1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

The pedosphere is the biotic / non-biotic link between
the lithosphere and the biosphere;
there is a two-way movement of water between the
pedosphere and the hydrosphere;
there is an exchange of atmospheric gases with the pedosphere;
atmospheric processes influence the pedosphere
(e.g. through soil erosion);
atmospheric factors will affect soil forming processes
(e.g leaching, weathering);
soil organisms are part of the biosphere but also part of the soil;
biosphere contributes detrital / organic matter to the soil;

5 max

Sandy soils are characterised by large grains and large pore spaces
whereas clay soils are characterised by small grains and small pore spaces;
sand soils are therefore freely drained (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but are subject to water logging);
clay soils have a better nutrient content due to the clay humus complex
whereas sand soils do not;
sand soils tend to have a blocky or crumb structure favouring root
growth whereas clay soils tend to have a platy structure which can
inhibit root growth;
clay soils are traditionally more difficult to work / plow (heavy and sticky
when wet, hard when dry), sandy soils are generally easier to work;
clay soils heat and cool quickly, sandy soils exhibit a slower
thermal response;

5 max

Award [1] for naming systems. e.g. N. America cereal farming
nomadic herding in Tanzania
Commercial measures tent to be large scale;
high technology;
and may be supported by government initiatives;
examples of measures:
addition of fertilizers;
crop rotation;
contour plowing;
plowing technology which leaves roots in soil;
strip cultivation;
tree belts as wind breaks;

1

subsistence measures tend to be small scale;
low technology;
ad hoc;
based on traditional practise;
and may be supported by grass-roots initiatives;
example of measures:
terraces;
application of organic fertilizers (manure);
debris dams;
shifting cultivation;
tree planting;
agroforestry;

7 max
[17]

2.

(a)

(i)

the mass of organic material in organisms or ecosystems,
usually per unit area;

1

dry weight measurements are taken;
these figures are then extrapolated to estimate total biomass;

2

(i)

tropical rainforest;

1

(ii)

ideal growing conditions due to high temperatures (typically 28 °C);
and high rates of precipitation (typically over 2000 mm p.a.);
continuous growing season;
due to geographical location in equatorial area with sun
directly overhead;
for much of the year and energy of sun therefore concentrated
in this zone;

3

biomass is per unit area, productivity is production per unit time;
NPP is the quantity of biomass potentially available to
consumers in an ecosystem;

2

(i)

temperature deciduous woodland;

1

(ii)

deep humus means lots of organic matter and this leads to greater
fertility than acid humus (due to pine needles), therefore
coniferous is less fertile;
this soil has less leaching than the temperate coniferous
– i.e. fewer minerals washed out;
and parent material not as weathered as in tropical rainforest;
therefore likely to be contributing more minerals;

(ii)

(b)

(iii)

(c)

3 max
[13]

2

3.

(a)

(i)

1

X
(ii)

(b)

(i)

(ii)

(c)

(d)

Y

population growth will eventually slow down as food supply
becomes a limiting factor;
population growth exponentially (geometric rate);
and food supply grows arithmetically / population
growth outstrips food supply increase;

1

2 max

as population grows more and more babies are born
and each one is able to have children and so
the rate of growth accelerates;
food supply does not growth as rapidly, this may be due
to a number of factors e.g. limits to soil fertility / availability
of technology / patterns of land ownership;

2

To obtain marks, candidates must refer to a specific named farming
which may be terrestrial or aquatic e.g. shifting cultivation,
South East Asia.
possible improvements could be in:
farming inputs e.g. green revolution;
irrigation;
storage or distribution;
social or organizational changes e.g. in land tenure or
cooperative harvesting;

3 max

introduce and encourage contraception;
setting up family planning clinics;
compulsory sterilization;
advertising campaigns;
making abortion legal;
cutting maternity benefits;
education of women to have greater personal
and economic independence;

2 max

3

(e)

attitudes to contraception e.g. religious objections;
traditional societies and the desire for male offspring;
early marriage ages;
and the desire to appear fertile;
lack of other opportunities for women;
Credit can be given for the use of examples / case
studies to illustrate these points.

3 max

[14]

4.

(a)

6
In s o la tio n
1972000

In s o la tio n
185000

O pen sea

F jo rd
3 4 7 0 P h y to p la n k to n

F a rm e d s h rim p

847

461
K aw ai

S a lm o n
26
4 .3

410

6 .2

572

In u it

4 .1 M a n a g in g s a lm o n

1 2 .5 O th e r h u m a n a c tiv itie s
1 4 M a n a g in g s h rim p fa rm

F is h in g fo r
k a w a i 6 .7

Award [1] for each two correct labels.

(b)

(i)

(ii)

the quantity of organic matter produced or solar energy
fixed, by photosynthesis in green plants per unit area
per unit time;

1

net primary productivity is GPP less the biomass / energy
lost by plants through respiration;

1

4

(iii)

(c)

nutrient and mineral availability;
temperauture;

kaway

2

847 – 572
× 100 = 32.5% ;
847

461 – 410
× 100 = 11.1% ;
461
kaway is more efficient;
salmon

(d)

3 max

in terrestrial systems most food is harvested from relatively
low tropic levels, but in aquatic systems most food is
harvested from higher trophic levels;
energy conversions along the food chain may be more
efficient in aquatic systems;
initial fixing or available solar energy by primary producers
tend to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection
of light by water;

3

(e)

salmon is a source of income as well as a food source;

1

(f)

technology likely to be simpler;
methods likely to be more traditional;
environmental impact will probably be smaller;
more likely to be sustainable in the long term;

3 max
[20]

5.

(a)

(b)

use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration;
and minimizes damage to the environment;
Give credit if concept of replenishable capital is mentioned.

2

Give full credit for either a brief discussion of several human
actions or a full discussion of one. Credit should be given
for use of examples / case studies.
Allow [5] for how resource has been managed unsustainably
and [5] for consequences for ecosystems.

5

soil resources
human actions could include:
overgrazing;
deforestation;
unsustainable irrigation;
land pollution;
acid deposition;
Or a more detailed discussion of one or more of these.

(c)

5 max

consequences could include:
soil degradation;
loss of soil structure;
desertification;
soil erosion;
loss of organic matter and consequences for primary productivity;
effects of acid deposition on nutrient content of soils;
loss of soil organisms;

5 max

water resources
human actions could include abstraction of ground water;
pollution;
eutrophication;
increased demand for water;
wastage of water resources;
Or a detailed discussion of one or more of these.

5 max

consequences could include:
loss of habitat;
role of water in soil formation and consequences for soil formation
if water shortage occurs (e.g. increased rates of salinisation;
increased rates of soil erosion as water table is lowered);
eutrophication consequences on aquatic ecosystem;
impact of pollutants on aquatic fauna (e.g. mutations, progressive,
concentration of pollutants along the food chain);
impact of pollutants on flora e.g. impact of acid rain on coniferous forests;

5 max

Soil resources
suggest possible soil conservation methods:
soil conditioners;
wind reduction techniques;
cultivation techniques;
efforts to stop plowing marginal lands;
crop rotation;
Credit should be given if reference is made to
specific farming systems.

5 max

6

reducing water use. ecological footprint – the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living / the measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population.OR Water resources suggest more sustainable practices. 5 max [20] 6. whereas the footprint of an ELDC is likely to be smaller than their land area. 4 technology development give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. thus many economists argue that human carrying capacity can be expanded continuously without necessarily increasing the impact (load) on the environment.g. the ecological footprint of an EMDC is likely to be larger then their land area. and the assimilation of all wastes. pollution monitoring or control. (a) (b) carrying capacity – the maximum number of people that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. in the areas of recycling and remanufacturing. Credit should be given for the use of specific examples to support these statements. e. making it hard to calculate the carrying capacity for human populations. 5 max 7 . technological developments have enabled humans to substitute one resource for another if that resource becomes limiting (e. increased levels of technological development (associated with MEDCs for example) tend to be associated with larger ecological footprints. with alternative fuel resources). can increase carrying capacity.g.g. with respect to eutrophication. e. improvements in transports have enabled humans to import resources from outside their immediate environment increasing their local carrying capacity. metering water. Credit should be given if reference is made to specific case studies. recycling. technological innovations.

and promotes stability.g.g. 1 max 8 . reducing total population size would therefore be a solution of sorts. without negative feedback no ecosystem could be self-sustaining. excessive population growth arguably occurs as a result of poverty (associated with inadequate resources). soil being farmed too intensively / forests being cut too rapidly. or the fastest population growth rates. all use of oil is ultimately unsustainable no matter what size the population is. resource management problems are often to do with distribution of resources (e. some resources are finite and therefore no amount of population control will make a difference ultimately to the availability of that resource. population pressure can be lead to resources being misused. the largest use of resources if found in the most economically developed countries of the world. Credit should be given for answers which are balanced i. candidate cannot gain full marks if only one side is argued.g. water resources are not distributed evenly across the globe) and therefore more equitable distribution is arguably what is required rather than population control. e. a vicious cycle exists where population control will not be effective unless poverty and inequitable resource use is addresses first. without internal balance an ecosystem would spiral out of control. 1 feedback that amplifies/increases change (it leads to exponential deviation away from equilibrium). e.(c) Clearly this question can be answered in a variety of ways. in the sense that many resource management problems are that there are insufficient resources for the available population. 1 most ecosystems contain inbuilt checks and balances. however. these countries may not have the largest populations.e. Credit should be given if specific case studies are used to illustrate these points. 8 max [20] 7. (a) (i) (ii) (b) feedback that tends to damp down/neutralize/counteract any deviation from an equilibrium.

[1] for both factors and [1] each for brief description of each factor. (d) (i) 2 1 3 max renewable natural capital is natural resources that have a 9 . energy / e le c tr ic ity w a rm w a te r 2 max [5] 8. population expansion. one or two correct [1]. cultural inertia. short-term thinking predominates but sustainable development is a long-term goal. culture may not have a philosophy of sustainability (consumerist culture of west or nomadic culture of Africa). national debt.  total biomass   total biomass  at time t  1   at time t  energy energy     (b) SY =  (c) A range of answers may be acceptable e.(c) sm oke ste a m / w a te r v a p o u r / w a te r coal c o ld w a te r Three correct [2]. more resources must be put into sustaining the population rather than development. countries’ resources are diverted to armies rather than invested in education/agriculture/development projects. paying off heavy foreign debts means less money left over for inward investment. war. (a) use of a resource at a rate which allows for natural regeneration. whilst minimizing damage to the environment.g. political unrest.

[1] for each column.sustainable yield/harvest  their natural productivity. plant wheat/maize/other crops. different crops. whereas non-renewable natural capital is natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment. plant crops in rotation. respiration leads to diminishing oxygen levels. 10 . water quality decreases. 2 [10] 9.g. so less oxygen for other organisms. e. 2 ryegrass: inputs – outputs = 298 – 304. 1 2 max 3 max 3 changing agricultural practice. 2 (ii) ryegrass: produces a net loss of nitrogen from the soil. leached away. (i) (ii) The answer should clearly describe the process of eutrophication. (ii) atmosphere: lost as nitrogen gas from the soil surface and plants.g. 2 (ii) Renewable/replenishable Non-renewable food crops oil timber gas wind coal solar natural ore soil groundwater Mark vertically. –1 = –6 kg ha (units needed). –1 add more fertilizer. (a) (b) (c) (d) (i) maize: inputs – outputs = 298 – 294. –1 = 4 kg ha (units needed). 1 (i) 30 × 70 = 2100 kg ha . plant legumes {e. consumed by animals (as a constituent of plant material) and removed by the animal from the field. as algal blooms are decomposed by bacteria. clover). enhanced levels of N and P leads to increase in algal growth/algal blooms. contour plowing.

(a) (b) named organism (e. etc. baseline study . there should be an assessment of impacts during and after development. Gammarus.. 4 max 7 max 11 . 3 max [20] 10. blood worm. stonefly larvae.important to know what the physical and biological environment is like. often difficult to put together a complete baseline study due to lack of data.g. therefore have airspaces for root penetration. by abundance of organism (either high or lower levels than expected)/ by colour of moths’ wings etc. harvest (remove) algae.). and water retention. 3 max loam soils contain a good balance of sand. silt and clay particles. organism can be used as an indicator. should inform decision making. reference to the Trent biotic index or similar.(e) timing fertilizer application to minimise impact. treating drainage water (removing N and P). rat tailed maggot. there should be an understanding of the development in terms of impact. water flea. adopting different fertilizer (synthetic. polluted and unpolluted sites should be compared. should contain non-technical summary. clean up and re-oxygenate water course. slow release). oxygen enrich water course. and good drainage. Asellus. Give credit for references to actual EIA. and the clay humus complex for mineral retention. information and suggestions in EIA are often not acted upon. peppered moth. there should be monitoring of environmental conditions during and after development. often all impacts are not identified.

research provides an understanding of complex interrelationships in ecosystems and enables them to be managed more sustainably. monitoring can be used to “police” the system and ensure non-infringement of standards. 6 Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 11.. climate induced change is the most likely cause. destroyed because regarded as a nuisance/pest. meteorite strikes. ecological role is as top carnivore.g. trophies. research provides data as an educational tool making society aware of what is happening to the environment. (a) catastrophic extinction events. loss would lead to imbalance in food pyramid. earthquakes etc. gradual environmental change leading to gradual species extinction yet apparent in a rock record (that provides a condensed view of time). ecological role is as top carnivore. the most notable example being the extinctions caused by glaciation. volcanic eruptions. and due to habitat degradation (loss of water quality). loss would lead to an increase in herbivorous mammals. endangered because of habitat (forest) loss due to agriculture. no longer endangered because of education (no longer seen as “evil”). rights of species). tiger (endangered). human guilt of allowing this to happen.g. hunting for hides. (b) 4 max e. long-term change model. ethical issues surrounding loss (rights of future generations. without research and monitoring it is difficult to argue objectively or legally that an environment is under threat. meat and trophies. e. ban on hunting. animals/plants died from both the initial event and the short-term environmental turmoil that followed. 7 max 12 . medicine.(c) research provides baseline data. caused by definitive environmental catastrophes e.g. crocodile (now removed from endangered list). to be detected. loss of food source as traditional food source is being used by humans. legislative protection. was endangered due to excessive hunting for skins. and due to threat to humans and livestock. pollution. controlled culling/hunting of certain crocodile species now being considered.g. monitoring enables changes as a result of e. past extinctions occurred suddenly over relatively short time periods.

6 max 13 . holding species while habitats are restored. 6 max personal justification (needs to be more than just arguments for or against). e. all of these factors will affect population growth. however. the pyramids do not give specific information about socio-economic conditions. arguments against zoos ethical arguments against keeping animals in captivity for profit. enable “how much” not “why” questions to be answered. wide base indicates a high birth rate and expanding population. government policies. allow estimate of population numbers.(c) arguments for zoos individual organisms are protected in a controlled environment. conserving species is just used as an excuse. gender imbalances can be seen. helping management outside zoos. use of contraception. poor conditions or treatment in zoos leading to physiological and psychological problems with the animals. benefit of artificial insemination. genetic monitoring can take place. number of offspring surviving to adulthood is higher so species numbers increase more effectively. small genetic pool.g. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 12. (a) age-sex pyramids are useful because they allow patterns to be clearly seen. captive breeding enables higher rates of reproductive success. captive animals unable to adapt to life back in the wild. proportions of fertile population can be seen. education of public through visits may make them more likely to support conservation campaigns. studying species so understanding improves.

larger families are vital in a society where family labour is essential to domestic and economic survival. arguments against population control goes against tradition and culture. greater environmental pressure on the planet is inevitable. [2 max] for definition. hunter-gatherer in Tanzania have a smaller footprint than urban population of New York. (c) 5 max arguments for population control population growth is not sustainable even with an expanding resource base. ethically it is wrong to overpopulate the planet (what right have we to disproportionately consume resources?). forced population control doesn’t always work. [3 max] for discussions. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and to assimilate all its wastes.(b) the area of land (and water) required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14 . population control by society/government is an infringement on basic human freedom. 6 max Give credit for use of examples. population growth is an indicator of an expanding resource base.g. populations at a lower economic level have footprints that are easier to define (fewer resources used from outside their immediate area). technological advancement produces a larger footprint as more resources are needed and more waste is produced. Give credit for examples e. smaller family size allows for greater/higher standard of living measured in capital resources. it is the inverse of carrying capacity. as technology advances resources are used more efficiently. ecological footprints tend to increase in size with socio-economic development. curbing population growth will produce a demographic population that is top-heavy (old people predominate) and dependent. therefore environment will be able to support a larger population.

protein mainly non-meat. high % of protein from animals. LEDCs 15. LEDCs: not enough protein. 5 max economic factors will be central . technological factors – if the technology is available. and will cause changes in precipitation (amounts and distribution).13. evaporation rates will change. the political priority might be development first. seasonality will vary which could be significant in water supply. MEDCs: eat more calories/energy intake higher than they need. 2 3 max 15 .reluctance to change the way in which resources have always been used. (a) (i) (ii) MEDCs 44. with increased melting of glacial ice and ice caps.4 % (accept 44 %). high rates of evaporation together with high applications of chemical fertilizers led to salinization. environment later. water was taken and used to irrigate cotton fields by the Soviet government. and pollution of remaining water resources. LEDCs: do not eat enough calories/energy intake too low.9 % (accept 16 %). often Governments will be reluctant to impose limits if multinational companies will then be deterred from locating there. the Aral Sea. MEDCs: eat a lot of protein. this has had a knock-on effect on local communities as water supplies were decimated. monitoring water quality in remote rural areas can be very difficult. and local farming and fishing industries collapsed. increased flood risks in certain areas.g. the political structure might favour short-term profits rather than long-term environmental protection. Former Soviet Union. 6 max global warming will lead to changes in global water budget. 6 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14. cultural inertia . and expanding desert zones with water shortage. this has not happened in the Aral Sea which has been shrinking in size due to excessive removal of water from feeder rivers. sustainable use of water resources means using them at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment. (a) (b) (c) e.whether or not a country can pay for sanitation and water purification.

litter store is larger in the woodland. input dissolved in rain is not shown for mixed farming. 16 .g. better technology. especially more expensive food. new reserves discovered.g. can interrupt shipping lines. and indirectly through the nitrogen fixing action of leguminous crops. Accept lower if justification given in (ii) is appropriate e. e. many families in LEDCs are subsistence farmers. price subsidised by governments to enable fossil fuels to compete with renewables. (iii) additional nutrients are added directly to the soil through fertilizers. 1 gas is cheap because it is relatively plentiful.g. Both needed for [1]. waste can be burned directly to generate energy e.(iii) (b) greater wealth in MEDCs enables people to buy enough food.g. 1 max wind offshore technology is still at the experimental stage. 2 (i) 1 likely to be much higher. easily disrupted by rough seas. burning straw. religious restrictions (e. large output in mixed farming as harvested crops/livestock. meat. most expensive = wind offshore. social expectations in MEDCs that meat will be an integral part of the diet. and may use animals for milk but not meat. 1 max organic waste decomposes and gives off methane gas which can be burned. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (c) cheapest = gas. 3 max 1 3 max 2 [14] 15. soil fertility for farming may be better in MEDCs so yields higher. no beef or pork) less likely to be an issue in MEDCs. (i) the biomass in Figure 3 is all the living material in the ecosystem. technology is already in place to access the gas and burn it in existing gas fired power stations. better distribution systems in MEDCs so people have access to fresh food. (ii) biomass store is larger in the woodland. legumes and fertilizers are additional inputs in mixed farming. it can be burned directly without the need for refining.

