems with food crops being planted. the use of filters and scrubbers to remove phosphates from domestic sewage.g. new water resources need to be found/resource use needs to be controlled. aquatic/marine systems from much higher up.g.

populations with a larger footprint than actual land area are living beyond sustainable limits. encourage water use that had few detrimental impacts on habitat. monitoring use to remain within sustainable limits. award [1] for each case study. good tourism is sustainable tourism. MEDCs and LEDCs. encourage greater recycling. a finite area can support a finite population. 8 69 . (c) 5 max the technocentric manager approach to water resource management would suggest that future needs can be met by technology. up to [2 max]. innovation and the ability to use “untapped” reserves. e. tourism that values its environment. In addition to the above points. (a) tourism can only be successful if it can have a long-term future. encourage water use within sustainable level. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 57. technological advancement may reduce footprint size. technocentric managers would support desalination/iceberg capture and transport/wastewater purification. e. ecotourism is often sustainable. in addition it can highlight sustainable and unsustainable lifestyles. a long-term future is only possible if the tourism enterprise is sustainable. synthetic water production/rain seeding/deep aquifer extraction. the ecocentric manager approach would highlight the overuse and misuse of water. it is the opposite of carrying capacity. the footprint size considers both resource needs and waste assimilation. as a model for monitoring environmental impact the ecological footprint can allow for direct comparisons between groups and individuals. would also look at innovative ways to reduce water use per se.(b) an ecological footprint represents the hypothetical area of land required by a society/group/individual to fulfill all their resource needs. wildlife and the environment. it must not pollute the local environment. encourage the conservation of water. encouraging industry and society to use less water. both in industry and at a domestic level. to be sustainable the tourism venture must not deplete local resource bases by direct/indirect impact.g.g.

coastal resorts selling sun. development and sustainability in the mind of many economists are contradictory positions even though environmentalists hold the concept of “sustainable development” as the best way forward for society and the planet. Supporting case studies or examples are relevant. sustainable development varies in definition depending on viewpoint.(b) (c) global warming will ultimately change weather patterns.g. coastal beach holidays). summer seasons may be extended (e. winter sports holidays may be curtailed by lack of snow and ice. sea and sand may develop further north. 5 sustainable development (a phrase coined in 1987 in Our Common Future) is defined as development that meets our current needs without depleting resources in the future. economists view sustainable development in pure commercial terms whereas environmentalists will also include environmental quality as an element. 1 70 . failing rains may make some resorts obsolete due to lack of water resources. (a) wave power/solar radiation/heat pumps/water wheels. sustainable development also does not deplete the environmental quality of an area. some believe that development (particularly development designed to allow LEDCs to compete with MEDCs) can never be sustainable (within a free market). Accept other suitable answers if appropriate. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58.

The electrical energy is supplied to an electrical grid to do work. agriculture. insecticides. Do not accept e. Dependent on the wind. using herbicides. Produces emissions and requires large areas to grow biofuel crop. fossil fuels are energy-efficient/easy to transport/relatively cheap.g. irrigation. changing to renewable energy on a large scale requires massive capital investment/cultural inertia against change to renewables/ many renewables depend on environmental conditions that are not constant (e. (only one limitation required) Wind Power Wind turbines are driven by available wind energy.g. changing crop type/variety.(b) Award [2] if both answers are correct and [1 max] if one or two partial answers are correct. no wind equals no energy. Note: that food production system must be reasonably specific. 2 good tidal range required/right shape of coastline/interferes with navigation/impact on wildlife/expensive. Biofuel plant material burned directly to produce heat/transformed into ethanol (used as fuel)/converted to methane (methane digestion). sunshine. 2 max 71 . wind. using GM crops.g. Alternative How the energy is produced Major limitation renewable energy source Tidal Power Energy is produced by using the ebbing and/or flooding tide to turn turbines and produce electricity. rice paddies application of fertilizer. Award [1 max] if no named food production system. (only one method required) (c) (d) MEDCs traditionally/culturally dependent on fossil fuels. waves). 3 named food production system: e. The wind energy is turned into electrical energy via a generator.

phosphates. sources of contamination – domestic waste/agricultural waste/landfill waste/degrading organics/tsunami debris/sea water/sewage. (a) (b) (c) (d) the landmass has a low elevation/no land higher than 4 metres. whereas footprints are not necessarily sustainable. phosphate – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 3 to × 9). the islands are in a tectonically active ocean. they are the opposite/inverse of each other. carrying capacity involves sustainable support of a population. (i) tourists consume relatively large amounts of freshwater/ Maldives has a finite amount of groundwater and annual rainwater budget. Award [3 max] for description and [2 max] for two or more sources of contamination. 3 [11] 59.(e) carrying capacity is the number of individuals/species/load an area of land/an environment can support (providing resources and absorbing waste). Maldivian groundwater has been contaminated with ammonia. ammonia – two island exceeds WHO guidelines (× 4). nitrates and chloride. freshwater from desalination – renewable. 2 max 3 4 max 2 72 . the islands are relatively small (less than 1 km across). Accept replenishable as a classification of rainwater. rainwater – renewable. chloride – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 2 to × 5). ecological footprint is area of land (and water) required to support an individual/population (providing all resources and absorbing waste). not sheltered by large land masses. tourism will have reached and gone beyond these limits. groundwater – replenishable. nitrates – below WHO guidelines. ecological footprint is a theoretical area whereas carrying capacity refers to a real area. No mark scheme available 60. when tourist needs outstrip supply.

h a b ita t lo s s .g. Accept any other reasonable points and model design. 4 max 73 . (f) lo s s o f b io d iv e rs ity . im p o rt fo o d . up to [4 max]. Award [1] for each impact. evaluation: environmentally aware tourist less likely to cause damage. however. fo s s il fu e l b u rn in g . e. but may guarantee sustainable environment and tourism for the future. between 2000 and 2050 the percentage of people in the world suffering from chronic water scarcity will rise (from 3. [2 max] if only one strategy addressed. T o u r s im to u ris t d iv in g .7% to 17. c lim a te change. Figures are not required. w a s te fro m d e v e lo p m e n t. in c re a s e d a g ric u ltu re . Accept any other reasonable suggestions. strategy: development taxed to pay for habitat protection and conservation. fis h in g .(ii) (e) by 2050 the numbers of countries with a chronic scarcity (below –1 –1 2740 litres capita day ) of water will have increased. d u e to d e v e lo p m e n t. b rin g in d is e a s e s . c o ra l d a m a g e . 2 strategy: tourist numbers could be limited. c o a s ta l p o llu tio n .8%). strategy: tourist environmental education. evaluation: may make tourism more expensive/less profitable. lig h t p o llu tio n . also reduces tourist revenue. evaluation: which reduces resource use and tourist pressures. c o n fu s e s o rg a n is m s a t n ig h t. standing on coral/using waste excessively. tra n s p o rt. 6 max Award [4 max] if only two strategies addressed.

