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# Fundqmcnt

## The importance of achieving a clea-runderstanding of engineedng fun_

damentals should not be underestimated. As a desiEn anal.vstwhJ can_
nol wairro gel sErredwi|JrFEA.you mighr 6nd this chaprerto be a lilrle
heagr on theory. If so, do not get bogged down: you can proceed to
later chapten and reler to this one as necessary.
ln fact, you will find
many references to specilic sections in this chapter throughout the rest
of the book. You should alwaystake the time to undentand the concepts being discussed.In the end, this chapter will likely become a verv
powerfirlengineeringcompanion in lour analysischallenges.

FirstPrinciples
BodyUnderExternolLooding
When performing engineering analpis, you are viftually alr^ra),sconcemed with how a body will behaveunder extemal loading. Newton,s

28

Chopter 2t Fundomentats
Iaws,or the laws that will most generally govem this behaior, are listed
below.
.

## FirstLau: Abody lrill remain at rest or will continue its straight

line motion with constant velocity if there is no unbalanced
force acting on it.

## Suund Lrtu:'['he acceleration of a body will be proportional to

the resultant of all forces acting on it and in the direction of the
resultant.

Thi.rd.Lau: Acton and reaction forces between interacting bodies will be equal in magnitude, collinear, and opposite in direction.

The most important engineering equation arising from these laws follows:
8q.2.1 r= N
where -Fis the resultant force vctor, rz is the massof the body under
consideratron, and a is its acceleration vector.
Becauseacceleration is the time deri\,?tive of rclocity (do/dt),
d, G =
^
nE,constrtutes the kneu momtnturn\/ectorof a body, the above equation
can also be wntten a5follovls,
ttq.z.z

F = 4 i= c

## In other words, Newon's second law may also be interpreted as stating

that the time rate of a body's change of momenhrm will be proportional to the resultant force acting on it and in the salne direction.

Fig.2.1.Genenlfteebody
di agir8m (a). Resultant forces
anclmonents (b), Second

*q;;Q
(a)

(b)

G)

29

Fittt Prin.iples

The most useful tool for understanding and implementing the loads
and constmints, or boLndaryconditionsthat govern a body s beha\ior, is
the Fee boq d.iagram.'fbe general free bod,""diagram above (a) reprcsents lhe body in space removed from its operating s,r'steltl.Ali externally applied loads and reaction forces are represented with vectoft on
the body. If the body isir, equililirium,all theseforce vectors mus! add up
co zero, both in magnitude and direction.
In the most general sense,externally applied loading on a lhree-dimensional gid body cannot only alter iLstEnslation, but its rotation as well.
Refeming to resultant forces and moments (b) anct the second la\$'
equivalent (c) in Fig. 2.1, the conesponding spatial equalions of
motion for a rigid body follow:

Eqs.2.3 lr = o

La= n
where IF and !M are the force and mornent vector sums, respectively,
of all externally applied loading, including reactions, and H is the d't?gr.,Idr mommtum vector of the body. Both tM and H must be calcdated
about the same point on the body.
Iig. 2.1 sho\,'Efree body motion where this point corresponds to G the
center of gravrty ofthe body. For constrained motion, it corresponds to
q the fixed point about which the body rotales. In Eqs. 2.3, the time
deritive of H is a complex quantif to deal rith mathematically, but
sumce it to sal that H is a function of both the angular velocity and
angular acceleration of the body. Its inertia component is not the mass
of the body but its mass Mnart of inaria rc"ror (I), which is a 3 x 3
massprotlucts af inzrmatrix comprised of massmomenlsofineftia (Iii),
^nd
,ia (1i), derived with respect to the body coordinale a-xes.These quantities describe how the mass of a rigid body is distributed with respect to
the chosen a-..es.The general equations for these quantities follow:

## 2.1 r,,=I(l +f)dtu

Eqs.
t tj=
)'tah

where ?,J, and & are any combination of the three coordinaLe a.\es cho-

Choprer2t Fundo,mono,lt

30

## Fig. 2.2. lJniaxialsqdngand

damper syden (a). Planar
body notion (b).

,.,
'-

V{E-m--^-^

(b)

## Constraining the body to uniaxial motion and allowing for an extemal

-<lamperin the system,as shoun in fig 2'2(a), Eq 21
spring and
expands to the following:
Eq.2.5

r,= ni+'t+k'

with i denoting the spring stiftress, t t}Ie damPer coemcint' and Ir' a
t aod t the b;y's resultant apPlied force, Position, velocity, and accel_
emtion along the x axis.
Constrainingthe body to pla ar motion [seeFig 2'2(b)], Eqs 23simpliry to fie fouo\$,ingexPression.
>F = tuc
luo=toa
In Ore above equahon, ac is the vectonal acceleration of the center of
the
raviw (c.s.) oi tfr. Uoay. EMc is rhe sum of all momenis about'
axis
an
i"ro.'ooini. l. i" *t. massmoment oI inertia ot the body about
," tft! phne of motion through the ( g. and d is dre bodv's
",t.-if accelerauon.
angular
Barring dyramic anal)ses,FEA will alwaysdeal with bodies in equilib'
rium. 6y deEnition, a body in such a state must have zero acceleration'
so that Ore result of all extemally appljed forces must be zero This tyPe
of anatsis is called statia Although *fs condition sounds very limiting,
Eq.2'6

3l

## consider that many times a well-understood dynamic slstem may be

effectively reduced to a quasi-static state at an instance of interest by
applying a "freeze-frame" acceleration force, ma, to the body as an
external fbrce.
Rigid boq mation implies movement of a bodv in space with liftle or no
deflection, bending, or, more generalll, no mechanical stnin. Any condidon which creates a nonstaaic equilibrium regardlessof the strain levels is a c e ol rigid body motion as well. Pivoting fteely about an axis is
considered rigid body motior. Boundary conditions in an FEA model
must remove all possibility of rigid body motion unless a specfic
d!.nami( \olurion is requerred,,rhichcan resolvenonsraLicequilibrium.
Rigid bodv motion is represented in a modal analysisby a natural fte-

AreoMomenls
of Inertiq
There are many g?es ofapplied loadsthar causea continuouslydistributed force over an area.In thesecares,it is often necessary
to calculate
the resultantmoment causedby this force about an a_riseither on or
normal to the plane of fhe area. This is known as t}:,eava monentof iner,
ti r and is the soluiion to ttle inte|.T^l l@istane)2d(area).
For example,Iig. 2.3(a) showsa submergedvertical wall subiecrto a
disrribuLed
pres\urerp, rhari. propordonalro r]ledep\$ rl'b;lon rJre
horizontal surface line. The total moment experiencedbv the wall
abourrhesurfa.eline is ,l)':d,t.wheref is Lheconstanr
o[proporrionaf
ity. In dre samemanner, as will be discussedlater in this chapter,an
cl/.ri( beamunder pure bendrngIFig.2.J{brl wittderetopin is cro.s
secaiona linear distribution of normal force intensif/ (or stress,o) that
is p.opoftional to the verticaldistance(1), from a neuoal axis.Hence,
rhe rolalmomenron rhi' cros.serLionrvillonte againbe,{ly1d,r.
I finaj
example concernsan elasticbar under torsion lsee lig. 2.3(c)1.This
torsionalmoment lvill causea distribution of tangentialshearstressr,
that is proportional to the radial distance(r), ftom the shaftcenter.In
this case,chetotal moment is AjlZA.

32

## Fig. 2.3.subneryed wall (a)'

Bean in purcbonding(b)
Barin Pure totsion(c)

"g'O

Deftnitions
ano
Fig.2.4. Rectangalar
ol inertia@).
polarmoments
Parallelexistheorcm(b)

o)
is known as ihe nctatgulat
The 6rst ti{o examPlesin Fig 2 3 utitize whal
Fig
24(a) These are area
in
a sectilon,illustrated
.f i"".,ij
stttem
"t
"r"-."o
.f i"".,lo .lout a rectangular or Cart'Ji47'coordidate
il.-."tt
following
the
of inte-rest, and are given by
;;;.-;;.;i;"
"ection
Lq.z./

t , = lt . A
Ir= l''dA

## use of a p'oht moment of

On rhe other hand, the last examPlemakes
to thi plane of the section' Taken about
*i"
i.J.
"ormal
"i."iof the
- samerectangular coordinate s)Etem'
the odqin

33

## Eq.2.8 t"= Jlat

It is useful to note that,becarse 12 + f - f,
Eq.2.9 t,- I,+1,
Expressionsfor the rectangular and polar momeots of inertia for a section will ofteu be knosm about a set of axes i., ,, with the oriSin at C,
the cenaoid of the section. To express these ilert'a terms about any set
of panllel axes n, ,, as in Fi8. 2.4(b), the pamlw axb thawn Eivesie to
the following equationsi
F4-2.10

If

Eq. 2.11

Iq+ A d

J, = J",+ At

where the subscript , dcDotes dle terfirs about the centroidal axes.
when a geometrically complex section can be divided into a number of
simple ones, it is pocsible to obtain a resulting fotrlrorir, moment of inertia. This is done by adding the individual cenEoidal moments of inertia
together with a parallel axjs dreorem correction for each of the simple
sec0onsasfollows:
F4. 2-12

I, = lt",*2e,a,2

Ir= >4,+>^d:

8 2 . 1 3 r .= > tc.+ t^ t
If dre body of interest has a section that is completely asymrnetric, or
tlte cooidinate axes chosn are placed in zuch a way that the body is
a.syrnmetricwith respect to dis coordinate qtstem, a product of inerha
resuls. This is expressedby thc next equation.
F4. 2.14

1,, = IrydA

Note tlEt as soon as one of the axesbecom\$ a st'nmetry axis, thfu inertia term becomes zero.
Using the product ofinertia, it i3 po\$ible to mathemadcally rotate a set
of axcs about a poittt and compute new moment of inertia terms as
functio\$ ofboth the initial idertia terms and the anqle of roadon. The

Chcpter 2, Fu ndd.nentot 5

34

it is possible solvefor
angle is the only variablein the equations'so
ma-rlmum
of-to
ii." J,l."l anqlc rcU (hat give" the a-re"an orienauon
expressron
and minimumlnerda.a" describedin lhe follohlng
2t"..
Eq.2.15 tn2.:L= r-:t_r
argle ilefines the axis
Eq. 2.15 ields two angles that differ by tr/2 One
is the minimum
oithe ma"imr,m moment of inerga, and the other
innt-ia Norc
axe-s-ol
it i." *. .".'.^g"l"r a-(esare called \$e pnn'ipal
side ol Lq z l) rs zero'
rhat if a cbo.en a-xisis a sFnme(n axis the righ(
be ze(o or tt z' tnt\
and the , orrespondingangle ol rolaoon musl
atts'
of uh;ch is a
n"an" *"t ;J a ia of axi is chosm,at l&'st on'
'mmeh)
thesemlltt bePinciqaLa,es'
the principal moments ot
For an arbitrary set of axes' the magnitudes of
inertra are as follows.