the smaller the ecological footprint of a population. easiest/most accessible resources will already have been mined. irrigation or fishing. desire for food security in turbulent political times. in LEDCs food production used as a way to generate foreign currency. increasing need to intensify production on existing farm land. 4 max 2 [14] 16. economics of food production systems mean that food production is a business and subsidies may guarantee prices no matter how much is produced. scarcity of resources will push costs up. because in calculating ecological footprint amount of land required for absorbing waste carbon dioxide from fossil fuels is included. advantages: HEP does not involve release of pollutants. cost of building dams may be high leading to huge debts. 4 max 17 . (a) increase in population growth as death rates lowered due to better medical care. relatively cheap to run (once initial construction completed). renewable source (i.e. farmland and/or displacement of people. [2 max] for advantages and [2 max] for disadvantages. disadvantages: vast areas may be flooded involving loss of habitats. turbines can be switched on whenever energy is needed. will not run out). (e) 2 max the more renewable energy resources that are used. for leisure. dams may restrict flows of sediment affecting ecosystems or farming downstream. may disrupt fish migratory paths. increased wealth means people are consuming more (sometimes more than they need).g.(ii) (d) as stocks become depleted. environmental taxes to compensate for global warming will make fossil fuels more expensive. dams silt up. dams may be multipurpose e. as more and more land is used for settlement and industry. leaving resources most difficult to access which are more costly to reach. may lead to increased erosion rates downstream.

terracing. would point to “success” stories like Canada and Scandinavia who have good environmental records and are economically developed. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies. 2 max 18 . so soil structure is lost. e. organic material is gone and the fertility of the soil is reduced.(b) Answer will. covering a variety of strategies or more specific. and argue that society can find solutions for environmental problems through technology which comes when the economy is strong. this occurred during the 1930s in the US due to intensive farming on the prairies. once top soil is lost. specific strategies to reduce soil erosion e. biological pest control rather than chemical control. keeping stores of genetic material to ensure species diversity is not lost. e. organic farming methods applied and marketed effectively to consumers to compensate for higher production costs. soil erosion: use of heavy machinery leads to compaction of soil. encouraging polyculture to reduce vulnerability to disease.g. addressing strategies related to a particular problem. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 17. a general answer: use of natural fertilizers (e. of course.g. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies. (c) 8 max Answers may be general. [4] for each problem. agro-forestry to reduce soil erosion. even more erosion likely if wind breaks (hedgerows and walls) are removed. controlling the amount of fertilizers that are applied to ensure excess is not washed into water bodies. leads to lower yields and a vicious cycle as remaining soil may be even more intensively farmed by farmers to compensate. leading to the dust bowl as vast quantities of soil were blown away. depend on the problems chosen. (a) technocentrist because they tend to argue that economic development should precede environmental protection.g.g. top soil is more easily removed by the agents of erosion (wind or water). manure) rather than chemical fertilizers.

often LEDCs rely on weak pollution laws to attract multinationals to locate there. it is not fair to expect LEDCs to protect the environment. Arguments against: some of the most economically developed countries have huge ecological footprints and are very wasteful e. environmental damage will have a knock-on effect on human societies that cannot wait until everyone has developed before we address it e.g. surely we can and should learn from the mistakes made by richer countries?. UK.g. (very anthropocentric view) what about the rights of other living species to be unmolested?. people in poverty will often be forced to act with short-term perspective e.(b) Arguments in favour of the statement: costly to change technology to more environmentally sustainable forms e. new power stations or investment in renewable technologies such as solar. US. rights to emit CO2 for example can be bought and sold (richer countries can afford to buy the right to emit more CO 2) which has implications for industrial development.g.g. often the most sensible users of the environment are people who are considered “undeveloped economically”. e. indigenous tribes in Amazonia/street kids recycling waste. Japan. Scandinavia. 10 max 19 . as richer countries didn’t when they were going through their industrial revolutions. people in poverty are often more intimately dependent on their environment – vital to protect it to help them. so if they set environmental controls they will lose jobs and income vital for development. often countries with best record of environmental protection are the most developed economically e. loss of species diversity once gone its gone.g.g. unsustainable use of forests in order to survive. environment is the source of our resources for development so it is vital that the two go hand in hand – sustainable development. unsustainable use of the environment will only bring short-term economic growth not long-term economic growth.

“slip. slap” educational campaign in Australia. raising awareness and lobbying for solutions. discussion of steps taken by national governments to comply with international agreements. issue: depletion of stratospheric ozone UNEP’s involvement in forging specific international agreements.g. role of NGOs and pressure groups in monitoring. e. actual NGOs and international bodies rather than simply identify broad groups such as “local people” and “charities”.g. so wide diversity of plants which support rest of the food chain. high in species diversity because they are ancient ecosystems – diversity has had a chance to build up over millions of years.(c) Responses will depend on the choice of environmental issue but for full marks candidates should be able to name specific groups e. 20 . even during ice ages pockets of forest remained.g. role of scientists e. 4 max Give credit if specific value for rainforest diversity is quoted. local campaigns to encourage sunscreen use e. ideal growing conditions – hot and wet all year round.g. at the Antarctic stations in studying the ozone hole. slop. (a) tropical rainforests contain a large proportion of the world’s species. efficient nutrient recycling. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 18. competitive ecosystem results in many specialised niches and high diversity. preserving diversity.

ethical right or value of different species to exist unmolested (deep ecology). [1] for naming case study. spiritual value of biodiversity recognised by many indigenous tribes. fruits. or breaking bits off for souvenirs. increased sedimentation due to deforestation of mangroves to make space for tourist developments. (The measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and assimilation of all wastes. runoff of fertilizers from sugar plantations on the coast. once species are lost they are gone forever. coral very fragile and easily damaged by divers’ fins or touching coral.g. and can lead to coral bleaching. global warming increases sea temperatures leading to coral bleaching. gums and rubber. and disrupting the interdependence of coral ecosystem with seagrass beds and mangrove ecosystems.(b) Specific named area must be included or candidates cannot gain full marks. (a) (i) the area of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. e. protection and nurseries for young. biodiversity is also a feature of the ecosystem which leads to environmental stability. inadvertent damage from anchors and pollution from boats. and source of possible new medicines as yet undiscovered e. Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland.). sewage and pollution from coastal settlements (such as Cairns) can lead to excessive nutrients and algal blooms. [7] for degradation by human activities. (c) 8 max biodiversity is an economic resource – a source of new food products e. resins. Australia. 1 21 . nuts.g. overfishing can disrupt the balance of species in the food chain. which has knock-on effects on the fish species which depend on the reef for food. and now recognised by UNEP too. human activities such as tourism. make water cloudy reducing productivity. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 19. all of these make coral more vulnerable to natural threats such as disease/crown of thorns starfish/increased sea temperatures due to El Niño.g. or industrial products e. for AIDS perhaps.g. ice cream flavours. resource for future generations.

6%. education/legislation/rising living standards/economic incentives. Canada has higher consumer spending per capita. 1 (c) (i) (ii) Award [1] for any two of the following.1  1. Award [1] for any two of the following. Canada – climate difference – more energy required for heating.(ii) (iii) (b) (i) 1. 1 2 max Diagram should demonstrate high birth rate and high adult death rate.2 × 100 = 42. Accept other reasonable answers. 5.4 Canada has a larger consumer driven economy. 1 (ii) Diagram should demonstrate a falling birth rate and a larger proportion of adults and aged persons. Accept other reasonable answers. 1 1 22 . Canada has a greater car culture. education/better diet/improved health care/political stability/disease control.

1 (iii) the population will ultimately crash. An example is required in each case in order to score the mark. resources become more valuable as new technologies need them. 1 (ii) year 5. groundwater/ozone layer. countries that have a high animal protein content in their diets potentially have a larger ecological footprint/OWTTE. e. year 6: 24500. so greater surface area needed to produce the same amount of food. (a) renewable: natural resources that have a sustainable yield or harvest equal to or less than their natural productivity. it is less efficient to eat animal protein than plant material. e.g. 1 23 . replenishable: non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the sun for their replenishment. fossil fuels/minerals. e. Accept any other reasonable answers. non-renewable: natural resources which cannot be replenished within a time scale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment. as man advances (technologically. (b) (c) (d) use of (global) resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment/OWTTE. flint used to be an important resource but now its redundant/ uranium only becomes a resource with the advent of the nuclear age. e. culturally) his resource base changes. Both needed for [1]. resource value is dynamic/changes over time.(iii) LEDCs tend to have a diet based on plant products/plants with little meat (12 % approximately) whereas MEDCs tend to have a greater amount of animal protein in their diet (30 % approximately). 3 [11] 20. food crops/timber in the long term/groundwater (over hundreds of years).g. (i) 3 1 3 max year 2: 125.g.g.

industry expanding and requiring more clean water (cooling processes. increase in water use by developing countries. 2 24 . 2 1. 2 3 [11] 22. precipitation. that results in depletion of the oxygen content of the water/OWTTE. Four correct [2]. 2 max [12] 21. 2 Correct answer on its own. 2 (ii) too simplistic/no values/no indication of time/two dimensional. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) energy is neither created nor destroyed/energy is conserved/OWTTE. 1 1000 kJ – 100 kJ (10%) = 900 kJ. award [2]. (iv) 3 3 –1 3 3 1 –1 increasing global population requiring more water. transpiration/evapotranspiration. Accept other reasonable answers. (a) (i) the natural or artificial enrichment of a body of water.). (iii) 1960 = 2 × 10 km yr 2000 = 4 × 10 km yr . evaporation. greater use of water for irrigation. 2. use of resource beyond sustainable limits due to lack of knowledge of resource’s sustainable level.(iv) over population leading to unrealistic demands for limited resources. run-off/infiltration. three or two correct [1]. (particularly with respect to nitrates and phosphates). globally. output = 900 kJ – 135kJ (15%) = 765kJ. etc. Accept other reasonable answers. 4. 42 × 100 = 100%. financial motives (greed) – exploitation of resources beyond sustainable limits for short-term financial gain (cod fishing). 3.

76. to increase productivity and so be better placed to compete in a world market. green tax on fertilizer making it more expensive. to increase productivity and so provide more food for increasing populations.g. switch to organic farming. composting. implement standards/control re run-off from agricultural land. developing economies so need to increase productivity – cash crops. Accept other reasonable answers. Accept other reasonable answers. 1 max 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 2 max 1 25 . use other methods of enhancing crop production e. removable of algal mats/oxygen pumping/removal of contaminated sediments/flush systems with oxygenated water/chemically denature fertilizer. use a variety with lower phosphate requirements. ∑n(n – 1) = 552 + 20 + 30 + 2248500 + 1438800 + 62475000 = 9935402. change crop varieties e. Accept other reasonable answers.g.(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) do not allow agricultural waste (including fertilizers) to run into water courses/legislate against the use of fertilizer/ adopt less fertilizer intensive agricultural practices/install fertilizer (waste) traps in farm drainage networks. N = (N – 1) = 5235 × 5234 = 27399990. loss of macrophytes. 27399990 D= = 2. Accept other reasonable answers.8/2. shorter food chains. 9935402 death of aerobic organisms. organic compost. loss of diversity.

gases include CO2. Particular reference should be made to the role of carbon dioxide. agriculture: crop zones move north/south from equator. water resources will change and limit/expand crop production. (a) Answer should demonstrate an understanding of atmospheric insulation and how this is achieved within the atmosphere. N2O. which will drive economic. biomes: north/south shift in biomes relative to the equator (latitude shift). maintains an average Earth temperature of about 30°C.(ii) difficult to manage infrastructure to collect organic waste. society: national resources base will change. CH4. no market for end product. crop types may change.g. O3. Accept any other reasonable answers. sea level rise may cause economic and social stress due to loss of land and resources (including migration). cost may be prohibitive. e. which is transparent to incoming radiation and absorbs out going radiation. outgoing long wave radiation trapped/reflected by greenhouse gases. (b) 4 max Answer should address biomes. 7 max 26 . cultivation patterns will change. changing global weather patterns will influence rain patterns and alter crop production dynamics. apathy and inertia of public. Two correct gases needed for [1]. Accept other reasonable answers. global agriculture and human society. water resources will change. cultural and social reluctance. creates a “thermal blanket”. H2O and CFCs. social and cultural change. movement of biomes up slope (altitude shift). difficult to sort organic waste from other waste at source or further into process. 2 max [16] 23. All of the above should be supported by case study evidence or examples. wheat belt in North America may move north. greenhouse gases transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation.

loss of fertility due to loss of nutrients caused by poor management. Accept other reasonable answers. loss of vegetation leading to erosion. (b) (i) technology and scientific techniques used to overcome soil degradation problems thus conserving soil. positive feedback – loss of cover leads to leaching of nutrients. landscape instability through soil erosion. the removal of soil material at a rate greater than it can be replenished. Award [1] for each of the following. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 24. modern plowing technology and practise. e. Award [2 max] for direct consequences: loss of soil depth leads to loss of productivity/loss of plant stability/loss of slope stability/loss of available nutrients/ reduction in water retention potential. e. leading to loss of cover.g. windbreaks and strategic shelter belts. the use of new crop strains. model is less complex than reality.(c) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. soil degradation may also include loss of soil volume through erosion. 7 max 3 max 27 .g. genetically modified grain. (a) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. contour plowing. the development of new devices. present trend based on data collected since industrial revolution. over irrigation leading to salinization. some models predict future rise others argue for future cooling. 6 max Accept any other reasonable answers. data series too short for confident predictions. Award [2 max] for indirect consequences: contamination of adjacent environments (particularly aquatic environments). systems models are not always accurate. long-term data (10 000 years) show climate fluctuation cycles not overall rise. not all elements are known or understood. e.g.

No credit should be given for naming the farming system. e. Award [2 max] for resource outputs. if farming system is not named award [5 max]. reference to net and gross production. reluctant to adopt new technology. The following points could be considered: comparison of contrasting fertilizer use. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 25. 6 max 28 . However. variation in water resource use. adopt solutions that are holistic and environmentally friendly. the use of draft animals versus agricultural machinery. technology may include machinery and organic technology e. Award [2 max] for technology. Award [2 max] for resource inputs. However. 3 max Accept other reasonable answers. reluctance to use heavy machinery due to soil compaction and energy issues. Examples could compare salmon fishing in Norway with rice fish farming in Thailand. No credit should be given for naming the food production system. energy input.g. The following points could be considered: comparison of the variation in technology and the implication for the system. (a) The system should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. labour input. application of organic fertilizers/crop rotations/shelter belts/farming on a smaller scale/non-industrial farming.(ii) ecocentric approach conservative. if food production system is not named award [5 max]. The following points could be considered: consideration of variation in system productivity. GM crops.g. Any other reasonable answers. intensive beef farming in North America and Masai herding in Kenya.

2) × 4 = 15. impacts directly on natural resources/food within the system. accidental escape and the contamination of local gene pools.(b) Answers should clearly demonstrate the direct and indirect impact of the two farming systems on their immediate environment. Accept other reasonable answers. (a) (b) weigh the sample in a previously weighed container. (ii) environmental stress. The nature of the systems chosen will dictate the content of the answer. Award [2 max] for any of the following. the addition of steroids and other chemical waste to the adjacent coastal waters. rice fish farming: impacts on local biodiversity – both plants and animals. salmon fishing in Norway: organic debris contamination of coastal waters from waste food and excreta. potentially introduces non-natural genetic variation.2. more land required for food production. dietary animal protein will increase/food fashion may change. (i) 2 max NPP = (39. changes nutrients budget. 29 . food resources needs: needs will change over the next 100 years as the global human population continues to increase. 5 max Answers must refer to both systems for full marks. 4 max 2 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 26. repeat previous step until similar mass/weight is obtained on two subsequent trials. dry sample in an oven. change in productivity due to environmental degradation will further stress systems. use of GM crops. loss of diversity. (c) (i) Award [2 max] for any of the following. and weigh again.0 – 35. increased productivity driven by new technology and farming initiatives. as countries develop further their demand for a greater variety of food products (at a greater level) will expand. achievement of food resource change: adoption of new crop varieties. agricultural intensification. introduces alien species.

respiration = (35. availability of water may be seasonal.4 g m yr –2 –1 respiration = 8. Accept other reasonable answers. temperature changes may inhibit/accelerate growth. Answer must be rounded to the nearest 100 g for full marks.8 g m yr = 1227. or 15.4 g m yr + 436.4 –2 –1 respiration ×365 = 438 g m yr .1 × 790 = 79 g m yr . cattle should be raised on land that is not suitable for crops.6 g m yr .4. –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 790. 7 Both needed for [1].26 is not acceptable because of incorrect s.2 – 33. GPP = NPP + R. Allow ECF from (b)(i).f. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) –2 –1 NPP = 15. (79.6 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr . supplying more of our energetic needs from vegetables sources is more efficient. –2 2 1 max 2 2 max –1 0. 7  .8 g m yr .6 g m yr + 438 g m yr = 1230.2 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr .) eating lower on the food chain makes it possible to feed more people on the same amount of land. 1 2 max [12] 30 .4 × 52 = 436. Allow ECF. insolation may vary seasonally.1) × 4 = 8. or –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 792.2 –2 –1 NPP = × 365 = 792.2 × 52 = 790. Accept other reasonable answers. eating animals raised on grain is inefficient.

limiting factors low and so high productivity leading to high diversity. [1] for two matter flows and [1] for two energy flows. –2 high species number per unit area (South America 0. 2 max e. Do not accept rabbit. 3 max 31 . through symbiotic bacteria. (b) (c) producers convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis.0027 species km in temperate forests in North America).27. (d) long-term stability leading to speciation/complexity. one of the main contributors to organic matter in soil.g. (a) H eat C O H eat L ig h t H 2O O 2 2 T is s u e to o th e r tr o p h ic le v e ls TREE L itte r to s o il N u trie n ts 3 max W a te r Award [1] for tree in box..125 species km –2 versus 0.e. [2] for three appropriate species or [1] for two appropriate species. unless there is some identifying feature i. Accept other reasonable statements that show ecological knowledge. Chilean matorral p ro d u c e r A c a c ia c a v e n s C h ile a n th o rn tre e 3 max p rim a ry c o n s u m e r O c to d o n d e g u ro d en t / se co n d a ry co n su m e r F e lis g u ig n a / C h ile a n w ild c a t Award [1] for appropriately labelled trophic levels. high number of endemic species. snowshoe hare and arctic fox. provide habitat for other organisms. producers are significant in fixing nitrogen. fox etc.

