1.

(a)

(b)

(c)

The pedosphere is the biotic / non-biotic link between
the lithosphere and the biosphere;
there is a two-way movement of water between the
pedosphere and the hydrosphere;
there is an exchange of atmospheric gases with the pedosphere;
atmospheric processes influence the pedosphere
(e.g. through soil erosion);
atmospheric factors will affect soil forming processes
(e.g leaching, weathering);
soil organisms are part of the biosphere but also part of the soil;
biosphere contributes detrital / organic matter to the soil;

5 max

Sandy soils are characterised by large grains and large pore spaces
whereas clay soils are characterised by small grains and small pore spaces;
sand soils are therefore freely drained (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but have poor water retention);
whereas clay soils hold water well (but are subject to water logging);
clay soils have a better nutrient content due to the clay humus complex
whereas sand soils do not;
sand soils tend to have a blocky or crumb structure favouring root
growth whereas clay soils tend to have a platy structure which can
inhibit root growth;
clay soils are traditionally more difficult to work / plow (heavy and sticky
when wet, hard when dry), sandy soils are generally easier to work;
clay soils heat and cool quickly, sandy soils exhibit a slower
thermal response;

5 max

Award [1] for naming systems. e.g. N. America cereal farming
nomadic herding in Tanzania
Commercial measures tent to be large scale;
high technology;
and may be supported by government initiatives;
examples of measures:
addition of fertilizers;
crop rotation;
contour plowing;
plowing technology which leaves roots in soil;
strip cultivation;
tree belts as wind breaks;

1

subsistence measures tend to be small scale;
low technology;
ad hoc;
based on traditional practise;
and may be supported by grass-roots initiatives;
example of measures:
terraces;
application of organic fertilizers (manure);
debris dams;
shifting cultivation;
tree planting;
agroforestry;

7 max
[17]

2.

(a)

(i)

the mass of organic material in organisms or ecosystems,
usually per unit area;

1

dry weight measurements are taken;
these figures are then extrapolated to estimate total biomass;

2

(i)

tropical rainforest;

1

(ii)

ideal growing conditions due to high temperatures (typically 28 °C);
and high rates of precipitation (typically over 2000 mm p.a.);
continuous growing season;
due to geographical location in equatorial area with sun
directly overhead;
for much of the year and energy of sun therefore concentrated
in this zone;

3

biomass is per unit area, productivity is production per unit time;
NPP is the quantity of biomass potentially available to
consumers in an ecosystem;

2

(i)

temperature deciduous woodland;

1

(ii)

deep humus means lots of organic matter and this leads to greater
fertility than acid humus (due to pine needles), therefore
coniferous is less fertile;
this soil has less leaching than the temperate coniferous
– i.e. fewer minerals washed out;
and parent material not as weathered as in tropical rainforest;
therefore likely to be contributing more minerals;

(ii)

(b)

(iii)

(c)

3 max
[13]

2

3.

(a)

(i)

1

X
(ii)

(b)

(i)

(ii)

(c)

(d)

Y

population growth will eventually slow down as food supply
becomes a limiting factor;
population growth exponentially (geometric rate);
and food supply grows arithmetically / population
growth outstrips food supply increase;

1

2 max

as population grows more and more babies are born
and each one is able to have children and so
the rate of growth accelerates;
food supply does not growth as rapidly, this may be due
to a number of factors e.g. limits to soil fertility / availability
of technology / patterns of land ownership;

2

To obtain marks, candidates must refer to a specific named farming
which may be terrestrial or aquatic e.g. shifting cultivation,
South East Asia.
possible improvements could be in:
farming inputs e.g. green revolution;
irrigation;
storage or distribution;
social or organizational changes e.g. in land tenure or
cooperative harvesting;

3 max

introduce and encourage contraception;
setting up family planning clinics;
compulsory sterilization;
advertising campaigns;
making abortion legal;
cutting maternity benefits;
education of women to have greater personal
and economic independence;

2 max

3

(e)

attitudes to contraception e.g. religious objections;
traditional societies and the desire for male offspring;
early marriage ages;
and the desire to appear fertile;
lack of other opportunities for women;
Credit can be given for the use of examples / case
studies to illustrate these points.

3 max

[14]

4.

(a)

6
In s o la tio n
1972000

In s o la tio n
185000

O pen sea

F jo rd
3 4 7 0 P h y to p la n k to n

F a rm e d s h rim p

847

461
K aw ai

S a lm o n
26
4 .3

410

6 .2

572

In u it

4 .1 M a n a g in g s a lm o n

1 2 .5 O th e r h u m a n a c tiv itie s
1 4 M a n a g in g s h rim p fa rm

F is h in g fo r
k a w a i 6 .7

Award [1] for each two correct labels.

(b)

(i)

(ii)

the quantity of organic matter produced or solar energy
fixed, by photosynthesis in green plants per unit area
per unit time;

1

net primary productivity is GPP less the biomass / energy
lost by plants through respiration;

1

4

(iii)

(c)

nutrient and mineral availability;
temperauture;

kaway

2

847 – 572
× 100 = 32.5% ;
847

461 – 410
× 100 = 11.1% ;
461
kaway is more efficient;
salmon

(d)

3 max

in terrestrial systems most food is harvested from relatively
low tropic levels, but in aquatic systems most food is
harvested from higher trophic levels;
energy conversions along the food chain may be more
efficient in aquatic systems;
initial fixing or available solar energy by primary producers
tend to be less efficient due to the absorption and reflection
of light by water;

3

(e)

salmon is a source of income as well as a food source;

1

(f)

technology likely to be simpler;
methods likely to be more traditional;
environmental impact will probably be smaller;
more likely to be sustainable in the long term;

3 max
[20]

5.

(a)

(b)

use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration;
and minimizes damage to the environment;
Give credit if concept of replenishable capital is mentioned.

2

Give full credit for either a brief discussion of several human
actions or a full discussion of one. Credit should be given
for use of examples / case studies.
Allow [5] for how resource has been managed unsustainably
and [5] for consequences for ecosystems.

5

soil resources
human actions could include:
overgrazing;
deforestation;
unsustainable irrigation;
land pollution;
acid deposition;
Or a more detailed discussion of one or more of these.

(c)

5 max

consequences could include:
soil degradation;
loss of soil structure;
desertification;
soil erosion;
loss of organic matter and consequences for primary productivity;
effects of acid deposition on nutrient content of soils;
loss of soil organisms;

5 max

water resources
human actions could include abstraction of ground water;
pollution;
eutrophication;
increased demand for water;
wastage of water resources;
Or a detailed discussion of one or more of these.

5 max

consequences could include:
loss of habitat;
role of water in soil formation and consequences for soil formation
if water shortage occurs (e.g. increased rates of salinisation;
increased rates of soil erosion as water table is lowered);
eutrophication consequences on aquatic ecosystem;
impact of pollutants on aquatic fauna (e.g. mutations, progressive,
concentration of pollutants along the food chain);
impact of pollutants on flora e.g. impact of acid rain on coniferous forests;

5 max

Soil resources
suggest possible soil conservation methods:
soil conditioners;
wind reduction techniques;
cultivation techniques;
efforts to stop plowing marginal lands;
crop rotation;
Credit should be given if reference is made to
specific farming systems.

5 max

6

increased levels of technological development (associated with MEDCs for example) tend to be associated with larger ecological footprints.g. making it hard to calculate the carrying capacity for human populations. in the areas of recycling and remanufacturing. ecological footprint – the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living / the measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population. technological developments have enabled humans to substitute one resource for another if that resource becomes limiting (e. Credit should be given for the use of specific examples to support these statements. 4 technology development give rise to continual changes in the resources required and available for consumption. whereas the footprint of an ELDC is likely to be smaller than their land area. and the assimilation of all wastes. with respect to eutrophication. reducing water use. 5 max [20] 6. e.g.OR Water resources suggest more sustainable practices. improvements in transports have enabled humans to import resources from outside their immediate environment increasing their local carrying capacity.g. Credit should be given if reference is made to specific case studies. technological innovations. (a) (b) carrying capacity – the maximum number of people that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. thus many economists argue that human carrying capacity can be expanded continuously without necessarily increasing the impact (load) on the environment. recycling. e. metering water. the ecological footprint of an EMDC is likely to be larger then their land area. pollution monitoring or control. can increase carrying capacity. with alternative fuel resources). 5 max 7 .

population pressure can be lead to resources being misused. Credit should be given if specific case studies are used to illustrate these points.e. without internal balance an ecosystem would spiral out of control. (a) (i) (ii) (b) feedback that tends to damp down/neutralize/counteract any deviation from an equilibrium.g. reducing total population size would therefore be a solution of sorts. e. 1 most ecosystems contain inbuilt checks and balances. 1 feedback that amplifies/increases change (it leads to exponential deviation away from equilibrium). or the fastest population growth rates. water resources are not distributed evenly across the globe) and therefore more equitable distribution is arguably what is required rather than population control. in the sense that many resource management problems are that there are insufficient resources for the available population. and promotes stability.(c) Clearly this question can be answered in a variety of ways. excessive population growth arguably occurs as a result of poverty (associated with inadequate resources). some resources are finite and therefore no amount of population control will make a difference ultimately to the availability of that resource. without negative feedback no ecosystem could be self-sustaining. e. 1 max 8 . resource management problems are often to do with distribution of resources (e. the largest use of resources if found in the most economically developed countries of the world. however. a vicious cycle exists where population control will not be effective unless poverty and inequitable resource use is addresses first.g. all use of oil is ultimately unsustainable no matter what size the population is. these countries may not have the largest populations. Credit should be given for answers which are balanced i.g. candidate cannot gain full marks if only one side is argued. soil being farmed too intensively / forests being cut too rapidly. 8 max [20] 7.

paying off heavy foreign debts means less money left over for inward investment. national debt.g. more resources must be put into sustaining the population rather than development. culture may not have a philosophy of sustainability (consumerist culture of west or nomadic culture of Africa). whilst minimizing damage to the environment.(c) sm oke ste a m / w a te r v a p o u r / w a te r coal c o ld w a te r Three correct [2]. (d) (i) 2 1 3 max renewable natural capital is natural resources that have a 9 . one or two correct [1]. population expansion. [1] for both factors and [1] each for brief description of each factor. (a) use of a resource at a rate which allows for natural regeneration. energy / e le c tr ic ity w a rm w a te r 2 max [5] 8. countries’ resources are diverted to armies rather than invested in education/agriculture/development projects. short-term thinking predominates but sustainable development is a long-term goal. war. political unrest. cultural inertia.  total biomass   total biomass  at time t  1   at time t  energy energy     (b) SY =  (c) A range of answers may be acceptable e.

1 (i) 30 × 70 = 2100 kg ha . plant crops in rotation. respiration leads to diminishing oxygen levels. enhanced levels of N and P leads to increase in algal growth/algal blooms.sustainable yield/harvest  their natural productivity. –1 = 4 kg ha (units needed). whereas non-renewable natural capital is natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment. water quality decreases. –1 = –6 kg ha (units needed). clover). so less oxygen for other organisms. contour plowing. 2 [10] 9. plant wheat/maize/other crops. consumed by animals (as a constituent of plant material) and removed by the animal from the field. 2 ryegrass: inputs – outputs = 298 – 304. plant legumes {e. (ii) atmosphere: lost as nitrogen gas from the soil surface and plants. different crops. 2 (ii) Renewable/replenishable Non-renewable food crops oil timber gas wind coal solar natural ore soil groundwater Mark vertically. 1 2 max 3 max 3 changing agricultural practice. [1] for each column. 10 .g. leached away. (i) (ii) The answer should clearly describe the process of eutrophication. e. as algal blooms are decomposed by bacteria. –1 add more fertilizer.g. 2 (ii) ryegrass: produces a net loss of nitrogen from the soil. (a) (b) (c) (d) (i) maize: inputs – outputs = 298 – 294.

Asellus.. and water retention. silt and clay particles. Give credit for references to actual EIA. peppered moth. there should be monitoring of environmental conditions during and after development. there should be an assessment of impacts during and after development. stonefly larvae. adopting different fertilizer (synthetic. often difficult to put together a complete baseline study due to lack of data. often all impacts are not identified.(e) timing fertilizer application to minimise impact. should inform decision making. oxygen enrich water course. and the clay humus complex for mineral retention. clean up and re-oxygenate water course. etc. and good drainage.g. harvest (remove) algae. 3 max [20] 10. baseline study . blood worm. information and suggestions in EIA are often not acted upon. treating drainage water (removing N and P). polluted and unpolluted sites should be compared. should contain non-technical summary. by abundance of organism (either high or lower levels than expected)/ by colour of moths’ wings etc. (a) (b) named organism (e. there should be an understanding of the development in terms of impact. organism can be used as an indicator. reference to the Trent biotic index or similar. water flea.). therefore have airspaces for root penetration. rat tailed maggot.important to know what the physical and biological environment is like. 3 max loam soils contain a good balance of sand. Gammarus. slow release). 4 max 7 max 11 .

(a) catastrophic extinction events. past extinctions occurred suddenly over relatively short time periods. 6 Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 11. research provides an understanding of complex interrelationships in ecosystems and enables them to be managed more sustainably. crocodile (now removed from endangered list). meat and trophies. and due to threat to humans and livestock. tiger (endangered). loss of food source as traditional food source is being used by humans. endangered because of habitat (forest) loss due to agriculture. human guilt of allowing this to happen. legislative protection. animals/plants died from both the initial event and the short-term environmental turmoil that followed. pollution. earthquakes etc. loss would lead to imbalance in food pyramid. (b) 4 max e. was endangered due to excessive hunting for skins. destroyed because regarded as a nuisance/pest. ecological role is as top carnivore. to be detected. monitoring can be used to “police” the system and ensure non-infringement of standards. meteorite strikes. long-term change model. rights of species).. trophies. volcanic eruptions.g. gradual environmental change leading to gradual species extinction yet apparent in a rock record (that provides a condensed view of time). ecological role is as top carnivore. and due to habitat degradation (loss of water quality). ban on hunting. climate induced change is the most likely cause.g. ethical issues surrounding loss (rights of future generations. the most notable example being the extinctions caused by glaciation.g. e.g. without research and monitoring it is difficult to argue objectively or legally that an environment is under threat. hunting for hides. 7 max 12 . monitoring enables changes as a result of e. no longer endangered because of education (no longer seen as “evil”). controlled culling/hunting of certain crocodile species now being considered. caused by definitive environmental catastrophes e. loss would lead to an increase in herbivorous mammals. research provides data as an educational tool making society aware of what is happening to the environment. medicine.(c) research provides baseline data.

captive animals unable to adapt to life back in the wild. arguments against zoos ethical arguments against keeping animals in captivity for profit. gender imbalances can be seen. 6 max personal justification (needs to be more than just arguments for or against). enable “how much” not “why” questions to be answered. the pyramids do not give specific information about socio-economic conditions. poor conditions or treatment in zoos leading to physiological and psychological problems with the animals. allow estimate of population numbers. use of contraception. number of offspring surviving to adulthood is higher so species numbers increase more effectively. all of these factors will affect population growth. genetic monitoring can take place. 6 max 13 . proportions of fertile population can be seen. small genetic pool.g. e. education of public through visits may make them more likely to support conservation campaigns. helping management outside zoos. however. wide base indicates a high birth rate and expanding population. government policies. conserving species is just used as an excuse. benefit of artificial insemination. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 12. holding species while habitats are restored. (a) age-sex pyramids are useful because they allow patterns to be clearly seen.(c) arguments for zoos individual organisms are protected in a controlled environment. captive breeding enables higher rates of reproductive success. studying species so understanding improves.

ethically it is wrong to overpopulate the planet (what right have we to disproportionately consume resources?). Give credit for examples e. populations at a lower economic level have footprints that are easier to define (fewer resources used from outside their immediate area). technological advancement produces a larger footprint as more resources are needed and more waste is produced. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14 . it is the inverse of carrying capacity. 6 max Give credit for use of examples. [2 max] for definition.(b) the area of land (and water) required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. ecological footprints tend to increase in size with socio-economic development. therefore environment will be able to support a larger population. smaller family size allows for greater/higher standard of living measured in capital resources. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and to assimilate all its wastes. [3 max] for discussions. as technology advances resources are used more efficiently. population growth is an indicator of an expanding resource base. larger families are vital in a society where family labour is essential to domestic and economic survival. forced population control doesn’t always work. hunter-gatherer in Tanzania have a smaller footprint than urban population of New York. greater environmental pressure on the planet is inevitable.g. population control by society/government is an infringement on basic human freedom. arguments against population control goes against tradition and culture. curbing population growth will produce a demographic population that is top-heavy (old people predominate) and dependent. (c) 5 max arguments for population control population growth is not sustainable even with an expanding resource base.

often Governments will be reluctant to impose limits if multinational companies will then be deterred from locating there. 2 3 max 15 . evaporation rates will change. with increased melting of glacial ice and ice caps. LEDCs 15. cultural inertia . high rates of evaporation together with high applications of chemical fertilizers led to salinization. MEDCs: eat a lot of protein.g. (a) (b) (c) e. seasonality will vary which could be significant in water supply. water was taken and used to irrigate cotton fields by the Soviet government. 6 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 14. Former Soviet Union. the Aral Sea.reluctance to change the way in which resources have always been used. LEDCs: not enough protein.4 % (accept 44 %). the political structure might favour short-term profits rather than long-term environmental protection. protein mainly non-meat. monitoring water quality in remote rural areas can be very difficult. 6 max global warming will lead to changes in global water budget. and will cause changes in precipitation (amounts and distribution). LEDCs: do not eat enough calories/energy intake too low.9 % (accept 16 %).whether or not a country can pay for sanitation and water purification. environment later. (a) (i) (ii) MEDCs 44. high % of protein from animals. sustainable use of water resources means using them at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment. increased flood risks in certain areas. the political priority might be development first. this has not happened in the Aral Sea which has been shrinking in size due to excessive removal of water from feeder rivers.13. and expanding desert zones with water shortage. this has had a knock-on effect on local communities as water supplies were decimated. and pollution of remaining water resources. 5 max economic factors will be central . MEDCs: eat more calories/energy intake higher than they need. and local farming and fishing industries collapsed. technological factors – if the technology is available.

better distribution systems in MEDCs so people have access to fresh food. litter store is larger in the woodland.g. it can be burned directly without the need for refining.(iii) (b) greater wealth in MEDCs enables people to buy enough food. Accept lower if justification given in (ii) is appropriate e. and may use animals for milk but not meat. waste can be burned directly to generate energy e. e. price subsidised by governments to enable fossil fuels to compete with renewables. especially more expensive food. burning straw. legumes and fertilizers are additional inputs in mixed farming. 2 (i) 1 likely to be much higher. (ii) biomass store is larger in the woodland. religious restrictions (e. 3 max 1 3 max 2 [14] 15. better technology. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (c) cheapest = gas. many families in LEDCs are subsistence farmers. meat. 1 max organic waste decomposes and gives off methane gas which can be burned. most expensive = wind offshore. large output in mixed farming as harvested crops/livestock. easily disrupted by rough seas. (i) the biomass in Figure 3 is all the living material in the ecosystem. Both needed for [1]. 16 . can interrupt shipping lines.g.g.g. and indirectly through the nitrogen fixing action of leguminous crops. input dissolved in rain is not shown for mixed farming. 1 gas is cheap because it is relatively plentiful. technology is already in place to access the gas and burn it in existing gas fired power stations. no beef or pork) less likely to be an issue in MEDCs. (iii) additional nutrients are added directly to the soil through fertilizers. 1 max wind offshore technology is still at the experimental stage. soil fertility for farming may be better in MEDCs so yields higher. new reserves discovered. social expectations in MEDCs that meat will be an integral part of the diet.

dams silt up.g. 4 max 2 [14] 16. relatively cheap to run (once initial construction completed). turbines can be switched on whenever energy is needed. for leisure. (a) increase in population growth as death rates lowered due to better medical care. farmland and/or displacement of people. irrigation or fishing. increasing need to intensify production on existing farm land. increased wealth means people are consuming more (sometimes more than they need). scarcity of resources will push costs up. will not run out). renewable source (i. the smaller the ecological footprint of a population. dams may restrict flows of sediment affecting ecosystems or farming downstream. cost of building dams may be high leading to huge debts. may lead to increased erosion rates downstream. because in calculating ecological footprint amount of land required for absorbing waste carbon dioxide from fossil fuels is included. (e) 2 max the more renewable energy resources that are used. economics of food production systems mean that food production is a business and subsidies may guarantee prices no matter how much is produced. in LEDCs food production used as a way to generate foreign currency. dams may be multipurpose e. disadvantages: vast areas may be flooded involving loss of habitats. as more and more land is used for settlement and industry. desire for food security in turbulent political times. leaving resources most difficult to access which are more costly to reach. easiest/most accessible resources will already have been mined. 4 max 17 . may disrupt fish migratory paths.(ii) (d) as stocks become depleted. environmental taxes to compensate for global warming will make fossil fuels more expensive. advantages: HEP does not involve release of pollutants.e. [2 max] for advantages and [2 max] for disadvantages.