aq.z.tar..,.^,^=\$tl
( an simPlvu(ilize
lt is useful Io note thar manv CAD and FEA PackiEes
ol comPlex
propenies
a sketchedse(tion Lo calculale cros*serdonal
rhesr
iddiLron
a r'rserdefinedcoordinate s)slem ln
g".*;;
"u.*
hdve an exlen'ive librarv of ProPerlieslorundard
iackage, uruallu
shapes.

ondStrqin
Stress
Ir is sumrisinghow many engrneersengagein

srressanel\'iswidrout

swuctu'-ar
ro-denne
aLre
beine
""""
has many fac"I1""J1ff:,#i;::.il:,il;
solution
{
FE
in
an
sousirt
at hand requires adrance
q*antity for the

Problem
;;".;;;;;:"*t
oPlions \4an) rexts inrludingmo'r i ollege
*."i.an.
"f 'f'. "i"ilable
deuri rl vou lrsn to
mechaniis bools. will i over dris malerial in more
if vou arelo
pu'..* i,. Vot .un n."er Inor' too much aboulrhesetopics
irtilizefinireelementanalFisin )our career'

35

## St'r? s c,nd Sfig,in

WhatIs Stress?
When a body is subjected to an applied load, a stress state is caused
inside the body. The sEess can be described as dre intemal force
exerted by either of any two adjacent sections of the body upon the
other, across an imaginarl plane of separation. When the forces are
parallel to this plane, the stressis called .rfiearstrert(1). When the forces
are [ormal to it, the stressis called zornNa,strerJ(o ).
Subdividing the body into many imaginary stress elements is usefirl at
ftis point (see Fig. 2.5). For the body to be in static equilibrium, both
shear and normal stressesmust act on each one of these elementl in
such a way as to place it in static equfibrium. If *re normal stress is
directed toward the element on which it acts,it is called .onprerdu stress
and, by convenion, is [egative in iElue. If it is directed awayfrom that
elemnt, it is called ,mtirrstress and j5 positive. All of dresestressesresult
fiom the cohesivenature of the body's materia.l;if the body came apart
with no resfutanceunder applied loading, it would experience no stress.

Fig.2.5. Generalstess
elements In equilibrium,

1'

## A! seen in Fig. 2.5, %rious subscript! are employed to denote special

chdacteristics of thse stress quantities. For example, t'' denotes a
shear stressparallel to the y axis, on an element f,acellonnal to the x
axis, and o, is a normal stressacting along the y axis on a iace normal
to it. Note that for staticequilibrium, 19 = t ,,arz=az!,
^nd,LB=ts.

Chapter 2t Fvndomentak

36

Principal Stresses

Tt'J.;ifr
;':T;::
{iTfi;:
*r::l ;:*;ru:::':,iJ;::'J:'

*+Ji:;"','."Jil#\$';,:1pi+*;t,"-4
f:!#l: .i
(o/.) ml'
referred to as the ma-\imum^

f'T,n::"::::':l''.1:'i
'":lxi:i*::,,*.1t,'3;;;i;pfi
I

onrv'

whenoneoftheprin,]rp"r
Y""* I liii;ihi.,Ii:i*1:1#;\$i:::

;:,::iT;f."liIff
itttr:{::::.1i::t*Htn.ii*i**
ire in *rai praneald idenucalon any.p:
Lothat plane,althougbsrain usualtl ls

::l#ffi
,\$;i":iJ
::#,rl:s#iltrf
l.*:i'.'#'ff
be ignored

## zero' the condioon is known as

When two of dre principal stressesare
uniaxjal suess.

Fig.2.6.GeneatPtane
Oi e ntation af PtinciPal
stess fO. Onantatiot

(a)

(b)

(c)

iffi lixf'fl\$
H*tr,"\$"'&'iT.1i:J:::1x,,'ilS.llilll;f
the follolving quadratrc equatron'

it

i1
,t
lt

{.

8q.2.17 ct,r=s-]:?+

37

ond Snoh
',''tt

The soludon of this equation lsee Fig. 2.6(b)] alsumes that you have
accds to the local normal (o! oJ and shear (TJ stressdata. Note dra[
the angle be[weenrle principal stressorientaion and the measured
stressstate is denoted b'yS.
For the same biaxial condition, there is an additional element orientation of interest for which dre shear stressesare a maraimum, although
dre corespondrng lrormal stressesate not zero (see c in previous illug
tration). This odentation i! 45' alvayfrom the orientation of principal
stress,and iE stressstate is given by the next two equations.

t;-:

+\,,

6:+ 6,

fu. 2.19 a = z

## In a gencnl ,riaxia, cas,the calculation of the three princrpal stresses

entails finding the roots of the following third order equation:
Eq,2.20 ct + t raz+ Ira- t, =o
where
Eq,2,21 It z or+oy+o!
12' ctc t + c tc.+6.6t- 12u't2n- 12u
IJ = a,araz+27D1f6- o;?r- orlu - o,"'n
Ip Ig and \$ate called stressirwarianls. Ib or the first inva.riant, is interual hydrostatic pressure. This lue is important in crack and fracture
anatjais.
In this general triaxial case,the maximum shear stressis given in tenns
of the maximum and minimurD principal stressesas follows.
8q.2.22

\-

=41;43

## Chep|d,. 2t Fvndarrlrlt talc

38

rl

_\

x
'J

(r)
ptanestess(a)andfiiaxialstess(b)'
Fig.2.7. Mohlsclrcledla{en for
introduced above may b readily
All elemental stress stale exPressions
very
with the use of Mo hr'scircb diagram'fhis
i".iJ
-J-..pr"..nted

;;;.;;p;i.^r,".*.91'-*="lT:18'J"t;l;5litri#.':l;
case
dition (a), and the general tfla\$al

#il?il

;;f;il

## textbook for a more comPlete

Foilrat. nefer to a mechanics of materials
desctiption.

Slrorn

,1_,

ffi-rr-

llrll*
-1-,i
i
ltilt

6oD

li

il I

Ftg.2.8.Defomatlonof a
unilom barunderunla,Ja|

ofan elemen!
Asdepictedin Fig.2 8, the changeitr size
is
*,rt *.p*, to its original size knownas r.nrl
i"'iiiJt
.l"o1" (e) This quantitv is related.o the
:;;;;;iy
ot tota| strain(6) in a bar of lengxh I
;;;'"I;;;il"

## nq.z.zt " =ti

shear' dre change
For a stresselcment subjected to Pure
(1)'
*gr. to- 9b' is know! as stuat stoit
.:ri"o
"ag"

39

Stressand Stuoin

## There are two inldnsic elastic properties that enable a material to

regain irs original dimensional shape after an aPplied load has been
removed. The properties are kno\$.n as the m^teial's modulusoJelasticit)
modulus(E), and modulusof i\$tlil1 ( q. According to Hooke's
or Ya1lng's
Iaw,stressin a materialrvill be linearly proPortionalto strainwithin certain limits. Although not all materialsthat regain their original shape
obey Hooke's law, the materialsthat do are consideredelasticand are
governed by the following relations.

E q .2 .2 1
A uniformly distributed stresstakesPlacein the normal, cross-sectional
area A awayfrom the ends of a bar under a unia-\ial loading 4 and it is
calculated based on the following equation.
Eq.2.25 6 = !
In this case,making use of Eq. 2.23,the total elongationof the bar will
reduce to the next equation.

Eq.2.26 6, = +

..
::=

.-j

:.-.

## In the samebar, under similar unia-xialloading, within the deformation

region governedby Hooke's law, there will exist an additional lateral
deformation (6a) which will cause a lateml stmin PrcPortional to the
a\ial strain and grven by Poisson'sratio

Eq.2.27 | - ;
Note the negative sign, which indrcates "narrowing" of the bar under
Len.ionand -bulging'of rhebar underi ompres'ion.
It tums out that dle three elastic constants mentioned aboveare related
by the following equation.
Eq.2.28 E = 2G(r+r)

Principal Snain
The strainsthat occur in the direction of princiPalsressesar known as
principal strains.Note t)tat all shear strains will be zero for this element
orientatron.Hence, if you were to expeimentally obtain the p.incipal

Chdp.fP 2t Fundomen'd]ls

40

## could be related to the Principal

stmins in the location of a body' they
three t)?es
rable 2'1 showsthese relations for the
iii"."""
states.
of stress",iit"i0.,",.

## vatuesto Nincipal stess

Tabte2.1' Convefting Pdncipatstraln

E (a1+ vez)

## "'=1tlE (?+ tr)

E ,(1-' ) + vE (% + % l

- --;-;-;T-

E 211-v)+ rE tr + r)
a,= --;-2" ^,
El(1- v) + vE(l+ 2)

o, = _=__if,l]-

FundomentolSfressSfofes

Y;,'.',"i
ffiT.:fJji,#Ti:"T#l\$
:ffirydi"i:#
'ii:.L,'J:'il:[.ffi
*'i'"ltr'.*;';;;;,^1'LJ'1L"'r".'

il*i*#:*":;*::'**q;g;ni.d#
ol tre tox
Dletenessand reference, each

fiJ.;..r*n

FEAsoludon
.upa*'of itscoresPondingri-preienotive

Slrcss in Flexure
Fig. 2.9. FEAof a

4l

Stressdnd Srr(,i|'

Fig.2.10.Stmight

Neufal Aas

Sr6s Field

Assume a matedal thal is both isotropic and homogeneous, such that its
properties are di.ection independent and do not change throughout its
exoanse (seeFigs. 2.9 and 2.10) Assume as well that this material obeys
Hooke's law. Nirr', consider an initially straight beam of constant cross_
section, which is made up of this matedal and is subjected to a pute
bending moment (M.If ils crosssectionsremain planar and either one
of the siction's principal ares coincides with the plane ofbending, the
normal stressesdeveloped follow

nq.z .z e c = - \ !
In Eq. 2.29, l denotes the area moment of inertia of the beam's cross
section about its transverse a-{is, and ) is the normal distance away from
.J1e neutral axk il tr'e plane of bending. The neuffal ais is defrned bI
the intenection of the plane ofbending with the longitudinal surface of
zero {iber sress, or neutral surJacz.-lhe localion of the neutral surface
may be calculated by {inding the horizontzl crosssectional line about
\$'hich the area moments are equal.
Note that the sign notation of Eq. 2 29 follows the use of a right-hand
coordinate slttem. It fotlows that this flexural stress will be a ma'{imum
at )'M = ., \$here dle sign of c will golern the direction of the stressper
this equation.
For certain materials, it is useful to measure a fbxutuI, or bendingmodu'
lui (t d using the following equatron:
Eq.2.J0

EBR=

Chdplff 2t Fundam.ntdlt

42

## the dformed neutral a)ds lor

where R is the mdrus of cur ture of
sated in the de\eloPmenio[
* of LheassumPtions
ili"n"tt *"i-t*
etasdcmodulii areequal
n"*"."r
io. i.iIJ.
"nd
RaJi.l Aris

Cdrrcidal A-\$

## Ftg. 2,11. Curvedbeam in flexue

l
is originallv curvedasseenin Fig 2 l '
lf the beamunder consideradon
sec*re
of
axis
t" longer located by the cenuoidal
*tt
iil'".tili
(P)'
former can be
the
and
;" " *paraied by a dist'n'e
;;:il;
by thefol(
-t .*s radiusofcu'uarurc tJ ascalcuta*d
i."J"iiyl

"""-,r
lowingequanon:

fu2.31 ,^=4
J;

## area of t}re beam' 8q 2 29 &en

where A is the usual cross{ectional
becomes the following equauon'

z.sz"=ffi
no.