Award [2 max] for the following. occidentalis: 7. (± 50) Both needed for [1]. (±2 days) 1 (i) 15 days. increase in solubility of nutrients facilitates leaching with consequent loss of productivity. through incomplete breakdown of organic material contribute to build up of humus and improve nutrient retention capacity in soil.5 80 (± 4 days)/15 January + 80 days ≈ 20 April (± 5 days) 2 2 T. 1 (i) 25 to 30 September. acid rain can damage foliage directly thus reducing photosynthesis. (±3 days) 1 (ii) 10 December. (a) (b) (c) (d) interval between 1st and 2nd peak is about 90 days and interval between 2nd and 3rd peak is approximately 75 days. 1 max 32 .(e) (f) decomposers break down tissue. 3 max [16] 28. increases susceptibility of trees to stresses such as disease/ temperature/insects/fungal infection. 2 max primary productivity would decrease. predator cannot increase in number without access to food and so must wait for increase in prey. sexmaculatus: 1550. are vital in nitrogen cycle. availability of food facilitates reproduction of prey. form basis of decomposer food chain (which may be energetically more important in some ecosystems than grazing food chains). as chemosynthetic autotrophs may form basis of food chain. (±5 days) 1 (ii) the predator population takes some days to take advantage of the increase in prey. release nutrients for reabsorption by producers. 90  75 = 82. (±1) E.

increased efficiency in utilization of resources. the decrease in prey leads to a corresponding decrease in predator which corrects the trend towards decrease in prey.2 = 122. 2 max (ii) (f) [14] 29. importation of food or resources from other areas to overcome shortages. 211.4 = 49.(e) (i) the increase in prey leads to a corresponding increase in predator which corrects the trend towards increase in prey.2 1 temperate forest: 730. 2 max elimination of predators/competitors. melting of tundra through warming causes release of methane causing more warming. leading to increase in temperature.1 112 tropical forest: × 100 = 57. the periodic nature of the population curves indicates a feedback controlled interaction. our ability to colonize almost any habitat.9 × 100 = 89. Both needed for [1]. 821.3 g m .2 temperate forests have a larger percentage of nitrogen stored in soil. 1 temperate forest: 2 33 . increased evaporation leading to increased precipitation at poles triggering net cooling. elimination of density-dependent limiting factors.6 + 41.0 %. 3 max melting of polar ice caps causes lowering of planetary albedo thus increasing amount of solar energy at Earth’s surface. 821.5 + 18.0/122 g m .3 × 100 = 6.4 %.4 + 18. –2 tropical forest: 52.2 + 28.1 85. tools and technology. modern medicine decreasing effect of disease.3 tropical forest: × 100 = 40.0%. (a) (i) (ii) (b) –2 temperate forest: 12. Award [0] if temperate forest is stated without supporting calculations. 49. 211.8%.

(c)

(d)

high temperatures and year-round availability of water in tropical
forests allow for continuous breakdown of nitrogen containing
compounds;
resulting in very rapid turn around and reabsorption;
presence of mycorrhizae in tropical rainforest tree roots increases
rate of organic matter breakdown;
leading to rapid reabsorption of nitrogen, so very little found in soil;
in temperate forests breakdown slows down significantly during
winter months, causing nitrogen build up in soil;

2 max

temperate forest: 1. surface litter
2. biomass
3. soil
tropical forest:

1. surface litter
2. soil
3. biomass
Both lists needed for [1].
(e)

(f)

tropical rainforest would suffer more from clear-cutting;
a larger proportion of nitrogen is stored in living tissue which
would be lost through clear-cutting;
climatic conditions in tropical rainforests would wash away
soil quicker/leach the soil of nutrients;
(temperate forests) because:
tropical forests have some of the highest rates of primary productivity
but have relatively poor soils;
temperate forests have lower primary productivity rates but far
more fertile soils;
climatic factors are not limiting in TRF but nutrients (nitrogen)
may be;
cleared land in tropics is exposed to washing away of thin soil
and leaching of nutrients;
temperate forests have higher nitrogen content in the soil;
temperate forests store nitrogen as a result of incomplete
breakdown of organic matter resulting in availability of nitrogen
for crops;
Do not credit final point if already given in (c). For “temperate
forest” on it’s own award [0].

1

2 max

2 max

34

(g)

(h)

direct replacement of ecosystems with cropland and the resulting
loss of habitat;
monocultures reduce genetic diversity;
slash and burn techniques in TRF result in considerable impact
on diversity because of high diversity of these systems;
use of pesticides harms target and non-target insect species
and has an effect further up the food chain;
loss of hedgerows in England to facilitate plowing/accept
other valid example;
contamination of wild stock with modified genetic material
(hybridization);
Allow other valid points.
(i)
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

as population increases, forested area decreases and GNP
increases;

3 max

1

to produce land for housing for increasing population;
to provide land for agriculture to provide food for
increasing population;
for timber production, generating income from exports;
Accept other reasonable answers.

1 max

reduction in CO2 extraction by forests;
release of stored carbon through breakdown of forest biomass;
increased rates of breakdown in organic content in soils (due
to exposure to heat, water) resulting in release of CO 2;
CO2 is a greenhouse gas;

2 max

biomes will shift north and south from the equator;
e.g. North America wheat belt shifting north;
biomes shifting with altitude (e.g. tree line creeping upwards);
direct loss of low-lying biomes (e.g. mangrove swamps);
Accept other contributions to global warming related to
deforestation.

2 max
[20]

35

30.

(a)

Descriptions: [3 max]
oil use in MEDCs is almost 50 % greater than in LEDCs;
fossil fuels in MEDCs account for 85 % of energy use as
opposed to 58 % in LEDCs;
biomass use in LEDCs is more than ten times that of MEDCs;
use of coal and hydro/geo/solar is the same for both;
nuclear is five times more important in MEDCs than in LEDCs
and is the smallest contributor in both;
Accept other reasonable comparisons e.g. oil use in MEDCs is
11 % more than LEDCs.
Explanations: [2 max]
the relatively small contribution of nuclear power may be due to
the problems of disposing of nuclear fuel and the cost of nuclear
technology;
biomass is far more important in LEDCs as fuel for cooking;
automobiles are more prevalent in MEDCs thus explaining the
difference in oil use;
Accept other reasonable explanations.

(b)

use of fossil fuels is unsustainable because it implies liquidation of
a limited stock of the resource;
we can extend the lifetime of this resource, but it is ultimately
unsustainable;
solar energy is sustainable as the energy will be available to us
for any time frame that is reasonable to contemplate;
solar energy is currently more expensive than fossil fuels;
it is currently very expensive to turn solar energy into high
quality energy for manufacturing;
passive solar energy combined with insulation is much cheaper
for heating homes than fossil fuels;
fossil fuels are the most important contributor to build up of CO 2
and consequently global warming;
solar energy has the disadvantage that its usefulness is limited
in northern countries during winter months;
oil has the advantage that it can be delivered for use far from
its source through pipelines;
Accept other reasonable answers.

5 max

6 max

36

nitrates/dissolved solids/BOD/DO) using testing kits and/or electrodes of various types. (a) Baseline study: [2 max] a baseline study seeks to measure existing conditions prior to the implementation of a project in order to have a standard of comparison once the project is completed. develop technology to reduce output of CO2 from fuel use rather than changing lifestyles to reduce use of fuel. determination of water flow throughout year using flow weirs. Abiotic: [2 max] testing of water for various parameters (e. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 31. global warming). economic systems have a vested interest in being efficient so the existing problems will self correct given enough time. determination of biomass by removal and drying of plant tissue. determination of soil pH using universal indicators. Biotic: [2 max] use of transects to determine cover/abundance of fauna and flora. development (which requires energy) will increase standards of living thus increasing demand for healthy environment. Accept other reasonable answers. scientific efforts should be devoted to removing CO 2 from atmosphere rather than curtailing economic growth. 6 max Accept other reasonable answers. rely on science to find a useful alternative such as hydrogen fuel cells. air speed and direction using anemometers. this will eventually result in lowering of CO2 emission levels through market pressure. good example of resource replacement. baseline studies are used to determine potential impacts on the environment of a project.e.g. Accept other reasonable answers. use of quadrats to measure species abundance and diversity (application of diversity indices). fossil fuels have problems associated with their use (i. use of Lincoln Index/capture-mark-release-recapture to determine numbers of different animal species.(c) the Cornucopian belief in the resourcefulness of humans and their ability to control their environment is the chief element in their optimism about the state of the world. 6 max 37 .

Accept other reasonable answers. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 32. creates environmental awareness. (c) 6 max reuse. surveys should be over a time frame (diurnal. Accept other reasonable answers species is classified as extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. reduce need to intervene rivers for hydroelectric power.(b) the ecological footprint will increase. when exhaustive surveys throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. + 10. production of these goods requires energy that may release CO 2 thus increasing footprint. mammals’ rate of increase has been more irregular. 2 (iii) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) mammals  40 ( 3) both needed for [1]  birds  48  both show exponential increase. (must be included for full marks). availability of cash leads to greater purchasing power. consequent increase in consumer good acquisition. recycling and re-manufacture reduce need for raw material. employs people (possibly no net loss of employment). since 1650 more bird species extinct than mammal species. as people enter a consumer society and turn away from subsistence level lifestyles footprint increases. Accept “none left” (or similar) for [1 max] 1 2 max 2 max 38 . annual) appropriate to life cycle and life form. seasonal. produces less waste. reduces stress on a finite resource. (a) (i) 1920 accept answers between 1910 and 1940 1 (ii) exponential growth/rate of increase accelerates over time/ J curve (provided understanding of rate is demonstrated) 1 crude birth rate – crude death rate. money allows people to buy more animal protein from grain fed animals. aluminum requires far less energy to recycle than to produce. so the footprint increases. money may allow access to better homes resulting in less need for locally produced firewood thus decreasing footprint. 5 max Accept other reasonable answers.

they do not have all the resources they need). Japan. 2 (ii) countries with highest GDPs generally have the largest footprints 1 (iii) they depend on imports for resources. they have a developed economy that is not based on primary industries. Ethiopia. Germany. Germany. pollution. Norway. Australia.3 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table 1 (iii) 6 1 (iv) a high proportion of people exist below the poverty line (i. Venezuela.(c) Award [1 max] for relationship human population growth and increasing extinctions are positively correlated/OWTTE. they are sufficiently wealthy that they can afford to buy these resources in from abroad. (i) no it is not sustainable. 2 max 1 39 . Norway. 4 max [13] 33.4 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table (ii) United States = 10. Venezuela. Japan. Russian Federation. Singapore. but are in deficit. Do not accept “because they have a lot of available capacity”. United Kingdom. India. Russian Federation.e. Indonesia. smaller populations. as other countries have similar amounts of land. Singapore. India. soil is particularly fertile (volcanoes) and so they are able to support a lot of people by using the land very intensively. United Kingdom. (a) (b) (c) –1 (i) Japan = –3. Indonesia. (i) –1 1 2 max Rank for footprints [1] United States. Australia. very low rates of pollution per person perhaps because of high proportion of people in agriculture. relatively low dependence on fossil fuels especially in terms of transport. Accept other reasonable suggestions. hunting/collecting/harvesting and thereby driving species to extinction. Ethiopia. human population increase has caused increases in extinctions. Rank for GDP [1] United States. Award [3 max] for reasons humans have caused (exponential) increase in extinctions through habitat degradation/destruction/fragmentation.

e. energy efficiency initiatives. we are looking at global footprint so cannot offset larger footprints against smaller ones as you can when looking at whether individual nations are sustainable. e.g. through renewable/alternative energy technologies instead of fossil fuels. through GM crops.g.g. technocentrist will believe in human ability to find technological solutions for present and future deficits. For full marks. reduction in pollution by technological advances.–1 world footprint is 2. e. absolute reductions in energy and material use can reduce ecological footprint. (ii) (iii) using technology to remanufacture or recycle can reduce the overall amount of resources consumed and so ecological footprint is reduced.8 hectares person and there is only –1 2. e. economic growth seen by ecocentrics as a cause of the problem.7 hectares person . If only one is discussed award [2 max].1 hectares person available. technocentrist will stress importance of technology for addressing the deficit. emphasis will be on humans to change their behaviour/ lifestyles. use of technology to intensify and therefore maximise production from available land.g. through bottle banks. an answer must refer to attitudes of both technocentrist and ecocentrist. Each way of decreasing footprint must be adequately described for [2]. –1 Earth currently in ecological deficit –0. economic growth seen as a solution to the problem. ecocentrist will see deficit as evidence that we are not living sustainably. Accept other reasonable answers 2 max 4 max 4 max [20] 40 . will stress the need to strive for greater social equality between people in LEDCs and MEDCs. If no justification is attempted award [0] Figures not necessary if candidate has demonstrated conceptual understanding.

this has led to falling water tables. the natural capital of a forest might provide a continuing natural income of timber. Give credit for named examples and case studies. societies become more affluent and expectations rise. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. a lot of water is wasted or used inefficiently. degradation of water supplies through pollution reduces the amounts which are available to us. sustainability – using global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment. deforestation – removing vegetation. industrialization and domestic demand are all increasing.34. Wilson is advocating that countries should adopt this approach when assessing their resource base. but globally it is being used at a faster rate than it can be replenished. excessive irrigation can lead to salinization and toxification. e. examples of unsustainable practice with regard to soils include: overgrazing – where the trampling and feeding of livestock leads to loss of vegetation. 13 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 41 . game. withdrawal of water from underground aquifers is often occurring at a faster rate than it can be replenished. only a small fraction of the Earth’s water supply is available as a readily usable resource for humans. misuse of soils by a variety of human activities is leading to degradation of soil resources at a faster rate than they can cope with. if appropriately managed. all leave top soil vulnerable to erosion by wind and water. Answers which do not refer to the statement should be awarded [4 max]. overcultivation – leading to a loss of soil fertility and structure. (a) (b) natural capital is a term sometimes used by economists for natural resources that. however. can produce a “natural income” of goods and services. irrigation. water and recreation. there are growing demands on water resources as populations increase. global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and supplies and make matters worse.g. and exposure of underlying soil. Soil [6 max] or [7 max] soils are renewable in that they will regenerate naturally given enough time. 5 Water [7 max] or [6 max] water is replenishable natural capital (it is non–living but is dependent on the solar engine for renewal).

(ii) intensive agricultural system. 2 max (i) A 1 (ii) C 1 (i) use of a global resource at a rate that allows natural regeneration. succession would occur: grass – scrub – trees. USA. high levels of inorganic fertilizer used per unit area. 2 max if foxes were removed the rabbit population would rise dramatically. krill should not be fished at a level beyond which they can naturally regenerate their population numbers.35. extensive and intensive weed. baseline studies undertaken to find out how much krill there is. and minimises damage to the environment. fox population would crash and disappear without a food source. possibly irrigation. rabbits would overgraze their food source (grass) and the rabbit population would crash. 4 max [14] 36. efficient harvesting. 1 3 max 42 . pest and disease control. 2 (ii) fishing effort should be set at a level that will not deplete the overall krill population. there is more than one food source at each tropic level. monitoring of krill populations/monitoring catch. setting quotas and limiting fishing effort (boat numbers. Award [2] for correct food web and two correct reasons. there is no organism dependant on a single food type. size. (a) (i) maize. dynamic balance between rabbits and grass may result. high yielding/management-intensive crop varieties (possibly GM types). (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (c) figure 2 – marine food webs because there are more links in the food web. control on gear type). there are more tropic levels. award [1] for correct food web and one correct reason. setting seasons. 2 max if rabbits were removed grass would increase dramatically.

(iii)
Low Input Systems

High Input Systems

migratory pastoralists, Kenya

cattle, UK

shifting cultivation, Papua New Guinea

wheat, UK
maize, USA

5 correct [2], 4/3 correct [1], 2/1 correct [0]
(b)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

MEDCs have a greater proportion of animal protein in their
diet (approx 26%), whereas LEDCs are more dependant
on grain crops;
MEDCs generally have greater variation in their diets than LEDCs;

2 max

2

MEDCs tend to have larger ecological footprints than LEDCs;
because they have high “grain equivalent” food consumption
lifestyles;
they consume high levels of fossil fuel;
high CO2 emissions;
produce larger amounts of waste;
higher lifestyle expectations and possess more consumer goods;
use proportionately more raw materials;

4 max

limits biodiversity because of herbicide and pesticide
elimination of non-crop species;
introduces toxins through fertilizers/irrigation;
limits habitat type because of monoculture;
eutrophication due to fertilizer application;
risk of hybridization from GM maize;
aesthetic impact on landscape;

2 max

trampling from livestock leading to soil loss/desertification;
cause overgrazing and soil loss/desertification;
introduce diseases from herds to native species;

1 max
[15]

37.

(a)

There are a number of valid answers. Impact may be both
direct and indirect.
changing crop type will change soil cohesion and soil protection;
humans may change the nature of soil mechanically e.g. plowing/
lightening with sand;
humans may change the nature of soil chemically e.g. liming/
use of fertilizers/pesticides/fungicides;
human may alter slopes – terracing etc.;
Accept other reasonable answers.

(b)

(i)

3 max

global warming is caused by an increase in greenhouse
43

gases leading to an increase in mean global temperature;
due to the trapping of extra short wave radiation;
greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, ozone
and water vapour;
these are released as fossil fuels are burned/through
farming and industrial processes;
(ii)

(c)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

increase in temperature could lead to desiccation;
evaporation due to increased temperature may lead to the
accumulation of natural salts changing the chemistry and
structure of the soil (salinization);
lower temperatures may cause freeze–thaw processes to
break up soil and allow more rapid weathering;
increased rainfall may cause increased runoff and thus
soil erosion;
increased rainfall may cause leaching and erosion of
material from the soil profile;
decrease in rainfall will lead to aridification and make
soil surface prone to wind erosion;
increase in wind magnitude and frequency will increase
surface erosion (in terms of volume and rate);
Accept other reasonable answers.
any system that is open to energy and material outputs
and inputs and can be described as an open system;
e.g. a forest or ecosystem (to be ecological the example
must have biological inputs and outputs).
the Earth acts as a complex self-regulating organism via a
series of feedback mechanisms;
rather than being a passive object controlled by external
forces and chance;
theory by James Lovelock and demonstrated via his Daisy
World Model;
lacks quantitative values;
oversimplifies complex relationships;
lacks complex network connections;
Accept other reasonable answers.

3 max

4 max

2

2 max

1 max
[15]

44

38.