(c) 8 max Answers may be general. once top soil is lost. terracing. [4] for each problem. 2 max 18 . e. depend on the problems chosen. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies. Credit should be given for use of examples and case studies. soil erosion: use of heavy machinery leads to compaction of soil. of course. this occurred during the 1930s in the US due to intensive farming on the prairies. encouraging polyculture to reduce vulnerability to disease. manure) rather than chemical fertilizers.g. addressing strategies related to a particular problem.g. specific strategies to reduce soil erosion e. leading to the dust bowl as vast quantities of soil were blown away. agro-forestry to reduce soil erosion. organic material is gone and the fertility of the soil is reduced. top soil is more easily removed by the agents of erosion (wind or water). organic farming methods applied and marketed effectively to consumers to compensate for higher production costs. so soil structure is lost. keeping stores of genetic material to ensure species diversity is not lost.g. covering a variety of strategies or more specific. even more erosion likely if wind breaks (hedgerows and walls) are removed. e.(b) Answer will. controlling the amount of fertilizers that are applied to ensure excess is not washed into water bodies. (a) technocentrist because they tend to argue that economic development should precede environmental protection. would point to “success” stories like Canada and Scandinavia who have good environmental records and are economically developed. biological pest control rather than chemical control. and argue that society can find solutions for environmental problems through technology which comes when the economy is strong. a general answer: use of natural fertilizers (e.g. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 17. leads to lower yields and a vicious cycle as remaining soil may be even more intensively farmed by farmers to compensate.

surely we can and should learn from the mistakes made by richer countries?.(b) Arguments in favour of the statement: costly to change technology to more environmentally sustainable forms e.g. (very anthropocentric view) what about the rights of other living species to be unmolested?. so if they set environmental controls they will lose jobs and income vital for development.g. US. people in poverty will often be forced to act with short-term perspective e. rights to emit CO2 for example can be bought and sold (richer countries can afford to buy the right to emit more CO 2) which has implications for industrial development. people in poverty are often more intimately dependent on their environment – vital to protect it to help them. Arguments against: some of the most economically developed countries have huge ecological footprints and are very wasteful e. often countries with best record of environmental protection are the most developed economically e.g. UK. unsustainable use of forests in order to survive. e. unsustainable use of the environment will only bring short-term economic growth not long-term economic growth. it is not fair to expect LEDCs to protect the environment.g. as richer countries didn’t when they were going through their industrial revolutions.g. indigenous tribes in Amazonia/street kids recycling waste.g. Scandinavia. often LEDCs rely on weak pollution laws to attract multinationals to locate there. environmental damage will have a knock-on effect on human societies that cannot wait until everyone has developed before we address it e. new power stations or investment in renewable technologies such as solar. Japan. loss of species diversity once gone its gone. often the most sensible users of the environment are people who are considered “undeveloped economically”. 10 max 19 . environment is the source of our resources for development so it is vital that the two go hand in hand – sustainable development.

issue: depletion of stratospheric ozone UNEP’s involvement in forging specific international agreements. e. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 18.g. slap” educational campaign in Australia. “slip. 4 max Give credit if specific value for rainforest diversity is quoted. ideal growing conditions – hot and wet all year round. 20 . actual NGOs and international bodies rather than simply identify broad groups such as “local people” and “charities”.g.g. competitive ecosystem results in many specialised niches and high diversity. at the Antarctic stations in studying the ozone hole. slop. role of NGOs and pressure groups in monitoring. local campaigns to encourage sunscreen use e. role of scientists e.g. preserving diversity. raising awareness and lobbying for solutions. (a) tropical rainforests contain a large proportion of the world’s species.(c) Responses will depend on the choice of environmental issue but for full marks candidates should be able to name specific groups e. high in species diversity because they are ancient ecosystems – diversity has had a chance to build up over millions of years. efficient nutrient recycling. discussion of steps taken by national governments to comply with international agreements. even during ice ages pockets of forest remained. so wide diversity of plants which support rest of the food chain.

g. resins.g. once species are lost they are gone forever. e.g. [1] for naming case study. ice cream flavours. increased sedimentation due to deforestation of mangroves to make space for tourist developments. global warming increases sea temperatures leading to coral bleaching. spiritual value of biodiversity recognised by many indigenous tribes.(b) Specific named area must be included or candidates cannot gain full marks. runoff of fertilizers from sugar plantations on the coast. 5 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 19. gums and rubber. overfishing can disrupt the balance of species in the food chain. or industrial products e. and source of possible new medicines as yet undiscovered e. (The measure takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by the population and assimilation of all wastes. make water cloudy reducing productivity. resource for future generations. ethical right or value of different species to exist unmolested (deep ecology). Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland. 1 21 .g. inadvertent damage from anchors and pollution from boats. which has knock-on effects on the fish species which depend on the reef for food. biodiversity is also a feature of the ecosystem which leads to environmental stability. and disrupting the interdependence of coral ecosystem with seagrass beds and mangrove ecosystems. or breaking bits off for souvenirs. for AIDS perhaps. (c) 8 max biodiversity is an economic resource – a source of new food products e. fruits. [7] for degradation by human activities. coral very fragile and easily damaged by divers’ fins or touching coral. all of these make coral more vulnerable to natural threats such as disease/crown of thorns starfish/increased sea temperatures due to El Niño. (a) (i) the area of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. human activities such as tourism. Australia. sewage and pollution from coastal settlements (such as Cairns) can lead to excessive nutrients and algal blooms. nuts. and can lead to coral bleaching.). and now recognised by UNEP too. protection and nurseries for young.

5.4 Canada has a larger consumer driven economy. Canada has higher consumer spending per capita. 1 (ii) Diagram should demonstrate a falling birth rate and a larger proportion of adults and aged persons.1  1. Accept other reasonable answers. Canada – climate difference – more energy required for heating. 1 2 max Diagram should demonstrate high birth rate and high adult death rate. Canada has a greater car culture. Award [1] for any two of the following. education/better diet/improved health care/political stability/disease control.(ii) (iii) (b) (i) 1. Accept other reasonable answers.2 × 100 = 42. 1 (c) (i) (ii) Award [1] for any two of the following. education/legislation/rising living standards/economic incentives.6%. 1 1 22 .

g. Both needed for [1]. 1 (iii) the population will ultimately crash.g. resources become more valuable as new technologies need them. so greater surface area needed to produce the same amount of food. as man advances (technologically. groundwater/ozone layer. non-renewable: natural resources which cannot be replenished within a time scale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment. fossil fuels/minerals. e. replenishable: non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the sun for their replenishment. 3 [11] 20. 1 (ii) year 5. (b) (c) (d) use of (global) resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment/OWTTE. flint used to be an important resource but now its redundant/ uranium only becomes a resource with the advent of the nuclear age. resource value is dynamic/changes over time. (i) 3 1 3 max year 2: 125. culturally) his resource base changes. 1 23 . e. it is less efficient to eat animal protein than plant material. (a) renewable: natural resources that have a sustainable yield or harvest equal to or less than their natural productivity. countries that have a high animal protein content in their diets potentially have a larger ecological footprint/OWTTE. An example is required in each case in order to score the mark. e.g. year 6: 24500.(iii) LEDCs tend to have a diet based on plant products/plants with little meat (12 % approximately) whereas MEDCs tend to have a greater amount of animal protein in their diet (30 % approximately).g. e. Accept any other reasonable answers. food crops/timber in the long term/groundwater (over hundreds of years).

4. 2 Correct answer on its own. 42 × 100 = 100%. financial motives (greed) – exploitation of resources beyond sustainable limits for short-term financial gain (cod fishing). greater use of water for irrigation.). 2 max [12] 21. (iii) 1960 = 2 × 10 km yr 2000 = 4 × 10 km yr . award [2]. 2 24 . 1 1000 kJ – 100 kJ (10%) = 900 kJ. 2 3 [11] 22. (particularly with respect to nitrates and phosphates). (iv) 3 3 –1 3 3 1 –1 increasing global population requiring more water. run-off/infiltration. 3. Four correct [2]. industry expanding and requiring more clean water (cooling processes. (a) (i) the natural or artificial enrichment of a body of water. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (i) energy is neither created nor destroyed/energy is conserved/OWTTE. Accept other reasonable answers. Accept other reasonable answers.(iv) over population leading to unrealistic demands for limited resources. three or two correct [1]. transpiration/evapotranspiration. use of resource beyond sustainable limits due to lack of knowledge of resource’s sustainable level. globally. precipitation. 2 (ii) too simplistic/no values/no indication of time/two dimensional. etc. increase in water use by developing countries. 2 1. output = 900 kJ – 135kJ (15%) = 765kJ. 2. that results in depletion of the oxygen content of the water/OWTTE. evaporation.

loss of diversity. composting. to increase productivity and so be better placed to compete in a world market. implement standards/control re run-off from agricultural land. organic compost. 27399990 D= = 2. to increase productivity and so provide more food for increasing populations.8/2. removable of algal mats/oxygen pumping/removal of contaminated sediments/flush systems with oxygenated water/chemically denature fertilizer.(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (b) (i) (ii) (c) (i) do not allow agricultural waste (including fertilizers) to run into water courses/legislate against the use of fertilizer/ adopt less fertilizer intensive agricultural practices/install fertilizer (waste) traps in farm drainage networks. ∑n(n – 1) = 552 + 20 + 30 + 2248500 + 1438800 + 62475000 = 9935402. use other methods of enhancing crop production e. use a variety with lower phosphate requirements. shorter food chains. Accept other reasonable answers. Accept other reasonable answers.76. N = (N – 1) = 5235 × 5234 = 27399990. 1 max 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 2 max 1 25 .g. 9935402 death of aerobic organisms. loss of macrophytes. switch to organic farming.g. Accept other reasonable answers. green tax on fertilizer making it more expensive. developing economies so need to increase productivity – cash crops. change crop varieties e. Accept other reasonable answers.

Accept other reasonable answers. wheat belt in North America may move north. water resources will change and limit/expand crop production. biomes: north/south shift in biomes relative to the equator (latitude shift). N2O. creates a “thermal blanket”. crop types may change. (a) Answer should demonstrate an understanding of atmospheric insulation and how this is achieved within the atmosphere. cultivation patterns will change. which is transparent to incoming radiation and absorbs out going radiation. social and cultural change. Particular reference should be made to the role of carbon dioxide. maintains an average Earth temperature of about 30°C. difficult to sort organic waste from other waste at source or further into process. H2O and CFCs. All of the above should be supported by case study evidence or examples. global agriculture and human society. sea level rise may cause economic and social stress due to loss of land and resources (including migration). water resources will change. cultural and social reluctance. no market for end product. 2 max [16] 23.g. e. CH4. agriculture: crop zones move north/south from equator. O3. greenhouse gases transparent to incoming short wave solar radiation. (b) 4 max Answer should address biomes. which will drive economic. apathy and inertia of public. gases include CO2.(ii) difficult to manage infrastructure to collect organic waste. Two correct gases needed for [1]. cost may be prohibitive. outgoing long wave radiation trapped/reflected by greenhouse gases. Accept any other reasonable answers. changing global weather patterns will influence rain patterns and alter crop production dynamics. 7 max 26 . movement of biomes up slope (altitude shift). society: national resources base will change.

contour plowing. the use of new crop strains. Accept other reasonable answers. long-term data (10 000 years) show climate fluctuation cycles not overall rise. loss of vegetation leading to erosion. leading to loss of cover.(c) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. data series too short for confident predictions.g. 6 max Accept any other reasonable answers. landscape instability through soil erosion. Award [2 max] for direct consequences: loss of soil depth leads to loss of productivity/loss of plant stability/loss of slope stability/loss of available nutrients/ reduction in water retention potential. present trend based on data collected since industrial revolution. e. genetically modified grain.g. the development of new devices. positive feedback – loss of cover leads to leaching of nutrients. not all elements are known or understood. soil degradation may also include loss of soil volume through erosion. over irrigation leading to salinization. some models predict future rise others argue for future cooling. systems models are not always accurate. the removal of soil material at a rate greater than it can be replenished. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 24. Award [2 max] for indirect consequences: contamination of adjacent environments (particularly aquatic environments). e. model is less complex than reality. modern plowing technology and practise. 7 max 3 max 27 . (a) Award [3 max] for any three of the following. loss of fertility due to loss of nutrients caused by poor management. e. windbreaks and strategic shelter belts. Award [1] for each of the following.g. (b) (i) technology and scientific techniques used to overcome soil degradation problems thus conserving soil.

However. 6 max 28 . intensive beef farming in North America and Masai herding in Kenya.g. reference to net and gross production. labour input. Examples could compare salmon fishing in Norway with rice fish farming in Thailand. application of organic fertilizers/crop rotations/shelter belts/farming on a smaller scale/non-industrial farming. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 25. 3 max Accept other reasonable answers. Award [2 max] for resource outputs. adopt solutions that are holistic and environmentally friendly. The following points could be considered: comparison of the variation in technology and the implication for the system. Any other reasonable answers. The following points could be considered: consideration of variation in system productivity. energy input. if food production system is not named award [5 max]. GM crops. Award [2 max] for resource inputs. Award [2 max] for technology. the use of draft animals versus agricultural machinery. variation in water resource use. (a) The system should be both terrestrial or both aquatic. e. if farming system is not named award [5 max]. reluctant to adopt new technology. technology may include machinery and organic technology e. reluctance to use heavy machinery due to soil compaction and energy issues. The following points could be considered: comparison of contrasting fertilizer use.(ii) ecocentric approach conservative. However.g. No credit should be given for naming the food production system. No credit should be given for naming the farming system.

increased productivity driven by new technology and farming initiatives. 4 max 2 max Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 26. and weigh again. Accept other reasonable answers. potentially introduces non-natural genetic variation. The nature of the systems chosen will dictate the content of the answer. changes nutrients budget. repeat previous step until similar mass/weight is obtained on two subsequent trials.(b) Answers should clearly demonstrate the direct and indirect impact of the two farming systems on their immediate environment. introduces alien species. impacts directly on natural resources/food within the system.2) × 4 = 15. use of GM crops. salmon fishing in Norway: organic debris contamination of coastal waters from waste food and excreta. rice fish farming: impacts on local biodiversity – both plants and animals. (i) 2 max NPP = (39. agricultural intensification.2. 5 max Answers must refer to both systems for full marks. (c) (i) Award [2 max] for any of the following. more land required for food production. dry sample in an oven. loss of diversity. Award [2 max] for any of the following. as countries develop further their demand for a greater variety of food products (at a greater level) will expand. dietary animal protein will increase/food fashion may change. change in productivity due to environmental degradation will further stress systems. (a) (b) weigh the sample in a previously weighed container. the addition of steroids and other chemical waste to the adjacent coastal waters. accidental escape and the contamination of local gene pools.0 – 35. (ii) environmental stress. achievement of food resource change: adoption of new crop varieties. 29 . food resources needs: needs will change over the next 100 years as the global human population continues to increase.

1 × 790 = 79 g m yr . eating animals raised on grain is inefficient.f. or –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 792. –2 2 1 max 2 2 max –1 0.8 g m yr .4 g m yr + 436. Allow ECF.6 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr . cattle should be raised on land that is not suitable for crops. insolation may vary seasonally. availability of water may be seasonal. supplying more of our energetic needs from vegetables sources is more efficient.respiration = (35. or 15. 1 2 max [12] 30 .) eating lower on the food chain makes it possible to feed more people on the same amount of land. –2 –1 –2 –1 –2 –1 790. 7  . 7 Both needed for [1].6 g m yr .2 –2 –1 NPP = × 365 = 792.2 g m yr –2 –1 ≈ 1200 g m yr . Accept other reasonable answers. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) –2 –1 NPP = 15.4 –2 –1 respiration ×365 = 438 g m yr .2 – 33. Answer must be rounded to the nearest 100 g for full marks.8 g m yr = 1227.4 g m yr –2 –1 respiration = 8. temperature changes may inhibit/accelerate growth.6 g m yr + 438 g m yr = 1230.26 is not acceptable because of incorrect s.2 × 52 = 790.4. Allow ECF from (b)(i).4 × 52 = 436. Accept other reasonable answers. (79. GPP = NPP + R.1) × 4 = 8.

through symbiotic bacteria. Chilean matorral p ro d u c e r A c a c ia c a v e n s C h ile a n th o rn tre e 3 max p rim a ry c o n s u m e r O c to d o n d e g u ro d en t / se co n d a ry co n su m e r F e lis g u ig n a / C h ile a n w ild c a t Award [1] for appropriately labelled trophic levels. one of the main contributors to organic matter in soil. (d) long-term stability leading to speciation/complexity. [1] for two matter flows and [1] for two energy flows.125 species km –2 versus 0. [2] for three appropriate species or [1] for two appropriate species. fox etc. (b) (c) producers convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis.g. Accept other reasonable statements that show ecological knowledge. high number of endemic species. –2 high species number per unit area (South America 0.e. Do not accept rabbit. snowshoe hare and arctic fox. 3 max 31 . unless there is some identifying feature i. producers are significant in fixing nitrogen. (a) H eat C O H eat L ig h t H 2O O 2 2 T is s u e to o th e r tr o p h ic le v e ls TREE L itte r to s o il N u trie n ts 3 max W a te r Award [1] for tree in box..27. 2 max e. provide habitat for other organisms.0027 species km in temperate forests in North America). limiting factors low and so high productivity leading to high diversity.

availability of food facilitates reproduction of prey. 1 max 32 . 3 max [16] 28. release nutrients for reabsorption by producers. (± 50) Both needed for [1]. 1 (i) 25 to 30 September. increase in solubility of nutrients facilitates leaching with consequent loss of productivity. through incomplete breakdown of organic material contribute to build up of humus and improve nutrient retention capacity in soil. 90  75 = 82.(e) (f) decomposers break down tissue. (±3 days) 1 (ii) 10 December. form basis of decomposer food chain (which may be energetically more important in some ecosystems than grazing food chains). increases susceptibility of trees to stresses such as disease/ temperature/insects/fungal infection.5 80 (± 4 days)/15 January + 80 days ≈ 20 April (± 5 days) 2 2 T. are vital in nitrogen cycle. 2 max primary productivity would decrease. predator cannot increase in number without access to food and so must wait for increase in prey. (a) (b) (c) (d) interval between 1st and 2nd peak is about 90 days and interval between 2nd and 3rd peak is approximately 75 days. acid rain can damage foliage directly thus reducing photosynthesis. (±5 days) 1 (ii) the predator population takes some days to take advantage of the increase in prey. sexmaculatus: 1550. Award [2 max] for the following. (±1) E. (±2 days) 1 (i) 15 days. as chemosynthetic autotrophs may form basis of food chain. occidentalis: 7.