(g) tourism generates valuable hard currency/revenue for many LEDCs. Accept other reasonable responses. highlights conservation issues and environmental problems. introduces people to new cultures. stratosphere ozone: depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs and other halogenated gases/ ozone depletion allows more UV light to reach the Earth. not cause. 7 Award any other reasonable suggestions.g. 6 74 .g. regulate and reduce pollution at source – add scrubbers to chimneys/capture CO2 at source/penalties for having sulfur-rich coal. generates job opportunities. trees may die/damage to crops/causes irritation to skin and eyes in organisms/other respiratory problems. acid rain. legislation requires regulators to check compliance.g. (b) troposphere ozone – increase is a problem. so needs repeating. (a) named example: e.g. societies. acid rain): [3 max] no local effects so difficult to stop people using sulfur-rich fossil fuels/ effects often felt in countries distant to source of pollution. mutation in cells e. troposphere ozone: formed as secondary pollutant when photochemical reaction occurs between NOx and other pollutants. description: (e. liming treats symptoms. algae/eye cataracts in sheep/humans/skin cancers in humans/tissue damage in photosynthetic organisms. stratosphere ozone – depletion is the problem. ideas and environments. clean up and restore ecosystem – lime lakes/remove contaminated soil/lime surrounding landscapes/replant trees in affected ecosystems. evaluation: (e. 2 max [25] 61. acid rain): [3 max] alter human activity – education of impact of burning coal/switch to non-fossil fuels/burn sulfur-free coal.

justification: [4 max] humans are not prepared to reduce their standards of living. legislation will make us reuse and recycle more. justification: [4 max] micro generation using wind turbines and solar power etc. example 2: statement: [1 max] I believe sustainable development is possible as we have the technology to use renewable resources for all our needs. insulate buildings more.(c) Depends on the arguments used but responses require a statement of belief on sustainable development. humankind will use less energy. not enough renewable resources. will provide energy for domestic homes and factories. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 75 . 80 % live in LEDCs and are using more and more resources. transport could use hydrogen powered engine using water as a fuel. humans are incapable of stopping population growth. example 1: statement: [1 max] I do not believe sustainable development is possible in the long-term as we have finite resources and will not have enough for everyone to use as much as they want/non-renewable resources will run out. technological developments in crop growing will mean more production. cannot find new technologies fast enough to replace fossil fuels. 5 max Award [1] for a definition of sustainable development.

over a distance. succession e. changes in ecosystems up a mountain with increasing altitude. zonation e.g. 76 . in some environmental factor.g. temperate forest development. zonation: the arrangement/patterning of plant communities/ecosystems.62. Accept other reasonable responses. (a) succession: orderly change over time in an ecosystem. 6 max Award [1] for definition. [1] for example and [1] for a diagram of each process. into parallel/sub-parallel bands in response to change.

minimal pollution. Award [2 max] for examples and [4 max] for comparisons. different nutrient and energy pathways. both wheat fields and woodlands have low initial productivity. threats: [3 max] pollution – kills some species. various niches.g. complex ecosystem. water. natural woodland consumer community increases so naturally high productivity is balanced by consumption and respiration. (a) population pyramids give age/sex structure for country. human activities – burning/building.(b) food production system e.g. hunting of top carnivores.g. 6 max Award credit if named examples are used. (c) 6 max characteristics: [3 max] greater habitat diversity. woodland reaches climax when production: respiration = 1/all productivity is balance by respiration. selective logging. deciduous woodland. light. herbivores controlled or isolated from the food production system. natural ecosystem e. large size. wheat harvested before production:respiration = 1. climate change. little human activity. 77 . Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 63. increases rapidly as biomass accumulates. different trophic levels. makes conditions impossible for others/Trent Biotic Index organisms/degradation of ecosystems. grazing animals. intensive wheat production. heat. plentiful abiotic factors e.

technology can increase carrying capacity e. economic growth means demand for resources is increasing so cost increases (crude oil). gender ratios. etc. e. expanding/contracting population. as resources are depleted they become more economically expensive. number in fertile age bracket.g. Accept any other reasonable suggestions. 6 78 .g. birth rate and death rate. 5 max Award [1] for a diagram. GM crops/fertilizers/ alternative energy sources. must use resources more effectively. disease. allows for monitoring change in dependent to provider ratio. may not be sustainable in the long-term. wars.age/sex pyramids identify percentage of providers and dependents within a country. (b) global population continues to rise/per capita resources consumption increasing/resource exploitation is reaching its limits. measures the size/structure of a population over time. impact of events.

2 max positive feedback. soils will be deeper. develop distinct horizons. this allows another community to become established and replace the former through competition. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) the orderly process of change over time in a community. processing or recycling. not economic as lot of energy required to recycle e. leading often to greater complexity. recycling reduces resource use e. distance (from sea). saves energy in extraction. 1 [6] 79 . 1 max soils will become more mature. reduces landfill/increased environmental awareness.(c) Advantages Disadvantages reducing use resources are conserved/last longer. reusing reduces resources use. 7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 64. hard to do/slows economic growth/reduces standard of living in present consumer culture. Award [1] for each advantage and disadvantage.g. become more complex.g.g. changes in the community of organisms cause changes in the physical environment. contain more organic material. e. plastics/paper/lower quality materials. health and safety issues/loss of technological edge. Award credit for relevant examples. 2 max time. aluminium cans/bottles. aluminium recycling versus energy efficient.

taste and culture affect demand.4 kcal lost. crop production harvests food from lower down in the food web than harvesting fish from the top.4 × 100. fish harvesting utilizes a resource that is several steps away from primary production. 2 max animals provide a source of protein (essential for the human diet). Award [2] for correct final answer. crops capture energy directly from primary source. 900 = 99. 2 there is energy lost from respiration and waste production at each level within a food web. additional benefit that they are working animals. therefore it is more efficient. 3 max 80 . (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) 900 – 6. animals convert vegetation to food that would not be available to humans directly. 893. 2 max heat.65.3% loss. produce diverse products (milk/meat/blood/wool).6 = 893. respiration. feces.

Both answers needed to receive [1]. country A has a larger population than country B. (i) country A: footprint X.(ii) Award [1] for two inputs. (a) (b) country A is an expanding population. Award [1] for two outputs.g. country A has a high proportion of young people/wide base. country B: footprint Y. e. country A has low proportion of elderly/narrow top whereas country B has a higher proportion of elderly people/wider top. for milk production IN P U T S In p u t O U TPU TS O u tp u t fo o d / g ra s s / s ila g e Im p a c t p o s s ib le p o llu tio n o f w a te r c o u r s e s fr o m f e r t i l is e r s a n d e f f l u e n t In p u t m ilk Im p a c t tra n s p o rt o f m ilk a n d su b se q u e n t p ro c es sin g u s e s fu e l a n d th u s h a s a n im p a c t O u tp u t w a s te d ru g s a n d s u p p le m e n ts Im p a c t d ru g s m a y e n te r h u m a n fo o d c h a in Im p a c t w a s te m a y e n te r w a te r c o u rs e s a n d c au s e e n ric h m e n t Accept any other reasonable answers. 2 max 1 81 . Award [1] for each two associated impacts. whereas country B is a declining population. Award [1] for each two associated impacts. whereas country B has a low proportion of young people/narrowing base. 4 max [13] 66.

(b) increased demand for domestic goods/luxury items e. (i) vent/hydrogen sulfide → bacteria → shrimp/crabs/worms. agricultural development so greater use of water in irrigation (for intensive) farming. (a) water consumption has increased at a faster rate than population growth. ability to produce bioluminescence.(ii) country A is an LEDC and therefore. increased economic development so more water used in industry. people use more resources/more imported goods/generate more pollution. Figures are not needed. whereas country B is an MEDC and therefore. No mark scheme available 69. washing machines/swimming pools. (a) (b) (c) (i) insufficient light lower down for photosynthesis.g. 1 Possible adaptations could include: red colouration. 2 max 1 82 . long legs. To achieve [1] answer must begin with vent/hydrogen sulfide followed by bacteria. people use fewer resources/more local resources/generate less pollution. 1 (iii) 4/tertiary consumer/carnivore. 1 max [4] 67. 1 2 max [3] 68. cultural change towards greater personal hygiene. 1 (ii) depth/light/temperature/pressure.