(a)

(b)

If no examples used award [4 max]
habitat loss e.g. extinction of Tasmanian wolf due to expansion
of agriculture;
hunting e.g. passenger pigeon;
alien predation and introduced species;
environmental pollution;
pathogens and disease;
most extinctions may not be due to a single cause but a
combination of causes;
e.g. the wolf (Lupus lupus) in Europe and Britain became extinct
due to overhunting and habitat loss;
global warming leading to rapid changes in biomes;

6 max

evidence for past mass extinctions can be found in the fossil record;
it is clear that at certain times large numbers of species
disappeared from the fossil record;
Possible causes could be:
large meteor impact (e.g. Mexico strike) leading to dust in
atmosphere;
volcanic activity on a large scale (e.g. Decan trap eruptions)
causing environmental change;
global climate change e.g. ice age;

4 max

45

i.(c) Arguments for conserving [4 max] ethical – we have a moral obligation to species/species have as much right to exist as we do. weaknesses include: protecting animal without protecting habitat so not a long-term survival strategy. genetic resource – provide present and future material for human resource needs for food. lack of inhibition towards people.g. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 46 . dolphins. greater post-natal survival because threats to infants can be high in the wild.g. ecosystems depend on their component parts.e. artificial insemination increases fertility rate. Evaluation [4 max] captive breeding strengths include: management of gene pool enables greater survivability of offspring because perceived strengths can be selected. animals unable to cope in wild due to learned behaviour in captivity. no natural selection so traits which are a disadvantage in the wild may be passed on. species. medicine/diversity = more options.g. aesthetic – creatures are beautiful and there is aesthetic value in their existence e. commercial – value of species if sustainably managed provide long-term resources e. e. for fur.

clear felling virgin forest/over harvesting marine resources. if a population has an ecological footprint smaller than the country’s land surface area. it allows quantitative ways of measuring impact and therefore setting limits to negate that impact. GM crops. using waste crops as fuel e. e.g. it is living beyond the country’s sustainable threshold. (a) (b) the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. recycling waste more efficiently.g. but major weakness is that it only takes certain aspects into account e. biogas/biomass. but [3 max] if answer looks at only strengths or weaknesses. ecological footprint is the opposite of carrying capacity. using biotechnology to produce food more efficiently e. wind/hydroelectric/wave/solar. in conservation terms ecological footprinting allows for the identification of areas likely to suffer from ecological stress. focussed on carbon dioxide. Accept other reasonable suggestions. e. by switching to nuclear power or more renewable power resources e. 7 max 6 max 47 .g. producing goods that last longer and run more efficiently/on renewable fuels e. if people require more land area than the country possesses.g. natural habitats will suffer. more efficient birth control to reduce population growth. ignores land/water required to provide aquatic resources. it is accepted that if a population has an ecological footprint larger than the country’s land surface area. reducing dependency on fossil fuels/hydrocarbons. electric cars. the population is living sustainably/ within its resource base. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by a population and to assimilate all wastes.g.39. Award [5 max] for evaluation. reusing packaging/minimising packaging.g.g.

technology will help us find and develop new resources e. because long-term sustainability is intrinsic to the ecocentric philosophy.g. 4 max 48 . people have to restrain their resource use and live within their resource base. infant mortality decreases and life expectancy increases and therefore population grows rapidly. e. hydrogen fuel. technology will allow greater resource cycling. technocentrism does not accept that there are any limits to resource use.(c) Award [4 max] if there is no clear evidence of what the candidate thinks is the best environmental philosophy. industrial revolution marked a critical phase in accelerating technological knowhow. Answer must link evaluation to long-term sustainability. For full marks answers must evaluate both philosophies.g. food supply and resource base. (a) over the last 2000 years death rates have fallen more rapidly than birthrates. fossil fuels. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 40. hygiene.g. resources are presently only limited by lack of technological know-how. medical care. though one is favoured. econcentrism is best suited to achieving long-term sustainability. Credit should be given to answers which refer to demographic transition model and/or population pyramids. technology will increase the effective life of a resource by allowing us to use it more efficiently e. due to technological improvements to living standards.

practical issues – e. changing marriage ages. over family size/male potency/status of women.g. an unsustainable system. therefore there is an implication (see quote) that the current users of resources (few of whom are alive) hold resources in trust for future generations. Obstacles include: religious belief – contraception not natural.g. China’s one child policy. water. the idea of sustainable development is that we must ensure current use of resources does not compromise ability of future generations to meet their own needs. cultural inertia e. education/leading to the empowerment of women.(b) (c) exponential population growth will lead to an increase in demand for resources.e. this will lead to environmental stress and over use of current resource base i. exponential growth in population is likely to exceed carrying capacity. legalising abortion. 7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 49 . resource base is finite so shortages will occur if demand outstrips supply. carrying capacity is a measure of an area’s ability to meet resource demand for a given population. setting quotas e. Award comprehensive answer covering most of the above [4].g. food and materials. advertising campaigns to challenge cultural norms about family size. many believe technology offers a way to enhance the resource base e. 7 max Possible strategies could include: reducing birth rate with contraception. access to contraception in remote rural areas/inefficient communication. economic factors – large families needed to support parents in old age/work on farm/develop the country. reduction in infant mortality.g. partial coverage [2] or [3]. these will be land. through alternative fuel sources.

different jobs done at different times of year. livestock fed differently at different times of year. cash crops for export such as sugar cane. dissolved in water. rice farming is typical of LEDCs/where rice is often the staple crop. 1 50 . houses look fairly simple and made from local/cheap materials/ thatched roofs. (i) (ii) 3 max 2 max when nutrients. (a) (b) LEDC basic/lack of technology generally.41. mixed cropping on small scale. outputs: [1 max] jute/vegetables/mangoes/Jack fruit/Palm/coconut/sugar cane/spices/crops/waste/income/energy/rice/food/ Betel nuts/tobacco/cattle (livestock)/heat/oxygen/carbon dioxide/wheat/mustard. Award [1] for any three of the above. dependence on working animals. monsoonal climate so main crop is rice. wash down through the soil/paddy and are lost. rotation of crops to match seasonal rainfall patterns. Award [1] for any three of the above. Answers must be linked to variations in environment. tobacco. Award [1] for any three of the above. irrigation technology used in dry season. 2 max inputs: [1 max] water/technology/cattle (livestock)/sunlight/rain/manure/ seed/labour/soil. labour intensive (family labour). Accept other reasonable answers. LEDC but no reasons award [0]. processes: [1 max] planting/ploughing/harvesting/irrigating/repair/respiration/ run-off/labour. (c) (d) different crops planted at different levels. 1 process by which nitrogen in atmosphere is fixed to form nitrate by blue-green algae (and converted into a useable form for plants).

(f) primary productivity is the gain in energy/biomass by producers/autotrophs whereas secondary is gain by heterotrophic organisms. (c) coal/oil/natural gas. (d) Accept any reasonable environmental problem. a brown gas that contributes to urban haze. Award [1] for any two of the above. involves production of oxygen.g.(e) (i) (ii) because the terraces are level there is little run-off by water so soil is not washed away/terraces prevent soil erosion/ soil collects in paddies. nitrogen oxide reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. (a) (b) energy is dissipated/lost along the food chain/converted to less useful form. noise pollution/air pollution/global warming/acid rain. photosynthesis/primary production is the process by which green plants convert light energy into a usable form/chemical energy/food/organic matter. 1 [11] 42. thus more decomposition. e. 1 oxygen is required by decomposers to break down organic matter (the oxidized zone is closer to the surface and richer in oxygen)/higher BOD in oxidized zone as more decomposers. this is because species at each trophic level are using some of the energy for respiration. e. chlorophyll and light. urban air pollution caused by release of hydrocarbons (from unburned fuel) and nitrogen oxide. primary productivity is the conversion of solar energy whereas secondary involves feeding/absorption. Award [1 max] for problem and [2 max] for explanation. 2 2 max 1 3 max 1 1 max 51 . (e) zone D. requires carbon dioxide.g. Give credit for chemical equation. water. and some is lost as heat/waste to the environment.

unwanted fertility – poor rural women in Nigeria may like to be able to limit their family size. children seen as a source of income. deep oceans dark below surface limits productivity of plants. e. lack of education about family planning.g.g. because of rural isolation and an inability to access family planning centers. cultural expectation for sons.2 1 e. seen as security in old age (no social security system). temperature e. tradition for large family.3 = 1. availability of water e.9 1. 3 52 . tropical rainforests receive lots of rainfall each year whereas deserts have little rain which is limiting to plant growth.g.9 × 100 = 18. estuaries receive lots of sediment from rivers. high infant mortality rate so large families necessary to ensure survival of some. rainforests warm throughout the year so have a constant growing season and higher productivity.0 and 8.(g) availability of light e. farm labour. Award [1 max] for no reference to the biomes in figure 3.2 – 8. few options for women. Award [0] for naming countries. desire for large family size in India patriarchal society and many offspring seen as a symbol of male fertility. 1 (iii) 10. 10.g.g.5 billion. (a) (b) (i) Accept answers between 8. 2 max [12] 43. 1 (ii) population momentum.6%.g. nutrient availability e. but are unable to use family planning because of attitude of their societies (who value male fertility). religious intolerance to family planning.

economic value of timber/land is incompatible with leaving forest standing for other uses (indigenous cultures). conflict might exist because different groups see the resource differently. difference between sustainable use of forest (natural income) and users who exploit natural capital. greater access to family planning as communications/education/ wealth increases. despite the fact that evidence (falling birds) is in front of their eyes. conflict between short-term and long-term perspective (indigenous people). changing attitudes will reduce desire for large families. population limited by wars over scarce resources.g. intrinsic value of forest (biorights) is ignored by exploitative users only interested in economic use. (a) (b) perhaps cartoonist is suggesting that politicians/society refuse to act because they claim that more research needs to be done first. forest is cut down by outsiders ignoring the needs of indigenous people. tax incentives. 2 max [8] 44. government strategies/policies e.(c) natural resources/food will become so scarce that population is limited by hunger. 2 3 max [5] 45. indigenous tribes need large amounts of space in which to live sustainably. as nations develop economically and move through stages of demographic transition. No mark scheme available 53 . reserves left for indigenous people may be too small to sustain them. Accept similar interpretations of cartoon. Accept any other reasonable suggestions. no need to mention acid rain. growth rates can be expected to decline for a variety of socio-economic reasons.

amount of sediment carried in the Colorado River shows a dramatic decline from the mid-1930s.46. Award [2–3 max] for description and [2–3 max] for explanation. and if steps to mitigate effects should be put in place. hydrology – assess hydrological conditions in terms of volume/ discharge/flows/ water quality. Water temperature range decreased water extracted from dam is too low for sun to penetrate. Riverine habitat diversity Award [1] for decreased and a valid reason and [0] if decrease is given without a valid reason. 3 max 54 . Award [1] for each variable with a reason if no reason award [1 max]. it enables possible impacts on habitats. species list – survey would record number of species (faunal and flora) present. so water is very cold/does not vary. overall amounts of water flowing in the Colorado River have declined since 1910. human population – assess present population. so much water is now extracted from the reservoirs that little water reaches the sea. species and ecosystems to be predicted. habitat type and abundance – baseline survey would record total area of each habitat type. 2 max 3 max 5 max (d) Abiotic factor in the Colorado River Increased or decreased after construction of Glen Canyon Dam Reason for change decreased fewer fluctuations/variations in water flow. amount of fluctuation between high flows and low flows has declined. 95% of sediment is trapped behind the Glen Canyon dam. list endangered species. (a) (b) (c) (EIA) Environmental Impact Assessment is a process used to establish the impact of a project/development on the environment. soil – quality/fertility/pH. land use – assess land use type/use coverage. estimate abundance. Accept other reasonable responses. the dam has allowed water flow to be controlled so fluctuations are minimized. Nutrient content of water in river decreased nutrients held with sediments behind dam. Give credit if figures from resource booklet are used. and helps decision makers decide if the development should go ahead.

non-natives could bring disease with them that native species are not resistant to. emphasis on power in National Hydropower Association report. emphasis (in 1964) was on economic benefits and development goals rather than ecological impact.g. possible impacts: non-native are outcompeting native species because they are generalists whereas native species have more specific niches. Award [2 max] if no reference to resource booklet. prey on young of native species reducing their number. inter-breeding and potential loss of species. 3 max 3 max 55 . non-natives dominate as they are better suited to reservoir conditions and native species become extinct. Award [1] for naming species and [2] for possible impacts. trout/green alga/cladophora/Bluegill/Sunfish/Channel Catfish. technocentric approach involves controlling natural processes rather than minimizing disturbance. evidence from resource booklet could include figures for efficiency of production.(e) non-native species: e. non-natives increasing in number as they outcompete native species for food. Accept other reasonable responses. (f) dams are a technological solution to the challenge of managing water and energy demand.

no evidence from the resource booklet that there are safety or health issues (point 5 or 11). Mexico benefits from the electricity – presumably it gave its consent for the dam to be built? (point 13). knock on effects on Mexico (point 13) and impact on delta may have had an impact on fisheries (point 12). possible that Lake Powell will silt up – all sediment trapped see figure 4 showing dramatic drop in sediment after dams constructed (point 7). economic activities such as farming and tourism can be labour intensive and lots of jobs are provided (point 3). indigenous people have benefited from water and electricity (point 10). Rainbow Bridge.g. often poorest communities (rural. 6 max [25] 56 . the dam was constructed in a national park and adversely affected areas of scientific importance (World Heritage Site) (point 6). Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (point 6). not a “good” dam because: no environmental assessment was carried out prior to construction (point 1). long-term water and energy demand can be met by this because HEP is a renewable resource (point 9). indigenous. and has caused native species to become extinct/endangered e. Mexican) who have benefited (point 2). a “good” dam because: large sectors of population have benefited from water supply and electricity (point 2).(g) There must be some discussion of both sides to achieve [6 max] but answers can be weighted heavily towards one side or another. Award [4 max] if advantages and disadvantages of dam are merely listed with no reference to the checklist. fruit and vegetables are provided for domestic economy (point 4). culture of indigenous people has been threatened e.g.

socio-cultural factors can led to problems e. with increasing levels of farm fragmentation in cultures where land is divided equally between sons. where quantity (rather than quality) of cattle is a measure of wealth and so this has led to overgrazing and desertification. natural disasters. 8 max 57 .47. socio-cultural factors can have a more general impact e.g. soil fertility) will shape what farming systems develop e. in the case of Nomadic herders. slash and burn agriculture where the conditions of the forest have encouraged shifting cultivation and social structures and cultural practices have developed in response to this. and economic factors which will determine costs of inputs such as seeds and technology/access to credit.g. fertile soil. amounts of rainfall. growing seasons. (a) socio-cultural factors will have an influence on tastes/affect new markets e. growing trend for concern about animal welfare has affected the processes on some farms (e. of course all these factors are interconnected and socio-cultural features will often have developed in response to farming systems as well as shaping them e. migration patterns.g.g.g. desire for more organic food in Europe has led to growth of organic farming to meet this demand. levels of education will determine the amount of exchange of ideas and the extent to which new technologies can be applied e. but of course socio-cultural factors are not the only ones and factors such as constraints of the natural environment (e. good growing conditions will favour intensive crop production. Award [4 max] if no evaluation is attempted or if no examples are used. attitudes to land will have an impact on how land is used and the status of farmers and farming e. in determining demand for food e. after WW2 there was a concern in Britain about self-sufficiency and this demand led to a drive for greater intensification of production (achieved through fertilizers and agribusiness techniques).g. the Maasai.g. free range pens for chickens). indirectly socio-cultural factors such as land ownership.g.g. the Singaporean government invests a great deal in promoting new technologies in hydroponics.g. native American Indians did not believe that people could “own” land.

understanding of how the forest works so adapt farming practices e. establish policies. urban (capitalist) elites: [5 max] rainforest seen as a resource for development. recognition that soil is often infertile so farmers shift and allow small pockets of forest to regenerate before returning to the plot some 50 years later. An answer which merely summarises the differences between ecocentric and technocentric paradigms should not be awarded more than [6 max]. use agroforestry to mimic layering of the forest and protect ground crops from harsh sun and heavy downpours. spiritual role of forest is also a feature of their cultural lives leading to respect for trees and other species. construction of dams. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “ecocentric”. political prestige projects and ideology (e. a source of cash.e. live “in tune” with the forest. which then become silted up. the frontier mentality about the interior of Brazil) can lead to “standing” value of rainforest being underestimated by urban elites.g. lack of understanding for how the natural systems works mean political decisions can lead to wasteful/damaging actions e. utilising forest materials for construction of their homes. in conclusion a less destructive and closer connection between social systems and ecological systems.(b) Answers must be balanced and two appropriate societies contrasted.g. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58 .g. which encourage urban shanty dwellers to migrate and use the deforested land. indigenous shifting cultivator farmers in the Amazonian rainforest in Brazil and urban elites in Brasilia shifting cultivators: [5 max] lifestyle and practices are much more closely bound up with their natural environment. canoes and for medicines. e. i.g. but farming is unsuccessful because of lack of fertility of the soil. 10 max Obviously within these groups there will be subsets and individuals with different environmental paradigms. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “technocentric”.

when problems cross borders e. CITES. often problems are caused at local scale. international cooperation is vital e.g. so local people should be involved in addressing the problem. rather than burying their head in the sand about an issue. when individuals feel passionately about an issue.g. in environmental research. e. when individual nations. UNEP have the resources to mobilise and coordinate action e. Montreal Protocol. however.g.g.e. international organisations e. international agreements can help to motivate governments to take action and honour their commitments e.g.g. 8 max 59 .48. Award [5 max] if no examples are used.g. might not have access to funds/expertise. so international cooperation in addressing them makes sense. often the motivation for addressing problems starts at the local level i. e. some issues e. bureaucratic and inappropriate.g. smuggling of endangered species. the World Conservation Strategy recognises this. local solutions have a valuable role to play e.g. (a) some environmental problems are global in terms of the scale of the effects rather than local. recycling and landfill are local issues so a global strategy would be cumbersome. to cut CO2 emissions. especially LEDCs. global warming is going to have far-reaching global impacts so a united response to monitoring and mitigation is more likely to be effective.

by investigating specific hypotheses. in response to pollutants. 6 max Accept other reasonable responses. lots of studies of small-scale ecosystems form jigsaw pieces in a bigger picture of how larger-scale ecosystems e.(c) small-scale studies allow for in-depth detailed investigations. scientists have to be able to undertake studies at a manageable level i.g.g. to be monitored over time. on a practical level. this is one of the problems with conflicting evidence on the issue of global warming.e. e. studies of consequences of applying lime to acidified lakes. studying small-scale ecosystems enables environmental change e. understanding processes and interconnectedness at a local level is vital if threats to that ecosystem are to be effectively mitigated e. similarly for political decisions to be taken there needs to be a body of evidence and understanding on which these decisions are based. these studies can inform human actions to ensure that practices change in the right way to mitigate the problem e. understanding relationship between two interdependent species will enable you to predict what will happen if one of them becomes extinct. you could not design a research programme that was just going to investigate “oceans”.g. for groups lobbying about a particular environmental issue.g. biomes are being affected by human actions. Expression of ideas [2 max] [16] 60 .g. their concerns will not be taken seriously unless grounded in rigorous fieldwork and fact.