2 1 temperate forest: 730.4 = 49. importation of food or resources from other areas to overcome shortages. leading to increase in temperature.1 85.3 g m . our ability to colonize almost any habitat. melting of tundra through warming causes release of methane causing more warming.3 × 100 = 6.0%.8%. 821. 2 max elimination of predators/competitors. elimination of density-dependent limiting factors.2 + 28. increased evaporation leading to increased precipitation at poles triggering net cooling. –2 tropical forest: 52.0 %.0/122 g m .(e) (i) the increase in prey leads to a corresponding increase in predator which corrects the trend towards increase in prey. 1 temperate forest: 2 33 .2 temperate forests have a larger percentage of nitrogen stored in soil.3 tropical forest: × 100 = 40. 49.6 + 41. 211. 3 max melting of polar ice caps causes lowering of planetary albedo thus increasing amount of solar energy at Earth’s surface. 2 max (ii) (f) [14] 29. modern medicine decreasing effect of disease.1 112 tropical forest: × 100 = 57. the periodic nature of the population curves indicates a feedback controlled interaction. Both needed for [1]. 211. 821. the decrease in prey leads to a corresponding decrease in predator which corrects the trend towards decrease in prey.4 + 18. increased efficiency in utilization of resources.5 + 18.9 × 100 = 89. tools and technology. Award [0] if temperate forest is stated without supporting calculations.4 %. (a) (i) (ii) (b) –2 temperate forest: 12.2 = 122.

(c)

(d)

high temperatures and year-round availability of water in tropical
forests allow for continuous breakdown of nitrogen containing
compounds;
resulting in very rapid turn around and reabsorption;
presence of mycorrhizae in tropical rainforest tree roots increases
rate of organic matter breakdown;
leading to rapid reabsorption of nitrogen, so very little found in soil;
in temperate forests breakdown slows down significantly during
winter months, causing nitrogen build up in soil;

2 max

temperate forest: 1. surface litter
2. biomass
3. soil
tropical forest:

1. surface litter
2. soil
3. biomass
Both lists needed for [1].
(e)

(f)

tropical rainforest would suffer more from clear-cutting;
a larger proportion of nitrogen is stored in living tissue which
would be lost through clear-cutting;
climatic conditions in tropical rainforests would wash away
soil quicker/leach the soil of nutrients;
(temperate forests) because:
tropical forests have some of the highest rates of primary productivity
but have relatively poor soils;
temperate forests have lower primary productivity rates but far
more fertile soils;
climatic factors are not limiting in TRF but nutrients (nitrogen)
may be;
cleared land in tropics is exposed to washing away of thin soil
and leaching of nutrients;
temperate forests have higher nitrogen content in the soil;
temperate forests store nitrogen as a result of incomplete
breakdown of organic matter resulting in availability of nitrogen
for crops;
Do not credit final point if already given in (c). For “temperate
forest” on it’s own award [0].

1

2 max

2 max

34

(g)

(h)

direct replacement of ecosystems with cropland and the resulting
loss of habitat;
monocultures reduce genetic diversity;
slash and burn techniques in TRF result in considerable impact
on diversity because of high diversity of these systems;
use of pesticides harms target and non-target insect species
and has an effect further up the food chain;
loss of hedgerows in England to facilitate plowing/accept
other valid example;
contamination of wild stock with modified genetic material
(hybridization);
Allow other valid points.
(i)
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

as population increases, forested area decreases and GNP
increases;

3 max

1

to produce land for housing for increasing population;
to provide land for agriculture to provide food for
increasing population;
for timber production, generating income from exports;
Accept other reasonable answers.

1 max

reduction in CO2 extraction by forests;
release of stored carbon through breakdown of forest biomass;
increased rates of breakdown in organic content in soils (due
to exposure to heat, water) resulting in release of CO 2;
CO2 is a greenhouse gas;

2 max

biomes will shift north and south from the equator;
e.g. North America wheat belt shifting north;
biomes shifting with altitude (e.g. tree line creeping upwards);
direct loss of low-lying biomes (e.g. mangrove swamps);
Accept other contributions to global warming related to
deforestation.

2 max
[20]

35

30.

(a)

Descriptions: [3 max]
oil use in MEDCs is almost 50 % greater than in LEDCs;
fossil fuels in MEDCs account for 85 % of energy use as
opposed to 58 % in LEDCs;
biomass use in LEDCs is more than ten times that of MEDCs;
use of coal and hydro/geo/solar is the same for both;
nuclear is five times more important in MEDCs than in LEDCs
and is the smallest contributor in both;
Accept other reasonable comparisons e.g. oil use in MEDCs is
11 % more than LEDCs.
Explanations: [2 max]
the relatively small contribution of nuclear power may be due to
the problems of disposing of nuclear fuel and the cost of nuclear
technology;
biomass is far more important in LEDCs as fuel for cooking;
automobiles are more prevalent in MEDCs thus explaining the
difference in oil use;
Accept other reasonable explanations.

(b)

use of fossil fuels is unsustainable because it implies liquidation of
a limited stock of the resource;
we can extend the lifetime of this resource, but it is ultimately
unsustainable;
solar energy is sustainable as the energy will be available to us
for any time frame that is reasonable to contemplate;
solar energy is currently more expensive than fossil fuels;
it is currently very expensive to turn solar energy into high
quality energy for manufacturing;
passive solar energy combined with insulation is much cheaper
for heating homes than fossil fuels;
fossil fuels are the most important contributor to build up of CO 2
and consequently global warming;
solar energy has the disadvantage that its usefulness is limited
in northern countries during winter months;
oil has the advantage that it can be delivered for use far from
its source through pipelines;
Accept other reasonable answers.

5 max

6 max

36

scientific efforts should be devoted to removing CO 2 from atmosphere rather than curtailing economic growth. Biotic: [2 max] use of transects to determine cover/abundance of fauna and flora. fossil fuels have problems associated with their use (i. global warming). baseline studies are used to determine potential impacts on the environment of a project.e.g. determination of water flow throughout year using flow weirs. (a) Baseline study: [2 max] a baseline study seeks to measure existing conditions prior to the implementation of a project in order to have a standard of comparison once the project is completed. nitrates/dissolved solids/BOD/DO) using testing kits and/or electrodes of various types. this will eventually result in lowering of CO2 emission levels through market pressure. determination of soil pH using universal indicators. develop technology to reduce output of CO2 from fuel use rather than changing lifestyles to reduce use of fuel. development (which requires energy) will increase standards of living thus increasing demand for healthy environment. Accept other reasonable answers. economic systems have a vested interest in being efficient so the existing problems will self correct given enough time. Accept other reasonable answers. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 31. use of Lincoln Index/capture-mark-release-recapture to determine numbers of different animal species. determination of biomass by removal and drying of plant tissue.(c) the Cornucopian belief in the resourcefulness of humans and their ability to control their environment is the chief element in their optimism about the state of the world. use of quadrats to measure species abundance and diversity (application of diversity indices). good example of resource replacement. Abiotic: [2 max] testing of water for various parameters (e. 6 max 37 . air speed and direction using anemometers. rely on science to find a useful alternative such as hydrogen fuel cells. 6 max Accept other reasonable answers.

creates environmental awareness. when exhaustive surveys throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Accept other reasonable answers species is classified as extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. production of these goods requires energy that may release CO 2 thus increasing footprint. as people enter a consumer society and turn away from subsistence level lifestyles footprint increases. surveys should be over a time frame (diurnal. Accept other reasonable answers. mammals’ rate of increase has been more irregular. (c) 6 max reuse. employs people (possibly no net loss of employment). money allows people to buy more animal protein from grain fed animals. seasonal. annual) appropriate to life cycle and life form. Accept “none left” (or similar) for [1 max] 1 2 max 2 max 38 . (must be included for full marks). (a) (i) 1920 accept answers between 1910 and 1940 1 (ii) exponential growth/rate of increase accelerates over time/ J curve (provided understanding of rate is demonstrated) 1 crude birth rate – crude death rate. money may allow access to better homes resulting in less need for locally produced firewood thus decreasing footprint.(b) the ecological footprint will increase. since 1650 more bird species extinct than mammal species. consequent increase in consumer good acquisition. reduces stress on a finite resource. recycling and re-manufacture reduce need for raw material. aluminum requires far less energy to recycle than to produce. Expression of ideas [3 max] [20] 32. 2 (iii) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) mammals  40 ( 3) both needed for [1]  birds  48  both show exponential increase. produces less waste. + 10. reduce need to intervene rivers for hydroelectric power. 5 max Accept other reasonable answers. availability of cash leads to greater purchasing power. so the footprint increases.

Ethiopia. pollution. Germany. they do not have all the resources they need). Norway. 4 max [13] 33. Australia. Rank for GDP [1] United States.e. (i) –1 1 2 max Rank for footprints [1] United States. Japan. Indonesia. Russian Federation. (a) (b) (c) –1 (i) Japan = –3. Ethiopia. Australia.4 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table (ii) United States = 10. United Kingdom. Do not accept “because they have a lot of available capacity”. Japan. Norway. India. India. Indonesia. relatively low dependence on fossil fuels especially in terms of transport. human population increase has caused increases in extinctions. Award [3 max] for reasons humans have caused (exponential) increase in extinctions through habitat degradation/destruction/fragmentation. United Kingdom. Venezuela. 2 (ii) countries with highest GDPs generally have the largest footprints 1 (iii) they depend on imports for resources. as other countries have similar amounts of land.(c) Award [1 max] for relationship human population growth and increasing extinctions are positively correlated/OWTTE. Accept other reasonable suggestions.3 hectares person (units not required) Answer may appear in table 1 (iii) 6 1 (iv) a high proportion of people exist below the poverty line (i. they are sufficiently wealthy that they can afford to buy these resources in from abroad. but are in deficit. 2 max 1 39 . Singapore. soil is particularly fertile (volcanoes) and so they are able to support a lot of people by using the land very intensively. Venezuela. very low rates of pollution per person perhaps because of high proportion of people in agriculture. hunting/collecting/harvesting and thereby driving species to extinction. they have a developed economy that is not based on primary industries. Germany. Russian Federation. Singapore. (i) no it is not sustainable. smaller populations.

technocentrist will stress importance of technology for addressing the deficit.g. economic growth seen as a solution to the problem. emphasis will be on humans to change their behaviour/ lifestyles.1 hectares person available.–1 world footprint is 2. use of technology to intensify and therefore maximise production from available land. If only one is discussed award [2 max].g.g. through renewable/alternative energy technologies instead of fossil fuels.7 hectares person .g. absolute reductions in energy and material use can reduce ecological footprint. Accept other reasonable answers 2 max 4 max 4 max [20] 40 . e. e. (ii) (iii) using technology to remanufacture or recycle can reduce the overall amount of resources consumed and so ecological footprint is reduced. an answer must refer to attitudes of both technocentrist and ecocentrist. through bottle banks. we are looking at global footprint so cannot offset larger footprints against smaller ones as you can when looking at whether individual nations are sustainable. –1 Earth currently in ecological deficit –0. energy efficiency initiatives. technocentrist will believe in human ability to find technological solutions for present and future deficits. reduction in pollution by technological advances.8 hectares person and there is only –1 2. For full marks. will stress the need to strive for greater social equality between people in LEDCs and MEDCs. economic growth seen by ecocentrics as a cause of the problem. ecocentrist will see deficit as evidence that we are not living sustainably. e. through GM crops. e. Each way of decreasing footprint must be adequately described for [2]. If no justification is attempted award [0] Figures not necessary if candidate has demonstrated conceptual understanding.

13 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 41 . only a small fraction of the Earth’s water supply is available as a readily usable resource for humans.g. and exposure of underlying soil. 5 Water [7 max] or [6 max] water is replenishable natural capital (it is non–living but is dependent on the solar engine for renewal). industrialization and domestic demand are all increasing. excessive irrigation can lead to salinization and toxification. examples of unsustainable practice with regard to soils include: overgrazing – where the trampling and feeding of livestock leads to loss of vegetation. Soil [6 max] or [7 max] soils are renewable in that they will regenerate naturally given enough time. societies become more affluent and expectations rise. the natural capital of a forest might provide a continuing natural income of timber. sustainability – using global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration and minimizes damage to the environment. (a) (b) natural capital is a term sometimes used by economists for natural resources that. global warming may disrupt rainfall patterns and supplies and make matters worse. there are growing demands on water resources as populations increase. degradation of water supplies through pollution reduces the amounts which are available to us. game. overcultivation – leading to a loss of soil fertility and structure. but globally it is being used at a faster rate than it can be replenished. if appropriately managed. withdrawal of water from underground aquifers is often occurring at a faster rate than it can be replenished. all leave top soil vulnerable to erosion by wind and water. Answers which do not refer to the statement should be awarded [4 max]. deforestation – removing vegetation.34. however. irrigation. this has led to falling water tables. a lot of water is wasted or used inefficiently. e. can produce a “natural income” of goods and services. misuse of soils by a variety of human activities is leading to degradation of soil resources at a faster rate than they can cope with. Give credit for named examples and case studies. Wilson is advocating that countries should adopt this approach when assessing their resource base. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. water and recreation.

there is more than one food source at each tropic level. fox population would crash and disappear without a food source. dynamic balance between rabbits and grass may result. and minimises damage to the environment. high yielding/management-intensive crop varieties (possibly GM types). krill should not be fished at a level beyond which they can naturally regenerate their population numbers. (a) (i) maize. setting seasons. 2 max (i) A 1 (ii) C 1 (i) use of a global resource at a rate that allows natural regeneration. 2 max if foxes were removed the rabbit population would rise dramatically. there are more tropic levels. Award [2] for correct food web and two correct reasons. size. 2 (ii) fishing effort should be set at a level that will not deplete the overall krill population. rabbits would overgraze their food source (grass) and the rabbit population would crash. monitoring of krill populations/monitoring catch. pest and disease control. efficient harvesting. control on gear type). 2 max if rabbits were removed grass would increase dramatically. (ii) intensive agricultural system. there is no organism dependant on a single food type. baseline studies undertaken to find out how much krill there is. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (c) figure 2 – marine food webs because there are more links in the food web. possibly irrigation. extensive and intensive weed. succession would occur: grass – scrub – trees. high levels of inorganic fertilizer used per unit area. USA. 1 3 max 42 . setting quotas and limiting fishing effort (boat numbers. award [1] for correct food web and one correct reason.35. 4 max [14] 36.

(iii)
Low Input Systems

High Input Systems

migratory pastoralists, Kenya

cattle, UK

shifting cultivation, Papua New Guinea

wheat, UK
maize, USA

5 correct [2], 4/3 correct [1], 2/1 correct [0]
(b)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

MEDCs have a greater proportion of animal protein in their
diet (approx 26%), whereas LEDCs are more dependant
on grain crops;
MEDCs generally have greater variation in their diets than LEDCs;

2 max

2

MEDCs tend to have larger ecological footprints than LEDCs;
because they have high “grain equivalent” food consumption
lifestyles;
they consume high levels of fossil fuel;
high CO2 emissions;
produce larger amounts of waste;
higher lifestyle expectations and possess more consumer goods;
use proportionately more raw materials;

4 max

limits biodiversity because of herbicide and pesticide
elimination of non-crop species;
introduces toxins through fertilizers/irrigation;
limits habitat type because of monoculture;
eutrophication due to fertilizer application;
risk of hybridization from GM maize;
aesthetic impact on landscape;

2 max

trampling from livestock leading to soil loss/desertification;
cause overgrazing and soil loss/desertification;
introduce diseases from herds to native species;

1 max
[15]

37.

(a)

There are a number of valid answers. Impact may be both
direct and indirect.
changing crop type will change soil cohesion and soil protection;
humans may change the nature of soil mechanically e.g. plowing/
lightening with sand;
humans may change the nature of soil chemically e.g. liming/
use of fertilizers/pesticides/fungicides;
human may alter slopes – terracing etc.;
Accept other reasonable answers.

(b)

(i)

3 max

global warming is caused by an increase in greenhouse
43

gases leading to an increase in mean global temperature;
due to the trapping of extra short wave radiation;
greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, ozone
and water vapour;
these are released as fossil fuels are burned/through
farming and industrial processes;
(ii)

(c)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

increase in temperature could lead to desiccation;
evaporation due to increased temperature may lead to the
accumulation of natural salts changing the chemistry and
structure of the soil (salinization);
lower temperatures may cause freeze–thaw processes to
break up soil and allow more rapid weathering;
increased rainfall may cause increased runoff and thus
soil erosion;
increased rainfall may cause leaching and erosion of
material from the soil profile;
decrease in rainfall will lead to aridification and make
soil surface prone to wind erosion;
increase in wind magnitude and frequency will increase
surface erosion (in terms of volume and rate);
Accept other reasonable answers.
any system that is open to energy and material outputs
and inputs and can be described as an open system;
e.g. a forest or ecosystem (to be ecological the example
must have biological inputs and outputs).
the Earth acts as a complex self-regulating organism via a
series of feedback mechanisms;
rather than being a passive object controlled by external
forces and chance;
theory by James Lovelock and demonstrated via his Daisy
World Model;
lacks quantitative values;
oversimplifies complex relationships;
lacks complex network connections;
Accept other reasonable answers.