## the inner- and ouermost fibers and

The citical stressesare found at
are given bY
Mc,

Eq.2.33 ct= 7;
^-.

=-'"o

Aer.

## from ihe neutralaxisto the inner and

wherec;ard roare the distances
frbercunaare their resPective
1"i.. ii.*. tl"p*t;tety' and 7iand ro

43

## Str.ts o,nd Srrqin

Stressin Shear
Fig.212. FEAaf a
cantileverbeamin shear,

## Fig. 213. Staight

rcctangularsectlonbeam

t/

## In the real world, subjecting a beam to pure bending is very rare. A

beam will qpically be subjected to both shearing forces and bending
moments. Although more difficnlt to dedve mathemaucally, the presence of a shearing force rvill not invalidate the resulo from the previous
sectron. Yet, in addition to the normal stressesdue to the bending
moment, there will nor,vbe addrtional shear stressesdue to the shearing
force. These shear stressesare governed by the following equation:
Lq. z ) f

1=

vo
tb-

## where Vis the shearforce, , is the width of the stresssection,and Qis

the frst nwncnt of Mm of the section about a trarwe\$e axis wi*r origin
on the neutral axis. Fig. 2.13 showsthe resulting general shear stressdis
tribution for a rectangular secdon beam. Note that it is a maximum at
the neutral axis and zero at t}le outer surfaces. Maximum magnitude
soluoons for Eq. 2.34 for a number of standard cross sections are prc
vided in Table 2.2.

Chdprer2, Fsndom.ntals

/t4

fabte2.2.

'i#i i,i.

"no, "+"u

1^* = 1V
tA

solid
Reclngulat,

2V

l\olbw
CirculaI,

Slress in lorsion
Fig. 2.14.FEAof a round

## Fig. 2.15- Solidround bar in

G
ttl

its longitudinal
When a torque (?) is applied to a1 elasticbeamabout
axis For a
torsional
developsawavfrom the
J; ;;;;;:4.i.;
'trisi
in-Figt,f,;[5tT;.:*1ffi]t:t,fX:
(houow
orsorid

;;;;;;;."

## sectrons rcma.rn Plane and Parallel, ar

sraight, *ris stressis given by the following equatron'

## glress cnd Srr(,in

45

Eq.2.35 r = L
Here, r is the radius from the torsional a-{isand /is the section,s Dolar
areJ momenr otinenid. OfcoursF, rhe maimum ror.iorat
irres,
"herr
will occur at r^o"= r, Lhe outer radius of the bar. The anzular
deflecLion (0' ar rhc end ofa solid round bar of lengrh / follow\:

Eq.2.36 o = #
where Gis *re matedal'smodulusof rigidity.
A note must be made here regading Eq. 2.36.Alrhough rhis equation
aspresentedmay not be usedfor beamswith crosssectionsthat ar.enot
pedectly circular (hollow or solid), by subsriruringthe mriable r< for /
the equationmay be genemlizedfor all other sections.Krepresentsthe
secior\'s tot'sionalstilfnerr/artor This factor is equal to./for round sections, yet ir is lessthan Jffor all other sections.When assigningline element propertiesin FEA,you must input K Be&?reofthe fact that many
FEA preprocesso\$confuse the nomenclature by referring to K asf
However,by erroneouslyinputting the section'spolar area for its torsional stiffnessfactor, you will effectivelyundentiffen the line elenents
in torsion.-aavalues
for a riety of bea.msectionsare tabulatedin man_v
en8ineering rexrbools, norablv Raarh\ Fotmuln"lor Sres ond Strainby
varren C. Young (Mccraw Hill, 1989). Refer to Chapter 7 for more
information on line elementproperties.
It is very difiicult to obtain formulas for both stressdistribution and
maximum stressin beamswith noncircular sections.Hence, most are
done experimentally. The following is an approximate formula for a
rectangularsectionbeamofwidth (zr) and thickness(r).
Eq.2.i7

r^.,

= 4f : - r ' t r l

ChoPtcr 2 t Fvndomentals

46

Stressin Ptessure

Fig.2.16.FEAol a thicl<
cyIinder uncler Pressu

under
Fia.2.17.CYlincler
fi
(a).
Press
p;sure
(b).
cylkdets

P' -

{al

\"/

*t;::t.' l'''T1-"ilid,r:;"ff
cvlinder
A capped
TS [ff Hil5

',l"xul*:?;ll#r''i:.J[fli;l;'rai* -ap'i"*"t"'
"lli"*

r:;'J[I;
TiJiflI *"#ffii'J"Tt
rhe end caps are calcilated as tollowsi

*ffi.-:Hl#i

## Srr..t cnd grr?/in

47

fus.2.38 c, =

p {i

-p.to

-t,

2 2.
.2
to tPo-P,)/l

7
2
2 2.
..2
p i t i - p . r o +t , f . \ p o - P i ) / f

## whereo, is abo known as rhe /rooP

strrsrin rhe ctlinder.
The longitudinal stress due to pressure on the end caps is coNtant
throughout the cylinder aIId is given by the next equation.
Eq.2.39 at

,;-,i

For a thio-walled cylinder with rhickness (t) lessthan about one-twenrieth of its radius, the maximum tangential and constant longitudinal
stressesunder intemal pressure (p) and negligible outside prelsure are
calculated via the next equations.

## Eqs.2.40 a,.^,,= ':+:

Pal

Of coune, the radial stress in this case would simDlv be t}Ie i[temal
pressureon re inside ofthe cylinder and zero on the outside.
It is usefii to note that if the pressure created due to an equal-length
cylindrical pres*fit r9s known, Eqs. 2.38 could be used for obtainiAg
dre stress state on both the outside and inside cylinders. Hence. this
pressureis given here asa function ofthe radial inrerference(6):

where now [see Fig. 2.17(b)], z; is the iffide cy'inder's intemal iad.ius,
r, is the outlide cylinder's extemal ndius, R is the transition radius, and
E, Eo,v, and va are dle inside and outside material Young's moduli and
Poisson'sratios, respectively.

ChapFJr 2, Funddmcntals

48

S'/,.essin Contact
Fig.2.18.FEAof two sqhercs

1, .

r,

## Fig. 2.19.Forcetl contactof

lwo spheres(a) ancttwo
cylinders(b)

o[ nvo bodiesbeing
The resuldnq suessstale develoPedwitiin each
.omplex nonJinearphenomenon*rat can onl) be
;.i..";;;",n;;;"
y * clo'sedform for a h'ndtul ofsPecialcaseslnthis
i.rJr""a'"i"it"i.
from the forced contact of two spheres
t;*ttresulting
H';;
;;;;;;
.lrinders foll be presented (see Fig 2 19) '
.qJ-r."g,f'
"ri*.
d Ne pressedtogether
When t\,vosolid sPheresof diamete6 d I a]r,d 2
a
contact circular area ot
into
ruitf, u ior.. 4 tftiit .ontact Point tums
radius a given bY

;;;ii;;,

## Slrcct onal Srr!,in

49

where E1, E2 v 1 and v2 are the respective elastic constants of the two
spheres'materia.ls.
At rhe center of *ris area,a maximum pressurep'G
will occur of the following rnagnitude.

Eq.2.4J p^",= :+
zfta'

Placing a coordinate sFtem at this center poilt, with the contact circle
on the ry plane and the z axis norma.lto eidrer one of the spheres,the
principal stressescoincide wirh rhe3eaxesand are a firnction of the z
coordinate according to the following equation:

a, = :P",*=
where v is the Poisson'sratjo oI rhe sphere under consideradon.The
maximum principal shear sfess is Lhengiven by rhe next equadon.

## Note that the th.ree normal stressesare compresgiveand highest at the

contact sur{ace, yet dre shear stressreaches a rna:rimum slightly below
this surface.
For two cylinden of equal length , and dianetrs dt and d, the resulr_
ing contact surhce ir a rcctangl of length , and widti 2r, where
Eo,2.46 b - l2Ftt-vt'zt/E+(t-v2zt/E2
'
l/dt+ t/.lz
{ ,rt
I'he maximum pressure occuB a.longthe long center line of the rectan_
gle.

E+ 2.47 ,^* =
-?!bt

Placing a similar coordinate s'6tem on this contact region, but this time
orienting rhe x axis parallel to the axes of the cylinders, the resuhing
normal pdncipal stesses are given by the following equations.

Chdptar 2, Fundom.nLlt

50

a,=.",^lE il
Es.2.4B

.,=-o*1,-!;^,)ffi';]

in Eqs 2'49'
The resulting principal shear stressesare Provided
Eqs 2.49

6,-O,.

t', = 'zto-- o.
o"lo,
\t'= -"f

## are compressiveand t"*ilul.u'

Again, note that tie norma! stresses
aoout z = u /2''
rh- contactsurface.The maximum shearsuessrs tr) al
cvljnder in contacl
The eoualionsin thil sectionaPPlyto a sphere or
Innnrry' ano a
wir}r a olanar surfaceby lelting d for this surfaceequal
or cvlhdncar
sohere or cylinder in contact with an inlemal sPherical
by letting dbe negative
surface,respecdvely,

## Slrcss in fhermal ExPansion

FEAof a shan
Fig.2.2o.
subiedto a temPeratue
wfththeendsfuW
changa

change(AZ)' it
If an unconstminedbody is subjectedto a temPerature
ptop".t"naily in all directionsaccordingto the [ext equa"iii"*p-a
uon.