g. Accept other reasonable responses. even that recent temperature changes are merely parts of natural fluctuations in the earth’s temperature. (a) (b) some politicians believe action should be taken immediately by all nations to curb emissions of CO2. most scientists are now convinced that there is a causal link between CO2 levels and global temperature change.g. whether we should live in harmony with it or control it using technology). extreme poverty leads to short-term view/wealth leads to faith in money to solve problem. opinions will depend to a large extent on what scientific evidence they find most convincing. whereas others argue that it is unreasonable to expect LEDCs to curb emissions until they have developed economically like the MEDCs have done. age e. Allah is in control. this will depend on their specialised knowledge and their level of education. which can also depend on the profile of environmental issues in the media.g. socio-economic status e. to change lifestyles and plan to reduce fossil fuel dependence. where people live might affect their views e. environmental paradigms will stem from cultural context including prevailing religious attitudes (e. young more concerned than old. whereas some scientists argue that relationships are more complex and that the effects of global warming are unclear. 5 max 5 max 61 . cultural/religious group e. the growth of the environmental movement (which has grown exponentially in profile and influence) has played a large role in raising awareness of the issue.g.g. their attitudes to our relationship with the environment (e. environmental paradigms can shape how they read scientific literature. migration/extinction/ adoption.49. overall awareness of the issue. others do not believe that actions at an individual level can make much difference. others do not prioritise environmental issues including global warming. near the sea. whether we have any moral obligation to future generations).g. responses by organisms rather than people. some ordinary citizens feel they have a responsibility to change the way in which they live to reduce their personal contribution to the problem.

technology can also play a part in reducing human population size e. substitutions of resources e. to the population in an area. 1 430 million/100 × (13% [industry] + 20% [agriculture]). by importing new resources with transport technology. 1 (ii) 65 × 100 520 12. 2 (i) year: 2002. through contraception/medicines (reducing infant mortality and thereby reducing the incentive for high birth rates in many poor countries). but at a global level technology can be used to intensify the way in which we use resources e. food. a country is said to be overpopulated if the carrying capacity is exceeded.9 tonnes) Answer must specify units. tractors/broken tools/ crop waste (stubble). 8 max Award [2-3 max] for describing carrying capacity and [5-6 max] for role of technology. e.g. (do not accept 141. it is a problematic term for human populations because technology has a huge influence on the resources that are available to human populations.g. developing alternative energy technologies to fossil fuels. our tastes and demand for particular resources changes at such a rapid rate. water. space.5%. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 50.(c) carrying capacity is the maximum number of species that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. 1 62 . attitudes to resource use may need to be altered. increased agricultural production on the same plot of land by using HYV rice. Do not accept organic material. = 142 million tonnes.g. (a) (b) (c) animal waste products/old machinery e. it is determined by availability of resources (e. at a country level technology can help to ensure carrying capacity is not exceeded.g.g.g. technology alone may not be the full solution.

loss of marshland from drainage. (a) (b) (c) (d) as tractor use increase farm labour use goes down. No mark scheme available 63 . 2 max 1 [8] 51. improving irrigation. farming/agriculture is becoming more technocentric.g. slash and burn subsistence farming. Accept other appropriate answers. salinisation (over irrigation). 2 max Award [1] for named agricultural system and associate impact. prairie grassland US.g. 2 max [7] 52. 2 max greater use of pesticides to protect crops and livestock.(d) (e) better environmental awareness. 1 max soil has become more valuable as it has become more scarce. better waste collection facilities. soil management techniques e. e. soil degradation and lowered productivity.g. loss of biodiversity. from 1984 until 2002 the amount of waste produced per person has increased. Norfolk grasslands UK. shelter and salinisation of soil resource due to poor management. loss of forest habitat. greater agricultural industrialization/mechanization. terracing. use of high yielding crops and livestock. e.g. more laws preventing dumping. Accept other reasonable responses.g. increasingly seen as a resource requiring protection with special techniques e. introduction of disease. agriculture may be more intensive.g. economic incentives to be waste friendly. loss of soil due to soil erosion. extensive cattle farming east-Africa. decline in soil quality due to poor management e. less need for labour on farm. government incentives to recycle waste. the use of GM crops and livestock. e. farms becoming larger require more machinery. agroforestry.g. better environmental education. e. agriculture is becoming more mechanized.

Answers need four of the following threats to receive [2 max].g. organisms safely move in and out of the marsh. small reserves have problems supporting biodiversity. site 4 may be a monoculture favouring few species. Ramsar Convention recognition and registration raises the profile of the Albufera. 2 max reserves are often controlled by the principle of island geography. site 1 more stable. not gone through full succession. greater range of niches. site 2 is much more mature and has a range of habitats with a large range of niches for insects. dune erosion/habitat loss. therefore. tourist pressure causing disturbance and pollution.53. biodiversity is high due to multiple habitat types. Award credit if data is cited. multiple habitats have many edges. water quality. background environmental conditions are good e. (i) (ii) (d) (e) (f) 3 max 2 max site 1 will have a greater range of species. shrubs and ground cover. award [1 max]. good reserves need to be large (as the Albufera marsh is). there is a mix of aquatic and terrestrial environments. agriculture/run-off pollution and drainage. 64 . site 5 newer. many niches for many species. larger animals need large areas. site 1 older. species community more complex at site 1. the area is physically large. 4 max Albufera was designated the first national reserve in the Balearics by the Mallorcan government. power station producing terrestrial and atmospheric pollution. 2 max site 1 more mature. will include trees. (a) (b) (c) the Albufera has such high diversity due to a wide range of habitat types. If only two of the following threats are addressed. chemical pesticides may limit species in site 4. edges provide new niches thus higher diversity. road/road kill/disturbance. further development. the area is preserved and the biodiversity is proactively protected and encouraged. 2 max site 2 would demonstrate a much higher diversity index than site 4.

educational activities encouraged. however. more tourists need more water and more water extraction may lower levels in the marsh and cause damage. research. culture and development is unlikely to be successful.g. 2 max speciation may occur. people use it as an area of relaxation. research takes place.local communities support the Albufera. multiple use reserves are more popular and easier to fund. continued tourism expansion may lead to increased pressures on local resources that will directly and indirectly affect the marsh. 2 2 max [25] 65 . which may be positive factors. (g) (i) (ii) (h) (i) 2 max Albufera is not just an area of wildlife protection. more sustainable. 2 max experience demonstrates that protection without considering other factors e. economics. the two geographically separate groups of snails may ultimately become separate species. which may damage the marsh. more pressure for development land may lead to the marsh edges being developed. mixing education. more tourists mean more potential pollution. protection has long-term benefits. cultural value encouraged. more people are also more revenue and more awareness.

rangers. produces information that supports the parks existence and informs management decisions. government agencies: [2 max] government through its employees. their economic future and the future of the park are intrinsically linked. (b) local support: [2 max] local guides and rangers earn a living assisting tourists within the park and prevent poaching. e. etc. toxins. medicines. helps educate those inside and those outside the park. provide resources. this attitude may also be reflected in its government’s care of its people. contaminated land and water. 6 max Award [6 max] if arguments are supported with appropriate evidence. society. provides the park with security and infrastructure. they monitor and control visitor numbers. wildlife agencies. 6 max Award [4 max] if no named protect area. (a) low biodiversity reflects poor ecological/environmental conditions. highlights new information. shows little respect for the environment. 66 . maintain communications. opportunities for discovering new resources are more likely in areas with high diversity. research identifies new hazards and new goals. loss of biodiversity is the loss of potential new resources.. low biodiversity is a measure of a stressed environment. guides.g. non-government groups and international organizations. thus better places to live. a more diverse environment is likely to be more resource rich/abundant. they have a positive vested interest in the park.g. biodiversity can be seen as a gauge for environmental quality. e. they have a respect and pride for the park that they view as theirs. research: [2 max] scientific research discovers change/damage/stress/new species/ monitors abiotic and biotic conditions within the park. areas of high diversity are more aesthetically pleasing than areas of low diversity. manage park funding. factors which cause low biodiversity also may lead to an environment unsuitable/stressful for humans. pollutants. liaise with local groups.54. drought. Award [4 max] for more than one line of argument. a society that ignores the need for high biodiversity/allows biodiversity to be lost. punish poachers. Award [3 max] if answer considers only one line of argument. co-ordinate anti-poaching activities.

(c) species based conservation: [3 max] concentrates on one or two key species. pretty birds etc. 6 max 67 .g. (a) eutrophication represents the nutrient enrichment of a body of water. thus the organism and not the habitat it belongs in is protected. food chains.. controlling predators providing additional food. indirectly such management techniques may benefit many non-target species and the ecosystem per se. a species based approach may result in a species being conserved artificially outside its habitat. ecosystems collapse. the massive growth rate consumes a high proportion of available O 2. waste fertilizer etc. however. positive feedback situation. nutrients cause an explosion in algae/blue green algae within the water column. less alien species (e. bears. it can occur naturally but is often triggered by the addition of external anthropogenically derived material. managing habitat for “game” may have benefits for many other species. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 55. habitat protection for one species may protect many species. trophy hunting: [3 max] the protection of animals for sport/hunting may also be seen as a species based approach to conservation. it is none the less being conserved. usually organisms that possess strong aesthetic qualities. though the animal is being maintained for economic gain and pleasure.. agricultural run-off rich in phosphates and nitrates and fisheries food and excrement all represent sources of nutrient enrichment within the aquatic system. habitat conditions are maximized to meet the needs of the key species. cattle and sheep). numbers are kept high by managing habitat. sewage waste. game reserves may have less disturbance. tigers. habitats. physiological stress due to lack of O2 causes population crashes in many other aquatic organisms.

in LEDCs. 6 max the key difference between aquatic and terrestrial food production systems is the level from which food is harvested. terrestrial systems use domesticated plant and animal species. removing un-eaten food and fish waste mechanically from the system.(b) (c) treatment of sewage before entering the watercourse to remove organics and dissolved nitrates and phosphates will reduce enrichment. new water resources need to be found/resource use needs to be controlled. water is a finite resource and countries are reaching their resource availability limit. aquatic/marine systems are predominantly hunter-gatherer systems (sometimes on an industrial scale). aquatic/marine systems harvest primarily animal protein (fish. mammals. aquatic/marine systems from much higher up. wash cars more. water plants more. in MEDCs social lifestyles require more water. root crops etc. managing the fishery such that stocking density of fish and fish feeding practice minimize nutrient enrichment within the system. terrestrial systems are predominantly farmed systems with food crops being planted. people wash more. addressing run-off and intercepting contaminated water. the use of agricultural fertilizers in a way that prevents/reduces nitrate/phosphate loading e. terrestrial systems harvest the bulk of food from much lower in the food chain. grains. aquatic systems generally harvest wild species.g. (a) societies demand for water has continued to grow throughout the industrial period. the use of filters and scrubbers to remove phosphates from domestic sewage.). 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 56. not applying fertilizers during rainy periods and using reduced phosphate fertilizers. 5 max 68 . demand for water is expanding in both MEDCs and LEDCs. water resources need to be managed more carefully.) with some additional animal protein (livestock).g. crustaceans etc. whereas terrestrial systems harvest primarily carbohydrates/plant material (cereals. controlling the rate and timing of fertilizer application and controlling the chemical content of fertilizer. expanding populations/changing agricultural practice/ expanding industry (often heavy). e. tended and harvested. general per person increase in water needs are making demands heavier. e. birds.g. stocks are left to recover naturally after harvesting.

up to [2 max]. the ecocentric manager approach would highlight the overuse and misuse of water. synthetic water production/rain seeding/deep aquifer extraction. both in industry and at a domestic level.g. In addition to the above points. wildlife and the environment. MEDCs and LEDCs. (a) tourism can only be successful if it can have a long-term future. would also look at innovative ways to reduce water use per se. as a model for monitoring environmental impact the ecological footprint can allow for direct comparisons between groups and individuals. award [1] for each case study. it must not pollute the local environment. technological advancement may reduce footprint size. it is the opposite of carrying capacity. encourage water use that had few detrimental impacts on habitat.(b) an ecological footprint represents the hypothetical area of land required by a society/group/individual to fulfill all their resource needs. a finite area can support a finite population. encourage greater recycling. innovation and the ability to use “untapped” reserves. encouraging industry and society to use less water. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 57. (c) 5 max the technocentric manager approach to water resource management would suggest that future needs can be met by technology. e. encourage water use within sustainable level. in addition it can highlight sustainable and unsustainable lifestyles. 8 69 . e.g. ecotourism is often sustainable. a long-term future is only possible if the tourism enterprise is sustainable. encourage the conservation of water. tourism that values its environment. good tourism is sustainable tourism. to be sustainable the tourism venture must not deplete local resource bases by direct/indirect impact. technocentric managers would support desalination/iceberg capture and transport/wastewater purification. populations with a larger footprint than actual land area are living beyond sustainable limits. monitoring use to remain within sustainable limits. the footprint size considers both resource needs and waste assimilation.

Supporting case studies or examples are relevant. economists view sustainable development in pure commercial terms whereas environmentalists will also include environmental quality as an element. summer seasons may be extended (e. some believe that development (particularly development designed to allow LEDCs to compete with MEDCs) can never be sustainable (within a free market). Accept other suitable answers if appropriate. coastal beach holidays). development and sustainability in the mind of many economists are contradictory positions even though environmentalists hold the concept of “sustainable development” as the best way forward for society and the planet. sustainable development also does not deplete the environmental quality of an area. coastal resorts selling sun. winter sports holidays may be curtailed by lack of snow and ice. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58.g. 5 sustainable development (a phrase coined in 1987 in Our Common Future) is defined as development that meets our current needs without depleting resources in the future.(b) (c) global warming will ultimately change weather patterns. sea and sand may develop further north. 1 70 . sustainable development varies in definition depending on viewpoint. (a) wave power/solar radiation/heat pumps/water wheels. failing rains may make some resorts obsolete due to lack of water resources.

Biofuel plant material burned directly to produce heat/transformed into ethanol (used as fuel)/converted to methane (methane digestion). irrigation. The wind energy is turned into electrical energy via a generator.g. changing crop type/variety. agriculture. Produces emissions and requires large areas to grow biofuel crop. Note: that food production system must be reasonably specific. 3 named food production system: e. 2 good tidal range required/right shape of coastline/interferes with navigation/impact on wildlife/expensive. wind. Do not accept e. sunshine. insecticides.g. 2 max 71 . Award [1 max] if no named food production system. fossil fuels are energy-efficient/easy to transport/relatively cheap. waves). using herbicides. Alternative How the energy is produced Major limitation renewable energy source Tidal Power Energy is produced by using the ebbing and/or flooding tide to turn turbines and produce electricity. no wind equals no energy. (only one limitation required) Wind Power Wind turbines are driven by available wind energy. using GM crops.g. The electrical energy is supplied to an electrical grid to do work.(b) Award [2] if both answers are correct and [1 max] if one or two partial answers are correct. rice paddies application of fertilizer. Dependent on the wind. (only one method required) (c) (d) MEDCs traditionally/culturally dependent on fossil fuels. changing to renewable energy on a large scale requires massive capital investment/cultural inertia against change to renewables/ many renewables depend on environmental conditions that are not constant (e.

3 [11] 59. (i) tourists consume relatively large amounts of freshwater/ Maldives has a finite amount of groundwater and annual rainwater budget. (a) (b) (c) (d) the landmass has a low elevation/no land higher than 4 metres. the islands are relatively small (less than 1 km across). Award [3 max] for description and [2 max] for two or more sources of contamination. groundwater – replenishable. when tourist needs outstrip supply. ecological footprint is area of land (and water) required to support an individual/population (providing all resources and absorbing waste). they are the opposite/inverse of each other. ammonia – two island exceeds WHO guidelines (× 4). carrying capacity involves sustainable support of a population. phosphates. ecological footprint is a theoretical area whereas carrying capacity refers to a real area.(e) carrying capacity is the number of individuals/species/load an area of land/an environment can support (providing resources and absorbing waste). Accept replenishable as a classification of rainwater. phosphate – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 3 to × 9). Maldivian groundwater has been contaminated with ammonia. chloride – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 2 to × 5). whereas footprints are not necessarily sustainable. 2 max 3 4 max 2 72 . not sheltered by large land masses. tourism will have reached and gone beyond these limits. rainwater – renewable. the islands are in a tectonically active ocean. No mark scheme available 60. nitrates and chloride. nitrates – below WHO guidelines. freshwater from desalination – renewable. sources of contamination – domestic waste/agricultural waste/landfill waste/degrading organics/tsunami debris/sea water/sewage.

between 2000 and 2050 the percentage of people in the world suffering from chronic water scarcity will rise (from 3. Figures are not required. c lim a te change. strategy: development taxed to pay for habitat protection and conservation. Accept any other reasonable suggestions.(ii) (e) by 2050 the numbers of countries with a chronic scarcity (below –1 –1 2740 litres capita day ) of water will have increased. evaluation: may make tourism more expensive/less profitable. d u e to d e v e lo p m e n t. [2 max] if only one strategy addressed. lig h t p o llu tio n . h a b ita t lo s s . in c re a s e d a g ric u ltu re . b rin g in d is e a s e s . c o ra l d a m a g e . 6 max Award [4 max] if only two strategies addressed. fis h in g .7% to 17. fo s s il fu e l b u rn in g . 4 max 73 . 2 strategy: tourist numbers could be limited. c o n fu s e s o rg a n is m s a t n ig h t. evaluation: environmentally aware tourist less likely to cause damage. w a s te fro m d e v e lo p m e n t. (f) lo s s o f b io d iv e rs ity . im p o rt fo o d . e. standing on coral/using waste excessively. c o a s ta l p o llu tio n . strategy: tourist environmental education. however. but may guarantee sustainable environment and tourism for the future. T o u r s im to u ris t d iv in g . Accept any other reasonable points and model design. Award [1] for each impact. up to [4 max]. evaluation: which reduces resource use and tourist pressures.g. also reduces tourist revenue.8%). tra n s p o rt.

mutation in cells e.g. description: (e. stratosphere ozone: depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs and other halogenated gases/ ozone depletion allows more UV light to reach the Earth. regulate and reduce pollution at source – add scrubbers to chimneys/capture CO2 at source/penalties for having sulfur-rich coal. evaluation: (e. ideas and environments. not cause. acid rain): [3 max] no local effects so difficult to stop people using sulfur-rich fossil fuels/ effects often felt in countries distant to source of pollution. so needs repeating. 6 74 . Accept other reasonable responses. trees may die/damage to crops/causes irritation to skin and eyes in organisms/other respiratory problems. generates job opportunities. acid rain. troposphere ozone: formed as secondary pollutant when photochemical reaction occurs between NOx and other pollutants. highlights conservation issues and environmental problems. algae/eye cataracts in sheep/humans/skin cancers in humans/tissue damage in photosynthetic organisms. 2 max [25] 61.g. (a) named example: e.g. stratosphere ozone – depletion is the problem. liming treats symptoms.g. introduces people to new cultures. (b) troposphere ozone – increase is a problem. legislation requires regulators to check compliance.(g) tourism generates valuable hard currency/revenue for many LEDCs. societies. 7 Award any other reasonable suggestions. acid rain): [3 max] alter human activity – education of impact of burning coal/switch to non-fossil fuels/burn sulfur-free coal. clean up and restore ecosystem – lime lakes/remove contaminated soil/lime surrounding landscapes/replant trees in affected ecosystems.

Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 75 . will provide energy for domestic homes and factories. humankind will use less energy. example 1: statement: [1 max] I do not believe sustainable development is possible in the long-term as we have finite resources and will not have enough for everyone to use as much as they want/non-renewable resources will run out. justification: [4 max] micro generation using wind turbines and solar power etc. cannot find new technologies fast enough to replace fossil fuels. transport could use hydrogen powered engine using water as a fuel. humans are incapable of stopping population growth. example 2: statement: [1 max] I believe sustainable development is possible as we have the technology to use renewable resources for all our needs. 80 % live in LEDCs and are using more and more resources. 5 max Award [1] for a definition of sustainable development. technological developments in crop growing will mean more production. justification: [4 max] humans are not prepared to reduce their standards of living.(c) Depends on the arguments used but responses require a statement of belief on sustainable development. insulate buildings more. not enough renewable resources. legislation will make us reuse and recycle more.

62.g.g. [1] for example and [1] for a diagram of each process. zonation: the arrangement/patterning of plant communities/ecosystems. over a distance. Accept other reasonable responses. zonation e. in some environmental factor. succession e. into parallel/sub-parallel bands in response to change. 76 . (a) succession: orderly change over time in an ecosystem. changes in ecosystems up a mountain with increasing altitude. 6 max Award [1] for definition. temperate forest development.

deciduous woodland.(b) food production system e.g. minimal pollution. 6 max Award credit if named examples are used. natural ecosystem e. Award [2 max] for examples and [4 max] for comparisons. selective logging. little human activity. hunting of top carnivores. 77 . different trophic levels. (c) 6 max characteristics: [3 max] greater habitat diversity. woodland reaches climax when production: respiration = 1/all productivity is balance by respiration. light. increases rapidly as biomass accumulates. (a) population pyramids give age/sex structure for country. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 63. grazing animals. wheat harvested before production:respiration = 1. heat. human activities – burning/building. makes conditions impossible for others/Trent Biotic Index organisms/degradation of ecosystems. natural woodland consumer community increases so naturally high productivity is balanced by consumption and respiration. different nutrient and energy pathways. both wheat fields and woodlands have low initial productivity. large size. complex ecosystem. various niches. intensive wheat production.g. threats: [3 max] pollution – kills some species. climate change. plentiful abiotic factors e. water. herbivores controlled or isolated from the food production system.g.

measures the size/structure of a population over time. technology can increase carrying capacity e.g. (b) global population continues to rise/per capita resources consumption increasing/resource exploitation is reaching its limits. disease.age/sex pyramids identify percentage of providers and dependents within a country. etc. gender ratios. 6 78 . allows for monitoring change in dependent to provider ratio. e. wars. expanding/contracting population. 5 max Award [1] for a diagram. as resources are depleted they become more economically expensive.g. birth rate and death rate. impact of events. may not be sustainable in the long-term. GM crops/fertilizers/ alternative energy sources. Accept any other reasonable suggestions. number in fertile age bracket. economic growth means demand for resources is increasing so cost increases (crude oil). must use resources more effectively.

7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 64.g. processing or recycling. plastics/paper/lower quality materials. saves energy in extraction.g. Award [1] for each advantage and disadvantage. health and safety issues/loss of technological edge. leading often to greater complexity. e. aluminium cans/bottles.g. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) the orderly process of change over time in a community. Award credit for relevant examples. soils will be deeper. changes in the community of organisms cause changes in the physical environment. reusing reduces resources use. distance (from sea). reduces landfill/increased environmental awareness. hard to do/slows economic growth/reduces standard of living in present consumer culture. aluminium recycling versus energy efficient. recycling reduces resource use e. 2 max time. 1 max soils will become more mature.(c) Advantages Disadvantages reducing use resources are conserved/last longer. contain more organic material. develop distinct horizons. 2 max positive feedback. become more complex. 1 [6] 79 . this allows another community to become established and replace the former through competition. not economic as lot of energy required to recycle e.

crop production harvests food from lower down in the food web than harvesting fish from the top.3% loss.6 = 893. fish harvesting utilizes a resource that is several steps away from primary production. animals convert vegetation to food that would not be available to humans directly. therefore it is more efficient. 2 there is energy lost from respiration and waste production at each level within a food web.4 × 100. crops capture energy directly from primary source. 893. additional benefit that they are working animals. 2 max heat. respiration. 2 max animals provide a source of protein (essential for the human diet). taste and culture affect demand. feces. 900 = 99.65.4 kcal lost. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) 900 – 6. produce diverse products (milk/meat/blood/wool). Award [2] for correct final answer. 3 max 80 .

Both answers needed to receive [1]. Award [1] for each two associated impacts. 4 max [13] 66. e.g.(ii) Award [1] for two inputs. 2 max 1 81 . country A has low proportion of elderly/narrow top whereas country B has a higher proportion of elderly people/wider top. country B: footprint Y. Award [1] for two outputs. (i) country A: footprint X. country A has a larger population than country B. country A has a high proportion of young people/wide base. whereas country B has a low proportion of young people/narrowing base. (a) (b) country A is an expanding population. for milk production IN P U T S In p u t O U TPU TS O u tp u t fo o d / g ra s s / s ila g e Im p a c t p o s s ib le p o llu tio n o f w a te r c o u r s e s fr o m f e r t i l is e r s a n d e f f l u e n t In p u t m ilk Im p a c t tra n s p o rt o f m ilk a n d su b se q u e n t p ro c es sin g u s e s fu e l a n d th u s h a s a n im p a c t O u tp u t w a s te d ru g s a n d s u p p le m e n ts Im p a c t d ru g s m a y e n te r h u m a n fo o d c h a in Im p a c t w a s te m a y e n te r w a te r c o u rs e s a n d c au s e e n ric h m e n t Accept any other reasonable answers. Award [1] for each two associated impacts. whereas country B is a declining population.

increased economic development so more water used in industry. cultural change towards greater personal hygiene. To achieve [1] answer must begin with vent/hydrogen sulfide followed by bacteria. people use more resources/more imported goods/generate more pollution. whereas country B is an MEDC and therefore.g. (b) increased demand for domestic goods/luxury items e. 1 (ii) depth/light/temperature/pressure. washing machines/swimming pools. (i) vent/hydrogen sulfide → bacteria → shrimp/crabs/worms. 1 (iii) 4/tertiary consumer/carnivore. agricultural development so greater use of water in irrigation (for intensive) farming. (a) water consumption has increased at a faster rate than population growth. long legs. 1 Possible adaptations could include: red colouration. 2 max 1 82 .(ii) country A is an LEDC and therefore. (a) (b) (c) (i) insufficient light lower down for photosynthesis. people use fewer resources/more local resources/generate less pollution. No mark scheme available 69. ability to produce bioluminescence. Figures are not needed. 1 2 max [3] 68. 1 max [4] 67.

consumer restraint. (ii) possible way to offset global warming as large amounts of carbon could be stored/locked away. harsh environmental conditions. community fisheries. ecocentric: [2 max] small-scale technology should be adopted e. ice caps/glaciers melting. interest in species increased in early years as new technology allowed targeting of species. intensive fish farming as an alternative. slow growing organisms/late maturity/low fecundity. through technology e. birds eating fish/plankton. Award [2] for each environmental philosophy.g. upwelling currents. fishing quotas. wide net mesh. short food chains. (f) 9 (i) 39 000 gigatonnes/39 × 10 tonnes. scientific research in monitoring populations. technocentric: [2 max] stress role of market (costs increase as stocks dwindle so fewer will be fished). limits on catch size. high level of interdependence. 1 max initial increase followed by gradual decline. 2 max fish removed by fishing industry.g. Units needed.(ii) (iii) (d) (i) (ii) specialized species (they are vulnerable if niche is lost). 4 max 1 1 1 83 . (iii) 3 thermal expansion. over fishing of stocks meant reduction in young fish and decline in populations. Both answers needed to receive [1].

require approximations to be made. the need for conservation [3 max] deep-ocean systems represent an important biological resource. Award [3 max] if only why little public pressure or need for conservation is addressed. designed to show the structure/workings of an object/system/concept. deep-ocean systems are not occupied by humans. (a) a simplified description.(g) why little pressure [3 max] no country has ownership of the deep ocean and therefore. 4 max [23] 70. 2 max 84 . difficult to control/legislate for/police. therefore. deep-ocean systems are potentially fragile and susceptible to damage from outside influences. conservation issues are not raised/ known about. the deep ocean is remote and not visible to most people. little is known about the system. deep-ocean systems represent a biological resource that has not yet been fully understood.

population pyramids enable policy makers to chart what proportion of the population are in the fertile age bracket helping to predict likely birth rates. enables the reasons for population growth to be understood. but not all countries conform to the stages identified.(b) predicting the growth of human populations: [3 max] growth of human population depends (at a simple level) on birth rates and death rates. role of feedback/ocean systems not fully understood. models are hugely simplified. Accept other examples of feedback. very difficult to calculate figures e. conflicting models can show different effects in same place. demographic transition model shows how population growth is linked to economic development. and may not reflect the complex and unpredictable factors which affect growth rates e. from this rates of natural increase can be calculated and population total predicted. e. a quantification of what can be a very complex set of factors.g. per capita CO2 emissions. assessing demands human populations make on their environments: [3 max] ecological footprints can be effective for comparing environmental impacts of different societies. To receive full marks answers must have a balance of strengths and weaknesses. 9 max 85 .g. war/disease. predicting climate change: [3 max] models can demonstrate anticipated changes to climate based on carbon emissions.g. hugely complex in terms of numbers of factors involved in atmospheric systems so in process of oversimplification accuracy is lost. can be useful tools for getting people to think about their impact. model only as good as the data that goes in and it may be suspect. able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. Award credit if other relevant models are evaluated. stresses the systems approach and interconnectedness of eco and social systems.

Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 71. 3 max 86 . making abortion illegal). any society that supports itself in part by depleting essential forms of natural capital is unsustainable. sustainability means living within the means of nature.g. (a) use of resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration. culture and tradition evolve over time/cultural change can occur and governments can be a part of this.g. on the “interest” or sustainable income generated by natural capital.g. sometimes cultural factors indirectly play a role in fertility rates e. e.(c) strategies for controlling growth include availability of contraception/ financial incentives/public information/legislative changes (e. then long-term harvest (or pollution) rates should not exceed rates of capital renewal. if human well-being is dependent on the goods and services provided by certain forms of natural capital. provision of contraception in e. 7 max Award [4 max] if no examples are used. education and employment opportunities for women lead to delayed marriages and lower birth rates. religious beliefs in catholic countries. and minimizes damage to the environment.g.g.g. remote. education and economic development are important factors in bringing about cultural change. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. often the reasons for family size can be attributed to cultural factors so for policies to be effective they need to understand the underlying reasons why people decide to have a certain number of children. Examples can be of cultural practices and do not need to be located in named geographical contexts. inheritance by male heirs and dowries for females. rural communities may not be enough – programmes to educate males to be willing to use the contraception are also needed. cultural norms may be ingrained/deeply felt and policies need to address these at the deepest level to change attitudes e. the need for male children in some cultures is linked to the traditional practices and structures e.

g. in terms of shaping public opinion media can also be important e.(b) global summits can play a leading role in shaping attitudes to sustainability e. however. countries can break these agreements and there is little the international community can do. 1972 was the first time that the international community met to consider global environment and development needs. Rio Earth summit (in 1992) led to Agenda 21 and Rio declaration. Accept any other reasonable answers. which established initial definition for sustainable development. organizations and individuals. Award [3 max] if summits are described but not evaluated. on climate change/ Montreal (1987). they may act as a catalyst in changing the attitudes of governments. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson was pivotal. 5 max 87 . UN commissioned the Brundtland Report. attitude change may occur without summits e. which set out key policies.g. however.g. and can play a pivotal role in setting targets and shaping action at both an international and local level e. UN Conference on Human Environment/Stockholm.g.g. summits may not achieve their initial goals. and to legally binding conventions e.

as public awareness of threats of global warming has increased there has been a shift in attitudes towards.g. which has sometimes been extremely controversial for social/environmental reasons e. but energy sources should be. e.(c) factors could include availability.g. and technology such as solar powered stoves is not available/ affordable. leading to greater investment and research into alternatives e. changing awareness of environmental implications of fossil fuel exploitation has increased demand for renewable. despite the aesthetic and environmental implications. wind power. Accept other reasonable responses. 10 max Award credit if figures are used.g. firewood in India in India a huge proportion of population rely on local sources of firewood for energy because it is most readily available/cheap. coal and gas reserves in UK have historically meant they were an obvious choice for exploitation. the costs of exploitation have increased and alternative sources have been sought. as the most easily accessible reserves have been used up. wind and tidal. Societies do not need to be contrasting. economic. cultural fears based on perception of nuclear accidents/waste have made this an unpopular choice politically. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 88 . say. in a drive to develop economically the Indian government has sought to harness other sources of cheap energy to stimulate industrial development. environmental and technological factors: e. it is the traditional source of energy.g. non-polluting sources. specifically hydroelectric power. Award [5 max] if no societies are referred to. fossil fuels in UK availability – large oil. which has always been used. Narmada dam. cultural.

5 max 89 . so it has to be converted by bacteria. water can flow from soil into plants by uptake into roots.g. water will flow through soil (infiltration) to replenish groundwater (transfer). but people can also add nitrogen to the soil in the form of artificial fertilizers. in decaying remains/in the soil. excessive flow of water through a very porous soil will wash away the nitrates into rivers and sea (leaching). which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. by planting leguminous crops e. the soil is the home of bacteria and if it becomes waterlogged near the surface the bacteria are unable to break down the decaying plant and animal matter. (a) Transfers: [3 max] transfers normally flow through a system and involve a change in location. Transformation: [3 max] lead to an interaction within a system in the formation of a new end product/involve a change of state. peas/beans/clover.g. to form nitrates which can be taken in by the plants in solution with water in the ground (nitrification).72. in a peat bog (denitrification). soil water may evaporate back into the atmosphere (transformation). few plants have the ability to absorb atmospheric nitrogen directly. then the poorly decomposed matter forms peat on the surface e. these bacteria exist.

fields allowed to be fallow/rest by crop rotation/soil is rested. small-scale agriculture e. commercial farming system relies on a technological approach to managing the soil (technocentric).(b) large-scale cereal cultivation in the prairies. variety of crops grown reduces the likelihood of exposure of soil at different times. e. e. vegetable farming in Thailand – manure from working livestock allowed to fertilize soil.g. terraces built by hand to reduce run-off. application of fertilizer to retain fertility of soil. Accept any other reasonable answers. If systems are simply described award [6 max] 8 max 90 . Award [1] for naming commercial and subsistence farming systems. but system can break down when population pressure leads to abandonment of traditional methods. use of specially adapted ploughs. application of manure. shelterbelts of trees planted.g. Answer needs to show comparison. shortage of firewood means manure is burnt for fuel instead of being returned to land. whereas subsistence depends more on traditional practices. USA – high technology approach to minimizing wind erosion. GM crops with shorter stalks to minimize wind damage and exposure of soil.g. Award [4 max] if no named systems are mentioned. which have evolved over time as people live on the land (ecocentric) e.g. tend to be low tech and simple.

GM crops to increase yields/farm machinery. more efficient transport (as less food decays). 1 1 max 2 max 91 . deforestation on nearby slopes can have an impact on water flows and likelihood of soil erosion in flash flood conditions.(c) systems are models with inputs. additional fertilizers to increase yield. Accept responses with a step by step description that demonstrates that the rate of increase is increasing. toxification and salinization. 5 max Do not accept arguments that are not linked to the concept of systems. deforestation. understanding that soils are living systems which are integral parts of ecosystems will help farmers to take a broader perspective when managing their land e. systems approach stresses the interconnectedness of soils and emphasizes the knock-on impact that actions can have. (c) more intense production.g. rate of population increase increases over time. but only if they lead to an increase in yield. better storage (as less food decays). Accept any other reasonable responses.g. activities such as overgrazing. understanding this can help farmers to break the cycle. these include soil erosion. some processes of degradation are examples of positive feedback e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 73.. seeing soils as renewable resources in equilibrium (inputs of nutrients through rain and organic matter) and outputs through natural leaching. bringing new land under production e. input of technology e.g. less vegetation → greater wind speeds → more soil erosion → less top soil → less vegetation etc. outputs and storages. (b) exponential. with overgrazing an understanding of the balance of animals that can be supported before the critical threshold is reached will help farmers plan herd size. unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. (a) accept answers between 10 and 14 billion. will help farmers to compensate for the losses to overall nutrient balance by removing crops.g. and the importance of returning nutrients through the use of fertilizers. Do not accept suggestions to limit food consumption as the question is about meeting increases in demand. through irrigation/hydroponics.

for large family sizes. Accept any other reasonable responses. easy to see the connections. few alternatives for women. Award [1 max] for general responses in which specific gases are not identified. economic costs of funding family planning/medical improvements. exact natures of the causal relationships are not explained. but far too simple. Catholic countries. greenhouse gases emitted in transportation and distribution as exhaust fumes.g. Award [0] if no reason is given for positive feedback.g. (a) nitrogen oxides/carbon dioxide from power station as fossil fuels are burned. in farming countries causes increased birth rate to secure a son. can distinguish between positive and negative actions and consequences. simple.(d) traditions e. methane from ruminants (not shown on diagram). shows clearly how actions in one area can have a knock-on effect on the original development. 2 max [6] 74. lack of education.g. 1 2 max 2 max [5] 75. remote areas with no access to information/contraceptives. Award [1 max] if no reference is made implicitly or explicitly to figure 2. and is dependent in some way on a healthy population. emission of gases as food is processed/packaged. religious resistance to contraception e. (a) (b) (c) positive feedback because the effects of the problem make the problem worse. 2 max 92 . pressure for sons e. value of large populations for economic growth. detail of what constitutes sustainable as opposed to inappropriate development is not clear. Award [1] for a strength and [1] for a weakness. traditionally defined as development which meets the needs of the current generation without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs. but in this context it suggests development which has a positive role in enhancing the environment.