Both answers needed to receive [1]. scientific research in monitoring populations. intensive fish farming as an alternative. wide net mesh. harsh environmental conditions. technocentric: [2 max] stress role of market (costs increase as stocks dwindle so fewer will be fished). community fisheries.g. upwelling currents. slow growing organisms/late maturity/low fecundity. 4 max 1 1 1 83 . Units needed. birds eating fish/plankton. ice caps/glaciers melting. high level of interdependence. Award [2] for each environmental philosophy. (iii) 3 thermal expansion. fishing quotas.g. consumer restraint.(ii) (iii) (d) (i) (ii) specialized species (they are vulnerable if niche is lost). (ii) possible way to offset global warming as large amounts of carbon could be stored/locked away. over fishing of stocks meant reduction in young fish and decline in populations. interest in species increased in early years as new technology allowed targeting of species. 1 max initial increase followed by gradual decline. (f) 9 (i) 39 000 gigatonnes/39 × 10 tonnes. 2 max fish removed by fishing industry. through technology e. short food chains. ecocentric: [2 max] small-scale technology should be adopted e. limits on catch size.

deep-ocean systems represent a biological resource that has not yet been fully understood. 4 max [23] 70. deep-ocean systems are potentially fragile and susceptible to damage from outside influences. little is known about the system. conservation issues are not raised/ known about. difficult to control/legislate for/police.(g) why little pressure [3 max] no country has ownership of the deep ocean and therefore. therefore. Award [3 max] if only why little public pressure or need for conservation is addressed. 2 max 84 . designed to show the structure/workings of an object/system/concept. deep-ocean systems are not occupied by humans. the need for conservation [3 max] deep-ocean systems represent an important biological resource. the deep ocean is remote and not visible to most people. require approximations to be made. (a) a simplified description.

per capita CO2 emissions. can be useful tools for getting people to think about their impact.g. enables the reasons for population growth to be understood. a quantification of what can be a very complex set of factors. model only as good as the data that goes in and it may be suspect. e. Award credit if other relevant models are evaluated. Accept other examples of feedback. assessing demands human populations make on their environments: [3 max] ecological footprints can be effective for comparing environmental impacts of different societies. very difficult to calculate figures e. role of feedback/ocean systems not fully understood. stresses the systems approach and interconnectedness of eco and social systems. able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. hugely complex in terms of numbers of factors involved in atmospheric systems so in process of oversimplification accuracy is lost. 9 max 85 . demographic transition model shows how population growth is linked to economic development.g. models are hugely simplified. war/disease.g. predicting climate change: [3 max] models can demonstrate anticipated changes to climate based on carbon emissions. conflicting models can show different effects in same place. but not all countries conform to the stages identified. and may not reflect the complex and unpredictable factors which affect growth rates e. population pyramids enable policy makers to chart what proportion of the population are in the fertile age bracket helping to predict likely birth rates. To receive full marks answers must have a balance of strengths and weaknesses. from this rates of natural increase can be calculated and population total predicted.(b) predicting the growth of human populations: [3 max] growth of human population depends (at a simple level) on birth rates and death rates.

education and economic development are important factors in bringing about cultural change. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. inheritance by male heirs and dowries for females. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 71. often the reasons for family size can be attributed to cultural factors so for policies to be effective they need to understand the underlying reasons why people decide to have a certain number of children. religious beliefs in catholic countries. rural communities may not be enough – programmes to educate males to be willing to use the contraception are also needed.(c) strategies for controlling growth include availability of contraception/ financial incentives/public information/legislative changes (e. making abortion illegal). remote. the need for male children in some cultures is linked to the traditional practices and structures e. provision of contraception in e. sometimes cultural factors indirectly play a role in fertility rates e. any society that supports itself in part by depleting essential forms of natural capital is unsustainable.g. e. on the “interest” or sustainable income generated by natural capital. 7 max Award [4 max] if no examples are used. 3 max 86 .g. sustainability means living within the means of nature. cultural norms may be ingrained/deeply felt and policies need to address these at the deepest level to change attitudes e.g. (a) use of resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration. culture and tradition evolve over time/cultural change can occur and governments can be a part of this.g.g. and minimizes damage to the environment. if human well-being is dependent on the goods and services provided by certain forms of natural capital.g. then long-term harvest (or pollution) rates should not exceed rates of capital renewal. education and employment opportunities for women lead to delayed marriages and lower birth rates. Examples can be of cultural practices and do not need to be located in named geographical contexts.

Award [3 max] if summits are described but not evaluated. organizations and individuals. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson was pivotal. 1972 was the first time that the international community met to consider global environment and development needs.g. and can play a pivotal role in setting targets and shaping action at both an international and local level e.g. which established initial definition for sustainable development. attitude change may occur without summits e. Accept any other reasonable answers. however. however. UN commissioned the Brundtland Report. UN Conference on Human Environment/Stockholm.(b) global summits can play a leading role in shaping attitudes to sustainability e. Rio Earth summit (in 1992) led to Agenda 21 and Rio declaration. summits may not achieve their initial goals. which set out key policies. in terms of shaping public opinion media can also be important e. on climate change/ Montreal (1987). and to legally binding conventions e. they may act as a catalyst in changing the attitudes of governments.g. countries can break these agreements and there is little the international community can do.g. 5 max 87 .g.

changing awareness of environmental implications of fossil fuel exploitation has increased demand for renewable. wind and tidal. cultural. wind power. firewood in India in India a huge proportion of population rely on local sources of firewood for energy because it is most readily available/cheap. leading to greater investment and research into alternatives e. coal and gas reserves in UK have historically meant they were an obvious choice for exploitation. environmental and technological factors: e.g. non-polluting sources. in a drive to develop economically the Indian government has sought to harness other sources of cheap energy to stimulate industrial development.g.(c) factors could include availability. but energy sources should be. specifically hydroelectric power. Award [5 max] if no societies are referred to. cultural fears based on perception of nuclear accidents/waste have made this an unpopular choice politically. which has always been used. which has sometimes been extremely controversial for social/environmental reasons e. the costs of exploitation have increased and alternative sources have been sought.g. 10 max Award credit if figures are used. Societies do not need to be contrasting.g. economic. Narmada dam. it is the traditional source of energy. say. e. and technology such as solar powered stoves is not available/ affordable. fossil fuels in UK availability – large oil. as the most easily accessible reserves have been used up. despite the aesthetic and environmental implications. as public awareness of threats of global warming has increased there has been a shift in attitudes towards. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 88 . Accept other reasonable responses.

these bacteria exist. to form nitrates which can be taken in by the plants in solution with water in the ground (nitrification). which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen.72. water will flow through soil (infiltration) to replenish groundwater (transfer). but people can also add nitrogen to the soil in the form of artificial fertilizers. excessive flow of water through a very porous soil will wash away the nitrates into rivers and sea (leaching). in decaying remains/in the soil. 5 max 89 . soil water may evaporate back into the atmosphere (transformation). in a peat bog (denitrification). so it has to be converted by bacteria. Transformation: [3 max] lead to an interaction within a system in the formation of a new end product/involve a change of state.g. water can flow from soil into plants by uptake into roots. by planting leguminous crops e. (a) Transfers: [3 max] transfers normally flow through a system and involve a change in location. the soil is the home of bacteria and if it becomes waterlogged near the surface the bacteria are unable to break down the decaying plant and animal matter. then the poorly decomposed matter forms peat on the surface e. few plants have the ability to absorb atmospheric nitrogen directly.g. peas/beans/clover.

variety of crops grown reduces the likelihood of exposure of soil at different times. e.g. e. Answer needs to show comparison.g. If systems are simply described award [6 max] 8 max 90 . application of fertilizer to retain fertility of soil. GM crops with shorter stalks to minimize wind damage and exposure of soil. fields allowed to be fallow/rest by crop rotation/soil is rested. USA – high technology approach to minimizing wind erosion.g. Award [1] for naming commercial and subsistence farming systems.g. Award [4 max] if no named systems are mentioned.(b) large-scale cereal cultivation in the prairies. Accept any other reasonable answers. whereas subsistence depends more on traditional practices. shortage of firewood means manure is burnt for fuel instead of being returned to land. use of specially adapted ploughs. which have evolved over time as people live on the land (ecocentric) e. terraces built by hand to reduce run-off. commercial farming system relies on a technological approach to managing the soil (technocentric). vegetable farming in Thailand – manure from working livestock allowed to fertilize soil. but system can break down when population pressure leads to abandonment of traditional methods. application of manure. small-scale agriculture e. tend to be low tech and simple. shelterbelts of trees planted.