## Srr.ts ond Slrdin

5'
Eq. 2.50

z, = e, = z= d(a?)

## The constant of proportionality C[is known as the material,s coeffcient

of thermal expansion. This strain state will simply result in a volumetric
expansion and the stressstatewill be zero,
If, instead, the body is constrained, the resulting stressstate is nonzero
and irs complexjty will depend on botl the geometryof the body and
the coniguration of the constraiit. For a straight bearq constmined at
both ends, rhe resulringcompressivesress at;disunce from the ends
is given by the ncxt equation.
Eq.2.51

6 = d@r)E

## Strest Concenficrion Factors

Fig. 2.21.FEA of a ddled

Thus far, *ris section has concemed itself with very idealized seometries. Yet, real parts will usually have design fearuies.such a-s'holes,
notches, fillets, steps,grooves,and so forth, that v.ill causethe idealized
scss distribution to develop highly localized regions of concentmted
stressin their vicinities. T\ese stressconcotrarrbri will also aDDearclose
to unplanned irregulariLiesin rhe part, su(h as cracks and pia. To
account for this, the folloyring themetirelstress
csncentratianfactorqor Kt
is introduced that depends on dre tt?e of stressinvolved.
Eas,2.52

K. = --!!:
K.,

-!!J

Chcpter 2t Fondo''lentols

52

j*: [:,:'r*'{l
.ir:r*+:.iiriiil
lil,"r#.]i,il
i
u,a,ion
;hcp.rrinrh"r,aJ,
l:
i::iil :i, Jll:.::"i.:.Iil;"l"ilil

:Iilq::i:i::'ilii:i!:il:#ffr,*ffr:h:.s:T
i"n*#;i.1il;;I:Jil::Ti.T:;l""ii*,""r."..i".1'l*"rvi"
witir Eqs. 2 52
an"alysis

ProPerlies
Moleriol
in vaious references l!'rth r1lry1ng
lvlaterial Properties can be found

t*H*il:ri"[idl:irlii:r';"ril"f
rl]#
:?;ir:r
, r'"nu*'.o""

lil".'fi1i,#l;,tl::iiJ':.*:';;;'.', "r*'
lT
"-"..1*i.otr.""gi"='"g-:l:1"1':1fr
.i5iffi
::?ffix;:fi'J;';
ii
p.op.'""'
io.
*'ffi:::T,;#l:xli;l:li:'::it?*;;;;
to
-"u,",i.r
proPerties
lhese
q".tu."able, consideriesultsbasedon

:',ii*rn**H:'H#!;il'{:+3;l15,

""*-"ii..,

similar to the Part being studred'

Typesof Moteriols

## any directronor at any cross

ftorrali.. ProPertiesare the samein
more directrons
Anboltopi..Propertiesdilfer in tlvo or

## in nhich Planesol e\t-rcme

Ofihr,tobl'.sae,itit qpe otanisorropic
to one dnorner)
ralue, ar" orihtgonel ti e pirpendicular
a"'umpLion ot isorroPi' 'md
\4o\r anilyse'are perfonned under.rhe
ron
Homogeneout marerialshave
nl,r,on"n"ou. mareriatproperLit"
r rhe lolu me This is an imporranI aPproxr'
r* n
,it,"",'"'
"o"i
' -ughoupredicti'e engineering lt is critical lvhen
;;;";'il;;;;"d"in
.

Mdbridl

Ptoperties

53

## pe brming failure veriication. Many parls fail due to inconsistenciesin

processing, heat treating, or intemal .ioids lvhich locallv reduce the
inherert stiffnessof the material.
Most FL{ s}xtems allow for the specificatioD of orrhotropic properries,
such as those exhibited by composite mateials. The definition of composite material properties can be extlemely complen and should not be
undertaken the first time without the advice ofan exper!.

\-ommonMotenol rrooertrcs
In the previous section, three material dependent properties were presented: the modulus of elasticity (E), modulus of rigidity ( c), and pois_
son's ratio (v). These properties remain virtuall), constanr for all
materials of the same type. The properties introduced in this section
are more manufacturing process dependenr and can vary greatly
berhcen tuo bodiesof rhe same marerialrypewhich rneremanutaiured
differendy.
Arguably, the most useful of all mate al prope{ies to have accessto is
ilr \r/Z,?gi.\ore Lhar the unirs
sllengr]r rre lhe same ir5 rhose ot
"t
stiress.Yet, \$.hereassress in a body
is al ,aysa function of dre applied
loading and crosssecrion.\r rcng\$ is an in herenr properrvol rhe Lod1 .
matedal/manufacrudng process and governs the overall peformance
of its design.
Strength and other g?ical material prope{ies are ofrcn obtained from
a standard tensile test which subjects a sample bar to unialial stress,
extracting deformation versus applied load data. This information is
then plotted ol1 a stress-srain diagram to illusrrate *re rclationship
between the rious panmeters ofinterest. Ifa high degree ofaccurac],
is required, matedal properties used in a stuctural analysisshould be
obained trom tesringunder ( ondirionssimilar ro rhe aciual operarine
condiLionsof rhe pafl or .vsrem.Thesc .per aring r onrlirion. should bi
kno\$'n, even if such a level of accuracy is not necessary,in order to
adjust the data to compensate. Conditions to consider include operattng temperature, strain rate, material grain or flow direction with
respect to loading, and tonion versus tension ve\$us bending.

Chc,oter 2: Fun'dqmentcls

54

## Fig. 2.22. Typical

engineering strcss"stmin
nate ial s?ecimen subject
ta uniaxial tensile laadtng

Stain t
A q?ical stress-strain plotrellects mgineering J,rsss(see fig. 2 22). This is
a somewhat inaccurate qualtity because it is calculated by dividing the
applied load (l) by the onginal cross seclional area (A). T)?ically' a
Ioialized, irreversible decrease in cross-sectional arca (or naching)
occurs in r rensile rest.I his oc.urrence i\ rhosn in dn engineerinq
, ur.{re\hen the }lres. appear. lo decter:c \$iih in( reasinB
sLress-srrain
strain. In actualiry, the reduced cross-sectionalarea causesthe resulting
\lre\s sldlc to leep ri.ing ar a funclion ol 5u?in. lhc tnu \ltP\\'tnin
.r,ze. which accounLs for the sPecimen's necking, t?ically shows
qreater stess values thaD the engrneenng stress-However, because it is
liflicult to track the change in the cross-sectionalarea of the sPecimen'
the engineedng stress-straincurve is used almost exclusively
As seen in lig. 2.22, fie sbess-strainrclation ill initially be linear up to
point P, known as the proportional lirnit 'this Portion of the curve is govirned bv Hooke's law and Eq. ?.24. Then' although not proPonional
an),mor;, the material *ill conrinue to behave elastically up to Point t,
t}.e ek)stic limit. Beyond this point, permanent deforrnation will be
obsened upon removal of the load.
P oint Y is the )ield point of the material, corresponding to its )i,ld rhsr'8'i
(S^). Some malerials, such as ferous mater:ials, have a distinct yield
pJint or "kree" on the stress-sfain cune. For these materials, Points E
and lwill coincide. Yet, for many other materials, the field point is less
clear and is often detellI]lnedby an offselnetl,od Using this method, tsis

Mclericl Properties

55

## considered to be rhe inre\$ection ol an ofGet line, palallel to the linear

portion of the srressstmin cune q?icall,r ar .002 axial stmin, and rhe
plasaicportion of the curye.
Farther up the stress-sLnincu.Je, point Uindicates the maximum stress
that can be achieved bv the material. This conesponds to its rrliimatdor
tensibstength (.Suor S,!1l).
Betond this, as already described, necking may
occur up to the y'd.t?rrepaint (1-), \|lirictr m,\rks nrc
lracture nrength (SF)
of the melerial.
Arr additional material property that is usually reported and proves useful to the engineer rs its percmt etangation This gives, as a
tercentage,
the strain ofthe tensile specimen prior to failurc and is indicative of tle
dlrl'riliry of the material as will be described betow.
Although all terms presented here are derived from a tensile test, analc
gous compressive strengti numbers exist that, although harder to
obtain, are sometimes useful. Torsional tests can also be per{ormed on
bars to come up with a toryue.tuist tliagram that provides \dues for tol
sianal)iEA sffmgth (Ssy)and the mo(tulusaf rupture (Ssn).For rhe latler,
there is actually an equarion:

Eq.2.5J s,, =

7,,

where Tz is the maximum point LIon the torque-twist diagram, ris the
radiusof r he bar. and / is .econd momenr ol ared.

DuctileversusBrittleMoteriolBehovior
According to the previous discussion,a bodyis said to have yielded or to
hare underqone plasric delormaLjon il ir doe. nor regain irs origin.il
shape when a load is removed. The resulting deformation is called per
nanm! rpl.ll permanenrser i5 obriindble, the marerialis.aid to exhibir
dr,rlilio. A measure of ducriliqv comes from rhe percent elongation, or
srrain at failure, of a tensile test specimen. Brittle materials will have a
much lower elongation and area reducdon than ductile ones. Hence.
the amount of necking, and the corresponding dip in the engineering
stress-straincur've,is indicative ofthe ductility of *re matedal.
Ior ductile maLerials, the ultimate tensile and compressive srengths
have .rpprorimareh thc same ab\oluLeralue. Brirde marerialson'rhe
other hand are stronger in compression than in tension.

I
Choptat 2, Fvn do|''entatt

56

## Bdtde materials exhibit the behavior described below.

A gmph of stressveftus strain is a smooth, elastic curve until failure which manifests as fracture. Materials behavinE in this marner do not have a aFeld strength."
Compressivestlength is usually many times greater than tens e
strength.
.

Modulus of rupflrle
strength.

## Rapid crack propagation along cleavageplanes occurs \i'ith no

noticeable plastic deformation.

## is approximately tlle same as tensile

The str'uctural anal)st should have a feel for whether the material being
studied will behave as ductile or britde at the temperatures aIId strain
ntes expected. Most materials become more britde as strain rate
increases and as temperafilre decreases.The method of results evaluation and failure quantities used are dependent on this property.
Rules of thumb used to determine if bdtde or ductile behavior should
be expected are summarized below.
.