3 max

4 max

2

2 max

1 max
[15]

44

38.

(a)

(b)

If no examples used award [4 max]
habitat loss e.g. extinction of Tasmanian wolf due to expansion
of agriculture;
hunting e.g. passenger pigeon;
alien predation and introduced species;
environmental pollution;
pathogens and disease;
most extinctions may not be due to a single cause but a
combination of causes;
e.g. the wolf (Lupus lupus) in Europe and Britain became extinct
due to overhunting and habitat loss;
global warming leading to rapid changes in biomes;

6 max

evidence for past mass extinctions can be found in the fossil record;
it is clear that at certain times large numbers of species
disappeared from the fossil record;
Possible causes could be:
large meteor impact (e.g. Mexico strike) leading to dust in
atmosphere;
volcanic activity on a large scale (e.g. Decan trap eruptions)
causing environmental change;
global climate change e.g. ice age;

4 max

45

Evaluation [4 max] captive breeding strengths include: management of gene pool enables greater survivability of offspring because perceived strengths can be selected. aesthetic – creatures are beautiful and there is aesthetic value in their existence e.g. genetic resource – provide present and future material for human resource needs for food. dolphins.(c) Arguments for conserving [4 max] ethical – we have a moral obligation to species/species have as much right to exist as we do. medicine/diversity = more options. species.g. no natural selection so traits which are a disadvantage in the wild may be passed on. greater post-natal survival because threats to infants can be high in the wild.g. lack of inhibition towards people. animals unable to cope in wild due to learned behaviour in captivity.e. for fur. i. weaknesses include: protecting animal without protecting habitat so not a long-term survival strategy. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 46 . ecosystems depend on their component parts. artificial insemination increases fertility rate. e. commercial – value of species if sustainably managed provide long-term resources e.

e. 7 max 6 max 47 . using waste crops as fuel e.g. GM crops. focussed on carbon dioxide. if a population has an ecological footprint smaller than the country’s land surface area. in conservation terms ecological footprinting allows for the identification of areas likely to suffer from ecological stress.g.g.g. reusing packaging/minimising packaging. producing goods that last longer and run more efficiently/on renewable fuels e. e. it allows quantitative ways of measuring impact and therefore setting limits to negate that impact. Accept other reasonable suggestions. clear felling virgin forest/over harvesting marine resources. takes account of the area required to provide all the resources needed by a population and to assimilate all wastes. (a) (b) the area of land and water required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. wind/hydroelectric/wave/solar.g. electric cars. it is accepted that if a population has an ecological footprint larger than the country’s land surface area. using biotechnology to produce food more efficiently e. the population is living sustainably/ within its resource base. recycling waste more efficiently. reducing dependency on fossil fuels/hydrocarbons. if people require more land area than the country possesses. more efficient birth control to reduce population growth.g. but [3 max] if answer looks at only strengths or weaknesses. but major weakness is that it only takes certain aspects into account e. Award [5 max] for evaluation. ignores land/water required to provide aquatic resources. natural habitats will suffer.g. it is living beyond the country’s sustainable threshold. by switching to nuclear power or more renewable power resources e.39. biogas/biomass. ecological footprint is the opposite of carrying capacity.

Answer must link evaluation to long-term sustainability. infant mortality decreases and life expectancy increases and therefore population grows rapidly.(c) Award [4 max] if there is no clear evidence of what the candidate thinks is the best environmental philosophy. Credit should be given to answers which refer to demographic transition model and/or population pyramids. food supply and resource base. technology will allow greater resource cycling.g. e. technology will help us find and develop new resources e. due to technological improvements to living standards. hydrogen fuel. econcentrism is best suited to achieving long-term sustainability. hygiene. For full marks answers must evaluate both philosophies. medical care.g. resources are presently only limited by lack of technological know-how. (a) over the last 2000 years death rates have fallen more rapidly than birthrates. because long-term sustainability is intrinsic to the ecocentric philosophy. technology will increase the effective life of a resource by allowing us to use it more efficiently e. fossil fuels. technocentrism does not accept that there are any limits to resource use. people have to restrain their resource use and live within their resource base. 4 max 48 . though one is favoured. industrial revolution marked a critical phase in accelerating technological knowhow.g. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 40.

g. therefore there is an implication (see quote) that the current users of resources (few of whom are alive) hold resources in trust for future generations. through alternative fuel sources.e. exponential growth in population is likely to exceed carrying capacity. cultural inertia e. carrying capacity is a measure of an area’s ability to meet resource demand for a given population. partial coverage [2] or [3]. food and materials. this will lead to environmental stress and over use of current resource base i. changing marriage ages. education/leading to the empowerment of women. legalising abortion. resource base is finite so shortages will occur if demand outstrips supply.g. these will be land. reduction in infant mortality. 7 max Possible strategies could include: reducing birth rate with contraception. economic factors – large families needed to support parents in old age/work on farm/develop the country.(b) (c) exponential population growth will lead to an increase in demand for resources. Obstacles include: religious belief – contraception not natural. China’s one child policy. advertising campaigns to challenge cultural norms about family size. practical issues – e. 7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 49 .g. over family size/male potency/status of women.g. water. Award comprehensive answer covering most of the above [4]. setting quotas e. the idea of sustainable development is that we must ensure current use of resources does not compromise ability of future generations to meet their own needs. an unsustainable system. access to contraception in remote rural areas/inefficient communication. many believe technology offers a way to enhance the resource base e.

LEDC but no reasons award [0]. 2 max inputs: [1 max] water/technology/cattle (livestock)/sunlight/rain/manure/ seed/labour/soil. houses look fairly simple and made from local/cheap materials/ thatched roofs. (i) (ii) 3 max 2 max when nutrients. Award [1] for any three of the above.41. (a) (b) LEDC basic/lack of technology generally. livestock fed differently at different times of year. dependence on working animals. 1 50 . monsoonal climate so main crop is rice. irrigation technology used in dry season. tobacco. Answers must be linked to variations in environment. Award [1] for any three of the above. rice farming is typical of LEDCs/where rice is often the staple crop. dissolved in water. labour intensive (family labour). Accept other reasonable answers. mixed cropping on small scale. outputs: [1 max] jute/vegetables/mangoes/Jack fruit/Palm/coconut/sugar cane/spices/crops/waste/income/energy/rice/food/ Betel nuts/tobacco/cattle (livestock)/heat/oxygen/carbon dioxide/wheat/mustard. rotation of crops to match seasonal rainfall patterns. wash down through the soil/paddy and are lost. processes: [1 max] planting/ploughing/harvesting/irrigating/repair/respiration/ run-off/labour. Award [1] for any three of the above. different jobs done at different times of year. cash crops for export such as sugar cane. (c) (d) different crops planted at different levels. 1 process by which nitrogen in atmosphere is fixed to form nitrate by blue-green algae (and converted into a useable form for plants).

requires carbon dioxide. noise pollution/air pollution/global warming/acid rain. this is because species at each trophic level are using some of the energy for respiration. 2 2 max 1 3 max 1 1 max 51 . e. thus more decomposition. (c) coal/oil/natural gas. photosynthesis/primary production is the process by which green plants convert light energy into a usable form/chemical energy/food/organic matter.g. Award [1 max] for problem and [2 max] for explanation. (a) (b) energy is dissipated/lost along the food chain/converted to less useful form. primary productivity is the conversion of solar energy whereas secondary involves feeding/absorption. Award [1] for any two of the above. a brown gas that contributes to urban haze. 1 [11] 42. (d) Accept any reasonable environmental problem. 1 oxygen is required by decomposers to break down organic matter (the oxidized zone is closer to the surface and richer in oxygen)/higher BOD in oxidized zone as more decomposers. (e) zone D. and some is lost as heat/waste to the environment. e. urban air pollution caused by release of hydrocarbons (from unburned fuel) and nitrogen oxide. nitrogen oxide reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. Give credit for chemical equation. (f) primary productivity is the gain in energy/biomass by producers/autotrophs whereas secondary is gain by heterotrophic organisms.g.(e) (i) (ii) because the terraces are level there is little run-off by water so soil is not washed away/terraces prevent soil erosion/ soil collects in paddies. water. involves production of oxygen. chlorophyll and light.

unwanted fertility – poor rural women in Nigeria may like to be able to limit their family size. 10. availability of water e.g.g. cultural expectation for sons. estuaries receive lots of sediment from rivers. Award [1 max] for no reference to the biomes in figure 3.g. deep oceans dark below surface limits productivity of plants.9 × 100 = 18.2 – 8. but are unable to use family planning because of attitude of their societies (who value male fertility). farm labour. religious intolerance to family planning. tradition for large family. rainforests warm throughout the year so have a constant growing season and higher productivity.(g) availability of light e.2 1 e. (a) (b) (i) Accept answers between 8.5 billion. children seen as a source of income.g. 2 max [12] 43. 1 (iii) 10.6%. few options for women.3 = 1.g. Award [0] for naming countries. because of rural isolation and an inability to access family planning centers. 1 (ii) population momentum.0 and 8. nutrient availability e. temperature e.g. 3 52 . seen as security in old age (no social security system). e.9 1. tropical rainforests receive lots of rainfall each year whereas deserts have little rain which is limiting to plant growth. high infant mortality rate so large families necessary to ensure survival of some. lack of education about family planning. desire for large family size in India patriarchal society and many offspring seen as a symbol of male fertility.

2 3 max [5] 45. government strategies/policies e. growth rates can be expected to decline for a variety of socio-economic reasons. reserves left for indigenous people may be too small to sustain them. despite the fact that evidence (falling birds) is in front of their eyes. tax incentives. no need to mention acid rain. indigenous tribes need large amounts of space in which to live sustainably. conflict between short-term and long-term perspective (indigenous people). No mark scheme available 53 . population limited by wars over scarce resources. (a) (b) perhaps cartoonist is suggesting that politicians/society refuse to act because they claim that more research needs to be done first. greater access to family planning as communications/education/ wealth increases. 2 max [8] 44. difference between sustainable use of forest (natural income) and users who exploit natural capital.g. economic value of timber/land is incompatible with leaving forest standing for other uses (indigenous cultures). intrinsic value of forest (biorights) is ignored by exploitative users only interested in economic use. changing attitudes will reduce desire for large families. forest is cut down by outsiders ignoring the needs of indigenous people. as nations develop economically and move through stages of demographic transition. Accept similar interpretations of cartoon. conflict might exist because different groups see the resource differently. Accept any other reasonable suggestions.(c) natural resources/food will become so scarce that population is limited by hunger.

Give credit if figures from resource booklet are used.46. amount of fluctuation between high flows and low flows has declined. (a) (b) (c) (EIA) Environmental Impact Assessment is a process used to establish the impact of a project/development on the environment. species list – survey would record number of species (faunal and flora) present. habitat type and abundance – baseline survey would record total area of each habitat type. overall amounts of water flowing in the Colorado River have declined since 1910. Award [1] for each variable with a reason if no reason award [1 max]. soil – quality/fertility/pH. 3 max 54 . amount of sediment carried in the Colorado River shows a dramatic decline from the mid-1930s. the dam has allowed water flow to be controlled so fluctuations are minimized. and if steps to mitigate effects should be put in place. human population – assess present population. Award [2–3 max] for description and [2–3 max] for explanation. land use – assess land use type/use coverage. 2 max 3 max 5 max (d) Abiotic factor in the Colorado River Increased or decreased after construction of Glen Canyon Dam Reason for change decreased fewer fluctuations/variations in water flow. species and ecosystems to be predicted. hydrology – assess hydrological conditions in terms of volume/ discharge/flows/ water quality. estimate abundance. 95% of sediment is trapped behind the Glen Canyon dam. and helps decision makers decide if the development should go ahead. Water temperature range decreased water extracted from dam is too low for sun to penetrate. list endangered species. so much water is now extracted from the reservoirs that little water reaches the sea. Accept other reasonable responses. so water is very cold/does not vary. it enables possible impacts on habitats. Riverine habitat diversity Award [1] for decreased and a valid reason and [0] if decrease is given without a valid reason. Nutrient content of water in river decreased nutrients held with sediments behind dam.

Accept other reasonable responses. emphasis on power in National Hydropower Association report. Award [2 max] if no reference to resource booklet.g.(e) non-native species: e. non-natives could bring disease with them that native species are not resistant to. non-natives dominate as they are better suited to reservoir conditions and native species become extinct. Award [1] for naming species and [2] for possible impacts. inter-breeding and potential loss of species. (f) dams are a technological solution to the challenge of managing water and energy demand. technocentric approach involves controlling natural processes rather than minimizing disturbance. prey on young of native species reducing their number. evidence from resource booklet could include figures for efficiency of production. trout/green alga/cladophora/Bluegill/Sunfish/Channel Catfish. emphasis (in 1964) was on economic benefits and development goals rather than ecological impact. possible impacts: non-native are outcompeting native species because they are generalists whereas native species have more specific niches. non-natives increasing in number as they outcompete native species for food. 3 max 3 max 55 .

g. Mexico benefits from the electricity – presumably it gave its consent for the dam to be built? (point 13). economic activities such as farming and tourism can be labour intensive and lots of jobs are provided (point 3). possible that Lake Powell will silt up – all sediment trapped see figure 4 showing dramatic drop in sediment after dams constructed (point 7). Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (point 6). fruit and vegetables are provided for domestic economy (point 4). often poorest communities (rural. culture of indigenous people has been threatened e. Award [4 max] if advantages and disadvantages of dam are merely listed with no reference to the checklist. indigenous people have benefited from water and electricity (point 10). long-term water and energy demand can be met by this because HEP is a renewable resource (point 9). Rainbow Bridge. the dam was constructed in a national park and adversely affected areas of scientific importance (World Heritage Site) (point 6). no evidence from the resource booklet that there are safety or health issues (point 5 or 11). not a “good” dam because: no environmental assessment was carried out prior to construction (point 1). indigenous. knock on effects on Mexico (point 13) and impact on delta may have had an impact on fisheries (point 12). 6 max [25] 56 . Mexican) who have benefited (point 2).(g) There must be some discussion of both sides to achieve [6 max] but answers can be weighted heavily towards one side or another.g. a “good” dam because: large sectors of population have benefited from water supply and electricity (point 2). and has caused native species to become extinct/endangered e.

slash and burn agriculture where the conditions of the forest have encouraged shifting cultivation and social structures and cultural practices have developed in response to this. 8 max 57 . native American Indians did not believe that people could “own” land.g.47. Award [4 max] if no evaluation is attempted or if no examples are used. indirectly socio-cultural factors such as land ownership. desire for more organic food in Europe has led to growth of organic farming to meet this demand. fertile soil.g. natural disasters. in determining demand for food e. free range pens for chickens). amounts of rainfall. good growing conditions will favour intensive crop production. growing trend for concern about animal welfare has affected the processes on some farms (e. attitudes to land will have an impact on how land is used and the status of farmers and farming e. but of course socio-cultural factors are not the only ones and factors such as constraints of the natural environment (e.g. the Maasai. (a) socio-cultural factors will have an influence on tastes/affect new markets e.g. levels of education will determine the amount of exchange of ideas and the extent to which new technologies can be applied e. after WW2 there was a concern in Britain about self-sufficiency and this demand led to a drive for greater intensification of production (achieved through fertilizers and agribusiness techniques).g.g.g. the Singaporean government invests a great deal in promoting new technologies in hydroponics. in the case of Nomadic herders. and economic factors which will determine costs of inputs such as seeds and technology/access to credit.g. of course all these factors are interconnected and socio-cultural features will often have developed in response to farming systems as well as shaping them e. socio-cultural factors can led to problems e. migration patterns. growing seasons.g. with increasing levels of farm fragmentation in cultures where land is divided equally between sons. socio-cultural factors can have a more general impact e.g. soil fertility) will shape what farming systems develop e. where quantity (rather than quality) of cattle is a measure of wealth and so this has led to overgrazing and desertification.

which encourage urban shanty dwellers to migrate and use the deforested land.g. a source of cash. i. An answer which merely summarises the differences between ecocentric and technocentric paradigms should not be awarded more than [6 max]. indigenous shifting cultivator farmers in the Amazonian rainforest in Brazil and urban elites in Brasilia shifting cultivators: [5 max] lifestyle and practices are much more closely bound up with their natural environment. understanding of how the forest works so adapt farming practices e.g.g. canoes and for medicines. establish policies. utilising forest materials for construction of their homes. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “technocentric”. can crudely and broadly be generalised as “ecocentric”. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58 . lack of understanding for how the natural systems works mean political decisions can lead to wasteful/damaging actions e. political prestige projects and ideology (e. e. spiritual role of forest is also a feature of their cultural lives leading to respect for trees and other species.g. but farming is unsuccessful because of lack of fertility of the soil. the frontier mentality about the interior of Brazil) can lead to “standing” value of rainforest being underestimated by urban elites. use agroforestry to mimic layering of the forest and protect ground crops from harsh sun and heavy downpours. in conclusion a less destructive and closer connection between social systems and ecological systems. urban (capitalist) elites: [5 max] rainforest seen as a resource for development. which then become silted up. construction of dams. live “in tune” with the forest. recognition that soil is often infertile so farmers shift and allow small pockets of forest to regenerate before returning to the plot some 50 years later.(b) Answers must be balanced and two appropriate societies contrasted.e. 10 max Obviously within these groups there will be subsets and individuals with different environmental paradigms.