Award [0] if specific gases are not named. 2 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 [12] 76. sewage treatment. allowing plants and trees to grow alongside streams will increase the range of habitats for insect/bird species. Accept any other reasonable responses. inertia/culture/tradition means that non-renewable resources are favoured. Award [1 max] if no distinction is made between the terms. Award [0] if MEDC stated with no reason. Award [1 max] if the response has identified that pollutants are harmful to the environment but organic wastes do not need to be. renewable resources are not able to meet current demand.(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) a pollutant is any substance/agent (such as heat) added to the environment by human activity. whereas organic wastes can be treated and recycled back into the system in a positive way. at a rate greater than that at which it can be rendered harmless by the environment/and which has an negative effect on the organisms within it. livestock more processing required and therefore more energy. locations for renewable energy sources are limited by available sites/politics. Award [0] if no reason given. (b) (i) reducing lawn size – lawns are restricted to grass species and succession cannot occur as they are cut regularly. when fossil fuels are burned nitrogen oxide is released. MEDC because fertilizers and pesticides are factory produced. nitrogen dioxide absorbs sunlight and breaks up to release oxygen atoms that combine with oxygen in the air to form ozone. arable more energy efficient than the livestock. the technology to harness renewable sources not available on a large scale. 1 2 93 . product processing and packaging is on a grander scale in MEDCs. it reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. more food/nutrients provided for species. (a) stops organic residues entering streams and causing pollution/eutrophication. as energy will have been lost along the food chain due to respiration and excretion/10 % rule/second law of thermodynamics. fossil fuel resources are still economically cheaper to exploit. complex system.

hot/high insolation and humid/ high precipitation. many niches so potential for new speciation is high. historic isolation has allowed speciation leading to high endemism. high productivity can support numerous trophic levels. aesthetic/potential economic value of greater diversity. cheaper. after Madagascar broke away from Gondwanaland. 2 max 2 max [7] 77.(ii) (c) provides greater stability. less likely to cause eutophication than artificial fertilizers. (a) (i) (ii) (b) a range of ecosystems offering a range of habitats/niches. 2 max 2 max 1 94 . artificial fertilizers lead to release of greenhouse gases as they are produced. more niches so more alternative food sources within the food web should anything happen to an individual species. complex food webs allow many niches. island colonized relatively recently so species have not developed escape/evade strategies/not afraid of man. favourable abiotic conditions. a more sustainable strategy. No mark scheme available 78. removing grass cuttings takes nutrients away from the soil. Award [2] if response links ideas: “great length of time for speciation and isolation from the mainland”. natural fertilizers may contribute positively to soil structure. natural fertilizers less likely to contain harmful toxins which may build up in species (biomagnification). so there will be a net loss of nutrients. greater genetic diversity so better able to withstand diseases/change. species evolved independently in response to local conditions. principles of island geography apply. a way of reducing overall waste/resources/energy used.

maintains more canopy so soil is protected from rain/sun. or the fact that soil is naturally poor.(c) (d) (e) (f) Response should be presented as a model. incentive for local people to preserve local ecosystems if they can see the economic benefit. directly by logging/farming/mining/industry/settlement. Award [1 max] if response is not explicitly linked to sustainability. (in principle) natural interest can be harvested whilst natural capital is preserved. better survival of residual trees so niches/species protected. an economic alternative to harmful actions. 2 max site 2 is a pristine (climatic) climax habitat so exhibits greatest diversity. soil exposed to high temperatures and baked/dried out.01%/3% . protective forest cover removed. Award [3 max] if no climatic factors are mentioned. Accept flow diagrams. Lemurs. site 1 is a disturbed habitat with few trees and arrested succession so lower diversity.g. nets. ecotourism can be put back into conservation programmes. 4 max 2 max (i) (18 482 ÷ 600 461 × 100 =) 3. some species may only be present in forested areas as this is where they find food e. soil exposed to rain and easily washed away/eroded. (ii) promotion of development and conservation is the favoured approach of the World Conservation strategy. funds from e. recovery of natural systems after disturbance is more likely. soil loses fertility and can no longer support plants. spider diagrams.g. site 3 will experience some disturbance but less than site 1. etc. soil degraded and useless as a resource for humans. Scorpions favour drier conditions and therefore inhabit the grassland site (1). Madagascar is a poor country and economic development is naturally a priority. nutrients leached away. 3 max (i) 1 95 . Award [1 max] for responses not given in the form of a model.

continuing population growth may lead to expansion and increased pressure from the settlement. yes because carrying capacity is likely to be exceeded. only one ecosystem type presented here. 3 max 1 2 max [23] 96 . reserve surrounded by forest which acts as a natural buffer zone. remote so difficult to police. isolated from human activity so less chance of disturbance. not clear whether there are economic opportunities in the reserve for local people. overpopulation is to do with numbers of people compared to resource use. Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed. (ii) yes. through technology which will develop as the country develops economically. large population is needed to develop the country economically. provided resources are used sustainably there is no reason why populations should not grow. Award credit for other reasonable arguments. one large reserve generally better than lots of little ones. no. reducing birth rates is often seen as being an important feature of countries that are further along in demographic transition.(ii) strengths: 2 reserve is relatively large (50 km ). many of which provide important goods and services and need to be protected. already rich in species/high biodiversity/biological hotspot. government should because population growth rate is high (3 %) and population is putting increasing pressure on limited resources. to be most effective other reserves needed in other locations. government should not because population growth rate will naturally stabilize as the country develops. larger reserves are better. weaknesses: remote so access for research/monitoring could be difficult. more people means more pressure will be put on fragile ecosystems. (g) (i) 36 million. Madagascar will be able to increase its carrying capacity.

Award [2 max] if no reference is made to an example. this defined population could be at any scale e. ecological footprint is the (hypothetical) amount of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. LEDCs are often characterized by lower consumption as people have less to spend. 5 max 7 max 97 . MEDCs (in general) have much greater rates of resource consumption than LEDCs. informal economy in LEDCs is responsible for recycling many resources.g. and assimilate its waste. Award [4 max] if no mention is made of specific case studies. named country.79. Award [1 max] if response quotes specific data about an ecological footprint. an individual/a country. this is partly because people in MEDCs have more disposable income. to meet its resource needs. MEDCs produce far more waste/pollution as a by-product of production. it should be sustainable over time. (a) (b) Responses should be constructed around a case study. and is a quantitative representation of carrying capacity. this means demand for energy resources is high. Award up to [2 max] for reference to a specific example (could be on an individual’s own ecological footprint or for a country). and also because resource use is often wasteful. as LEDCs develop the difference between footprint size diminishes.

but some indication of relative amounts is. renewable technologies but these could potentially have a huge impact on ecological footprints in the future. the pace of technological change is speeding up which suggests new solutions will be found in the future to current resource problems. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 80. etc. as populations grow. Precise figures are not required.g.g. reducing population to reduce resources use. (a) describing water budget: [3 max] only 2. reducing amount of pollution produced.(c) Award [1] for any of the following. recycling resources. improving efficiency of resource use. many innovations are still in earlier stages e. e. reusing resources. as societies develop water needs increase. many societies are now dependent primarily on groundwater which is non-renewable. e. technology can be applied to all aspects of resource use e. industry and agriculture needs to be considered. GM crops for example can be used to increase yields on the same amount of land. greater demands are made on water resources. availability of water for drinking.6 % is fresh water. Award [3 max] for justifying which is most likely to succeed. importing more resources from other countries. over 80 % is in ice caps and glaciers. reduced by reducing amounts of resources that are used. rest of is made up of lakes. 0. explaining why possible source of conflict: [5 max] water resources are now becoming a limiting factor in many societies. mass migration/civil unrest/wars may result. when water supplies fail. so there is a real incentive to address the issue.g. 7 max 98 . transporting waste to other countries to deal with. rivers. the funding to support technological change exists in MEDCs which currently face the biggest problem with their ecological footprints. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity.g. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity technology can increase carrying capacity to cope with increased demand for resources as populations grow.6 % is groundwater. to intensify land use/ cope more efficiently with waste. populations will be forced to take drastic steps. up to [3 max]..

as the choice of strategy may imply these. high economic outlay. Award [1 max] for any statement which explains what a technocentric strategy might be. locally built micro dams. may have environmental costs/not be environmentally sustainable. fertilizers/pesticides. agribusiness/industrial agriculture. this implies individuals/local groups making changes which affect the whole. it also means working with natural processes.g. disease-resistant cereals. 5 max description: [3 max] irrigation using pumped groundwater reserves. (a) (i) a country consuming resources and assimilating its wastes by using a land area 2. 1 99 . 6 max Award [4 max] if there is no evaluation. ecocentric involves education e. Features of ecocentrism do not need to be stated explicitly.4 times larger than the size of the country. ecocentric involves emphasis on community involvement e. and therefore not an option for LEDC.(b) (c) ecocentrism involves an holistic world view.g. ecocentric involves emphasis on small-scale e. Award [2 max] if ecocentrism is discussed without reference to local application. hydroponics is a good example of a technological solution. reuse of bath water. ecocentric focuses on basic needs of those below subsistence e. local tube well. rice with genes to produce more proteins and vitamins. ecocentric involves self-imposed restraint e. Award [1 max] for any correct reference to Boserup’s theory. mechanization.g. may include both engineering solutions and biotechnology solutions.g. evaluation: [3 max] techno solutions may represent the only way to increase yield to meet demand. local awareness campaigns. low technology irrigation. genetically modified plant species. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 81.g.

greater – smaller footprint. per capita production of carbon waste. meat/vegetable rich diets. technology can equally reduce the footprint if it improves efficiency of agricultural production/energy use/alternative energy sources/reduces carbon pollution. 3 max 1 max 100 . more imported resource. change in our natural environment/albedo by humans including deforestation/agricultural activity/urbanization may have changed climate indirectly. more transport – larger footprint. greater reliance – greater size. Accept the converse form of any of the above e. a country’s level of technology will influence its footprint. less reliance smaller size. heat produced by human activity (industry. urban living) may have changed atmospheric systems (leading to global climate change). greater – smaller footprint. more technology more resources therefore larger footprint. efficiency of agriculture. size of population. meat-rich – larger footprint.g. Atmospheric pollution would not be acceptable however atmospheric pollution caused by industry would gain a mark. methane from rice growing/cattle farming is a greenhouse gas. CO2 from burning fossil fuels is a greenhouse gas. use of alternative energy technology.(ii) (b) (i) level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. greater – larger footprint. greater – larger footprint. greater – larger footprint. the addition of various atmospheric pollutants from industry may have changed our atmosphere (and as a consequence climate). level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. per capita consumption of food. greater – smaller footprint. productivity of local biome. Answers must specifically identify the link between man and climate for mark to be awarded.

 (accuracy in the position  both high points and low points  of points is not essential) annotation e. volcanic activity leading to changes in atmospheric composition. changes in the Sun’s radiation output.g. UK climate becoming warmer and wetter/Ethiopia becoming hotter and drier. natural dynamic variation in the atmospheric system leading to climate change. e. sunspot activity. e. ocean current changes leading to global energy change. temperature fluctuations over the last 2000 years. 3 2 max 1 101 .g.(ii) Sketch graph should show the following: steady rise over last 100 years. plate tectonics causing mountain building and affecting air flows. (iii) (c) (i) changes in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun changing the amount of available incoming radiation thus influencing global climate. industrial revolution/marking of little ice age. plate tectonics shift position of land masses.g.

g. 3 max [10] 83. 1 (i) (ii) biomes are defined by climatic conditions/amount of available light. which require resources which may increase footprint size. 2 max [13] 82. may require more flood defenses and thus more resources. method must include expression of data analysis. e. due to increased temperature more energy used for air conditioning thus larger footprint. thus larger footprint. temperature and available precipitation. crop type and livestock are suited to climatic conditions. Accept other reasonable answers of equivalent weight and validity.g. arable farming is limited to geographical bands which have sufficient sunshine and temperature levels and moderate amounts of precipitation.(ii) e. warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local agriculture and therefore reduce footprint size. warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local natural vegetation and therefore reduce footprint size.g. rice fields require high levels of precipitation and high light and temperatures. No mark scheme available 102 .g. more flooding. 1 (iii) Candidates may describe a number of possible methods but their design should include the following: method must allow for the collection of data that is scientifically representative and appropriate (e. (a) (b) (i) the number of species and their abundance found within a habitat. 1 (ii) N = total number of organisms within a population. multiple 1 metre quadrats). 4 biological area(s) exhibiting a similar climate/weather that supports a distinctive flora and fauna. warmer temperatures may require less heating thus smaller footprint. e. new climate may require new building styles. method must allow for the collection of data on species present. UK: climate change will cause policy change which will change behaviour and influence footprint size. and abundance within species (expressed as number of individuals/ percentage cover). indigenous agriculture is dictated by climate. Simpson’s index would be used to quantify diversity. dealing with changing climate conditions.

Award [2] if answers include both a difference and an influence on success. 2 max 2 max 103 . encourages support of local communities by making some provision for them. Award [1 max] if either one or both values are incorrect but working is shown correctly. 345 Award [2] if both correct values are given. strict reserve is (proportionally) smaller and so. (a) (b) (c) reduces direct impact/edge effects of more rigorous human activity in production zone. less protection for forest species. may be less effective in raising sufficient revenue/ gaining support from local people. influence: is more vulnerable to unmanaged human activity outside park. through ecotourism/education. raises revenue from ecotourism to support conservation management. difference: buffer zone is in direct contact with edge at some points and so. raises awareness of conservation issues. influence: is more vulnerable to edge effects. logging processes and transport may aid in dispersal of Ficus/fig trees. logging may selectively remove competitors of Ficus/fig trees.84. difference: overall shape is more elongated/boundary more reticulated and so. allows research and thus more understanding of threatened species and their protection. 2 max unlogged: logging likely to remove larger Ficus/fig trees in harvesting host trees. production zone is (proportionally) smaller and so. 68 331 logged: × 100% = 96%. Ficus/fig trees may establish themselves more easily with increased light/ reduced canopy due to logging. 2 max difference: influence: difference: influence: (i) (ii) 60 × 100 = 88%.

they prefer lower tree density. it limits growth of mature keystone species e. Be lenient with any strict sense of a “species” i. 2 max 104 . that size of groups is similar in both areas. some parishes may benefit financially from tourist traffic outside park and so not dependent on park resources e.(d) (e) any appropriate example in which it is shown that many other species within ecosystem depend upon it. Award [1] for each valid difference with appropriate named location up to [2 max]. they form smaller but more numerous groups in lower density forest. (i) (ii) (g) 2 (Black and white colobus more abundant in logged area because) less competition from other primates. it causes incidental damage through e. they feed on trees not harvested by loggers. Bigodi/Busiriba.g. Kigaraale. Award [0] if no species is identified. transport/noise/soil compaction/erosion. it removes nutrients stored in harvested biomass. some parishes have very little direct access to park at all/minimal boundary to the park e. 1 max adjacent areas are similar in all other relevant respects. Karusandara/Dura/Nkongooro. “trees” is not acceptable but “pine trees” would be.g.e.g. Award [2] if it is shown that more than two groups depend upon it and [1] if it is shown that two other groups depend upon it.g. abundance of Black and white colobus is more in logged area/less in unlogged. 2 max (while all four parishes given make direct contact with a large production zone in the park) other parishes only in contact with buffer zone/have no access to production zone (where management is less stringent) e. Ficus/fig trees. 1 max it interferes with the success of other species than the crop species e. primates. that areas are indeed adjacent (map would suggest that they are at least 10–15 km apart). that data was recorded at same season/year.g.g. 1 max (iii) (f) abundance of six/most species is less in logged area/more in unlogged area.

cause: damage to crops from park animals.(h) cause: have traditionally depended upon forest resources for subsistence. cause: poverty in the face of great wealth evident in park management/tourists. strategy: revenue sharing. difference: more SOs promoting research. difference: more SOs seeking funding. difference: more DGs monitoring illegal forest use. 2 max 105 . (i) difference: fewer DGs involved in energy conservation technology. strategy: offer practical/financial assistance to set up sustainable projects. reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs. reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs/more personnel/ resources available. reason: less direct benefit to them possibly than more localized PAs working together/less technical understanding than SOs. reason: have more international contacts. difference: more DGs forming policy and law. 2 max Award [1] for any acceptable cause and [1] for a relevant strategy. cause: cannot achieve sustainable provision outside of forest. strategy: develop methods of preventing animals from entering crops. strategy: offer agreements whereby they can obtain certain traditional resources. Award [1] for any acceptable significant difference and [1] for an appropriate explanation. reason: have more technical understanding.