## If the percent elongation is at or belor 5%, asgumebritde

behavior.
If the published ultimate conpressive
stengtt i! greater ttran the
ultimate tensile strength, assumebritde behavior.
ff no yield strength js published, suspectbdtde behavior.

SofelyFoctor
Having inEoduced both stress and strength, now rs a good ime to
present a quantity that relates the two in the design processjtle JdJAzlJAz,or (n). This number is defined as the quotient of the sffength divided by
the stressin a part, and it provides a! indication of the level of conidence in not only the accuracy of the inputs used and their representation in the analvsir.but ako in dre accuracvof the ana&sistool itself.
Ea.2.54

i = ttreryth

57

Foilure Modes

## For example, if (a) you \a'ereto obtain matedal properties, geometrl'

and boundary conditions that were knorm to be 100% indicalive of
eyery operating slate of a part, (b) representation of these in the analF
sis model were known !o be 100% accurate, and (c) rhe tool used for
the analysis,FEA or otherwise, were known to be 100% accurate, you
coutd design the part in question so that the maximum stressoutput of
the analysisis equal to lhe material strength, ?r= 1. questions regarding
t}Ie accuracy of any of the above require you to assign a safety factor
ereater than unity to account for both foreseen and unforesen variinces. Of course, lhe lar:ger the safety factor, the less efficient the
desiqn becomes. Hence, the safety factor chosen for each design must
be a solid compromise utilizing the engineefingjudgment of the entire
design team.
The discussion abo\ assumes,in the strictest sense, that the design
parameter of interest in the ana\sis is ma-ximum stress lf this quantity is
ofa different nature, such as ma-\imum displacement or maximum tem_
perature, the same concePf-!apply. To obtain a Pamrneter-specificsafett'
factor, you need only modify Eq. 2 54 by Placing the limiting quantity in
the numentor and the measured quantity in the denominator.

Modes
Fsilure
ltsInterpretotion
Resu
The fiISt stepin resultsinterpretationis to revrewthe goalsset Ibrth at
the beginning of the study.These should tell you where to look and
lvhat to look for. In mostcases,you will be looking for someevidenceof
failure or assur:rncethat failure is unlikely. \4tth this in mird; a few
words on the nature of failurc in engineering design are warranted
before sDeciticfailure predictorsare discussed

## Typical Foilvre Modes

Appearing below are summary descriPtrons of the more common gpes
ofmechanical fuilure.
.

## Fracaoe.Fracture is said to occur when new cracks appear or

existing cracks are extended. Abitde fracture is one that exhib_
its little or no permanent (plastic) deformation.

Chdp|F.r 2, Fundo,mentclt

58
.

## firrltng Abody which exPedences stressesin excessofthe )Teid

streng;h is said to have failed only \$'hen this yielding comprosress
mises-the integriEv or function of the pafi llelding-near
localif
it
produces
a
failure
concentratron; is not considered
\$hereupon
sffess,
the
ized strains which merely redistribute
vielding teates

## Parts must be stiff enough to hold tolerances

Insufrcied sti.f|ness.
andiupportieqoired loads. Moving parts may have undesirable
resona; frequencies ifthey are loo flexible

## ButhLing.The sudden loss of stabiligv or stiffness under applied

load. Siresslevels need notbe high for buckling to occur'

lose
Fatipue. Parts that are subject to variable loading will
cycles
stre'ngth with time and may fail after a certain number of
Bodiesunder load Sradudllvdelofm over Lime The dpptt
Creep.
pnl'nodutu\ propern is denved lrom emPirical creep data lor
uarious matetials and may be used to compensate for the effects

ofcreeP.
modesmar
ln most engineeringproblems lwo oI more of theselailure
r-hi operaLingcondirionsoI the srsrem lr i' imPort:)nt
be possible"given
t., ieview thi data for all occurrences of any potential failure'

FailureTheories
Classic
inreresr' ehoo'ing
ln caseswhcre lailure due lo yielding or tracrureis of
failure.PreJ. .or,"., srressquandtre' and apPllng rhe aPpropriarc.
and wtoelv
general
more
of
the
dic(or or lheory i' imPortanr. Sereral
theones
failure
used failure theories are discussedbelow These classic
or excessrveelas'
exclude existing macroscopic cracks, buckling, creep'
failure
tic failure and aie primarily concemed with material
unifying
These theories are not deri?bte laws but tend to Provide
are.frequendy
data
material
Published
data
.l.o.rno of."p.ti-.ntal
enSlneerdetermined by testing in uniaxial stressstates,whereas actual
\4ureo"ver'
\trest
srale'
ine probLemsare lreduendybiaxjaloI comple\
"mar.rial
ma1 peform in a ducdle manner al one lemPelature o'
a
i"^a;"n.o"aiL;"n, v.r lail in a brirde mode al rnother' lr is e:.rremelv
f'r lhe
i,troo.Lnr ro understand (he load parh and malerial beha\ior
oanicular Lestconditjon regardles'oflhe mean" ofanal!sis'

59

Fdilure Modes

## Ductile Failvre Theory

A ductile material under static load can redistribute sress by yielding
without fracture. This is illustrated br the forming of a stamped metal
part. A load that produces ielding sets up residual stressesahat extend
the elastic mnge under future loads itr the same direction but decrease
the elastic range under future loads in the opposite direction. This is
called, tl\e Baurchingerclfuri Ductile failure is chancterized bv slow crack
or void propagation after significant plastic deformation.
.

## Ma,ximun ntmnaL stess thmry. Failure occurs whenever oJ or oj

equals the failurc strength of the matedal in tension or com'
pression, respectrvely.Failure by lelding occurs when rhe feld
strength is reached. Failure by fractore occurs when the ulti
mate strength is reached.

## theory(Trea:acrittion).Yelding begins when

Ma,ximumshmr stress
tl1emaximum shearstressbecomesequal to one-half the
of
strength.failure in tensionofductile materialsoccu\$ on one
'ield
planes.
Annealed
ductile
matedals
tend
the 45'maximum shear
to fail according to this theory. This theory onll predictsyield
failure, hence ir is only good for ductile materials.The ma-\imum shear sfess ind is calculatedusing Eq. 2.22 and is ori
ented on planesat 45'f.om the ot and ot planes.This theory is
suggestedby the fact drat yielding is related to shearslip at the
atomiclevel of matedals.
Distortion men (Von Mb?.s-Hmchr)ll,cdr-. Probably the most
widely used, this theory predicts that failure by yielding will
occur wheneverthe von Mises,or effecovestress(o'), equals
the ield strengthoi the material.This stressquantity is derived
using a stnin energ)' hlpothesis and is given by dre following
equatioo.

Ec 255 6".=l

The beaury of the above equation is that it represents the entire stess
state, no matter how complex il is.
Fig. 2.23 depicts the three ductile failure theofies for a plane suesssituation. The sress states defined by the locus oi points enclosed by the

Chopter 2t Fundcmenldls

60

## ellipse,the squarc,and the tnrncated polygon describethe sale sress

normal:
combinationsas predicted b)' the disro'tion enerry,ma_r'rmum
a n L l mr\i .n u n l

## .l r edr \l re-s hFori (.. fF\P e' Ii \el t.

Fiq.2.23.Conqansan
of threeductilefailure

## If o1 and o,2arc similar in sign and magnitude, the maximum nomal

stess theow reasonably predicLs behavior, but knowing all circum_
stances in which this theory applies is difficult. The m&\imum shear
stress theory till be consenative but accePtablc from a design standpoint. MeanNhile, the best match lvith experimental data is provided b,v
the distortion energYtheorv.

## Brillle Failure lheory

A bdttle mateial cannot be considered to have failed until it has bre
ken. This can occlrr either through a tensile fiacture, when the maxi
mum tensile stress reaches the ultimate tensile strength, or through
'what aDDearsto be a shear fracturc, lvhen the maximum compressNe
str.ss ieu.hes the ultimate compressive strength. The latter fracture
o(.ur( on d planF obliqu" ro the ma\imum cornpres'ivesrre'shut not
as a rule, on the Plane of ma-ximum shear stress Therefore, it cannotbe
considered to be purely a shear failure
.

## fuI^xintun normal sltert.Similar to dlat defined for ductile macerials'

Failure occurs t'hen the ultimate strength, not lreld, is rcached

II

Failutc ltl6des

6'
CwltnLMolv thzory.Fra:ctore occu\$ when the maxiown and
minimum principal stres6escombine for a condition which satisfies the following:

E q.2.56 ? - ? z t
where S!, and S@represent the ultimate tensile and compressive
strengths, and both 03 and S@are alwap negative, or in comPressron.
Although this theory is applicable to both ductile arld bdttle
materials, it is applied more frequendy to britde materials
becarxe they are stronger in compression. When compression js
dominant (od >> o), the Mohr cdterion is the most reliable predlctor.
Mod.ifui Mohr thztry.Fmcture occu6 as defined in the CoulombMohr theory except in the fourth quadrant condition where o/
is in tension and 02 is in compression. In this situation, the
mateial is somewhatstronger than a Coulomb-Mohr plot would
suggesL The impact of the modified Mohr theory is shown in

Fis.2.24.

Chdp'tr 2t Fvnda|'.enldls

62

i:-;f;;1i::l.ll;-il.T;'il::,',"1T:,Iff.?::tdj:*i
.ared pol)gon. Thesc suess strtes-illusLn
*te mJ\imum not'rnal'tre's'
in a pl'ane.ue'., ondilion ds prcdi'le'l bl
Mohr theories' respectively
i"',fi-uu.t'.,
^"a -odifred

.T::;
x:'j.'.T.T[T:::Xff""iilii:i;?l';::;i?:"t*'lii':f
.or-t..t*tive prediction and is acceptablefor design'

f"ta,rl

-ot"

OtherFoilureTheories
discussion are presented
Failure theones excluded in the prerious
below.