UNEP have the resources to mobilise and coordinate action e. when individuals feel passionately about an issue. to cut CO2 emissions.g. bureaucratic and inappropriate.e. CITES. (a) some environmental problems are global in terms of the scale of the effects rather than local. so local people should be involved in addressing the problem.g.g.g. rather than burying their head in the sand about an issue. e. local solutions have a valuable role to play e. might not have access to funds/expertise.g. international cooperation is vital e. in environmental research. smuggling of endangered species. some issues e. however. international organisations e. often problems are caused at local scale. global warming is going to have far-reaching global impacts so a united response to monitoring and mitigation is more likely to be effective. e. especially LEDCs. 8 max 59 .g. when problems cross borders e. recycling and landfill are local issues so a global strategy would be cumbersome. the World Conservation Strategy recognises this. so international cooperation in addressing them makes sense.g. Award [5 max] if no examples are used.g. international agreements can help to motivate governments to take action and honour their commitments e.48. often the motivation for addressing problems starts at the local level i. Montreal Protocol.g. when individual nations.

their concerns will not be taken seriously unless grounded in rigorous fieldwork and fact. for groups lobbying about a particular environmental issue. to be monitored over time. scientists have to be able to undertake studies at a manageable level i. this is one of the problems with conflicting evidence on the issue of global warming. 6 max Accept other reasonable responses. similarly for political decisions to be taken there needs to be a body of evidence and understanding on which these decisions are based.e.(c) small-scale studies allow for in-depth detailed investigations.g. e. on a practical level. lots of studies of small-scale ecosystems form jigsaw pieces in a bigger picture of how larger-scale ecosystems e. these studies can inform human actions to ensure that practices change in the right way to mitigate the problem e. understanding processes and interconnectedness at a local level is vital if threats to that ecosystem are to be effectively mitigated e. studies of consequences of applying lime to acidified lakes. by investigating specific hypotheses.g.g. you could not design a research programme that was just going to investigate “oceans”. Expression of ideas [2 max] [16] 60 .g. biomes are being affected by human actions. understanding relationship between two interdependent species will enable you to predict what will happen if one of them becomes extinct. studying small-scale ecosystems enables environmental change e. in response to pollutants.g.

young more concerned than old.g.g. Accept other reasonable responses. this will depend on their specialised knowledge and their level of education. responses by organisms rather than people.49. opinions will depend to a large extent on what scientific evidence they find most convincing. environmental paradigms will stem from cultural context including prevailing religious attitudes (e. others do not prioritise environmental issues including global warming.g. overall awareness of the issue. (a) (b) some politicians believe action should be taken immediately by all nations to curb emissions of CO2. extreme poverty leads to short-term view/wealth leads to faith in money to solve problem. most scientists are now convinced that there is a causal link between CO2 levels and global temperature change.g. where people live might affect their views e. near the sea. whether we should live in harmony with it or control it using technology).g. socio-economic status e. age e. to change lifestyles and plan to reduce fossil fuel dependence. their attitudes to our relationship with the environment (e. whereas some scientists argue that relationships are more complex and that the effects of global warming are unclear. whether we have any moral obligation to future generations). even that recent temperature changes are merely parts of natural fluctuations in the earth’s temperature. whereas others argue that it is unreasonable to expect LEDCs to curb emissions until they have developed economically like the MEDCs have done. 5 max 5 max 61 . the growth of the environmental movement (which has grown exponentially in profile and influence) has played a large role in raising awareness of the issue. others do not believe that actions at an individual level can make much difference.g. which can also depend on the profile of environmental issues in the media. Allah is in control. environmental paradigms can shape how they read scientific literature. cultural/religious group e. some ordinary citizens feel they have a responsibility to change the way in which they live to reduce their personal contribution to the problem. migration/extinction/ adoption.

2 (i) year: 2002. (do not accept 141.g.g. developing alternative energy technologies to fossil fuels.g. tractors/broken tools/ crop waste (stubble). attitudes to resource use may need to be altered. space.g.5%. Do not accept organic material. technology can also play a part in reducing human population size e. through contraception/medicines (reducing infant mortality and thereby reducing the incentive for high birth rates in many poor countries). but at a global level technology can be used to intensify the way in which we use resources e. e.(c) carrying capacity is the maximum number of species that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. 1 62 . (a) (b) (c) animal waste products/old machinery e. it is determined by availability of resources (e. to the population in an area. water. increased agricultural production on the same plot of land by using HYV rice. at a country level technology can help to ensure carrying capacity is not exceeded. 8 max Award [2-3 max] for describing carrying capacity and [5-6 max] for role of technology. it is a problematic term for human populations because technology has a huge influence on the resources that are available to human populations.g. = 142 million tonnes. 1 430 million/100 × (13% [industry] + 20% [agriculture]). by importing new resources with transport technology. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 50.g. our tastes and demand for particular resources changes at such a rapid rate. a country is said to be overpopulated if the carrying capacity is exceeded. substitutions of resources e. food. technology alone may not be the full solution.9 tonnes) Answer must specify units. 1 (ii) 65 × 100 520 12.

e. decline in soil quality due to poor management e. 2 max [7] 52. Norfolk grasslands UK.g. Accept other reasonable responses. 2 max greater use of pesticides to protect crops and livestock. soil degradation and lowered productivity. 2 max 1 [8] 51. farming/agriculture is becoming more technocentric. e. increasingly seen as a resource requiring protection with special techniques e.(d) (e) better environmental awareness. loss of marshland from drainage. introduction of disease. No mark scheme available 63 . the use of GM crops and livestock. terracing. greater agricultural industrialization/mechanization. extensive cattle farming east-Africa. loss of forest habitat. 2 max Award [1] for named agricultural system and associate impact. less need for labour on farm. better waste collection facilities. 1 max soil has become more valuable as it has become more scarce. agriculture is becoming more mechanized. economic incentives to be waste friendly. Accept other appropriate answers. agriculture may be more intensive.g. loss of biodiversity. prairie grassland US.g. from 1984 until 2002 the amount of waste produced per person has increased. better environmental education. soil management techniques e. (a) (b) (c) (d) as tractor use increase farm labour use goes down. government incentives to recycle waste. farms becoming larger require more machinery. salinisation (over irrigation).g.g.g. slash and burn subsistence farming. agroforestry. use of high yielding crops and livestock.g. shelter and salinisation of soil resource due to poor management. loss of soil due to soil erosion. e. e. improving irrigation. more laws preventing dumping.

g. edges provide new niches thus higher diversity. Award credit if data is cited. there is a mix of aquatic and terrestrial environments. Ramsar Convention recognition and registration raises the profile of the Albufera. shrubs and ground cover. further development. will include trees. small reserves have problems supporting biodiversity. agriculture/run-off pollution and drainage. the area is preserved and the biodiversity is proactively protected and encouraged. organisms safely move in and out of the marsh. water quality. site 4 may be a monoculture favouring few species. background environmental conditions are good e. therefore. (a) (b) (c) the Albufera has such high diversity due to a wide range of habitat types. Answers need four of the following threats to receive [2 max]. award [1 max]. many niches for many species. site 1 more stable. road/road kill/disturbance. dune erosion/habitat loss. chemical pesticides may limit species in site 4. the area is physically large. 64 . multiple habitats have many edges. 2 max site 2 would demonstrate a much higher diversity index than site 4. (i) (ii) (d) (e) (f) 3 max 2 max site 1 will have a greater range of species. good reserves need to be large (as the Albufera marsh is). 2 max site 1 more mature. not gone through full succession. greater range of niches. 4 max Albufera was designated the first national reserve in the Balearics by the Mallorcan government. species community more complex at site 1. 2 max reserves are often controlled by the principle of island geography.53. biodiversity is high due to multiple habitat types. larger animals need large areas. site 1 older. site 2 is much more mature and has a range of habitats with a large range of niches for insects. If only two of the following threats are addressed. site 5 newer. power station producing terrestrial and atmospheric pollution. tourist pressure causing disturbance and pollution.

local communities support the Albufera. mixing education. the two geographically separate groups of snails may ultimately become separate species. (g) (i) (ii) (h) (i) 2 max Albufera is not just an area of wildlife protection. more pressure for development land may lead to the marsh edges being developed. however. more people are also more revenue and more awareness. which may damage the marsh. protection has long-term benefits. educational activities encouraged. more tourists mean more potential pollution.g. people use it as an area of relaxation. 2 2 max [25] 65 . 2 max experience demonstrates that protection without considering other factors e. more tourists need more water and more water extraction may lower levels in the marsh and cause damage. which may be positive factors. multiple use reserves are more popular and easier to fund. economics. more sustainable. 2 max speciation may occur. culture and development is unlikely to be successful. continued tourism expansion may lead to increased pressures on local resources that will directly and indirectly affect the marsh. research takes place. research. cultural value encouraged.

non-government groups and international organizations. highlights new information. they have a positive vested interest in the park.g. loss of biodiversity is the loss of potential new resources. research: [2 max] scientific research discovers change/damage/stress/new species/ monitors abiotic and biotic conditions within the park. drought. biodiversity can be seen as a gauge for environmental quality.54. liaise with local groups. contaminated land and water. their economic future and the future of the park are intrinsically linked.g. a more diverse environment is likely to be more resource rich/abundant. punish poachers. (b) local support: [2 max] local guides and rangers earn a living assisting tourists within the park and prevent poaching. 6 max Award [4 max] if no named protect area. this attitude may also be reflected in its government’s care of its people. factors which cause low biodiversity also may lead to an environment unsuitable/stressful for humans. manage park funding. Award [3 max] if answer considers only one line of argument. medicines. pollutants. research identifies new hazards and new goals. a society that ignores the need for high biodiversity/allows biodiversity to be lost. shows little respect for the environment. produces information that supports the parks existence and informs management decisions. guides. wildlife agencies.. areas of high diversity are more aesthetically pleasing than areas of low diversity. opportunities for discovering new resources are more likely in areas with high diversity. etc. they monitor and control visitor numbers. low biodiversity is a measure of a stressed environment. co-ordinate anti-poaching activities. provides the park with security and infrastructure. thus better places to live. Award [4 max] for more than one line of argument. 66 . e. 6 max Award [6 max] if arguments are supported with appropriate evidence. (a) low biodiversity reflects poor ecological/environmental conditions. maintain communications. they have a respect and pride for the park that they view as theirs. government agencies: [2 max] government through its employees. helps educate those inside and those outside the park. rangers. society. toxins. provide resources. e.

food chains. trophy hunting: [3 max] the protection of animals for sport/hunting may also be seen as a species based approach to conservation. thus the organism and not the habitat it belongs in is protected. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 55. (a) eutrophication represents the nutrient enrichment of a body of water.(c) species based conservation: [3 max] concentrates on one or two key species. controlling predators providing additional food. cattle and sheep). though the animal is being maintained for economic gain and pleasure. game reserves may have less disturbance. sewage waste. agricultural run-off rich in phosphates and nitrates and fisheries food and excrement all represent sources of nutrient enrichment within the aquatic system. ecosystems collapse. 6 max 67 . indirectly such management techniques may benefit many non-target species and the ecosystem per se.g. it can occur naturally but is often triggered by the addition of external anthropogenically derived material. habitat conditions are maximized to meet the needs of the key species. waste fertilizer etc. managing habitat for “game” may have benefits for many other species. habitats.. the massive growth rate consumes a high proportion of available O 2. physiological stress due to lack of O2 causes population crashes in many other aquatic organisms. habitat protection for one species may protect many species. positive feedback situation. it is none the less being conserved. less alien species (e. tigers. numbers are kept high by managing habitat. however. bears. a species based approach may result in a species being conserved artificially outside its habitat. usually organisms that possess strong aesthetic qualities. nutrients cause an explosion in algae/blue green algae within the water column.. pretty birds etc.

g. terrestrial systems are predominantly farmed systems with food crops being planted. demand for water is expanding in both MEDCs and LEDCs. water plants more. tended and harvested. aquatic/marine systems from much higher up. the use of agricultural fertilizers in a way that prevents/reduces nitrate/phosphate loading e.(b) (c) treatment of sewage before entering the watercourse to remove organics and dissolved nitrates and phosphates will reduce enrichment. whereas terrestrial systems harvest primarily carbohydrates/plant material (cereals. birds. e. terrestrial systems harvest the bulk of food from much lower in the food chain. water resources need to be managed more carefully. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 56. the use of filters and scrubbers to remove phosphates from domestic sewage. 6 max the key difference between aquatic and terrestrial food production systems is the level from which food is harvested. in MEDCs social lifestyles require more water. grains. (a) societies demand for water has continued to grow throughout the industrial period. wash cars more. people wash more.g. new water resources need to be found/resource use needs to be controlled. root crops etc. 5 max 68 . aquatic/marine systems are predominantly hunter-gatherer systems (sometimes on an industrial scale). aquatic systems generally harvest wild species. general per person increase in water needs are making demands heavier. controlling the rate and timing of fertilizer application and controlling the chemical content of fertilizer. managing the fishery such that stocking density of fish and fish feeding practice minimize nutrient enrichment within the system.) with some additional animal protein (livestock). not applying fertilizers during rainy periods and using reduced phosphate fertilizers.). removing un-eaten food and fish waste mechanically from the system. e. stocks are left to recover naturally after harvesting. expanding populations/changing agricultural practice/ expanding industry (often heavy).g. mammals. addressing run-off and intercepting contaminated water. aquatic/marine systems harvest primarily animal protein (fish. water is a finite resource and countries are reaching their resource availability limit. in LEDCs. crustaceans etc. terrestrial systems use domesticated plant and animal species.

it is the opposite of carrying capacity. the footprint size considers both resource needs and waste assimilation. technological advancement may reduce footprint size. as a model for monitoring environmental impact the ecological footprint can allow for direct comparisons between groups and individuals.(b) an ecological footprint represents the hypothetical area of land required by a society/group/individual to fulfill all their resource needs. 8 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 57. encourage the conservation of water. both in industry and at a domestic level. 8 69 . (c) 5 max the technocentric manager approach to water resource management would suggest that future needs can be met by technology. e. tourism that values its environment. encourage water use within sustainable level. technocentric managers would support desalination/iceberg capture and transport/wastewater purification. In addition to the above points. wildlife and the environment. monitoring use to remain within sustainable limits. in addition it can highlight sustainable and unsustainable lifestyles. encourage greater recycling. ecotourism is often sustainable. encourage water use that had few detrimental impacts on habitat. populations with a larger footprint than actual land area are living beyond sustainable limits.g. encouraging industry and society to use less water. a finite area can support a finite population. good tourism is sustainable tourism.g. to be sustainable the tourism venture must not deplete local resource bases by direct/indirect impact. award [1] for each case study. would also look at innovative ways to reduce water use per se. e. (a) tourism can only be successful if it can have a long-term future. the ecocentric manager approach would highlight the overuse and misuse of water. it must not pollute the local environment. innovation and the ability to use “untapped” reserves. up to [2 max]. synthetic water production/rain seeding/deep aquifer extraction. MEDCs and LEDCs. a long-term future is only possible if the tourism enterprise is sustainable.

some believe that development (particularly development designed to allow LEDCs to compete with MEDCs) can never be sustainable (within a free market). coastal beach holidays).g. coastal resorts selling sun. 1 70 . 5 sustainable development (a phrase coined in 1987 in Our Common Future) is defined as development that meets our current needs without depleting resources in the future. development and sustainability in the mind of many economists are contradictory positions even though environmentalists hold the concept of “sustainable development” as the best way forward for society and the planet. Supporting case studies or examples are relevant. sustainable development varies in definition depending on viewpoint. sea and sand may develop further north. Accept other suitable answers if appropriate. failing rains may make some resorts obsolete due to lack of water resources. 5 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 58. summer seasons may be extended (e.(b) (c) global warming will ultimately change weather patterns. winter sports holidays may be curtailed by lack of snow and ice. economists view sustainable development in pure commercial terms whereas environmentalists will also include environmental quality as an element. sustainable development also does not deplete the environmental quality of an area. (a) wave power/solar radiation/heat pumps/water wheels.

The wind energy is turned into electrical energy via a generator. wind. Produces emissions and requires large areas to grow biofuel crop. Biofuel plant material burned directly to produce heat/transformed into ethanol (used as fuel)/converted to methane (methane digestion). 3 named food production system: e. (only one method required) (c) (d) MEDCs traditionally/culturally dependent on fossil fuels. sunshine. Do not accept e. rice paddies application of fertilizer. 2 good tidal range required/right shape of coastline/interferes with navigation/impact on wildlife/expensive. agriculture. fossil fuels are energy-efficient/easy to transport/relatively cheap. Dependent on the wind.g. irrigation. changing to renewable energy on a large scale requires massive capital investment/cultural inertia against change to renewables/ many renewables depend on environmental conditions that are not constant (e. no wind equals no energy. Alternative How the energy is produced Major limitation renewable energy source Tidal Power Energy is produced by using the ebbing and/or flooding tide to turn turbines and produce electricity. 2 max 71 . changing crop type/variety.g. using herbicides. Note: that food production system must be reasonably specific. Award [1 max] if no named food production system. waves). insecticides. using GM crops. (only one limitation required) Wind Power Wind turbines are driven by available wind energy.(b) Award [2] if both answers are correct and [1 max] if one or two partial answers are correct. The electrical energy is supplied to an electrical grid to do work.g.

tourism will have reached and gone beyond these limits. the islands are in a tectonically active ocean. Maldivian groundwater has been contaminated with ammonia. they are the opposite/inverse of each other. ammonia – two island exceeds WHO guidelines (× 4). Accept replenishable as a classification of rainwater. not sheltered by large land masses. rainwater – renewable. sources of contamination – domestic waste/agricultural waste/landfill waste/degrading organics/tsunami debris/sea water/sewage. (i) tourists consume relatively large amounts of freshwater/ Maldives has a finite amount of groundwater and annual rainwater budget. Award [3 max] for description and [2 max] for two or more sources of contamination. nitrates and chloride. the islands are relatively small (less than 1 km across). No mark scheme available 60. phosphates. when tourist needs outstrip supply. phosphate – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 3 to × 9). chloride – all islands exceed WHO guidelines(× 2 to × 5). groundwater – replenishable. 3 [11] 59. 2 max 3 4 max 2 72 . freshwater from desalination – renewable. ecological footprint is area of land (and water) required to support an individual/population (providing all resources and absorbing waste). carrying capacity involves sustainable support of a population.(e) carrying capacity is the number of individuals/species/load an area of land/an environment can support (providing resources and absorbing waste). ecological footprint is a theoretical area whereas carrying capacity refers to a real area. (a) (b) (c) (d) the landmass has a low elevation/no land higher than 4 metres. nitrates – below WHO guidelines. whereas footprints are not necessarily sustainable.

(ii) (e) by 2050 the numbers of countries with a chronic scarcity (below –1 –1 2740 litres capita day ) of water will have increased. Figures are not required. fis h in g . strategy: development taxed to pay for habitat protection and conservation. evaluation: which reduces resource use and tourist pressures. Award [1] for each impact.7% to 17. c lim a te change. [2 max] if only one strategy addressed. e. T o u r s im to u ris t d iv in g . up to [4 max]. b rin g in d is e a s e s . evaluation: environmentally aware tourist less likely to cause damage. h a b ita t lo s s . also reduces tourist revenue. but may guarantee sustainable environment and tourism for the future. 2 strategy: tourist numbers could be limited. however. 4 max 73 . (f) lo s s o f b io d iv e rs ity . in c re a s e d a g ric u ltu re . Accept any other reasonable suggestions. c o n fu s e s o rg a n is m s a t n ig h t. evaluation: may make tourism more expensive/less profitable.g. standing on coral/using waste excessively. fo s s il fu e l b u rn in g . w a s te fro m d e v e lo p m e n t.8%). c o a s ta l p o llu tio n . d u e to d e v e lo p m e n t. im p o rt fo o d . Accept any other reasonable points and model design. lig h t p o llu tio n . tra n s p o rt. 6 max Award [4 max] if only two strategies addressed. between 2000 and 2050 the percentage of people in the world suffering from chronic water scarcity will rise (from 3. strategy: tourist environmental education. c o ra l d a m a g e .

algae/eye cataracts in sheep/humans/skin cancers in humans/tissue damage in photosynthetic organisms. acid rain): [3 max] alter human activity – education of impact of burning coal/switch to non-fossil fuels/burn sulfur-free coal. introduces people to new cultures. mutation in cells e. evaluation: (e. description: (e. Accept other reasonable responses. clean up and restore ecosystem – lime lakes/remove contaminated soil/lime surrounding landscapes/replant trees in affected ecosystems. liming treats symptoms. so needs repeating. highlights conservation issues and environmental problems. 6 74 .(g) tourism generates valuable hard currency/revenue for many LEDCs. acid rain. regulate and reduce pollution at source – add scrubbers to chimneys/capture CO2 at source/penalties for having sulfur-rich coal. not cause. trees may die/damage to crops/causes irritation to skin and eyes in organisms/other respiratory problems. legislation requires regulators to check compliance. stratosphere ozone: depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs and other halogenated gases/ ozone depletion allows more UV light to reach the Earth. (b) troposphere ozone – increase is a problem.g. (a) named example: e. stratosphere ozone – depletion is the problem. 7 Award any other reasonable suggestions. ideas and environments.g.g. societies. troposphere ozone: formed as secondary pollutant when photochemical reaction occurs between NOx and other pollutants. acid rain): [3 max] no local effects so difficult to stop people using sulfur-rich fossil fuels/ effects often felt in countries distant to source of pollution. generates job opportunities.g. 2 max [25] 61.