.(c) systems are models with inputs.g.g. unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. outputs and storages. less vegetation → greater wind speeds → more soil erosion → less top soil → less vegetation etc. some processes of degradation are examples of positive feedback e. better storage (as less food decays). more efficient transport (as less food decays). and the importance of returning nutrients through the use of fertilizers. through irrigation/hydroponics. deforestation. these include soil erosion. with overgrazing an understanding of the balance of animals that can be supported before the critical threshold is reached will help farmers plan herd size. 5 max Do not accept arguments that are not linked to the concept of systems. deforestation on nearby slopes can have an impact on water flows and likelihood of soil erosion in flash flood conditions. will help farmers to compensate for the losses to overall nutrient balance by removing crops. but only if they lead to an increase in yield. activities such as overgrazing. bringing new land under production e. (c) more intense production. input of technology e. systems approach stresses the interconnectedness of soils and emphasizes the knock-on impact that actions can have. GM crops to increase yields/farm machinery. toxification and salinization. Accept responses with a step by step description that demonstrates that the rate of increase is increasing.g. additional fertilizers to increase yield. understanding that soils are living systems which are integral parts of ecosystems will help farmers to take a broader perspective when managing their land e.g. 1 1 max 2 max 91 . Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 73. rate of population increase increases over time. (a) accept answers between 10 and 14 billion. understanding this can help farmers to break the cycle. (b) exponential. seeing soils as renewable resources in equilibrium (inputs of nutrients through rain and organic matter) and outputs through natural leaching. Accept any other reasonable responses. Do not accept suggestions to limit food consumption as the question is about meeting increases in demand.

exact natures of the causal relationships are not explained.g. Catholic countries. economic costs of funding family planning/medical improvements. but far too simple. shows clearly how actions in one area can have a knock-on effect on the original development. Award [1 max] for general responses in which specific gases are not identified. emission of gases as food is processed/packaged. (a) nitrogen oxides/carbon dioxide from power station as fossil fuels are burned. but in this context it suggests development which has a positive role in enhancing the environment.(d) traditions e. can distinguish between positive and negative actions and consequences. for large family sizes. methane from ruminants (not shown on diagram). Award [0] if no reason is given for positive feedback.g. detail of what constitutes sustainable as opposed to inappropriate development is not clear. remote areas with no access to information/contraceptives. (a) (b) (c) positive feedback because the effects of the problem make the problem worse. simple. pressure for sons e. easy to see the connections. traditionally defined as development which meets the needs of the current generation without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs. religious resistance to contraception e. Award [1 max] if no reference is made implicitly or explicitly to figure 2. 2 max 92 . Award [1] for a strength and [1] for a weakness. 1 2 max 2 max [5] 75. greenhouse gases emitted in transportation and distribution as exhaust fumes. value of large populations for economic growth. Accept any other reasonable responses. lack of education. 2 max [6] 74. in farming countries causes increased birth rate to secure a son. few alternatives for women.g. and is dependent in some way on a healthy population.

(a) stops organic residues entering streams and causing pollution/eutrophication.(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) a pollutant is any substance/agent (such as heat) added to the environment by human activity. Award [0] if no reason given. Award [1 max] if no distinction is made between the terms. fossil fuel resources are still economically cheaper to exploit. inertia/culture/tradition means that non-renewable resources are favoured. Accept any other reasonable responses. (b) (i) reducing lawn size – lawns are restricted to grass species and succession cannot occur as they are cut regularly. nitrogen dioxide absorbs sunlight and breaks up to release oxygen atoms that combine with oxygen in the air to form ozone. whereas organic wastes can be treated and recycled back into the system in a positive way. Award [0] if MEDC stated with no reason. renewable resources are not able to meet current demand. when fossil fuels are burned nitrogen oxide is released. arable more energy efficient than the livestock. complex system. as energy will have been lost along the food chain due to respiration and excretion/10 % rule/second law of thermodynamics. 1 2 93 . locations for renewable energy sources are limited by available sites/politics. more food/nutrients provided for species. it reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. allowing plants and trees to grow alongside streams will increase the range of habitats for insect/bird species. sewage treatment. livestock more processing required and therefore more energy. the technology to harness renewable sources not available on a large scale. product processing and packaging is on a grander scale in MEDCs. Award [1 max] if the response has identified that pollutants are harmful to the environment but organic wastes do not need to be. MEDC because fertilizers and pesticides are factory produced. at a rate greater than that at which it can be rendered harmless by the environment/and which has an negative effect on the organisms within it. Award [0] if specific gases are not named. 2 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 [12] 76.

principles of island geography apply. complex food webs allow many niches. (a) (i) (ii) (b) a range of ecosystems offering a range of habitats/niches.(ii) (c) provides greater stability. more niches so more alternative food sources within the food web should anything happen to an individual species. island colonized relatively recently so species have not developed escape/evade strategies/not afraid of man. natural fertilizers may contribute positively to soil structure. artificial fertilizers lead to release of greenhouse gases as they are produced. species evolved independently in response to local conditions. a more sustainable strategy. high productivity can support numerous trophic levels. Award [2] if response links ideas: “great length of time for speciation and isolation from the mainland”. many niches so potential for new speciation is high. favourable abiotic conditions. 2 max 2 max [7] 77. historic isolation has allowed speciation leading to high endemism. No mark scheme available 78. removing grass cuttings takes nutrients away from the soil. natural fertilizers less likely to contain harmful toxins which may build up in species (biomagnification). cheaper. so there will be a net loss of nutrients. less likely to cause eutophication than artificial fertilizers. aesthetic/potential economic value of greater diversity. after Madagascar broke away from Gondwanaland. 2 max 2 max 1 94 . greater genetic diversity so better able to withstand diseases/change. hot/high insolation and humid/ high precipitation. a way of reducing overall waste/resources/energy used.

soil loses fertility and can no longer support plants. Accept flow diagrams. (in principle) natural interest can be harvested whilst natural capital is preserved.01%/3% . better survival of residual trees so niches/species protected. Award [1 max] if response is not explicitly linked to sustainability. Award [1 max] for responses not given in the form of a model. Award [3 max] if no climatic factors are mentioned. Lemurs. spider diagrams. Scorpions favour drier conditions and therefore inhabit the grassland site (1). or the fact that soil is naturally poor. Madagascar is a poor country and economic development is naturally a priority. incentive for local people to preserve local ecosystems if they can see the economic benefit. nets. site 1 is a disturbed habitat with few trees and arrested succession so lower diversity. an economic alternative to harmful actions.(c) (d) (e) (f) Response should be presented as a model. ecotourism can be put back into conservation programmes.g. soil exposed to rain and easily washed away/eroded. maintains more canopy so soil is protected from rain/sun. directly by logging/farming/mining/industry/settlement. 4 max 2 max (i) (18 482 ÷ 600 461 × 100 =) 3. soil exposed to high temperatures and baked/dried out. 2 max site 2 is a pristine (climatic) climax habitat so exhibits greatest diversity. site 3 will experience some disturbance but less than site 1. funds from e. recovery of natural systems after disturbance is more likely.g. some species may only be present in forested areas as this is where they find food e. etc. 3 max (i) 1 95 . soil degraded and useless as a resource for humans. nutrients leached away. protective forest cover removed. (ii) promotion of development and conservation is the favoured approach of the World Conservation strategy.

already rich in species/high biodiversity/biological hotspot. more people means more pressure will be put on fragile ecosystems. remote so difficult to police. government should not because population growth rate will naturally stabilize as the country develops. (g) (i) 36 million. Award credit for other reasonable arguments. reserve surrounded by forest which acts as a natural buffer zone. continuing population growth may lead to expansion and increased pressure from the settlement. many of which provide important goods and services and need to be protected. overpopulation is to do with numbers of people compared to resource use. no. Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed.(ii) strengths: 2 reserve is relatively large (50 km ). large population is needed to develop the country economically. (ii) yes. only one ecosystem type presented here. yes because carrying capacity is likely to be exceeded. weaknesses: remote so access for research/monitoring could be difficult. Madagascar will be able to increase its carrying capacity. one large reserve generally better than lots of little ones. reducing birth rates is often seen as being an important feature of countries that are further along in demographic transition. through technology which will develop as the country develops economically. government should because population growth rate is high (3 %) and population is putting increasing pressure on limited resources. 3 max 1 2 max [23] 96 . to be most effective other reserves needed in other locations. provided resources are used sustainably there is no reason why populations should not grow. isolated from human activity so less chance of disturbance. not clear whether there are economic opportunities in the reserve for local people. larger reserves are better.