Buckling

## will sustain is deterln cerlain situadons, the maximum load a rnember

bv
the stiffness of the
th. si'ength of the material but
;;;;;;t
for
il: Jtia uk (P-) is delned as the comPressive.rorce
;;;.;.
is considered to be in
*friJ tfr. t.r"fti"g a.fotmatton statt of a body
over this critical load
in
unstable elastic equilibrium' Any mcrcase
whcrebu' L'
r^onditions
i,iiiLu" tr," r'"ai ro elasticallycollap'e Trpi' aJ
lo'rdinqa
rit,r"de a slenderr iu&'r 'olumn underarzLJ
ii"'
L.."undcr edge
'. "
crlinder under e\rernalPres'urea drin plrle
;;;;l.d
enct
;; a deeP,thin, cantileveredbeam under a tmrsve\$e
;il,
load applied at the loP surlace'
rili' al tenral loadon a suaiqht
I he Eulerequadonlor oblrining^the'
cros\+e(uon Iollott\:
columnof consLznr
E a-2.57 P '=: -+
'
L.'
the column's material' I is the
where .Dis the modulus of elasticity of
is
of inertia or its cross-sectionalarea' and
;;;;;ent
:;il;;
'd
:'"'7iii,*
= Kl depend'on th" a'.LuallengrhI

t rii i, tas(rrrm L,
whi'h is assigned
irl"''."irri' and an effe'rire lengthlactor A
"i
of the columnends Common
ii...ang-- irr" .""straint condition-s
in lig 2 25
.nJ.ond-itionsonatheir coresPondingK\tlues areshown

Fcifur. Modct

63

## Fig. 2.25. Etrectivelength

fac:torstot commonEnd

FRFd

f iFd-FF.

Fitd<uided

Fi&d-Fikn

## It is usefirl at thi! point to inEoduce the quantity / as the smallestradius

ofgFation of t}te column's cross+ectional area (,{).
Ea. 2.58
'

t = lL
\l

## With the we of tlis equation and Eq. 2,57, a corresponding critical

stress(oJ may b calculated ar seen in the next equation.
8q.2.59

a", = frzE

(L,/r)2

## It is now posible to define what constitutes an Euler column. This is

done by calculating a sbniletnesstutio (Zrlr) against a prescribed criterion. Specifically, if

EC.2.60

L, F"

## the column is considered Euler, and a critical load must be calculated

and recordedNote fiom Eq. 2:59 that the cdtical stressis governed by the elastic pro.
portionality of the matedal. Hence, this cririca.l stressis vdlid for Euler
columns since, by definition, theh stess state must be blow the yield
poiDt of the material. Ye! for nonEuler columns, the following more
general stressequation must be used.

ch.pt',r 2 Fun&n

ntg,tt

Eo.
'

tL' / t\'

## (E, has taken the Placeof the

ln Eq. 2.61,a tangent modulusrzriable
of the
rn"Jtr*. irtr" quantity is defined as the tangential.slope
.L?
of

ffi;""t;;;.,

;dL

## cou\$e, below the yield Point, nr _Eas exPected'

in Fig 2 26 and
The resultinggeneralcurve of od versusLrlr is shown
Note r}ratthe
accuracy
i*-u"." *ti??a *rttough testingwith exceilent
of
,5g,Zt n"tni t'tPoloto,into the nonEuler-region
.fr"J""
"Gq
nonconser tive critical stresss'Hence' it must be
the curve provibes
a tnear FEA code for executingbuckling P^rot>
"r
"i"16?,it",'ii"-*"
for columns that do not satisryEq' 2 60'
;;-"d;;;;enatil
on thesenonEuler columff
ttte oPeratilg stresses
* i""i*
ii"i**,
point, uu&ting is not a Possibllailure mode'
..*d"-ilf"ttlr.e
"aa
Fig.2.26. C ical stess
in @lwrmsas a hmctlon
of slendemssleio.

L'/t
in buctling ,
Fig. 2.2? sho*s FEA result! for a comPlex model

Fdilure Modes

65

Fig.2.27.BucklingFEAaf a
conplex shelI structure.

## Sincefew columnsare perfectlystraight,it is useful ro presentan equafor an eccentficallyloaded

tion that resolvesthe maximum axial str:ess
column sho\m in Fig. 2.28(a).Although it can be shown thar an additional a-..ialload can be supportedby such a column before buckling,
the developmentofthe exactcritical stressis complex and hard to generalize.

Fig. 2-28.Eccentrically
Maxinun unit laad tor
eccenficity and column
slendanessratio (b).

'

"rn

ll

li
\"
L./ /

(b)

:.:

Chcpler 2, F undo,l'i,entcts

66

matenal
Hence, it is consewativel,v assumed that failure constitutes
cqudlion
follo\$ing
vield'
rh'
vieldine in tornpression l hrs as'umPLion
e( entrF
ror Lhe'ma',imumunir load rClr Lhalr an be suPPorledb\ an '

z.azf,=s,"lr."4*(?.iE)f
nq.
disiance from the neuwhere eis the eccentricity of the load and c is the
thar in this case r is
Note
irJ *i. to the surface Iiber in compression
(orre\Ponds,lo
Lhe
mdiu'Lt gwarion-ir
na n..".*afy,ft..inimum
'
urs )otc also.rnat
as.ociaredwi(h the a"Yisdround whi(h bending oc(
cannor be solved exPticitl\ lor P '41hen'e '1 graphic"l
,f,l' ."r.,"""
n?rLd solurron rn
.otuLion i" mosr often uLilized Frg 2 28{b\ shohs "
eccentricity and
,i.-"tl"o. of pu,t"-t ofunit load; functions of both
Note that as either the slenderness ratio increasesor
"lendem.ss.atio.d.creases, these cunes aslnptodcatly approach Euler's
the e.certtriclty
hlperbola.

Fdtigue
l os c(k

FA. 2.29.fYqicalS'N
diagramfor steet.

-=l <-

,;,..,,.

l l i shc)!l e-

#dJll:',:

q,,

s,

lno

10r

10:

1or

101

10J

li}

l0'

r0'

Fadguedara in lhe form of materialstrengrhver"us
rotaF
, vtlis. or 5-N rratr, are generall)deri\ ed trom a re\cre b(ndinS
lhe
ho\$
Note
for
sreel
char
L
:-N
rng beam test.Fig.2.29thows a rypical

Foilurc Modes

67

strength ofsteel drops at a certain rate up unlil about 1,000 cvcles and
then continues to drop at a higher rale. This change in slope separates
'ivhat are considered lolF and high qtb
fatigu.,failures. ,\s the cyclic load
ing of the specimen continues past this point, th_estrength of the marerial will stabilize somewhere be\${een 10" and 10' cycles,the number of
cycles lhar cmpidcally represent "infinite" life. The corresponding
enAu:rance
ot fati.gue Linit (.Se)is defined as rhe mar.imum cyclic stress
rvhich a part can sustain for an "infinite" number ofqclcs. Note that lor
nonferrous metals and alloys, the strengLh of the mateial never stabilizes but keeps decreasing \'\,irhtime. Hcnce these mateials do not have
an enduGnce limi!,
The endurance limit of the actual rotating beam specimcn is usually
designated a,s5;'. For lerrous alloys with an ultimate strength below ?00
ksi, Sp'is approximately half of this strength. For ferous allo,\''swirh a
strength above 200 ksi, E'is approximately equai to 100 ksi. Because
nonfe ous metals and alloys lack an endurance limi!, a fatigu( strength
(S/') is usually reporrcd for 50(10') cycles of reversed sress. This
strength is ofteD as low as 1/4 S,, for some aluminum allop.
Of course, one must find a \^,avto corelate the endurance strength ofa
part to that of the test specimen. This is accomplished lia several modifying factors, hich are all lessthan or equal to uniq/, as seen in the ne].r
s" = kakbk
"k,tk.s"
Here, Aais a sur{ace factor, A, is a size factor, A. is a load factor, ld is a
tempcralure factor, and id is an all e compassing, other mjscellaneolrs
effects fector. Numbers for some of these factors can be readih
oboined in the literature while otheN are rarelv available.All are menlioned here simplv to point out the difflcr tv of executing predictive
fatigue anal)'sis.
E.2.53

## It is crucial to stressthat, pdor ro the attempt ofdesigning for a fatigue

situation, you rnust har'e concrete values for three parameters uhich will
govern the anal)sis. The fiIst is the desired number of clcles the part
must withstand, which will dictate the r'alue used for its material
strength. The second is the loading history of the part, which wilt proride values for the mean and amplitudc stressstates that rhe parr will
experience. Third is the panmeter \$,hich always relates the stength
and stressin a part-the desired safetyfactor in its design. Without har"

Chcpt r 2, Fondcrm.nlc,t

68

ing a good handle on the lalues for these parameters, successfulanalysis is impossible.
Severalrnetho& are alailable to relate ryclic loading data to fatigu Me.
All zuch theones are estimatesbased on empirical data alrd should only
be used for initial designestimates.As a result ofsensitivity to so many fac_
ton, nothing can replace actual fatigue testing in reahtic envhonments
to guarantee a reliable designfor a part exPeliencil8 cydic loading.
To obtain the fatigue strength at Ncycles for a Part exPeriencing dlrrt_
nd.ting or completcly reversed stress, you can curve_fit the S-N curve
using the following equation:
Eq. 2.64

sr = aNb

Eqs 265

a = ::::!0.9S .,
I
b = ,;toe___

## Note that S,'maybe substitutedfor S,in Eqs.2 65 to PredictS/'.

If the completely reve\$ed stresshas atr amPlitude (oJ , the correspond_
ing number of cyclesof Me is calculated via the next equation.
Eq. 2.66

N=

\;l

Fb. 2.30.slnusoidal
tucluatngst/ass,
amplifudeversua6me,

Tbne

Fcilure Modes

69

## \\hen the_mearzsrress(on) is at a level other ihan zero (sce Fig.

2.30),
case.One of iire mosi
fluctuatingstress
^s ^
accepted equations that provides
a solurion to rhis scenario is the ,?od,
Jied. Gtod,nan relatianl
Ea. 2.67

% t6-:! = \

## whcre 5,, is rhe ulrin.rr, Lensrlesrrengrhot rlr. mareri/l and ,

i, rhe
\dler).tdrtor u.ed in r])c de,iqn.t hi. rclarron is good lor
predi\ ring fr a, _
ture life. If you are more inrerested in
letd as a failuri criterioi, the
Sadabngplalnn shorld bc u\ed. \\hictr reptac-s\,,wirh lhe rensiteyiFtcl
\l'engrlr. S)f Eirhef ut \$eji relduon. iJlowsan enqineer ro evalr.are
rhe
.hangcs broutshLabour bl \arying cirher rhe dlrernaLjne.,re.!
amDli_
tude or the mearrsress in a flu.rudring load.iludLion.ln_bodr
ol these
reldlruns.5r.anrepiaceS,i, onF i! mor e inreresrcdin Dnitl'life
analt,is.
Ul .our,e. lor mdteridl. with no endurdn,e limit.
lo mLlsru.e rhe
former according ro the desircd life (N).
Both .\4inn,-talrot (umularj\e ddmrge dnd ttaaro,ri npthud
rclate thc
elle.l\ o, fy( lrc loading dt diffcrenr srre\sestor diHFr.nt durrrion,.
\ei_
ther of these methods constitutes a closed form sotution; they
are mentioned here.simply becausethel cu endy constitute the mosi accepted
approximations to the problem. Both medods require accr.rratJ
S_N
plots and_adjust the apparenl endurance limit baseri on damage
from
finite_q.cle overstressing that does nor cause parr failure. Va6emati_
cally, Miner's rule is expressedas aollows.