80 % live in LEDCs and are using more and more resources. example 2: statement: [1 max] I believe sustainable development is possible as we have the technology to use renewable resources for all our needs. will provide energy for domestic homes and factories. legislation will make us reuse and recycle more.(c) Depends on the arguments used but responses require a statement of belief on sustainable development. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 75 . example 1: statement: [1 max] I do not believe sustainable development is possible in the long-term as we have finite resources and will not have enough for everyone to use as much as they want/non-renewable resources will run out. cannot find new technologies fast enough to replace fossil fuels. humans are incapable of stopping population growth. justification: [4 max] humans are not prepared to reduce their standards of living. insulate buildings more. technological developments in crop growing will mean more production. 5 max Award [1] for a definition of sustainable development. humankind will use less energy. justification: [4 max] micro generation using wind turbines and solar power etc. not enough renewable resources. transport could use hydrogen powered engine using water as a fuel.

changes in ecosystems up a mountain with increasing altitude.g. (a) succession: orderly change over time in an ecosystem. succession e. zonation: the arrangement/patterning of plant communities/ecosystems. 6 max Award [1] for definition. [1] for example and [1] for a diagram of each process. into parallel/sub-parallel bands in response to change.g. Accept other reasonable responses. over a distance. temperate forest development. 76 . in some environmental factor.62. zonation e.

g. complex ecosystem. Award [2 max] for examples and [4 max] for comparisons. threats: [3 max] pollution – kills some species.g. climate change. little human activity. human activities – burning/building. natural woodland consumer community increases so naturally high productivity is balanced by consumption and respiration. different trophic levels. light. herbivores controlled or isolated from the food production system. selective logging. (c) 6 max characteristics: [3 max] greater habitat diversity. intensive wheat production. (a) population pyramids give age/sex structure for country. different nutrient and energy pathways.(b) food production system e. hunting of top carnivores. large size. grazing animals. makes conditions impossible for others/Trent Biotic Index organisms/degradation of ecosystems. heat. deciduous woodland. increases rapidly as biomass accumulates. water. 77 . woodland reaches climax when production: respiration = 1/all productivity is balance by respiration. both wheat fields and woodlands have low initial productivity. wheat harvested before production:respiration = 1. various niches. minimal pollution. natural ecosystem e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 63. 6 max Award credit if named examples are used.g. plentiful abiotic factors e.

impact of events. 5 max Award [1] for a diagram. 6 78 . number in fertile age bracket. disease. allows for monitoring change in dependent to provider ratio. expanding/contracting population. measures the size/structure of a population over time. birth rate and death rate.g. etc. economic growth means demand for resources is increasing so cost increases (crude oil). wars. must use resources more effectively. (b) global population continues to rise/per capita resources consumption increasing/resource exploitation is reaching its limits. as resources are depleted they become more economically expensive. gender ratios.age/sex pyramids identify percentage of providers and dependents within a country. GM crops/fertilizers/ alternative energy sources. may not be sustainable in the long-term.g. technology can increase carrying capacity e. e. Accept any other reasonable suggestions.

develop distinct horizons. 2 max positive feedback. Award credit for relevant examples.g. Award [1] for each advantage and disadvantage. distance (from sea). plastics/paper/lower quality materials. reusing reduces resources use. soils will be deeper. 2 max time. leading often to greater complexity. aluminium cans/bottles. 1 max soils will become more mature. not economic as lot of energy required to recycle e. processing or recycling. recycling reduces resource use e. this allows another community to become established and replace the former through competition. hard to do/slows economic growth/reduces standard of living in present consumer culture. reduces landfill/increased environmental awareness.g. 7 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 64. become more complex. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) the orderly process of change over time in a community. saves energy in extraction.g. e. 1 [6] 79 . health and safety issues/loss of technological edge. changes in the community of organisms cause changes in the physical environment. aluminium recycling versus energy efficient.(c) Advantages Disadvantages reducing use resources are conserved/last longer. contain more organic material.

6 = 893. 893. crop production harvests food from lower down in the food web than harvesting fish from the top. feces. animals convert vegetation to food that would not be available to humans directly.65. therefore it is more efficient.4 kcal lost. respiration. 2 there is energy lost from respiration and waste production at each level within a food web. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) (b) (i) 900 – 6.3% loss.4 × 100. produce diverse products (milk/meat/blood/wool). fish harvesting utilizes a resource that is several steps away from primary production. crops capture energy directly from primary source. 2 max heat. 2 max animals provide a source of protein (essential for the human diet). additional benefit that they are working animals. 3 max 80 . 900 = 99. Award [2] for correct final answer. taste and culture affect demand.

(i) country A: footprint X. (a) (b) country A is an expanding population. Award [1] for each two associated impacts. Award [1] for two outputs. e. country A has a high proportion of young people/wide base. whereas country B has a low proportion of young people/narrowing base.(ii) Award [1] for two inputs.g. country B: footprint Y. country A has low proportion of elderly/narrow top whereas country B has a higher proportion of elderly people/wider top. 2 max 1 81 . for milk production IN P U T S In p u t O U TPU TS O u tp u t fo o d / g ra s s / s ila g e Im p a c t p o s s ib le p o llu tio n o f w a te r c o u r s e s fr o m f e r t i l is e r s a n d e f f l u e n t In p u t m ilk Im p a c t tra n s p o rt o f m ilk a n d su b se q u e n t p ro c es sin g u s e s fu e l a n d th u s h a s a n im p a c t O u tp u t w a s te d ru g s a n d s u p p le m e n ts Im p a c t d ru g s m a y e n te r h u m a n fo o d c h a in Im p a c t w a s te m a y e n te r w a te r c o u rs e s a n d c au s e e n ric h m e n t Accept any other reasonable answers. Award [1] for each two associated impacts. country A has a larger population than country B. whereas country B is a declining population. Both answers needed to receive [1]. 4 max [13] 66.

whereas country B is an MEDC and therefore. 1 Possible adaptations could include: red colouration. long legs. 1 (iii) 4/tertiary consumer/carnivore. (i) vent/hydrogen sulfide → bacteria → shrimp/crabs/worms. (a) (b) (c) (i) insufficient light lower down for photosynthesis. agricultural development so greater use of water in irrigation (for intensive) farming. ability to produce bioluminescence. (b) increased demand for domestic goods/luxury items e.(ii) country A is an LEDC and therefore. 1 max [4] 67.g. To achieve [1] answer must begin with vent/hydrogen sulfide followed by bacteria. 2 max 1 82 . cultural change towards greater personal hygiene. 1 (ii) depth/light/temperature/pressure. increased economic development so more water used in industry. No mark scheme available 69. Figures are not needed. 1 2 max [3] 68. (a) water consumption has increased at a faster rate than population growth. people use more resources/more imported goods/generate more pollution. washing machines/swimming pools. people use fewer resources/more local resources/generate less pollution.

limits on catch size.g. (f) 9 (i) 39 000 gigatonnes/39 × 10 tonnes. 2 max fish removed by fishing industry. (iii) 3 thermal expansion. 4 max 1 1 1 83 . Units needed. birds eating fish/plankton. intensive fish farming as an alternative. Both answers needed to receive [1].(ii) (iii) (d) (i) (ii) specialized species (they are vulnerable if niche is lost). 1 max initial increase followed by gradual decline. fishing quotas. wide net mesh. short food chains. through technology e.g. consumer restraint. ice caps/glaciers melting. interest in species increased in early years as new technology allowed targeting of species. technocentric: [2 max] stress role of market (costs increase as stocks dwindle so fewer will be fished). scientific research in monitoring populations. harsh environmental conditions. Award [2] for each environmental philosophy. community fisheries. over fishing of stocks meant reduction in young fish and decline in populations. slow growing organisms/late maturity/low fecundity. ecocentric: [2 max] small-scale technology should be adopted e. high level of interdependence. (ii) possible way to offset global warming as large amounts of carbon could be stored/locked away. upwelling currents.

require approximations to be made. conservation issues are not raised/ known about. deep-ocean systems are potentially fragile and susceptible to damage from outside influences. little is known about the system. the need for conservation [3 max] deep-ocean systems represent an important biological resource. (a) a simplified description. the deep ocean is remote and not visible to most people. deep-ocean systems are not occupied by humans. deep-ocean systems represent a biological resource that has not yet been fully understood. 2 max 84 . 4 max [23] 70. Award [3 max] if only why little public pressure or need for conservation is addressed. difficult to control/legislate for/police. designed to show the structure/workings of an object/system/concept.(g) why little pressure [3 max] no country has ownership of the deep ocean and therefore. therefore.

models are hugely simplified. 9 max 85 . To receive full marks answers must have a balance of strengths and weaknesses. Accept other examples of feedback.g.(b) predicting the growth of human populations: [3 max] growth of human population depends (at a simple level) on birth rates and death rates. and may not reflect the complex and unpredictable factors which affect growth rates e. per capita CO2 emissions. model only as good as the data that goes in and it may be suspect. enables the reasons for population growth to be understood. demographic transition model shows how population growth is linked to economic development. stresses the systems approach and interconnectedness of eco and social systems. Award credit if other relevant models are evaluated. but not all countries conform to the stages identified. from this rates of natural increase can be calculated and population total predicted. a quantification of what can be a very complex set of factors. hugely complex in terms of numbers of factors involved in atmospheric systems so in process of oversimplification accuracy is lost. role of feedback/ocean systems not fully understood. predicting climate change: [3 max] models can demonstrate anticipated changes to climate based on carbon emissions. able to provide a quantitative estimate of human carrying capacity. war/disease. assessing demands human populations make on their environments: [3 max] ecological footprints can be effective for comparing environmental impacts of different societies. very difficult to calculate figures e.g. conflicting models can show different effects in same place. population pyramids enable policy makers to chart what proportion of the population are in the fertile age bracket helping to predict likely birth rates.g. e. can be useful tools for getting people to think about their impact.

g. then long-term harvest (or pollution) rates should not exceed rates of capital renewal. (a) use of resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration. culture and tradition evolve over time/cultural change can occur and governments can be a part of this. remote.g.g. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 71.g. if human well-being is dependent on the goods and services provided by certain forms of natural capital. cultural norms may be ingrained/deeply felt and policies need to address these at the deepest level to change attitudes e. Examples can be of cultural practices and do not need to be located in named geographical contexts. a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. religious beliefs in catholic countries. and minimizes damage to the environment. any society that supports itself in part by depleting essential forms of natural capital is unsustainable. 3 max 86 .g. making abortion illegal). sometimes cultural factors indirectly play a role in fertility rates e. education and employment opportunities for women lead to delayed marriages and lower birth rates. inheritance by male heirs and dowries for females.g. on the “interest” or sustainable income generated by natural capital. rural communities may not be enough – programmes to educate males to be willing to use the contraception are also needed. provision of contraception in e. education and economic development are important factors in bringing about cultural change. 7 max Award [4 max] if no examples are used. the need for male children in some cultures is linked to the traditional practices and structures e. e. sustainability means living within the means of nature.(c) strategies for controlling growth include availability of contraception/ financial incentives/public information/legislative changes (e. often the reasons for family size can be attributed to cultural factors so for policies to be effective they need to understand the underlying reasons why people decide to have a certain number of children.

Rio Earth summit (in 1992) led to Agenda 21 and Rio declaration. and can play a pivotal role in setting targets and shaping action at both an international and local level e.g. they may act as a catalyst in changing the attitudes of governments. Award [3 max] if summits are described but not evaluated. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson was pivotal. UN Conference on Human Environment/Stockholm.(b) global summits can play a leading role in shaping attitudes to sustainability e. summits may not achieve their initial goals. 1972 was the first time that the international community met to consider global environment and development needs. on climate change/ Montreal (1987).g. Accept any other reasonable answers. countries can break these agreements and there is little the international community can do. however. which set out key policies. organizations and individuals. and to legally binding conventions e.g. UN commissioned the Brundtland Report.g.g. in terms of shaping public opinion media can also be important e. 5 max 87 . however. which established initial definition for sustainable development. attitude change may occur without summits e.

it is the traditional source of energy. Narmada dam. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 88 . economic. as the most easily accessible reserves have been used up. e. changing awareness of environmental implications of fossil fuel exploitation has increased demand for renewable. which has always been used. despite the aesthetic and environmental implications.g. coal and gas reserves in UK have historically meant they were an obvious choice for exploitation. wind and tidal. in a drive to develop economically the Indian government has sought to harness other sources of cheap energy to stimulate industrial development. Societies do not need to be contrasting. non-polluting sources. environmental and technological factors: e.g. Accept other reasonable responses. Award [5 max] if no societies are referred to. say. fossil fuels in UK availability – large oil.g.(c) factors could include availability. cultural fears based on perception of nuclear accidents/waste have made this an unpopular choice politically. but energy sources should be. which has sometimes been extremely controversial for social/environmental reasons e. wind power. and technology such as solar powered stoves is not available/ affordable. firewood in India in India a huge proportion of population rely on local sources of firewood for energy because it is most readily available/cheap.g. leading to greater investment and research into alternatives e. cultural. the costs of exploitation have increased and alternative sources have been sought. 10 max Award credit if figures are used. as public awareness of threats of global warming has increased there has been a shift in attitudes towards. specifically hydroelectric power.

so it has to be converted by bacteria.72.g. water will flow through soil (infiltration) to replenish groundwater (transfer). 5 max 89 .g. the soil is the home of bacteria and if it becomes waterlogged near the surface the bacteria are unable to break down the decaying plant and animal matter. soil water may evaporate back into the atmosphere (transformation). peas/beans/clover. in a peat bog (denitrification). to form nitrates which can be taken in by the plants in solution with water in the ground (nitrification). Transformation: [3 max] lead to an interaction within a system in the formation of a new end product/involve a change of state. in decaying remains/in the soil. then the poorly decomposed matter forms peat on the surface e. but people can also add nitrogen to the soil in the form of artificial fertilizers. these bacteria exist. (a) Transfers: [3 max] transfers normally flow through a system and involve a change in location. few plants have the ability to absorb atmospheric nitrogen directly. by planting leguminous crops e. which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen. water can flow from soil into plants by uptake into roots. excessive flow of water through a very porous soil will wash away the nitrates into rivers and sea (leaching).

USA – high technology approach to minimizing wind erosion. variety of crops grown reduces the likelihood of exposure of soil at different times. fields allowed to be fallow/rest by crop rotation/soil is rested. use of specially adapted ploughs. small-scale agriculture e. but system can break down when population pressure leads to abandonment of traditional methods. shortage of firewood means manure is burnt for fuel instead of being returned to land.g. terraces built by hand to reduce run-off. whereas subsistence depends more on traditional practices. e. GM crops with shorter stalks to minimize wind damage and exposure of soil. Award [1] for naming commercial and subsistence farming systems. application of fertilizer to retain fertility of soil. application of manure.g. tend to be low tech and simple. If systems are simply described award [6 max] 8 max 90 . e. shelterbelts of trees planted. vegetable farming in Thailand – manure from working livestock allowed to fertilize soil. Answer needs to show comparison. Award [4 max] if no named systems are mentioned. Accept any other reasonable answers. which have evolved over time as people live on the land (ecocentric) e. commercial farming system relies on a technological approach to managing the soil (technocentric).g.(b) large-scale cereal cultivation in the prairies.g.

input of technology e. better storage (as less food decays). additional fertilizers to increase yield. GM crops to increase yields/farm machinery. seeing soils as renewable resources in equilibrium (inputs of nutrients through rain and organic matter) and outputs through natural leaching. outputs and storages. rate of population increase increases over time. Accept responses with a step by step description that demonstrates that the rate of increase is increasing. with overgrazing an understanding of the balance of animals that can be supported before the critical threshold is reached will help farmers plan herd size. more efficient transport (as less food decays). Accept any other reasonable responses. some processes of degradation are examples of positive feedback e. through irrigation/hydroponics.g. 5 max Do not accept arguments that are not linked to the concept of systems. (a) accept answers between 10 and 14 billion. these include soil erosion. activities such as overgrazing. 1 1 max 2 max 91 . systems approach stresses the interconnectedness of soils and emphasizes the knock-on impact that actions can have. understanding this can help farmers to break the cycle. deforestation on nearby slopes can have an impact on water flows and likelihood of soil erosion in flash flood conditions. (c) more intense production.(c) systems are models with inputs.g.g. (b) exponential.g. less vegetation → greater wind speeds → more soil erosion → less top soil → less vegetation etc. Do not accept suggestions to limit food consumption as the question is about meeting increases in demand.. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 73. and the importance of returning nutrients through the use of fertilizers. will help farmers to compensate for the losses to overall nutrient balance by removing crops. unsustainable agriculture and irrigation cause processes of degradation. but only if they lead to an increase in yield. toxification and salinization. understanding that soils are living systems which are integral parts of ecosystems will help farmers to take a broader perspective when managing their land e. bringing new land under production e. deforestation.

lack of education. (a) (b) (c) positive feedback because the effects of the problem make the problem worse. economic costs of funding family planning/medical improvements. simple. 2 max 92 . 2 max [6] 74. but far too simple.(d) traditions e. Award [1] for a strength and [1] for a weakness. can distinguish between positive and negative actions and consequences. but in this context it suggests development which has a positive role in enhancing the environment.g. pressure for sons e. value of large populations for economic growth. Accept any other reasonable responses. easy to see the connections. detail of what constitutes sustainable as opposed to inappropriate development is not clear. emission of gases as food is processed/packaged. Award [0] if no reason is given for positive feedback. 1 2 max 2 max [5] 75. exact natures of the causal relationships are not explained. Award [1 max] for general responses in which specific gases are not identified.g. for large family sizes. few alternatives for women. religious resistance to contraception e.g. methane from ruminants (not shown on diagram). in farming countries causes increased birth rate to secure a son. remote areas with no access to information/contraceptives. shows clearly how actions in one area can have a knock-on effect on the original development. (a) nitrogen oxides/carbon dioxide from power station as fossil fuels are burned. Award [1 max] if no reference is made implicitly or explicitly to figure 2. and is dependent in some way on a healthy population. traditionally defined as development which meets the needs of the current generation without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs. greenhouse gases emitted in transportation and distribution as exhaust fumes. Catholic countries.