g. this defined population could be at any scale e. Award [2 max] if no reference is made to an example. to meet its resource needs. ecological footprint is the (hypothetical) amount of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. MEDCs produce far more waste/pollution as a by-product of production. Award up to [2 max] for reference to a specific example (could be on an individual’s own ecological footprint or for a country). 5 max 7 max 97 . named country. this means demand for energy resources is high. and is a quantitative representation of carrying capacity. (a) (b) Responses should be constructed around a case study. this is partly because people in MEDCs have more disposable income. as LEDCs develop the difference between footprint size diminishes. LEDCs are often characterized by lower consumption as people have less to spend. an individual/a country. Award [1 max] if response quotes specific data about an ecological footprint. it should be sustainable over time. informal economy in LEDCs is responsible for recycling many resources.79. MEDCs (in general) have much greater rates of resource consumption than LEDCs. Award [4 max] if no mention is made of specific case studies. and also because resource use is often wasteful. and assimilate its waste.

to intensify land use/ cope more efficiently with waste. industry and agriculture needs to be considered. Precise figures are not required. e. GM crops for example can be used to increase yields on the same amount of land.g.g. greater demands are made on water resources. rest of is made up of lakes. availability of water for drinking. importing more resources from other countries. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity. e. reducing amount of pollution produced. as populations grow. 7 max 98 .(c) Award [1] for any of the following. reducing population to reduce resources use.6 % is fresh water. the funding to support technological change exists in MEDCs which currently face the biggest problem with their ecological footprints. Award [3 max] for justifying which is most likely to succeed. technology can be applied to all aspects of resource use e. so there is a real incentive to address the issue.g.g. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity technology can increase carrying capacity to cope with increased demand for resources as populations grow. populations will be forced to take drastic steps. renewable technologies but these could potentially have a huge impact on ecological footprints in the future. mass migration/civil unrest/wars may result. recycling resources. 0. when water supplies fail. the pace of technological change is speeding up which suggests new solutions will be found in the future to current resource problems. explaining why possible source of conflict: [5 max] water resources are now becoming a limiting factor in many societies. up to [3 max]. over 80 % is in ice caps and glaciers. many innovations are still in earlier stages e. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 80. (a) describing water budget: [3 max] only 2. reusing resources. improving efficiency of resource use. many societies are now dependent primarily on groundwater which is non-renewable.6 % is groundwater. reduced by reducing amounts of resources that are used. etc. transporting waste to other countries to deal with. but some indication of relative amounts is. as societies develop water needs increase. rivers..

and therefore not an option for LEDC. high economic outlay. ecocentric involves self-imposed restraint e. (a) (i) a country consuming resources and assimilating its wastes by using a land area 2. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 81. it also means working with natural processes. this implies individuals/local groups making changes which affect the whole. agribusiness/industrial agriculture. fertilizers/pesticides. 1 99 .g. Award [1 max] for any correct reference to Boserup’s theory. may include both engineering solutions and biotechnology solutions. 5 max description: [3 max] irrigation using pumped groundwater reserves. mechanization. Award [2 max] if ecocentrism is discussed without reference to local application. reuse of bath water. ecocentric involves emphasis on community involvement e. ecocentric involves education e. 6 max Award [4 max] if there is no evaluation. local awareness campaigns. disease-resistant cereals. may have environmental costs/not be environmentally sustainable.g. genetically modified plant species. as the choice of strategy may imply these.g.g. Award [1 max] for any statement which explains what a technocentric strategy might be.g. low technology irrigation.4 times larger than the size of the country. hydroponics is a good example of a technological solution. local tube well. rice with genes to produce more proteins and vitamins.(b) (c) ecocentrism involves an holistic world view. evaluation: [3 max] techno solutions may represent the only way to increase yield to meet demand. ecocentric focuses on basic needs of those below subsistence e. ecocentric involves emphasis on small-scale e. locally built micro dams. Features of ecocentrism do not need to be stated explicitly.

use of alternative energy technology. greater – smaller footprint. meat-rich – larger footprint. greater reliance – greater size. greater – larger footprint. Answers must specifically identify the link between man and climate for mark to be awarded. the addition of various atmospheric pollutants from industry may have changed our atmosphere (and as a consequence climate). per capita production of carbon waste. size of population. methane from rice growing/cattle farming is a greenhouse gas.(ii) (b) (i) level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. per capita consumption of food.g. more transport – larger footprint. greater – smaller footprint. Accept the converse form of any of the above e. heat produced by human activity (industry. greater – larger footprint. urban living) may have changed atmospheric systems (leading to global climate change). efficiency of agriculture. Atmospheric pollution would not be acceptable however atmospheric pollution caused by industry would gain a mark. change in our natural environment/albedo by humans including deforestation/agricultural activity/urbanization may have changed climate indirectly. greater – smaller footprint. meat/vegetable rich diets. 3 max 1 max 100 . technology can equally reduce the footprint if it improves efficiency of agricultural production/energy use/alternative energy sources/reduces carbon pollution. CO2 from burning fossil fuels is a greenhouse gas. more imported resource. productivity of local biome. level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. less reliance smaller size. more technology more resources therefore larger footprint. a country’s level of technology will influence its footprint. greater – larger footprint.

ocean current changes leading to global energy change.g. volcanic activity leading to changes in atmospheric composition.  (accuracy in the position  both high points and low points  of points is not essential) annotation e. changes in the Sun’s radiation output. (iii) (c) (i) changes in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun changing the amount of available incoming radiation thus influencing global climate. natural dynamic variation in the atmospheric system leading to climate change. e. 3 2 max 1 101 . UK climate becoming warmer and wetter/Ethiopia becoming hotter and drier. plate tectonics causing mountain building and affecting air flows. sunspot activity. temperature fluctuations over the last 2000 years.g.g. e. plate tectonics shift position of land masses.(ii) Sketch graph should show the following: steady rise over last 100 years. industrial revolution/marking of little ice age.

dealing with changing climate conditions. 4 biological area(s) exhibiting a similar climate/weather that supports a distinctive flora and fauna. UK: climate change will cause policy change which will change behaviour and influence footprint size. multiple 1 metre quadrats). due to increased temperature more energy used for air conditioning thus larger footprint. more flooding. e. crop type and livestock are suited to climatic conditions. and abundance within species (expressed as number of individuals/ percentage cover).g. 3 max [10] 83.g. 2 max [13] 82. No mark scheme available 102 . 1 (ii) N = total number of organisms within a population. 1 (i) (ii) biomes are defined by climatic conditions/amount of available light. arable farming is limited to geographical bands which have sufficient sunshine and temperature levels and moderate amounts of precipitation. e. may require more flood defenses and thus more resources. warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local agriculture and therefore reduce footprint size. Simpson’s index would be used to quantify diversity.(ii) e. new climate may require new building styles. which require resources which may increase footprint size.g. 1 (iii) Candidates may describe a number of possible methods but their design should include the following: method must allow for the collection of data that is scientifically representative and appropriate (e. warmer temperatures may require less heating thus smaller footprint. thus larger footprint. indigenous agriculture is dictated by climate. rice fields require high levels of precipitation and high light and temperatures. method must allow for the collection of data on species present. (a) (b) (i) the number of species and their abundance found within a habitat. temperature and available precipitation.g. warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local natural vegetation and therefore reduce footprint size. Accept other reasonable answers of equivalent weight and validity. method must include expression of data analysis.

influence: is more vulnerable to edge effects. less protection for forest species. 68 331 logged: × 100% = 96%. influence: is more vulnerable to unmanaged human activity outside park. allows research and thus more understanding of threatened species and their protection. (a) (b) (c) reduces direct impact/edge effects of more rigorous human activity in production zone. difference: buffer zone is in direct contact with edge at some points and so. 2 max unlogged: logging likely to remove larger Ficus/fig trees in harvesting host trees. 345 Award [2] if both correct values are given. raises revenue from ecotourism to support conservation management. raises awareness of conservation issues. strict reserve is (proportionally) smaller and so. production zone is (proportionally) smaller and so. Award [1 max] if either one or both values are incorrect but working is shown correctly. may be less effective in raising sufficient revenue/ gaining support from local people. logging processes and transport may aid in dispersal of Ficus/fig trees. 2 max 2 max 103 . 2 max difference: influence: difference: influence: (i) (ii) 60 × 100 = 88%. through ecotourism/education. Ficus/fig trees may establish themselves more easily with increased light/ reduced canopy due to logging.84. Award [2] if answers include both a difference and an influence on success. encourages support of local communities by making some provision for them. difference: overall shape is more elongated/boundary more reticulated and so. logging may selectively remove competitors of Ficus/fig trees.