E,r.2.65 t != |
where ,lt is the number of cvclesofstress O, appiied to the part, and
,\,,is
*le,fatigue life co_rrespondingro d,. Manson."
f ieajity fouira
in the liteEture- h uses a graphical approach and
-etfr"a
is qpicalty pieferred
becauseit correlates to empirical dara more consistenrly.
\{rhen a ductile material is subjected to a fatigue_qrpeloading, there
are
basic structural changes that occrrf. In chronological order, t:hechanges
are summarized below.

## 1 , Crachinitiation.A crackbeginsto form wirhin the material.

Chdr,ler 2t Fu ndstrl,enlols

a:--

"il:,:fi{#,j,1;:,;.":;:::l'\$i,J::1.::H[::T'J
comPletelYrcversible'

anptane;,:j:f.1fJ:iiii:,1::"'JJ,',:.'J.".',:"'
3.(ra..k
sro,th
across the secuon

* \\'henthe''':1"::i:':i5'Tti.,"'Jl
(Iuctik
JaitT
'
lnc alrP s"
4 Littinate
s i / r l h d l c J n r l u l 'r l q r d l l r
c r o*

r er lr un

Io !

by ductile failure
th s'dmPleruptures

-^rrl

'
r\,F\liii;';l;ill':"}:t:Il:
spec,r(
nn,
d,d
.e.don
A,,houeh,hi.

*' "^'Tli:;l';:].'"lJl^""i*""J""'*..''*''
i)i.1lii,'
".'
"'
beros
In"'''ig'lin'
I
"''''l::::l:i";

";'"'"mmxri/ed

'" :"".;":
:",::,;;;'1"
i;i:i:..:;::
"'r'r::'"':il:l,S
-

## :-' ;' "

s rrdi n

\$l ' i ( h ' ^' rqe rrrtl " ' l u " ' ei rton

'n'l
rii" J"t"ut" r'tig"" tir''

resis'1ant

' ,,*""*01'1*1;1I.;:i":::.il'li::t'(rack
beiauseroughne:
.

creasc

prottsse"
H:rrdening
.
surtaceronrtitianxns
'l1l""l",ll"u
Pro's(!'lv
and
plaring
r^f;itc
lalisur srrengrh

to

'orrusron

## Jit-ini't' r''ig"''.' t"g'r'

t *l;l*.;Ul
an.m
' En'Jh
A
5lrenglh
c

:;'U:l'::iXi":iil::'::\$:

'omr
nn o\i n IoI tqt"'

^ll(d'

nij::l'id\$'[l]\$
J'.i
r;;*i
*
*,{***i**
:tr.::I'ii;..;Ti:i*n:l
;;l*;*11.fr
ff:::rJ:':T-::;":';:,"::
8 q 2 6 9 c= e t+ n fi

il!"1:il;';
a'
scd
erpre

;nbe

FoifuF ttlo&c

of-visct:ttl-fi
where1 is *re matedal'scoefficieIlt
,11it"'-TT:T:;
oPerating
i' n."''tion or o' uPPliedloadand
ffit..l;
;:;::
"
be obtainedexperimntally'
al'ailablewith some FEA codesbul
Vrscoelasticanalpis solutions are
l"t"rial studiesto ProvidProPerty
JJ.i.ii.to.a

i"r.l"-.",,

r, **t

## as rhorrtr in Fig' 2'31' are described

Ti-r" forr, .og". of creep failure'
below.
. Itrst4nt@,,,rs ctmqalittLNormal defomEtion
under load to decrease
. hin@t, dtixp. Mat/Ji strain hardens
creeP rate.
steady rate' c?Jled nini
. Seonneq cteepMaterial elongates at a
,num aldP flla
ofvoids' elo\$gauon
. Talivry c.zcl'Dtte lonecking and formatron
i"ttt""ing mte until fuacorre
oroa.!d,
"i interest !o engineers^bcauseit
Tt a ,".orra"ay PI|aIe is of sigoiEcant
sandPoinLo*p:Y:{l

i.'r"**
i"i'#iJ""

Dr hour.

ftom a time
*t."lor"f .reepprocess
crccPrar. ot ru-7o
,rt. ,".* whiih producesa minimum

Chapler 2, Fundo,li',ento'ls

72
AD b a rp n t \o f P l tP 4 tr' ) ,{ ' dl /u'

## t' i. , ho.en from cmPiti' al rable'bascdon Llne

*J.f utu. .Ll.i1
"r stresslevel of the svstemto compensatefor creepeffects'
anticipated

Anolysis
Dynornic
DlTramicanalysesas aPplied to FLA.involve loads and corresponding
,oponr. .4,". that \Ery \vidl time- Stricdy speaking,such anaryses
because
shJuld be referred to asvibratron and time resPonseanalyses,
of
realm
in
the
is
not
large displacement,comPletelyrigid body motion
FEAVibntion and time responseanalysescan be subdividedinto the follor'
ing three relatedcategories.
.

## Modal or natural frequencyanal)srs

FrequencyresPonseanalYsis

Transientresponseanalysis

sys_
The first of the categories involves the y'ea'i'rd'ion of the d)namic
tem. This analysischaracterizesthe systemin the absenceof external
last
loadinq and servesto define its d)'namicproPerties Conversely'the
under
involve
slstems
wo uri krto*tt as forcedresponsean^lyses These
or
externallyappliedioading tunctions,which can be either liequency
al
Limedependenr.The anatlsisnPe requiredlo 'ohe the Problem
6"p"na on rhe t\p" of informarion\$e( i' necdedIo reacha
1,u16!v;i1
desigDdecision

ModalAnolysis
which
The building block of all dynamic analyses is rlle mulal analJsis'
modt
slap"'
rcDot.'' the notutol lftqunriet znd corresPonding lnwipul
d
o[ rhe.\stem under efa]uation. ln other tords when Pertorming
morlal anatvsis.vou solve for the distinct deformation shapes that the
frequenvibrating systemwitl assume at each of its preferred oscillatin-g
a
simple
aid
of
the
cies. Th"ese concepts are better presented with
example.

73

Dynami. AnclYsis

ofa
Fig.2.32.Frcevibratian
frrct
mode
cantileverbeam,

l
Refering to Fig. 2.32, it is intuitive that a thin beam {ixed at one end
will librate or fluctuate most easily about its fixed point with no additional "nodej' or bends (inflection Points) in its deformed shape The
natuml frequency ((Dr) corresponding to this mode shaPe is essentially
the oscillatorv speed with which the beam moves from one extreme to
the other and back. This speed is defined by two tundamental Ph)sical
pammetels of the bea|:^ mass(m) and rigidiry G) or "sPring-back"

Eq.2.70 o"* J;
The mass contribution to this equation is understood by considering
inertia. The more mass (inertia) that &e beam has, the harder ir is for
the beam to change directions when fluctuating' and consequently, the
slower the motion. Spring-back is the force that resiststhe displacement
of the beam from its equilibrium position. When the beam is bent past
this position and then released, its material elasticity tries to snap it
bacLinto place. Inertial effects prcvent the beam frorn immediately
returning to its equilibrium Point. Consequendy, the bean overshoots
its mark, rerurning to a sprin8-back condition on the other side' and
the cycle begins again. The more rigidity, the faster this happens'
The intemction of these !!!0 Parameten balance out to provide a constant oscillation speed, which is the first natural ftequency of the slstem. This first natural frequency is the lowest sPeed at lehich the beam
will vibrate after all external excitations are removed, a state known as
free vibation
}o\emed by the following equation:
^nd.

Chopr'r 2, Fundcmenlols

74

Eq. 2.71

e+ @,zo= o

## where 6 is the angular acceleration of the beam and 0 is its an8ular

position away from equilibrium. The solution to this equation rill give
the mode shape corresponding to the natural frequencv Becauseoscillatory motion is expecEd, the solution g?e can be assumedto be ofthe
fonTI
8.2.72

s = csii(o,'+\t')

## where Cand I/ are constarts determined by the initial conditions ofthe

system. Letting 0, and 6a be the initial Position and velocity of the
beam, Eq. 2.72 becomes

Eq.2.73 0 =
and it describes the fifst oscillatorl mode of the beam
Note that the o, units are radians per unit time. It is often more conve_
nient to descnbe this natural frequency in terms of cyclesper unit time
(rycles per second is common) using the following nerv wriable.

8q.2.71
Either of these t\$'o descriptrons ofthe natural frequency can be used to
calculate the time required for the system to complete one ftrll cycle of
oscillation at this f.equenry. This is known as r}]'e system's natural period.

Eq. 2.75

1^ = t2n

rePresents
In reality, no system is free to i'ibrate indefrnitely. ,ardrg
loss
at
a
molecular
level or
inefficiencies of the material due to energY
of the slstem due to component interaction. In general, damPing
deca)s the vibration of the slstem and recums it to its equilibrium Position in a time peiod that depelds on its danLqtngcoelfcient(c) -lhis
coemcient is proportional to dre velocilv 6 of lhe system ard modifles
Eq. 2.71 a5follows:
Eq.2.76

=o
6+2(,@,A
+ 0'.20

Dynamic Andtysis

75

where tl]'e darnpingratia (() has been conveniently introduced as a measure of the severity of the damping. This latio is calculated by
Eo.2.77 L- =
'

zman
-L

## where tl1e denominator 2n\$n is defined as the critbal dartuping of the

s'Etem. Hence, the damping ratio may be used to speciSi the amount of
damping present in a qTstem as a percentage of its citical damping.
By a\$uming harmonic solutions of the form

fu .2 .7 8 x= 6Lt
a genemlsolution to Eq. 2.76is found asfollows:
F 4 .2 .7 9

o = A t?'

,{_.,t._,,.",

the qstem.

## Fig. 2.33.Free vibntion

of systemswhichare
ovedanped, critcaw

ce 1tt

undedamryd in cases
. whetego=Aoand6a-

: (bl

o)
The three distinct ranges of damping ratio lalues that characterize ststem behavior can be categorized as follows.
.

## ( > 1. Otffdanped lsee Fig. 2.33(a)]. The qntem is so well

damped that it will return to its equilibrium poi[t without a single oscillation,following Eq. 2.79.