more food/nutrients provided for species. (a) stops organic residues entering streams and causing pollution/eutrophication. livestock more processing required and therefore more energy.(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) a pollutant is any substance/agent (such as heat) added to the environment by human activity. sewage treatment. nitrogen dioxide absorbs sunlight and breaks up to release oxygen atoms that combine with oxygen in the air to form ozone. when fossil fuels are burned nitrogen oxide is released. Accept any other reasonable responses. Award [1 max] if the response has identified that pollutants are harmful to the environment but organic wastes do not need to be. complex system. allowing plants and trees to grow alongside streams will increase the range of habitats for insect/bird species. as energy will have been lost along the food chain due to respiration and excretion/10 % rule/second law of thermodynamics. 1 2 93 . 2 1 max 2 max 2 max 3 [12] 76. it reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. Award [0] if specific gases are not named. Award [0] if MEDC stated with no reason. fossil fuel resources are still economically cheaper to exploit. product processing and packaging is on a grander scale in MEDCs. inertia/culture/tradition means that non-renewable resources are favoured. (b) (i) reducing lawn size – lawns are restricted to grass species and succession cannot occur as they are cut regularly. the technology to harness renewable sources not available on a large scale. Award [1 max] if no distinction is made between the terms. arable more energy efficient than the livestock. MEDC because fertilizers and pesticides are factory produced. locations for renewable energy sources are limited by available sites/politics. renewable resources are not able to meet current demand. at a rate greater than that at which it can be rendered harmless by the environment/and which has an negative effect on the organisms within it. whereas organic wastes can be treated and recycled back into the system in a positive way. Award [0] if no reason given.

removing grass cuttings takes nutrients away from the soil. complex food webs allow many niches. less likely to cause eutophication than artificial fertilizers. natural fertilizers may contribute positively to soil structure.(ii) (c) provides greater stability. aesthetic/potential economic value of greater diversity. a way of reducing overall waste/resources/energy used. high productivity can support numerous trophic levels. historic isolation has allowed speciation leading to high endemism. hot/high insolation and humid/ high precipitation. Award [2] if response links ideas: “great length of time for speciation and isolation from the mainland”. principles of island geography apply. (a) (i) (ii) (b) a range of ecosystems offering a range of habitats/niches. 2 max 2 max [7] 77. greater genetic diversity so better able to withstand diseases/change. 2 max 2 max 1 94 . more niches so more alternative food sources within the food web should anything happen to an individual species. cheaper. No mark scheme available 78. after Madagascar broke away from Gondwanaland. favourable abiotic conditions. island colonized relatively recently so species have not developed escape/evade strategies/not afraid of man. species evolved independently in response to local conditions. artificial fertilizers lead to release of greenhouse gases as they are produced. a more sustainable strategy. so there will be a net loss of nutrients. many niches so potential for new speciation is high. natural fertilizers less likely to contain harmful toxins which may build up in species (biomagnification).

directly by logging/farming/mining/industry/settlement.g. funds from e. soil loses fertility and can no longer support plants. soil exposed to rain and easily washed away/eroded.01%/3% . (ii) promotion of development and conservation is the favoured approach of the World Conservation strategy. or the fact that soil is naturally poor.g. nets. better survival of residual trees so niches/species protected. site 3 will experience some disturbance but less than site 1. Lemurs. soil degraded and useless as a resource for humans. site 1 is a disturbed habitat with few trees and arrested succession so lower diversity. Award [3 max] if no climatic factors are mentioned.(c) (d) (e) (f) Response should be presented as a model. Award [1 max] for responses not given in the form of a model. ecotourism can be put back into conservation programmes. 3 max (i) 1 95 . maintains more canopy so soil is protected from rain/sun. protective forest cover removed. Madagascar is a poor country and economic development is naturally a priority. nutrients leached away. 2 max site 2 is a pristine (climatic) climax habitat so exhibits greatest diversity. etc. (in principle) natural interest can be harvested whilst natural capital is preserved. Award [1 max] if response is not explicitly linked to sustainability. incentive for local people to preserve local ecosystems if they can see the economic benefit. spider diagrams. soil exposed to high temperatures and baked/dried out. 4 max 2 max (i) (18 482 ÷ 600 461 × 100 =) 3. some species may only be present in forested areas as this is where they find food e. Accept flow diagrams. an economic alternative to harmful actions. Scorpions favour drier conditions and therefore inhabit the grassland site (1). recovery of natural systems after disturbance is more likely.

larger reserves are better. Award credit for other reasonable arguments. one large reserve generally better than lots of little ones. isolated from human activity so less chance of disturbance. to be most effective other reserves needed in other locations. government should not because population growth rate will naturally stabilize as the country develops. government should because population growth rate is high (3 %) and population is putting increasing pressure on limited resources. yes because carrying capacity is likely to be exceeded. continuing population growth may lead to expansion and increased pressure from the settlement. (ii) yes. Madagascar will be able to increase its carrying capacity. not clear whether there are economic opportunities in the reserve for local people. large population is needed to develop the country economically. no. (g) (i) 36 million. already rich in species/high biodiversity/biological hotspot.(ii) strengths: 2 reserve is relatively large (50 km ). overpopulation is to do with numbers of people compared to resource use. remote so difficult to police. 3 max 1 2 max [23] 96 . weaknesses: remote so access for research/monitoring could be difficult. provided resources are used sustainably there is no reason why populations should not grow. more people means more pressure will be put on fragile ecosystems. reducing birth rates is often seen as being an important feature of countries that are further along in demographic transition. Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed. only one ecosystem type presented here. many of which provide important goods and services and need to be protected. through technology which will develop as the country develops economically. reserve surrounded by forest which acts as a natural buffer zone.

as LEDCs develop the difference between footprint size diminishes. and also because resource use is often wasteful. 5 max 7 max 97 . this means demand for energy resources is high. named country. ecological footprint is the (hypothetical) amount of land required to support a defined human population at a given standard of living. it should be sustainable over time. Award up to [2 max] for reference to a specific example (could be on an individual’s own ecological footprint or for a country). Award [2 max] if no reference is made to an example. and assimilate its waste.g. an individual/a country. this defined population could be at any scale e. and is a quantitative representation of carrying capacity. MEDCs (in general) have much greater rates of resource consumption than LEDCs. (a) (b) Responses should be constructed around a case study. MEDCs produce far more waste/pollution as a by-product of production. Award [4 max] if no mention is made of specific case studies. to meet its resource needs. informal economy in LEDCs is responsible for recycling many resources.79. LEDCs are often characterized by lower consumption as people have less to spend. this is partly because people in MEDCs have more disposable income. Award [1 max] if response quotes specific data about an ecological footprint.

greater demands are made on water resources. Precise figures are not required. 7 max 98 . over 80 % is in ice caps and glaciers. importing more resources from other countries. renewable technologies but these could potentially have a huge impact on ecological footprints in the future. but some indication of relative amounts is. many societies are now dependent primarily on groundwater which is non-renewable.6 % is groundwater. rest of is made up of lakes. as societies develop water needs increase. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity technology can increase carrying capacity to cope with increased demand for resources as populations grow. improving efficiency of resource use. rivers. as populations grow. to intensify land use/ cope more efficiently with waste. availability of water for drinking. e. technology can be applied to all aspects of resource use e. 0.. reusing resources. (a) describing water budget: [3 max] only 2.g. e. when water supplies fail. recycling resources. explaining why possible source of conflict: [5 max] water resources are now becoming a limiting factor in many societies. reduced by reducing amounts of resources that are used. improving technology in order to increase carrying capacity. mass migration/civil unrest/wars may result.(c) Award [1] for any of the following. transporting waste to other countries to deal with.g. populations will be forced to take drastic steps.g. industry and agriculture needs to be considered. 6 max Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 80. etc. so there is a real incentive to address the issue. the funding to support technological change exists in MEDCs which currently face the biggest problem with their ecological footprints. Award [3 max] for justifying which is most likely to succeed. GM crops for example can be used to increase yields on the same amount of land.6 % is fresh water. up to [3 max].g. reducing population to reduce resources use. the pace of technological change is speeding up which suggests new solutions will be found in the future to current resource problems. many innovations are still in earlier stages e. reducing amount of pollution produced.

may have environmental costs/not be environmentally sustainable. Award [1 max] for any correct reference to Boserup’s theory. 1 99 . and therefore not an option for LEDC. genetically modified plant species. local tube well. as the choice of strategy may imply these. (a) (i) a country consuming resources and assimilating its wastes by using a land area 2.4 times larger than the size of the country. disease-resistant cereals. 5 max description: [3 max] irrigation using pumped groundwater reserves. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 81. fertilizers/pesticides. locally built micro dams.g. hydroponics is a good example of a technological solution. ecocentric involves self-imposed restraint e. high economic outlay. Award [2 max] if ecocentrism is discussed without reference to local application.(b) (c) ecocentrism involves an holistic world view. agribusiness/industrial agriculture. ecocentric involves emphasis on community involvement e. ecocentric involves emphasis on small-scale e. Award [1 max] for any statement which explains what a technocentric strategy might be. mechanization. it also means working with natural processes.g.g. ecocentric involves education e. reuse of bath water. local awareness campaigns. low technology irrigation. evaluation: [3 max] techno solutions may represent the only way to increase yield to meet demand. 6 max Award [4 max] if there is no evaluation. rice with genes to produce more proteins and vitamins. this implies individuals/local groups making changes which affect the whole.g. may include both engineering solutions and biotechnology solutions.g. Features of ecocentrism do not need to be stated explicitly. ecocentric focuses on basic needs of those below subsistence e.

greater – smaller footprint.(ii) (b) (i) level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. use of alternative energy technology. greater – smaller footprint. more transport – larger footprint. heat produced by human activity (industry. greater – larger footprint. methane from rice growing/cattle farming is a greenhouse gas. greater – larger footprint. meat-rich – larger footprint. Accept the converse form of any of the above e. the addition of various atmospheric pollutants from industry may have changed our atmosphere (and as a consequence climate). Answers must specifically identify the link between man and climate for mark to be awarded. urban living) may have changed atmospheric systems (leading to global climate change). per capita consumption of food. greater – smaller footprint. efficiency of agriculture. CO2 from burning fossil fuels is a greenhouse gas. more technology more resources therefore larger footprint. greater – larger footprint. more imported resource. 3 max 1 max 100 . meat/vegetable rich diets. productivity of local biome. a country’s level of technology will influence its footprint. per capita production of carbon waste. size of population. less reliance smaller size. change in our natural environment/albedo by humans including deforestation/agricultural activity/urbanization may have changed climate indirectly. technology can equally reduce the footprint if it improves efficiency of agricultural production/energy use/alternative energy sources/reduces carbon pollution. Atmospheric pollution would not be acceptable however atmospheric pollution caused by industry would gain a mark.g. level of reliance on fossil fuels will influence footprint size. greater reliance – greater size.

 (accuracy in the position  both high points and low points  of points is not essential) annotation e. 3 2 max 1 101 . sunspot activity.g.(ii) Sketch graph should show the following: steady rise over last 100 years. e. natural dynamic variation in the atmospheric system leading to climate change. e. plate tectonics causing mountain building and affecting air flows. UK climate becoming warmer and wetter/Ethiopia becoming hotter and drier. temperature fluctuations over the last 2000 years. volcanic activity leading to changes in atmospheric composition. industrial revolution/marking of little ice age. (iii) (c) (i) changes in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun changing the amount of available incoming radiation thus influencing global climate. changes in the Sun’s radiation output. plate tectonics shift position of land masses. ocean current changes leading to global energy change.g.g.

4 biological area(s) exhibiting a similar climate/weather that supports a distinctive flora and fauna. (a) (b) (i) the number of species and their abundance found within a habitat. warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local natural vegetation and therefore reduce footprint size. temperature and available precipitation.g.(ii) e. 1 (ii) N = total number of organisms within a population. 2 max [13] 82. Simpson’s index would be used to quantify diversity. may require more flood defenses and thus more resources. crop type and livestock are suited to climatic conditions. new climate may require new building styles. thus larger footprint. Accept other reasonable answers of equivalent weight and validity. warmer temperatures may increase productivity of local agriculture and therefore reduce footprint size. rice fields require high levels of precipitation and high light and temperatures. indigenous agriculture is dictated by climate. warmer temperatures may require less heating thus smaller footprint. method must include expression of data analysis.g. 3 max [10] 83. UK: climate change will cause policy change which will change behaviour and influence footprint size. and abundance within species (expressed as number of individuals/ percentage cover).g.g. dealing with changing climate conditions. method must allow for the collection of data on species present. 1 (iii) Candidates may describe a number of possible methods but their design should include the following: method must allow for the collection of data that is scientifically representative and appropriate (e. e. e. No mark scheme available 102 . more flooding. due to increased temperature more energy used for air conditioning thus larger footprint. multiple 1 metre quadrats). arable farming is limited to geographical bands which have sufficient sunshine and temperature levels and moderate amounts of precipitation. 1 (i) (ii) biomes are defined by climatic conditions/amount of available light. which require resources which may increase footprint size.

Ficus/fig trees may establish themselves more easily with increased light/ reduced canopy due to logging. influence: is more vulnerable to unmanaged human activity outside park. influence: is more vulnerable to edge effects. 2 max 2 max 103 . allows research and thus more understanding of threatened species and their protection. encourages support of local communities by making some provision for them. logging processes and transport may aid in dispersal of Ficus/fig trees. 68 331 logged: × 100% = 96%. logging may selectively remove competitors of Ficus/fig trees. (a) (b) (c) reduces direct impact/edge effects of more rigorous human activity in production zone. strict reserve is (proportionally) smaller and so. through ecotourism/education. difference: buffer zone is in direct contact with edge at some points and so. Award [2] if answers include both a difference and an influence on success. production zone is (proportionally) smaller and so.84. raises awareness of conservation issues. Award [1 max] if either one or both values are incorrect but working is shown correctly. raises revenue from ecotourism to support conservation management. less protection for forest species. 345 Award [2] if both correct values are given. may be less effective in raising sufficient revenue/ gaining support from local people. 2 max unlogged: logging likely to remove larger Ficus/fig trees in harvesting host trees. difference: overall shape is more elongated/boundary more reticulated and so. 2 max difference: influence: difference: influence: (i) (ii) 60 × 100 = 88%.

that size of groups is similar in both areas.g.g. they form smaller but more numerous groups in lower density forest.g. they prefer lower tree density. abundance of Black and white colobus is more in logged area/less in unlogged.(d) (e) any appropriate example in which it is shown that many other species within ecosystem depend upon it. Award [0] if no species is identified. it removes nutrients stored in harvested biomass. Kigaraale. 1 max it interferes with the success of other species than the crop species e.e. Be lenient with any strict sense of a “species” i. it limits growth of mature keystone species e.g. 1 max (iii) (f) abundance of six/most species is less in logged area/more in unlogged area. Award [2] if it is shown that more than two groups depend upon it and [1] if it is shown that two other groups depend upon it. 1 max adjacent areas are similar in all other relevant respects. they feed on trees not harvested by loggers.g. “trees” is not acceptable but “pine trees” would be. Karusandara/Dura/Nkongooro.g. 2 max 104 . Award [1] for each valid difference with appropriate named location up to [2 max]. transport/noise/soil compaction/erosion. it causes incidental damage through e. Bigodi/Busiriba. some parishes have very little direct access to park at all/minimal boundary to the park e. Ficus/fig trees. that areas are indeed adjacent (map would suggest that they are at least 10–15 km apart). primates. (i) (ii) (g) 2 (Black and white colobus more abundant in logged area because) less competition from other primates. some parishes may benefit financially from tourist traffic outside park and so not dependent on park resources e. 2 max (while all four parishes given make direct contact with a large production zone in the park) other parishes only in contact with buffer zone/have no access to production zone (where management is less stringent) e. that data was recorded at same season/year.

cause: cannot achieve sustainable provision outside of forest. (i) difference: fewer DGs involved in energy conservation technology. reason: have more international contacts. strategy: offer practical/financial assistance to set up sustainable projects. reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs/more personnel/ resources available. difference: more SOs seeking funding. cause: poverty in the face of great wealth evident in park management/tourists.(h) cause: have traditionally depended upon forest resources for subsistence. Award [1] for any acceptable significant difference and [1] for an appropriate explanation. difference: more DGs forming policy and law. reason: less direct benefit to them possibly than more localized PAs working together/less technical understanding than SOs. 2 max Award [1] for any acceptable cause and [1] for a relevant strategy. strategy: develop methods of preventing animals from entering crops. reason: have more public authority than PAs and SOs. strategy: revenue sharing. cause: damage to crops from park animals. strategy: offer agreements whereby they can obtain certain traditional resources. difference: more DGs monitoring illegal forest use. 2 max 105 . reason: have more technical understanding. difference: more SOs promoting research.

fossil fuels). evidence: many aspects of original model are implemented – figure 2. evidence: incentives such as controlling crop damage/sustainable projects/revenue sharing are in place to encourage support of locals – figure 8. but this is a major hurdle. groundwater). so impressive achievement. discussion: revenue sharing provides very little money. rainforest ecosystem of particular global significance. [25] 85. (e. evidence: some parishes have signed agreements – figure 8.g. study only reports how groups see their own role without any objective assessment. Award [3 max] if no figure numbers are given. discussion: provides good holistic approach to conservation. renewable are natural resources that have a sustainable yield/harvest equal to/less than their natural productivity.g. letters also indicate there are still infringements of restrictions. 3 max 106 . Award [2 max] if no discussion is given. discussion: less than recommended in model. (a) non-renewable are natural resources which cannot be replenished within a timescale of the same order as that at which they are taken from the environment and used (e.g. replenishable are non-living natural resources that depend on the energy of the Sun for their replenishment. discussion: small number of letters/anecdotal/from only three parishes.(j) evidence: strict reserve has been established – figure 2. timber). discussion: only 29 % of population by time of report. discussion: no mention in these reports of this being associated with Kibale specifically. (e. renewable are biotic and depend on biotic processes. whereas replenishable are abiotic and depend on abiotic processes. evidence: many decentralized groups/local parishes do have an environmental agenda – figure 9/figure 10. evidence: letters show awareness/support among local people – figure 7. food crops. 4 max Award [1] for any reasonable evidence derived from resource material and [1] for any appropriate point of discussion.