g. primates. “trees” is not acceptable but “pine trees” would be. it limits growth of mature keystone species e. Be lenient with any strict sense of a “species” i. Award [1] for each valid difference with appropriate named location up to [2 max]. transport/noise/soil compaction/erosion. 2 max (while all four parishes given make direct contact with a large production zone in the park) other parishes only in contact with buffer zone/have no access to production zone (where management is less stringent) e. that size of groups is similar in both areas. 1 max adjacent areas are similar in all other relevant respects. it removes nutrients stored in harvested biomass.g. abundance of Black and white colobus is more in logged area/less in unlogged. that areas are indeed adjacent (map would suggest that they are at least 10–15 km apart). they form smaller but more numerous groups in lower density forest. 1 max (iii) (f) abundance of six/most species is less in logged area/more in unlogged area.g. Ficus/fig trees.(d) (e) any appropriate example in which it is shown that many other species within ecosystem depend upon it. 1 max it interferes with the success of other species than the crop species e. Karusandara/Dura/Nkongooro. they prefer lower tree density. that data was recorded at same season/year. they feed on trees not harvested by loggers. Award [0] if no species is identified.g. Bigodi/Busiriba. Award [2] if it is shown that more than two groups depend upon it and [1] if it is shown that two other groups depend upon it. it causes incidental damage through e. Kigaraale.e.g. (i) (ii) (g) 2 (Black and white colobus more abundant in logged area because) less competition from other primates. some parishes have very little direct access to park at all/minimal boundary to the park e.g. 2 max 104 . some parishes may benefit financially from tourist traffic outside park and so not dependent on park resources e.

(i) difference: fewer DGs involved in energy conservation technology. reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs.(h) cause: have traditionally depended upon forest resources for subsistence. strategy: offer agreements whereby they can obtain certain traditional resources. strategy: revenue sharing. strategy: develop methods of preventing animals from entering crops. cause: poverty in the face of great wealth evident in park management/tourists. difference: more DGs monitoring illegal forest use. reason: have more international contacts. 2 max Award [1] for any acceptable cause and [1] for a relevant strategy. difference: more SOs promoting research. difference: more SOs seeking funding. difference: more DGs forming policy and law. reason: less direct benefit to them possibly than more localized PAs working together/less technical understanding than SOs. strategy: offer practical/financial assistance to set up sustainable projects. reason: have more technical understanding. Award [1] for any acceptable significant difference and [1] for an appropriate explanation. cause: damage to crops from park animals. reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs/more personnel/ resources available. cause: cannot achieve sustainable provision outside of forest. 2 max 105 .

discussion: revenue sharing provides very little money.g. evidence: some parishes have signed agreements – figure 8. evidence: letters show awareness/support among local people – figure 7. discussion: less than recommended in model. but this is a major hurdle. so impressive achievement. timber). evidence: incentives such as controlling crop damage/sustainable projects/revenue sharing are in place to encourage support of locals – figure 8. letters also indicate there are still infringements of restrictions. rainforest ecosystem of particular global significance. renewable are natural resources that have a sustainable yield/harvest equal to/less than their natural productivity. whereas replenishable are abiotic and depend on abiotic processes. fossil fuels). study only reports how groups see their own role without any objective assessment. Award [2 max] if no discussion is given.g. (e. (e. food crops. (a) non-renewable are natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment and used (e. replenishable are non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the Sun for their replenishment. 3 max 106 . evidence: many decentralized groups/local parishes do have an environmental agenda – figure 9/figure 10.g. discussion: only 29 % of population by time of report. evidence: many aspects of original model are implemented – figure 2. renewable are biotic and depend on biotic processes. groundwater). 4 max Award [1] for any reasonable evidence derived from resource material and [1] for any appropriate point of discussion. Award [3 max] if no figure numbers are given. [25] 85. discussion: provides good holistic approach to conservation. discussion: no mention in these reports of this being associated with Kibale specifically. discussion: small number of letters/anecdotal/from only three parishes.(j) evidence: strict reserve has been established – figure 2.

e. and underground storage tanks/landfills/septic tanks/mining run-off. knock-on impacts on agriculture. ozone depleting substances already released remain active for long periods. as less water is available for irrigation and yields decline. excessive use of surface water means that groundwater supplies are not being replenished. for groundwater: human actions damaging resource (examples need to be related to groundwater not other water resources): human activity is releasing pollutants so water quality is lost. there has been a decline in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere of about 4 % every ten years. Award up to [5 max] for human actions damaging resource and up to [5 max] for possible effects.(b) Award [1] for a named example of replenishable natural capital. increase in tensions/conflict over the limited resource.g. e. so a thinning/hole allows more UVB wavelengths through. e. excessive abstraction/extraction/groundwater mining means water tables are lowered. and reduction of plankton populations. higher costs of water for industry. CFCs are found in refrigerants and propellants. with knock on effects for economy. which has knock-on effects for their consumers (zooplankton)/for food chains/webs. this has consequences such as increases in skin cancer/increased mutations. 8 max 107 . possible effects: reduced availability of water resources.g. over Antarctica.g. sources of pollution include agricultural products. pollutants enhance the rate of destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. damage to plant tissues. possible effects: ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths (270–315 nm) of ultraviolet light from passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. for ozone: human actions damaging resource: human activity releases ozone depleting substances such as CFCs/ halons/NOx. ozone/groundwater. ozone depletion has lead to “holes” in the ozone layer e.g. further contaminating supply. can lead to salt water intrusion in coastal areas.

often local methods have evolved to be more sustainable/appropriate for the local environment.g. individual/small-scale community action can be very effective for managing resources sustainably e.g. weaknesses: but ecosystems can exist at many scales. ecosystems are affected by global processes e. global warming. and that the earth is a global control system of surface temperature. sometimes problems need international agreements e.g. evaluation: Award [5 max] strengths: sustainable management means ensuring resources are not degraded/ natural capital is not used up. 7 max Evaluation needs strengths and weaknesses.g. point source pollution. global perspective is useful because many problems have global consequences e. CITES for trade across boundaries to ensure populations are big enough to sustain the species. human actions can be culturally specific e. atmospheric composition and ocean salinity. Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed. understanding that our actions can have an impact on others is good for getting societies to think about impacts on different generations. it compares the Earth to a living organism in which feedback mechanisms maintain equilibrium.g. and so a more local perspective is sometimes appropriate.(c) description: Award [3 max] the Gaia hypothesis was developed by James Lovelock.g. hydrological cycle/ atmospheric system. traditional farming methods. global perspective stresses the interrelationships between systems so knock-on effects are reduced. not just in different countries. recycling. the initial hypothesis was that the biomass modifies the conditions on the planet to make conditions on the planet more hospitable (full homeostasis). some environmental problems are local in nature e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 108 . so understanding knock-on effects outside of national boundaries helps governments to be more responsible. so that future generations can continue to use the resource.