Award [3 max] if no figure numbers are given. discussion: provides good holistic approach to conservation. but this is a major hurdle. discussion: only 29 % of population by time of report. 4 max Award [1] for any reasonable evidence derived from resource material and [1] for any appropriate point of discussion. timber). Award [2 max] if no discussion is given. so impressive achievement. discussion: small number of letters/anecdotal/from only three parishes. renewable are natural resources that have a sustainable yield/harvest equal to/less than their natural productivity. whereas replenishable are abiotic and depend on abiotic processes.g.g. renewable are biotic and depend on biotic processes. discussion: revenue sharing provides very little money. rainforest ecosystem of particular global significance.g. letters also indicate there are still infringements of restrictions. groundwater). replenishable are non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the Sun for their replenishment. 3 max 106 . evidence: some parishes have signed agreements – figure 8. evidence: many aspects of original model are implemented – figure 2. evidence: incentives such as controlling crop damage/sustainable projects/revenue sharing are in place to encourage support of locals – figure 8. (e. (e. food crops. discussion: no mention in these reports of this being associated with Kibale specifically. evidence: many decentralized groups/local parishes do have an environmental agenda – figure 9/figure 10.(j) evidence: strict reserve has been established – figure 2. evidence: letters show awareness/support among local people – figure 7. study only reports how groups see their own role without any objective assessment. discussion: less than recommended in model. [25] 85. fossil fuels). (a) non-renewable are natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment and used (e.

e. so a thinning/hole allows more UVB wavelengths through.g.(b) Award [1] for a named example of replenishable natural capital. this has consequences such as increases in skin cancer/increased mutations.g.g. knock-on impacts on agriculture. ozone depleting substances already released remain active for long periods. sources of pollution include agricultural products. and reduction of plankton populations. and underground storage tanks/landfills/septic tanks/mining run-off. increase in tensions/conflict over the limited resource. excessive use of surface water means that groundwater supplies are not being replenished. Award up to [5 max] for human actions damaging resource and up to [5 max] for possible effects. e. which has knock-on effects for their consumers (zooplankton)/for food chains/webs. ozone depletion has lead to “holes” in the ozone layer e. CFCs are found in refrigerants and propellants. higher costs of water for industry. possible effects: ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths (270–315 nm) of ultraviolet light from passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. with knock on effects for economy. for ozone: human actions damaging resource: human activity releases ozone depleting substances such as CFCs/ halons/NOx. possible effects: reduced availability of water resources. as less water is available for irrigation and yields decline. over Antarctica. excessive abstraction/extraction/groundwater mining means water tables are lowered. ozone/groundwater. 8 max 107 . e. damage to plant tissues. there has been a decline in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere of about 4 % every ten years.g. for groundwater: human actions damaging resource (examples need to be related to groundwater not other water resources): human activity is releasing pollutants so water quality is lost. further contaminating supply. pollutants enhance the rate of destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. can lead to salt water intrusion in coastal areas.

weaknesses: but ecosystems can exist at many scales. often local methods have evolved to be more sustainable/appropriate for the local environment. Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed. so that future generations can continue to use the resource. CITES for trade across boundaries to ensure populations are big enough to sustain the species.g. some environmental problems are local in nature e.g. so understanding knock-on effects outside of national boundaries helps governments to be more responsible. and that the earth is a global control system of surface temperature. 7 max Evaluation needs strengths and weaknesses. global warming.g. it compares the Earth to a living organism in which feedback mechanisms maintain equilibrium. the initial hypothesis was that the biomass modifies the conditions on the planet to make conditions on the planet more hospitable (full homeostasis). atmospheric composition and ocean salinity.g.g. ecosystems are affected by global processes e. understanding that our actions can have an impact on others is good for getting societies to think about impacts on different generations.g. individual/small-scale community action can be very effective for managing resources sustainably e. hydrological cycle/ atmospheric system. evaluation: Award [5 max] strengths: sustainable management means ensuring resources are not degraded/ natural capital is not used up. traditional farming methods. not just in different countries. point source pollution. human actions can be culturally specific e. and so a more local perspective is sometimes appropriate.(c) description: Award [3 max] the Gaia hypothesis was developed by James Lovelock. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 108 . global perspective is useful because many problems have global consequences e. sometimes problems need international agreements e. recycling. global perspective stresses the interrelationships between systems so knock-on effects are reduced.

populations either have to stop growing or consume less. however they are often responsible for high mortalities (e. where a change in density leads to inhibition/reversal of that change. societies/ governments need to manage the numbers of people in order to support populations indefinitely. hence when density-dependent factors do change. and is. thus. density-dependent factors operate as negative feedback mechanisms leading to stability. seasonal flooding. in order for resource consumption to be sustainable population growth must remain within the limits of the carrying capacity. carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum number of a species/load that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. density-independent factors are not influenced by changes in population density and so do not lead directly to stability. winter. i. which are necessary to reduce population to a level within the control of density-dependent factors. bush fire). 5 max 4 max 109 . this statement is suggesting that as well as managing resource use. density-independent factors are of particular importance for r-strategists. more energy is needed to supply goods/services to more people/ more land is needed to feed these people. this in turn limits population growth and/or per capita resource consumption. and may be either internal or external. it can also be exceeded in the short term but not sustainably. total resource consumption increases even faster than population. carrying capacity tends to limit the total resource consumption. fluctuations can be dramatic.e. unless per capita resource consumption is reduced.86. exceeded in human populations due to import of resources from other systems. if resources are used more frugally/efficiently then carrying capacity can support a larger population. generally however per capita resource consumption increases over time. if carrying capacity is exceeded there will be consequences in terms of demand for resources not being met. this limit can be.g. both factors usually operate on populations. (a) (b) as population increases this tends to increase resource consumption. Award [4 max] if statement is not referred to.

Award [5 max] if no examples are mentioned. combination of human activities on reefs through overfishing/ coral bleaching/ pollution have weakened the reefs so that they are less able to cope with natural threats like El Niño events. successful ecological management involves recognizing how much disturbance an ecosystem can cope with. tropical deforestation on a grand scale does not allow regeneration to take place. 9 max Award [1] for any point of equal weight and validity about the importance of understanding equilibrium and [1] for any example of an ecosystem used to show how equilibrium has been upset by human activities. human activities can interrupt succession so that the ultimate equilibrium.g. agroforestry/small-scale shifting cultivation is a method of farming which mimics natural processes so that ecosystems can regenerate/equilibrium can be restored. succession).g. some ecosystems undergo long-term changes to their equilibrium while retaining integrity to the system (e. e. human activities can be tailored to match and fit in with natural levels of disturbance within ecosystems. e.g. e. where the nutrient balance becomes upset.g.(c) a steady-state equilibrium is a common property of most ecosystems. and that while human activity may not directly cause loss of equilibrium. grazing/burning arrests the succession of forest. e. equilibrium of aquatic ecosystems can be upset by the addition of excessive nutrients/through eutrophication. ecosystems have a tendency to return to their original equilibrium following natural disturbance/most ecosystems are able to cope with natural changes to their equilibrium. it may leave a system more vulnerable to natural disturbance.g.g. e. coral reefs coping with storm damage/grassland ecosystems coping with bushfires/tropical rainforest coping with loss of big trees due to storms. human activities can be the source of high levels of disturbance and thus ecosystems are pushed beyond a point of no return/ equilibrium is irreversibly changed. is not reached (plagioclimax). Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 110 . the climatic climax. e.g.

1 1 111 . pressure to meet quotas for renewable energy. OWTTE. HEP.g.87. country does not have that resource e. people are selfish/inertia/tragedy of the commons. (a) (i) (ii) Sustainable yield: rate of increase is natural capital/resource that can be exploited/taken/harvested without depleting the original stock. plentiful supply at present/cheaper than burning coal or oil. Accept any reasonable advantages or disadvantages. poor design of equipment/buildings e.g. Do not credit answers which just state the second law without relating it to environmental systems. bigger car/having a fridge. environmental systems increase their order so go against the law for a short time. renewable resource/once turbines built it is cheap. (a) Energy source Advantage Disadvantage natural gas. wind. education. Credit advantages and disadvantages for an incorrect source to avoid error carried forward. Award [1] for each pair of correct responses of advantages and/or disadvantages. Do not credit “cheap” with no qualifier. 3 max 2 max 2 max 1 max [8] 88. only available when wind blows/not always near population centres. people desire a better lifestyle which is equated with wanting more e. Accept other reasonable responses. Both correct values required for [1]. some resources not continuously available. (do not accept “don’t know better”) environmental systems increase their disorder/all energy ends up as heat. country wishes to increase diversity of energy sources. (b) (c) (d) inertia/satisfied with existing system. burning releases carbon dioxide/non-renewable. standby on electrical equipment/phantom loads. near sea for wave. High: 106 tonnes and low: 106 tonnes (units required). Award [1 max] for natural gas/wind.g.

(d) 1 fish farming/change fishing grounds/eat alternative food sources/ new technologies to ensure immature fish not caught/less wastage/ research into alternative fish species/monitoring population numbers carefully to check stocks/research in GM fish (suitable for aquaculture). ignorance of how “in danger” a stock is. because more fish are left in the sea to breed and increase stocks/ the trend in low intensity is to have larger catch in year 4 compared with year 4 in high intensity. Aquatic: most food from higher trophic levels/bigger fish/higher up food chain so much energy has been lost/energy conversions more efficient as fewer warm-blooded animals which use most energy to keep body temperature stable/more efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy). 2 2 max Terrestrial: most food harvested from lower trophic levels/as crops/plants/ herbivores/ cattle etc. 1 1 Award [1] for diagram which shows contracting population and large numbers of older people. Do not credit reasons why birth rates are decreasing. so less heat/respiratory losses/more efficient fixation of solar energy as does not have to get through water first/ less efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy). oceans are huge/vast areas. international boundaries make legislation difficult.(iii) (iv) (b) (c)  48  24   100  = 100% difference  24   low intensity. (a) (b) (c) Crude death rate: number of deaths per thousand individuals in a population per year. Accept other reasonable responses. the share of global population is decreasing because the rate of increase is much higher in LEDCs. 112 . Accept other reasonable responses. miscalculation of how many are available. if starving will break the law to catch food/hard for law-keepers to monitor catch. e. 2 1 [10] 89.g. short-term gain is more important than longer-term growth of the industry.

age ranges on y axis. 2 (total fertility is) the (average) number of children per woman in her lifetime/her reproductive years. population size on x axis. value of resource usually measured in economic terms. 2 2 max 113 . no longer care about saving energy/resources/consume the same as middle-aged adults whereas children consume less. (b) it has no economic value/not easy to quantify. need to consider aesthetic or intrinsic value which is subjective.F e m a le A g e ra n g e M a le (d) (e) P o p u la tio n Award [1] for labels – male. (a) Natural income: yield/output that can be used by people without diminishing the capital/ same as sustainable yield. 2 max [7] 90. 1 smaller footprint because: older people eat less/go out less/fly less/ travel less. female. Accept other reasonable responses. Natural capital: natural resources that can produce goods and services/the natural stock/storage of a resource. views can be diverse and hard to assess. larger footprint because: older people have more leisure time so fly/have more holidays/live in larger houses. are more aware of environmental impacts so use less energy.

it is dark for 4 months of the year. snow cover prevents light reaching plants for part of year. especially in winter months/November to April. temperatures consistently higher in 1991–2004. total precipitation is more evenly distributed in 1991–2004. (ii) water/light/temperature is limiting. (i) 1 2 max warmer in summer/June to September in both periods. No mark scheme available 92. smaller temperature ranges in 1991–2004. anomalously low precipitation in October 1991–2004. by tropospheric ozone damaging forests. water is frozen for most of year in permafrost. drier/lower precipitation in the summer/June to August in both periods. atmospheric particulates obscure the view. 2 max [6] 91. (a) (b) (i) tundra. global warming changing vegetation and glaciers melting. Award [2 max] if either precipitation or air temperature are not mentioned. precipitation rates are low. temperature above freezing/warmer earlier in 1991–2004. temperature is low due to low intensity of solar insolation. chimneys/car parks may be built and are visual pollutants. Accept any other reasonable suggestion. air pollution can cause breathing difficulties/produce bad smell which spoils experience of people at viewpoint. (ii) climate change/global warming/natural variation/increased combustion of fossil fuels.(c) by acid deposition which kills conifers. 1 114 . Accept converse answer in each case but do not credit both. photochemical smog obscures the view. precipitation lower in every month in 1991–2004. 3 max Accept any other reasonable suggestion. infertile soil due to low temperatures/acidity/waterlogging/low nutrient turnover. precipitation is lowest in months when light levels are highest. total precipitation lower in 1991–2004.

Accept other valid reasons. Do not credit food chain for mainland reindeer if warble flies are missing. it has fewer trophic levels/interrelationships are simpler/ chain not web. low nutrient value of food. adaptation to local conditions/no predators so no need for long legs/natural selection. OTTWE 2 max w o lf w a rb le fly 2 max 1 115 . human impact on Svalbard may destabilize that food chain. habitat covers a smaller land area. Svalbard reindeer: (solar insolation) → small arctic plants → reindeer . 2 max Do not award marks if arrows are drawn onto the table in the incorrect direction. no predators to manage/control Svalbard reindeer population. Award [1 max]. smaller populations are more likely to crash. Mainland reindeer: (solar insolation) → reindeer moss/lichen → wild reindeer (iii) (d) (i) Award [1 max]. positive feedback amplifies/increases change/leads to (exponential) deviation away from an equilibrium. Do not award mark for stating wild reindeer food chain is less stable. Svalbard’s food chain is less stable because. whereas negative feedback damps down/ neutralizes/counteracts any deviation away from an equilibrium. Accept any other reasonable suggestion.(c) (i) (ii) geographical isolation/no interbreeding with mainland reindeer.

1 116 . releasing more methane so temperature increases further.g. 2 max latitude: 76° (accept 75°–77°) – 81° (accept 80°–82°) North/N. so the genetic diversity they provided for development of new varieties is lost.(ii) Positive feedback: [2 max] methane gas released from mining increases global warming/ greenhouse effect. so atmospheric dust/precipitation levels return to normal. the species and/or genetic diversity of wild plants may be culturally and aesthetically significant (and therefore worth preserving). maintaining genetic diversity of food crops is vital for breeding new varieties to cope with disease/adverse conditions. higher temperatures melt permafrost. low running costs/little electricity used. albedo is further reduced. some transgenic crop varieties have a “terminator” gene. with no snow cover. ecosystems may become unstable if key species disappear/ diversity is reduced. jobs/tourism revenue. Accept any other valid example. as permafrost melts. coal dust deposited on snow or ice reduces albedo/reflection of solar energy/increases solar energy absorbed so ice and snow melt. few natural hazards. Negative feedback: [2 max] dust particles in the atmosphere act as condensation nuclei leading to more precipitation. many older varieties of food crops are no longer grown. methane gas is released so temperatures increase further. so cannot produce viable seed for farmers to plant the following season. so frozen soil thaws. little chance of civil unrest/little human disturbance. dust particles washed out of atmosphere by extra precipitation. (e) (i) (ii) (f) (i) very cold/permafrost/frozen. wild plants are often used for developing new drugs/providing genes to give disease resistance/ability to withstand adverse conditions to other species. 4 max 2 max many rare/endangered wild plants are threatened with extinction by human activity/natural hazards. Do not accept answers which relate to general advantages of having a seed vault or benefits to Svalbard e.

this has had knock-on effects on lake species/water supplies for lake communities/fishing industries/local climate. recently discovered new reserves in the area. an example where this has not happened is the Aral Sea (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). and minimizes damage to the environment. demands on water resources are increasing due to population increase/ increasing demands by agriculture/industry.(ii) exploitation of more inaccessible resources becomes economically more viable as reserves diminish/prices rise. therefore water resources need to be managed to ensure demand does not exceed supply. improved technology is now available for coping with difficult Arctic weather and subsea conditions. Award [1] for naming an appropriate case study. the two rivers (Syr Darya and Amu Darya) which input water into the Aral Sea had been diverted to irrigate cotton fields upstream in Uzbekistan. hence. countries want their own oil and gas supply for strategic reasons. Answers must relate to an increasing trend. increasing demand for resources to sustain increased expectations of higher standards of living. increased demand for oil and gas encourages further exploitation in new areas. which has shrunk in size and been degraded by unsustainable use of water resources. yet the capacity of fresh water stores to replenish themselves is not unlimited. Examples may demonstrate sustainable or unsustainable use. river water has been harvested for irrigation and used at a rate greater than it can be replenished by fresh water. increasing demand for resources due to population growth. access becomes easier as ice thins/areas become ice free for more of the year. 2 max [25] 93. insufficient water reached the Aral causing it to shrink to a third of its original size. water has become contaminated with pesticide run-off and salt due to evaporation and reduced freshwater supplies. (a) (b) use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration. 2 6 max 117 .

the ecosystem (bushland) surrounding their settlement is seen as the source of all the resources (food. for example for fishing catches.g. the massive deforestation of ancient forests in Europe for fuel and building materials. but the bush is also the home of potentially vindictive spirits. and so quotas are set. fuel and medicine) that they need. Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to compare the societies.(c) e. Award [5 max] for each society. but increasingly it is being argued that ecosystems should be seen as natural capital which can yield an income if exploited sustainably.g. building materials. respect is an essential part of the relationship between the Dogon and their environment. livestock herding and hunter gathering. but the scale and technological power of these systems means that in the past this has led to exploitation of resources at unsustainable rates e. to preserve the natural capital. wood is not wasted and wooden objects are left to deteriorate once no longer useful. Award [1] for stating two societies which demonstrate significant differences. in industrial capitalism economic growth (and the consumption patterns that sustain growth) can be idealized/worshipped in place of the spiritual dimension of an ecosystem.g. 10 max Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to relate the value system to how the resources are used. e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 118 . the Dogon operate a mixed farming system with cultivation of millet and tobacco. e. ecosystems are seen as economic resources which can be exploited through work in order to develop economies/ meet needs. trees are particularly respected. just as in the Dogon system. subsistence depends on harnessing the power of the bush through work.g. the Dogon people in West Africa and industrial capitalism of Western Europe.

pyramid of biomass represents the standing stock of each trophic level measured in units such as grams of biomass or energy per sq m. pyramid structure of ecosystems means that non-biodegradable toxins can become concentrated in upper levels.g. so the ban allows natural balance to be restored. malaria is a disease to which children are particularly vulnerable and has huge socio-economic implications. target insects can develop resistance. 90% of all malaria cases are in Africa.g. it also demonstrates why there is a limit to the number of trophic levels that can be supported.94. Award [2 max]. incidence of malaria has increased as a result. e.g. but DDT also kills other insects which may be natural predators of the mosquitoes. e. Advantages of banning DDT: [3 max] environmental side-effects of DDT have been avoided by banning its use. (b) 4 max Disadvantages of banning DDT: [3 max] DDT effectively killed malarial mosquitoes. and why species at the top of the pyramid may be more vulnerable to e. 6 max 119 . (a) Award [2 max]. a continent least able to deal with the socio-economic consequences of the disease. hunting. (units required) pyramid of numbers represents the number of individuals in each trophic level within a food chain. because DDT becomes more concentrated along food chains (bioconcentration) top carnivores tend to be most affected and these may play a very significant role in maintaining balance of whole ecosystem. and since the ban populations of mosquitoes have increased. DDT is not biodegradable and accumulates in the tissues of living organisms (bioaccumulation) damaging or even eliminating populations.

g. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 120 . whereas technocentric might use chemical fertilizers. Contrasting approaches of ecocentric and technocentric farmers: both ecocentric and technocentric farmers might apply fertilizers. ecocentrics often express a lack of faith in large-scale technology so might oppose strategies used by agribusiness e. use of GM/Green Revolution crops e.g. through removal of hedgerows.g. avoiding over-intensive farming by allowing fields fallow/rest periods. relevance and substance. high-tech irrigation systems. reducing wastage by increasing field size e. avoiding depletion of nutrients by rotating crops. beans. reducing loss of nutrients/topsoil due to wind erosion by planting shelter belts.g. 8 max Award credit for any other answers of equivalent validity. reducing losses due to pests/disease with chemical treatments. ecocentric using manure (to work with natural processes). higher yielding varieties of rice. improving yields through irrigation. Allocation of marks can be split flexibly for part (c).g. avoiding over-compaction of soil through use of appropriate/low impact technology. reducing loss of nutrients due to soil erosion by terracing fields.(c) Methods for improving productivity of soil: improving fertility of the soil with (organic fertilizers/manure/chemical) fertilizers. but choice of fertilizer might reflect their values e. Award [6 max] if no contrast is made between ecocentric and technocentric farmers. technocentrics might favour high tech solutions such as GM crops whereas ecocentrics might be concerned about the ethical issues of GM. improving nitrogen fixation by planting leguminous crops e.

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