which has knock-on effects for their consumers (zooplankton)/for food chains/webs. pollutants enhance the rate of destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. excessive use of surface water means that groundwater supplies are not being replenished. Award up to [5 max] for human actions damaging resource and up to [5 max] for possible effects. this has consequences such as increases in skin cancer/increased mutations. and underground storage tanks/landfills/septic tanks/mining run-off. with knock on effects for economy. for groundwater: human actions damaging resource (examples need to be related to groundwater not other water resources): human activity is releasing pollutants so water quality is lost. 8 max 107 . can lead to salt water intrusion in coastal areas. CFCs are found in refrigerants and propellants. e. so a thinning/hole allows more UVB wavelengths through. higher costs of water for industry. e.g. further contaminating supply. knock-on impacts on agriculture. e. ozone depleting substances already released remain active for long periods. possible effects: ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths (270–315 nm) of ultraviolet light from passing through the Earth’s atmosphere.g. ozone/groundwater.g. increase in tensions/conflict over the limited resource. there has been a decline in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere of about 4 % every ten years. possible effects: reduced availability of water resources. over Antarctica. for ozone: human actions damaging resource: human activity releases ozone depleting substances such as CFCs/ halons/NOx. sources of pollution include agricultural products.g. and reduction of plankton populations. excessive abstraction/extraction/groundwater mining means water tables are lowered. damage to plant tissues.(b) Award [1] for a named example of replenishable natural capital. ozone depletion has lead to “holes” in the ozone layer e. as less water is available for irrigation and yields decline.

not just in different countries. human actions can be culturally specific e. some environmental problems are local in nature e. so understanding knock-on effects outside of national boundaries helps governments to be more responsible. Award [2 max] if only strengths or weaknesses are addressed. global perspective stresses the interrelationships between systems so knock-on effects are reduced. evaluation: Award [5 max] strengths: sustainable management means ensuring resources are not degraded/ natural capital is not used up. and so a more local perspective is sometimes appropriate. individual/small-scale community action can be very effective for managing resources sustainably e. 7 max Evaluation needs strengths and weaknesses.g. recycling.g. often local methods have evolved to be more sustainable/appropriate for the local environment. the initial hypothesis was that the biomass modifies the conditions on the planet to make conditions on the planet more hospitable (full homeostasis). it compares the Earth to a living organism in which feedback mechanisms maintain equilibrium. global perspective is useful because many problems have global consequences e. atmospheric composition and ocean salinity.g. point source pollution. and that the earth is a global control system of surface temperature. sometimes problems need international agreements e. so that future generations can continue to use the resource. traditional farming methods. ecosystems are affected by global processes e.(c) description: Award [3 max] the Gaia hypothesis was developed by James Lovelock. global warming. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 108 .g. hydrological cycle/ atmospheric system. weaknesses: but ecosystems can exist at many scales. CITES for trade across boundaries to ensure populations are big enough to sustain the species. understanding that our actions can have an impact on others is good for getting societies to think about impacts on different generations.g.g.

fluctuations can be dramatic.g. generally however per capita resource consumption increases over time. 5 max 4 max 109 . if resources are used more frugally/efficiently then carrying capacity can support a larger population. it can also be exceeded in the short term but not sustainably. this limit can be. (a) (b) as population increases this tends to increase resource consumption. both factors usually operate on populations. winter. carrying capacity tends to limit the total resource consumption. if carrying capacity is exceeded there will be consequences in terms of demand for resources not being met. this statement is suggesting that as well as managing resource use. density-independent factors are of particular importance for r-strategists. density-independent factors are not influenced by changes in population density and so do not lead directly to stability. bush fire). this in turn limits population growth and/or per capita resource consumption. which are necessary to reduce population to a level within the control of density-dependent factors. however they are often responsible for high mortalities (e. carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum number of a species/load that can be sustainably supported by a given environment. thus. in order for resource consumption to be sustainable population growth must remain within the limits of the carrying capacity. seasonal flooding. Award [4 max] if statement is not referred to. exceeded in human populations due to import of resources from other systems. where a change in density leads to inhibition/reversal of that change. populations either have to stop growing or consume less. unless per capita resource consumption is reduced. hence when density-dependent factors do change. i. total resource consumption increases even faster than population. and may be either internal or external. more energy is needed to supply goods/services to more people/ more land is needed to feed these people.86. and is.e. density-dependent factors operate as negative feedback mechanisms leading to stability. societies/ governments need to manage the numbers of people in order to support populations indefinitely.

human activities can be tailored to match and fit in with natural levels of disturbance within ecosystems. Award [5 max] if no examples are mentioned. e. e.(c) a steady-state equilibrium is a common property of most ecosystems. grazing/burning arrests the succession of forest. combination of human activities on reefs through overfishing/ coral bleaching/ pollution have weakened the reefs so that they are less able to cope with natural threats like El Niño events.g. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 110 . succession). successful ecological management involves recognizing how much disturbance an ecosystem can cope with. tropical deforestation on a grand scale does not allow regeneration to take place.g. e. e. human activities can interrupt succession so that the ultimate equilibrium. 9 max Award [1] for any point of equal weight and validity about the importance of understanding equilibrium and [1] for any example of an ecosystem used to show how equilibrium has been upset by human activities. is not reached (plagioclimax).g.g.g. coral reefs coping with storm damage/grassland ecosystems coping with bushfires/tropical rainforest coping with loss of big trees due to storms.g.g. it may leave a system more vulnerable to natural disturbance. and that while human activity may not directly cause loss of equilibrium. equilibrium of aquatic ecosystems can be upset by the addition of excessive nutrients/through eutrophication. e. ecosystems have a tendency to return to their original equilibrium following natural disturbance/most ecosystems are able to cope with natural changes to their equilibrium. where the nutrient balance becomes upset. some ecosystems undergo long-term changes to their equilibrium while retaining integrity to the system (e. human activities can be the source of high levels of disturbance and thus ecosystems are pushed beyond a point of no return/ equilibrium is irreversibly changed. e. agroforestry/small-scale shifting cultivation is a method of farming which mimics natural processes so that ecosystems can regenerate/equilibrium can be restored. the climatic climax.

plentiful supply at present/cheaper than burning coal or oil. environmental systems increase their order so go against the law for a short time. country wishes to increase diversity of energy sources. Do not credit answers which just state the second law without relating it to environmental systems. Accept any reasonable advantages or disadvantages. near sea for wave.87. HEP. Award [1 max] for natural gas/wind. (a) Energy source Advantage Disadvantage natural gas. wind. bigger car/having a fridge. Credit advantages and disadvantages for an incorrect source to avoid error carried forward.g. Award [1] for each pair of correct responses of advantages and/or disadvantages. people are selfish/inertia/tragedy of the commons.g. people desire a better lifestyle which is equated with wanting more e. (a) (i) (ii) Sustainable yield: rate of increase is natural capital/resource that can be exploited/taken/harvested without depleting the original stock. OWTTE. only available when wind blows/not always near population centres. (b) (c) (d) inertia/satisfied with existing system. burning releases carbon dioxide/non-renewable.g. poor design of equipment/buildings e. Do not credit “cheap” with no qualifier. renewable resource/once turbines built it is cheap. country does not have that resource e. some resources not continuously available. Both correct values required for [1]. standby on electrical equipment/phantom loads. 3 max 2 max 2 max 1 max [8] 88. High: 106 tonnes and low: 106 tonnes (units required). education. (do not accept “don’t know better”) environmental systems increase their disorder/all energy ends up as heat. Accept other reasonable responses. pressure to meet quotas for renewable energy. 1 1 111 .

the share of global population is decreasing because the rate of increase is much higher in LEDCs.g.(iii) (iv) (b) (c)  48  24   100  = 100% difference  24   low intensity. ignorance of how “in danger” a stock is. oceans are huge/vast areas. Aquatic: most food from higher trophic levels/bigger fish/higher up food chain so much energy has been lost/energy conversions more efficient as fewer warm-blooded animals which use most energy to keep body temperature stable/more efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy). 1 1 Award [1] for diagram which shows contracting population and large numbers of older people. (a) (b) (c) Crude death rate: number of deaths per thousand individuals in a population per year. international boundaries make legislation difficult. if starving will break the law to catch food/hard for law-keepers to monitor catch. short-term gain is more important than longer-term growth of the industry. Accept other reasonable responses. 112 . 2 2 max Terrestrial: most food harvested from lower trophic levels/as crops/plants/ herbivores/ cattle etc. (d) 1 fish farming/change fishing grounds/eat alternative food sources/ new technologies to ensure immature fish not caught/less wastage/ research into alternative fish species/monitoring population numbers carefully to check stocks/research in GM fish (suitable for aquaculture). miscalculation of how many are available. Accept other reasonable responses. because more fish are left in the sea to breed and increase stocks/ the trend in low intensity is to have larger catch in year 4 compared with year 4 in high intensity. e. 2 1 [10] 89. Do not credit reasons why birth rates are decreasing. so less heat/respiratory losses/more efficient fixation of solar energy as does not have to get through water first/ less efficient use of land area (efficiency in terms of space rather than energy).

age ranges on y axis. no longer care about saving energy/resources/consume the same as middle-aged adults whereas children consume less. (b) it has no economic value/not easy to quantify. need to consider aesthetic or intrinsic value which is subjective.F e m a le A g e ra n g e M a le (d) (e) P o p u la tio n Award [1] for labels – male. Natural capital: natural resources that can produce goods and services/the natural stock/storage of a resource. 1 smaller footprint because: older people eat less/go out less/fly less/ travel less. value of resource usually measured in economic terms. (a) Natural income: yield/output that can be used by people without diminishing the capital/ same as sustainable yield. 2 max [7] 90. views can be diverse and hard to assess. 2 2 max 113 . Accept other reasonable responses. larger footprint because: older people have more leisure time so fly/have more holidays/live in larger houses. population size on x axis. are more aware of environmental impacts so use less energy. female. 2 (total fertility is) the (average) number of children per woman in her lifetime/her reproductive years.

it is dark for 4 months of the year. total precipitation lower in 1991–2004. snow cover prevents light reaching plants for part of year. 3 max Accept any other reasonable suggestion. anomalously low precipitation in October 1991–2004. No mark scheme available 92. drier/lower precipitation in the summer/June to August in both periods. especially in winter months/November to April. (i) 1 2 max warmer in summer/June to September in both periods. smaller temperature ranges in 1991–2004. temperature is low due to low intensity of solar insolation. chimneys/car parks may be built and are visual pollutants. precipitation is lowest in months when light levels are highest. 2 max [6] 91. infertile soil due to low temperatures/acidity/waterlogging/low nutrient turnover. Accept any other reasonable suggestion. (ii) water/light/temperature is limiting. 1 114 . precipitation rates are low. temperature above freezing/warmer earlier in 1991–2004. global warming changing vegetation and glaciers melting. precipitation lower in every month in 1991–2004. Award [2 max] if either precipitation or air temperature are not mentioned.(c) by acid deposition which kills conifers. (a) (b) (i) tundra. Accept converse answer in each case but do not credit both. by tropospheric ozone damaging forests. atmospheric particulates obscure the view. photochemical smog obscures the view. (ii) climate change/global warming/natural variation/increased combustion of fossil fuels. water is frozen for most of year in permafrost. total precipitation is more evenly distributed in 1991–2004. air pollution can cause breathing difficulties/produce bad smell which spoils experience of people at viewpoint. temperatures consistently higher in 1991–2004.

Svalbard reindeer: (solar insolation) → small arctic plants → reindeer . habitat covers a smaller land area. positive feedback amplifies/increases change/leads to (exponential) deviation away from an equilibrium. Do not credit food chain for mainland reindeer if warble flies are missing. Accept other valid reasons. whereas negative feedback damps down/ neutralizes/counteracts any deviation away from an equilibrium. it has fewer trophic levels/interrelationships are simpler/ chain not web. Svalbard’s food chain is less stable because. adaptation to local conditions/no predators so no need for long legs/natural selection. OTTWE 2 max w o lf w a rb le fly 2 max 1 115 .(c) (i) (ii) geographical isolation/no interbreeding with mainland reindeer. Award [1 max]. low nutrient value of food. Do not award mark for stating wild reindeer food chain is less stable. 2 max Do not award marks if arrows are drawn onto the table in the incorrect direction. smaller populations are more likely to crash. human impact on Svalbard may destabilize that food chain. Accept any other reasonable suggestion. Mainland reindeer: (solar insolation) → reindeer moss/lichen → wild reindeer (iii) (d) (i) Award [1 max]. no predators to manage/control Svalbard reindeer population.

dust particles washed out of atmosphere by extra precipitation. maintaining genetic diversity of food crops is vital for breeding new varieties to cope with disease/adverse conditions. so frozen soil thaws. so atmospheric dust/precipitation levels return to normal. as permafrost melts. coal dust deposited on snow or ice reduces albedo/reflection of solar energy/increases solar energy absorbed so ice and snow melt. Accept any other valid example. few natural hazards. higher temperatures melt permafrost. jobs/tourism revenue. 1 116 .g. 2 max latitude: 76° (accept 75°–77°) – 81° (accept 80°–82°) North/N. the species and/or genetic diversity of wild plants may be culturally and aesthetically significant (and therefore worth preserving). some transgenic crop varieties have a “terminator” gene. wild plants are often used for developing new drugs/providing genes to give disease resistance/ability to withstand adverse conditions to other species. albedo is further reduced. with no snow cover. so the genetic diversity they provided for development of new varieties is lost.(ii) Positive feedback: [2 max] methane gas released from mining increases global warming/ greenhouse effect. many older varieties of food crops are no longer grown. ecosystems may become unstable if key species disappear/ diversity is reduced. Do not accept answers which relate to general advantages of having a seed vault or benefits to Svalbard e. releasing more methane so temperature increases further. low running costs/little electricity used. so cannot produce viable seed for farmers to plant the following season. methane gas is released so temperatures increase further. little chance of civil unrest/little human disturbance. Negative feedback: [2 max] dust particles in the atmosphere act as condensation nuclei leading to more precipitation. (e) (i) (ii) (f) (i) very cold/permafrost/frozen. 4 max 2 max many rare/endangered wild plants are threatened with extinction by human activity/natural hazards.

increasing demand for resources due to population growth. this has had knock-on effects on lake species/water supplies for lake communities/fishing industries/local climate. (a) (b) use of global resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration. which has shrunk in size and been degraded by unsustainable use of water resources. water has become contaminated with pesticide run-off and salt due to evaporation and reduced freshwater supplies. improved technology is now available for coping with difficult Arctic weather and subsea conditions. Answers must relate to an increasing trend. recently discovered new reserves in the area. insufficient water reached the Aral causing it to shrink to a third of its original size. increased demand for oil and gas encourages further exploitation in new areas. increasing demand for resources to sustain increased expectations of higher standards of living. the two rivers (Syr Darya and Amu Darya) which input water into the Aral Sea had been diverted to irrigate cotton fields upstream in Uzbekistan. 2 max [25] 93. Award [1] for naming an appropriate case study.(ii) exploitation of more inaccessible resources becomes economically more viable as reserves diminish/prices rise. hence. access becomes easier as ice thins/areas become ice free for more of the year. demands on water resources are increasing due to population increase/ increasing demands by agriculture/industry. Examples may demonstrate sustainable or unsustainable use. therefore water resources need to be managed to ensure demand does not exceed supply. yet the capacity of fresh water stores to replenish themselves is not unlimited. and minimizes damage to the environment. an example where this has not happened is the Aral Sea (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). 2 6 max 117 . countries want their own oil and gas supply for strategic reasons. river water has been harvested for irrigation and used at a rate greater than it can be replenished by fresh water.

in industrial capitalism economic growth (and the consumption patterns that sustain growth) can be idealized/worshipped in place of the spiritual dimension of an ecosystem. Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to compare the societies. but increasingly it is being argued that ecosystems should be seen as natural capital which can yield an income if exploited sustainably. the Dogon operate a mixed farming system with cultivation of millet and tobacco.(c) e.g.g. Award [1] for stating two societies which demonstrate significant differences. just as in the Dogon system.g. the massive deforestation of ancient forests in Europe for fuel and building materials. building materials. 10 max Award [5 max] if no attempt is made to relate the value system to how the resources are used. subsistence depends on harnessing the power of the bush through work. respect is an essential part of the relationship between the Dogon and their environment. ecosystems are seen as economic resources which can be exploited through work in order to develop economies/ meet needs. for example for fishing catches. trees are particularly respected. but the scale and technological power of these systems means that in the past this has led to exploitation of resources at unsustainable rates e. Award [5 max] for each society. but the bush is also the home of potentially vindictive spirits. the Dogon people in West Africa and industrial capitalism of Western Europe. to preserve the natural capital. the ecosystem (bushland) surrounding their settlement is seen as the source of all the resources (food. wood is not wasted and wooden objects are left to deteriorate once no longer useful. and so quotas are set.g. fuel and medicine) that they need. e. Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 118 . e. livestock herding and hunter gathering.

e. Award [2 max].g. 6 max 119 . and why species at the top of the pyramid may be more vulnerable to e.g. e. so the ban allows natural balance to be restored. DDT is not biodegradable and accumulates in the tissues of living organisms (bioaccumulation) damaging or even eliminating populations. Advantages of banning DDT: [3 max] environmental side-effects of DDT have been avoided by banning its use. and since the ban populations of mosquitoes have increased. (b) 4 max Disadvantages of banning DDT: [3 max] DDT effectively killed malarial mosquitoes. malaria is a disease to which children are particularly vulnerable and has huge socio-economic implications. 90% of all malaria cases are in Africa. a continent least able to deal with the socio-economic consequences of the disease. pyramid structure of ecosystems means that non-biodegradable toxins can become concentrated in upper levels.g.94. (a) Award [2 max]. pyramid of biomass represents the standing stock of each trophic level measured in units such as grams of biomass or energy per sq m. incidence of malaria has increased as a result. target insects can develop resistance. but DDT also kills other insects which may be natural predators of the mosquitoes. because DDT becomes more concentrated along food chains (bioconcentration) top carnivores tend to be most affected and these may play a very significant role in maintaining balance of whole ecosystem. (units required) pyramid of numbers represents the number of individuals in each trophic level within a food chain. hunting. it also demonstrates why there is a limit to the number of trophic levels that can be supported.

but choice of fertilizer might reflect their values e. 8 max Award credit for any other answers of equivalent validity. whereas technocentric might use chemical fertilizers. use of GM/Green Revolution crops e. technocentrics might favour high tech solutions such as GM crops whereas ecocentrics might be concerned about the ethical issues of GM. beans. avoiding over-intensive farming by allowing fields fallow/rest periods.(c) Methods for improving productivity of soil: improving fertility of the soil with (organic fertilizers/manure/chemical) fertilizers. ecocentrics often express a lack of faith in large-scale technology so might oppose strategies used by agribusiness e. through removal of hedgerows. higher yielding varieties of rice.g. Award [6 max] if no contrast is made between ecocentric and technocentric farmers. Contrasting approaches of ecocentric and technocentric farmers: both ecocentric and technocentric farmers might apply fertilizers. reducing losses due to pests/disease with chemical treatments.g.g. avoiding depletion of nutrients by rotating crops. improving yields through irrigation. Allocation of marks can be split flexibly for part (c).g. relevance and substance. ecocentric using manure (to work with natural processes). Expression of ideas [2 max] [20] 120 .g. avoiding over-compaction of soil through use of appropriate/low impact technology. reducing wastage by increasing field size e. improving nitrogen fixation by planting leguminous crops e. high-tech irrigation systems. reducing loss of nutrients due to soil erosion by terracing fields. reducing loss of nutrients/topsoil due to wind erosion by planting shelter belts.

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