societies/ governments need to manage the numbers of people in order to support populations indefinitely. 5 max 4 max 109 . if resources are used more frugally/efficiently then carrying capacity can support a larger population. total resource consumption increases even faster than population. where a change in density leads to inhibition/reversal of that change. both factors usually operate on populations. this limit can be. and may be either internal or external. exceeded in human populations due to import of resources from other systems. which are necessary to reduce population to a level within the control of density-dependent factors. i. however they are often responsible for high mortalities (e. carrying capacity tends to limit the total resource consumption. density-dependent factors operate as negative feedback mechanisms leading to stability. density-independent factors are not influenced by changes in population density and so do not lead directly to stability. populations either have to stop growing or consume less. bush fire). Award [4 max] if statement is not referred to. more energy is needed to supply goods/services to more people/ more land is needed to feed these people. generally however per capita resource consumption increases over time. hence when density-dependent factors do change.g.e. winter. (a) (b) as population increases this tends to increase resource consumption.86. unless per capita resource consumption is reduced. this in turn limits population growth and/or per capita resource consumption. density-independent factors are of particular importance for r-strategists. and is. if carrying capacity is exceeded there will be consequences in terms of demand for resources not being met. it can also be exceeded in the short term but not sustainably. this statement is suggesting that as well as managing resource use. thus. fluctuations can be dramatic. in order for resource consumption to be sustainable population growth must remain within the limits of the carrying capacity. carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum number of a species/load that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. seasonal flooding.

e. agroforestry/small-scale shifting cultivation is a method of farming which mimics natural processes so that ecosystems can regenerate/equilibrium can be restored. human activities can be the source of high levels of disturbance and thus ecosystems are pushed beyond a point of no return/ equilibrium is irreversibly changed. e. successful ecological management involves recognizing how much disturbance an ecosystem can cope with. combination of human activities on reefs through overfishing/ coral bleaching/ pollution have weakened the reefs so that they are less able to cope with natural threats like El Niño events. e. and that while human activity may not directly cause loss of equilibrium. e.g. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 110 .g. 9 max Award [1] for any point of equal weight and validity about the importance of understanding equilibrium and [1] for any example of an ecosystem used to show how equilibrium has been upset by human activities. it may leave a system more vulnerable to natural disturbance.g. grazing/burning arrests the succession of forest. equilibrium of aquatic ecosystems can be upset by the addition of excessive nutrients/through eutrophication. where the nutrient balance becomes upset.g.g. Award [5 max] if no examples are mentioned. human activities can interrupt succession so that the ultimate equilibrium. human activities can be tailored to match and fit in with natural levels of disturbance within ecosystems. is not reached (plagioclimax). e.g. succession). some ecosystems undergo long-term changes to their equilibrium while retaining integrity to the system (e. coral reefs coping with storm damage/grassland ecosystems coping with bushfires/tropical rainforest coping with loss of big trees due to storms. the climatic climax. e.g. tropical deforestation on a grand scale does not allow regeneration to take place.(c) a steady-state equilibrium is a common property of most ecosystems. ecosystems have a tendency to return to their original equilibrium following natural disturbance/most ecosystems are able to cope with natural changes to their equilibrium.

some resources not continuously available. Accept other reasonable responses. (do not accept “don’t know better”) environmental systems increase their disorder/all energy ends up as heat. renewable resource/once turbines built it is cheap. plentiful supply at present/cheaper than burning coal or oil. Credit advantages and disadvantages for an incorrect source to avoid error carried forward. High: 106 tonnes and low: 106 tonnes (units required). only available when wind blows/not always near population centres. pressure to meet quotas for renewable energy. Both correct values required for [1]. Do not credit answers which just state the second law without relating it to environmental systems. country does not have that resource e. (b) (c) (d) inertia/satisfied with existing system. poor design of equipment/buildings e. standby on electrical equipment/phantom loads. 3 max 2 max 2 max 1 max [8] 88. education.g. people desire a better lifestyle which is equated with wanting more e. near sea for wave. burning releases carbon dioxide/non-renewable. wind. (a) Energy source Advantage Disadvantage natural gas. Award [1 max] for natural gas/wind. people are selfish/inertia/tragedy of the commons. bigger car/having a fridge. Do not credit “cheap” with no qualifier. environmental systems increase their order so go against the law for a short time. (a) (i) (ii) Sustainable yield: rate of increase is natural capital/resource that can be exploited/taken/harvested without depleting the original stock. Accept any reasonable advantages or disadvantages. HEP.g. country wishes to increase diversity of energy sources.g. Award [1] for each pair of correct responses of advantages and/or disadvantages.87. OWTTE. 1 1 111 .

because more fish are left in the sea to breed and increase stocks/ the trend in low intensity is to have larger catch in year 4 compared with year 4 in high intensity. (a) (b) (c) Crude death rate: number of deaths per thousand individuals in a population per year. international boundaries make legislation difficult. miscalculation of how many are available. 2 1 [10] 89. the share of global population is decreasing because the rate of increase is much higher in LEDCs.g. Accept other reasonable responses. Do not credit reasons why birth rates are decreasing. Aquatic: most food from higher trophic levels/bigger fish/higher up food chain so much energy has been lost/energy conversions more efficient as fewer warm-blooded animals which use most energy to keep body temperature stable/more efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy).(iii) (iv) (b) (c)  48  24   100  = 100% difference  24   low intensity. Accept other reasonable responses. short-term gain is more important than longer-term growth of the industry. 112 . (d) 1 fish farming/change fishing grounds/eat alternative food sources/ new technologies to ensure immature fish not caught/less wastage/ research into alternative fish species/monitoring population numbers carefully to check stocks/research in GM fish (suitable for aquaculture). 1 1 Award [1] for diagram which shows contracting population and large numbers of older people. 2 2 max Terrestrial: most food harvested from lower trophic levels/as crops/plants/ herbivores/ cattle etc. e. oceans are huge/vast areas. so less heat/respiratory losses/more efficient fixation of solar energy as does not have to get through water first/ less efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy). ignorance of how “in danger” a stock is. if starving will break the law to catch food/hard for law-keepers to monitor catch.

population size on x axis. Natural capital: natural resources that can produce goods and services/the natural stock/storage of a resource. views can be diverse and hard to assess. 2 (total fertility is) the (average) number of children per woman in her lifetime/her reproductive years. larger footprint because: older people have more leisure time so fly/have more holidays/live in larger houses. no longer care about saving energy/resources/consume the same as middle-aged adults whereas children consume less. 2 max [7] 90. female. (b) it has no economic value/not easy to quantify. 2 2 max 113 . (a) Natural income: yield/output that can be used by people without diminishing the capital/ same as sustainable yield. are more aware of environmental impacts so use less energy. 1 smaller footprint because: older people eat less/go out less/fly less/ travel less. value of resource usually measured in economic terms. age ranges on y axis. Accept other reasonable responses. need to consider aesthetic or intrinsic value which is subjective.F e m a le A g e ra n g e M a le (d) (e) P o p u la tio n Award [1] for labels – male.

precipitation rates are low. temperature above freezing/warmer earlier in 1991–2004. (ii) climate change/global warming/natural variation/increased combustion of fossil fuels. especially in winter months/November to April. global warming changing vegetation and glaciers melting. it is dark for 4 months of the year. temperature is low due to low intensity of solar insolation. precipitation lower in every month in 1991–2004. (i) 1 2 max warmer in summer/June to September in both periods. total precipitation is more evenly distributed in 1991–2004. 3 max Accept any other reasonable suggestion. anomalously low precipitation in October 1991–2004. smaller temperature ranges in 1991–2004. Accept converse answer in each case but do not credit both. by tropospheric ozone damaging forests. drier/lower precipitation in the summer/June to August in both periods. water is frozen for most of year in permafrost. snow cover prevents light reaching plants for part of year. Accept any other reasonable suggestion. photochemical smog obscures the view. chimneys/car parks may be built and are visual pollutants. 1 114 . air pollution can cause breathing difficulties/produce bad smell which spoils experience of people at viewpoint. infertile soil due to low temperatures/acidity/waterlogging/low nutrient turnover.(c) by acid deposition which kills conifers. (ii) water/light/temperature is limiting. No mark scheme available 92. atmospheric particulates obscure the view. Award [2 max] if either precipitation or air temperature are not mentioned. temperatures consistently higher in 1991–2004. 2 max [6] 91. total precipitation lower in 1991–2004. precipitation is lowest in months when light levels are highest. (a) (b) (i) tundra.

Svalbard reindeer: (solar insolation) → small arctic plants → reindeer . human impact on Svalbard may destabilize that food chain. OTTWE 2 max w o lf w a rb le fly 2 max 1 115 . positive feedback amplifies/increases change/leads to (exponential) deviation away from an equilibrium. smaller populations are more likely to crash. adaptation to local conditions/no predators so no need for long legs/natural selection.(c) (i) (ii) geographical isolation/no interbreeding with mainland reindeer. Svalbard’s food chain is less stable because. it has fewer trophic levels/interrelationships are simpler/ chain not web. whereas negative feedback damps down/ neutralizes/counteracts any deviation away from an equilibrium. Mainland reindeer: (solar insolation) → reindeer moss/lichen → wild reindeer (iii) (d) (i) Award [1 max]. 2 max Do not award marks if arrows are drawn onto the table in the incorrect direction. Accept any other reasonable suggestion. low nutrient value of food. Award [1 max]. Do not award mark for stating wild reindeer food chain is less stable. Accept other valid reasons. Do not credit food chain for mainland reindeer if warble flies are missing. habitat covers a smaller land area. no predators to manage/control Svalbard reindeer population.

so cannot produce viable seed for farmers to plant the following season. coal dust deposited on snow or ice reduces albedo/reflection of solar energy/increases solar energy absorbed so ice and snow melt. 1 116 . (e) (i) (ii) (f) (i) very cold/permafrost/frozen. jobs/tourism revenue.(ii) Positive feedback: [2 max] methane gas released from mining increases global warming/ greenhouse effect. little chance of civil unrest/little human disturbance. albedo is further reduced. dust particles washed out of atmosphere by extra precipitation. Accept any other valid example. releasing more methane so temperature increases further. Do not accept answers which relate to general advantages of having a seed vault or benefits to Svalbard e. so frozen soil thaws. with no snow cover. wild plants are often used for developing new drugs/providing genes to give disease resistance/ability to withstand adverse conditions to other species. maintaining genetic diversity of food crops is vital for breeding new varieties to cope with disease/adverse conditions. methane gas is released so temperatures increase further. so the genetic diversity they provided for development of new varieties is lost.g. 4 max 2 max many rare/endangered wild plants are threatened with extinction by human activity/natural hazards. few natural hazards. Negative feedback: [2 max] dust particles in the atmosphere act as condensation nuclei leading to more precipitation. 2 max latitude: 76° (accept 75°–77°) – 81° (accept 80°–82°) North/N. many older varieties of food crops are no longer grown. higher temperatures melt permafrost. some transgenic crop varieties have a “terminator” gene. so atmospheric dust/precipitation levels return to normal. low running costs/little electricity used. ecosystems may become unstable if key species disappear/ diversity is reduced. as permafrost melts. the species and/or genetic diversity of wild plants may be culturally and aesthetically significant (and therefore worth preserving).

yet the capacity of fresh water stores to replenish themselves is not unlimited. countries want their own oil and gas supply for strategic reasons. access becomes easier as ice thins/areas become ice free for more of the year. increasing demand for resources to sustain increased expectations of higher standards of living. this has had knock-on effects on lake species/water supplies for lake communities/fishing industries/local climate. 2 max [25] 93. the two rivers (Syr Darya and Amu Darya) which input water into the Aral Sea had been diverted to irrigate cotton fields upstream in Uzbekistan. demands on water resources are increasing due to population increase/ increasing demands by agriculture/industry. increasing demand for resources due to population growth. water has become contaminated with pesticide run-off and salt due to evaporation and reduced freshwater supplies. hence. (a) (b) use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration. insufficient water reached the Aral causing it to shrink to a third of its original size. which has shrunk in size and been degraded by unsustainable use of water resources. improved technology is now available for coping with difficult Arctic weather and subsea conditions. 2 6 max 117 . recently discovered new reserves in the area. therefore water resources need to be managed to ensure demand does not exceed supply. Award [1] for naming an appropriate case study.(ii) exploitation of more inaccessible resources becomes economically more viable as reserves diminish/prices rise. and minimizes damage to the environment. river water has been harvested for irrigation and used at a rate greater than it can be replenished by fresh water. increased demand for oil and gas encourages further exploitation in new areas. Examples may demonstrate sustainable or unsustainable use. an example where this has not happened is the Aral Sea (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). Answers must relate to an increasing trend.

10 max Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to relate the value system to how the resources are used. the Dogon operate a mixed farming system with cultivation of millet and tobacco. building materials. ecosystems are seen as economic resources which can be exploited through work in order to develop economies/ meet needs. but the scale and technological power of these systems means that in the past this has led to exploitation of resources at unsustainable rates e. fuel and medicine) that they need.g.g. but increasingly it is being argued that ecosystems should be seen as natural capital which can yield an income if exploited sustainably. just as in the Dogon system. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 118 . for example for fishing catches. and so quotas are set. e. the massive deforestation of ancient forests in Europe for fuel and building materials. respect is an essential part of the relationship between the Dogon and their environment. e. but the bush is also the home of potentially vindictive spirits.g. Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to compare the societies. Award [1] for stating two societies which demonstrate significant differences. the Dogon people in West Africa and industrial capitalism of Western Europe. in industrial capitalism economic growth (and the consumption patterns that sustain growth) can be idealized/worshipped in place of the spiritual dimension of an ecosystem.(c) e. Award [5 max] for each society.g. wood is not wasted and wooden objects are left to deteriorate once no longer useful. trees are particularly respected. subsistence depends on harnessing the power of the bush through work. to preserve the natural capital. livestock herding and hunter gathering. the ecosystem (bushland) surrounding their settlement is seen as the source of all the resources (food.

it also demonstrates why there is a limit to the number of trophic levels that can be supported.94. 90% of all malaria cases are in Africa. DDT is not biodegradable and accumulates in the tissues of living organisms (bioaccumulation) damaging or even eliminating populations. a continent least able to deal with the socio-economic consequences of the disease.g. (a) Award [2 max]. but DDT also kills other insects which may be natural predators of the mosquitoes. 6 max 119 . Award [2 max].g. hunting. (b) 4 max Disadvantages of banning DDT: [3 max] DDT effectively killed malarial mosquitoes. e. target insects can develop resistance. (units required) pyramid of numbers represents the number of individuals in each trophic level within a food chain. incidence of malaria has increased as a result. and why species at the top of the pyramid may be more vulnerable to e. pyramid of biomass represents the standing stock of each trophic level measured in units such as grams of biomass or energy per sq m. because DDT becomes more concentrated along food chains (bioconcentration) top carnivores tend to be most affected and these may play a very significant role in maintaining balance of whole ecosystem. and since the ban populations of mosquitoes have increased. Advantages of banning DDT: [3 max] environmental side-effects of DDT have been avoided by banning its use.g. pyramid structure of ecosystems means that non-biodegradable toxins can become concentrated in upper levels. so the ban allows natural balance to be restored. e. malaria is a disease to which children are particularly vulnerable and has huge socio-economic implications.

reducing losses due to pests/disease with chemical treatments. avoiding depletion of nutrients by rotating crops. Allocation of marks can be split flexibly for part (c). but choice of fertilizer might reflect their values e. beans. reducing wastage by increasing field size e. avoiding over-intensive farming by allowing fields fallow/rest periods. higher yielding varieties of rice.g. Contrasting approaches of ecocentric and technocentric farmers: both ecocentric and technocentric farmers might apply fertilizers. improving yields through irrigation. reducing loss of nutrients due to soil erosion by terracing fields. technocentrics might favour high tech solutions such as GM crops whereas ecocentrics might be concerned about the ethical issues of GM. reducing loss of nutrients/topsoil due to wind erosion by planting shelter belts. high-tech irrigation systems. use of GM/Green Revolution crops e. through removal of hedgerows. 8 max Award credit for any other answers of equivalent validity. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 120 . ecocentrics often express a lack of faith in large-scale technology so might oppose strategies used by agribusiness e.(c) Methods for improving productivity of soil: improving fertility of the soil with (organic fertilizers/manure/chemical) fertilizers. avoiding over-compaction of soil through use of appropriate/low impact technology.g. relevance and substance. Award [6 max] if no contrast is made between ecocentric and technocentric farmers.g.g. improving nitrogen fixation by planting leguminous crops e. ecocentric using manure (to work with natural processes).g. whereas technocentric might use chemical fertilizers.