76

## Chapter 2t Funda mental s

\ = l. Oiticalb dampedlsee Fig. 2.33(a)1.This s),stemis on rhe
vergeoi oscillating.It rill retum to its equilibrium position rhe
fastest-Systemmotion is got'ernedb)rthe next equarion.
Eq.2.80 s = 1e,+a,r;"--"
\ < 1. Ltndzrdanped
lsee Fig. ?.33(b)1. This systemexhibits a
decayingoscillatorymotion,
Eq.2.81 s = c, !'"',in(orr+V)
at a damped natural ftequency o:7given by

Eq.2.52 u, = a^,14
NoCein Eq. 2.81 thar two nerv constants, Cand \r, have been mathematicall) inroduced to obtain an equation similar in form .o Eq. 2.72. The
value ofthe constants is still determined from initial conditions.
The rate of decav ofan rmderdamped sysFm is represented by the ratio
of consecutive xmplitudes as follows:
6" 2g
'

lz
- e\'1"1/"lt4)
A.*r

## where ,,lz+l is the peak amplitude occurring in the cyclc immediatell

follo\$ing A,.
IIost mechanical structures are underdamped. ln fact, rhelr damping
rario is usually \$ell below 107o. For a damping ratio of lOyo, Eq. 2.82
indicates a difference between (D, and (Ddof about 0.5%. Hence, for a
modal anal)sis,becauserhe increased complexity ofthe solution has virtually no effect on its numerical value, damping is generally not taken
Note that by replacing and iti derivatives wirh their r counterpafts,
Eq.2.76 is Lhe damped.
free uibrationor zero force solution to Eq. 2.5.
In reality, the beam strucore is mxch better described al a series of
masses connected to one another by three-dimensional spring and
damper unirs (see Fig. 2.34). For each additional mass used in irs
dcscription, six drgr-eatof Jiee.Jamare added to the beam qstem. In other
words, each additional mass \$,ill need sir new r,ariables_threetransla_

Dtlnomie Andtysis
tional and three roladonal-to deflne its position ar all times as pafi
of
the overall system. Of course, many of these tariables can be fixed rlue
to gcomerric and/or boundary condition constraints. Such set of grzd,r_
ali.ed noftlinates descrjbes general morion b1 recognizing const;inL
This set rvill have the minimum number of coordinares require.l
to
deflne thc system dvnamically; this Dumber must thus be equal to the
degrees oflieedom of the system.

Fig. 2.34.Discretizedbean
modelwith3D spingand

## Fa(h po,sibledegree offreedom in a \!srem ei\Fs ri:c ro an addrrion:rl

ndluidl trequen(v. hhich represen|l rhe n..illarion nr rhe bcdm
il]
anodrer delonned shape or prin, ipat morte. Fig. 2.J5.hors rhe,haor
of Lhe beem in ils 6rsr narural mode. as devribed Jt thebFginningol
this section, plu,s three higher modes ofoscillarion.
A continuous suxcturc will accuallv have infinite degrees of freedom.
An inlinirc numbcr o[ modes lor lhe beam ,an b"e ,r,t
des.ribed in (lo\pd torm. \el. lhe solurion lu m.re , ompl"\ "-uri.nti,
.rructur.'.
can only be approximated by discrerizing the system inb a finite num_
ber of elements, not unlike the beam of the above illustration. This is
the concept used bv FEA.

78

## Fig.2.35.,todal FEAof a canuleverbeam'frrstfou nodos'

gain insight into dle conAcain, it is usefirlto study a simple ststem io
of freedom slsftana. r;g. l.s6 sho*s an undamped tstodegree
.i*
in matrix
*i]i" "i il.. JuLt"" equatronsof moion maybe writter
form as follows:

2.s4Mi+r,-fl;,t{;J.f:;j"
Ec.
-;3liiJ={l}
the vectotialacceleratidn
(M)

modifies
tlre rtar,t majsm,tttt
'nafivt
where
'i
positidn
(K)
modifiesthe oector;al
tSr.t** nnX,*trlratn:{
il
'natris
".i
trt.

## Fig. 2.36. Two4egrce d

I-,l.irr

krxt
*',*'',
-,x2
*!rtr,l * A

79

Dynd'''i. AnqtYsis

## The solution for harmonic motion in ihe samefrequency,or Principal

mode motion, is provrdedby fie Ibllowing equation:
Ft1.2.85 x

1,'i

lxzl

where Xl and X2 are the amplitudesof oscillationof mJand m2 respectively. X is kaown as the system's eigm ectoror agrt rroda Substituting
this solution into Eq. 2.84,the resulting mat x form equation aPPean
as follol"'s.
,
E q.2.86 l K -d' \{ l x= l

[ rt , -I , , -o -a ,

- ,
tk2t,rt-ba.

J x r] = 1-f0
l -. f
l ^)

LU I

## Each eigenvector that satisfiesEq. 2.86 is a solution that describes the

principal mode shape of the slstem at ils corresponding natural frequency. The number ofeigenvector solutions is equal to the number of
dl.namic degrees of freedom of the slstem. A1r additional, t vial solution occu\$ when this vector is ze.o, indicating rigid body motion ofthe
system.N_ontrivialsolutions mal only be satisfiedwhen the determinant
in Eq. 2.87 equals zero.

8q.2.87

,a

:!

::.

## dettK-o?Ml = (t1+t2-o2n1)(t?+r3- a2n) krx=o

For rhi. rso deBreeol lreedom sr.rem.Fq. 2.87 vieldsa quadratir-in o'
The roots of lhis quadratic are the natural jlequencies of the system,
also kno\a'n as its ngenualues.Ilell e, there are two natural frequencies
for this system,each associatedwith one ofits two eigenmodes.
It is txeful to note that for this s'stem, and any other linear elastic sys1em for that matter, the deflected shape at any given time will be a linear combination of all i!! eigenmodes as follows:

E q.2.8 8x - L x , ' = x E

## whereX is the eigenmodematrix, comPrisedof all individual eigenvectors

(-!) in ihe ststem, and is the modal disPlacementvector, comPdsed of
all individual modal diplacements (). These (is are also knowu as the
prin.ipaI .ooz!i natetol rhe slarem.rnhlchdefine rhe nodal\pa,p\et.
It is easyto use the generalmatri\ notatron of the equationsaboveto
extend their applicationfor solvingan undamped zdegree offreedom

## Chapter 2, F undcm entd

Is

****"'mru
ff******W

fj;ii:fr**y,;l#:ix,.::;,n:.:"il\$s:.i

g1*gg:'*'tru*+

## presentar an opemting fiequency.

FrequencyResponse
Anolysi
s

:;.i,;;;
il_;T::'5
ii"d-,;Tl'i.tJ.:ilil;:;ii:.";1.:tt;i

.*l*
r##:ffir*.,:il:*
*,,"";.,.:,,,*.

l;*,r'',*;##i
illd\$Hlffi
;i
'*

;x*T:::(*:il1.""1,f

, udo-0"0,,.'*'e-degree
offreedom
sysrem

8l

Oyndmi. Anatysis

Fig.2.37.Danqed single4egree
of heedom sYstemsubiactto

Fo snot

## The equatron of motion for the above s)stem follows.

8q.2.89

ni + ci + k, = Fostniot

Note that this equation is Eq. 2.5 in the presence of a harmonic forcing
function 4=F,sir{Dt, where 4 is the ampliiude of dris force, and (D is it!
driving fiequency. By making the same substitutions made in the free
vibration deriations, this equation becomes the following.
Eq.2.9O i +21\$^t+ a^', = -:s;n(!t
The solutiol of t}te above equation is a sum of two terms: l]te transiznt
,rolzri.oawhich is the decaying, free vibmtion solution (Eq 2.81), and
the steai4statzsolxttidn,which is any solution to the complete equation.
By assumingsolution tt?es similar to those used in the deriration of the
free vibration equations, a complete solution to the underdamped s)stem is found as follows:
Eq.2.el

## where ,{ is a nondimejnsional artuplitudzratb or magnif\$ationfactlrr of t\e

steady state solution, and q is t\e phaseangb of tl\is solution These
terms are provided b'ytlre following equations

, ={t,-(.9l'.L,,f,If"'
Eq.2.s2
I rrll I

Eq.

## L ' - ( ' { i"I1

chdptet 2, Fu ndcmenldl 5

82

## :rs functio s of the

The following illusralion shows Patterns of "l and Q
(l\'11'5"
or,' lor tlitlerenr valuc'ofrhe Ll'tTP"'2 Int;
,*,"r*,t,"';'i,t
i',
'r"L,,i.
a.r*.a o rhe poinr when uJ or',-I and tP'onont!*1d'nn
dJnro'n
lrihll\
rhJr
lor
dnorhcr lefm u'cd r'r narurel lrequrnc! \or'
lhe amplitude ratio
*..,rt. system approaches
r#-i
"to''"ttt'
amplitudes :rre usuallY
iecomes divergerti Because excessiveresPonse
operanng requcncy
the
not desired, vou must either verili that
**rcm
oldd rt:'mpit.* rhe re'ordnr lri quen' \ ol rhc
t".J".
""r"
br m"n5 ol an
inq ro |}re slsr"m the I"rrer i' u'ualh a'ton'oli:hed
a' Ihe dnlrng lrc.riemal ris.oelarri, mount d'rice. Al'o nolc lhrt
soluLjonl rcl
\ldli'
l
orne\
.,-"n.t no".'o r.to.,hc amplirude I rrio bei
i' ,n
ub'er\ari^n
; inFnin, rhc rario hecome'zero thi' Ie'r
i-i
";J.
surpri'ing facr: retsardle'qol rh' 'lririnP lun'rion '
i-".?,tt
,
"',t"tu,rt.,1steir is shake"fastenor'rgh'
will tre
ilt response

ffii

ude Ull,

Fig.2.38.Magnitication
factoranclPhaseangle
vercusfrequencYBno
for differentdamqing
of
ratiasofsingle-degrce

## 'I he phr.e an8l. ol Lhefe'Ponsema\ !in i' om 0 lo I80' an-drepresent5

\r'rr resPon\clag' rhe lorc'
rhe porrion.ith..r'cle b\ whi'h rhe srcad\
spans the
ine iunction (/,). i'{ote that as the frequency of lhe inpllt

83

Dyncmic Anolysit

## lrom being com_

ranse liom zero to infrniLy, the svstemresponse\$.ill go
pleiely in phase with the inPut (0' lag) ro being comPletely out ofphase
at resomnce' Also noLe that for
iiSO"'tog), nt*u1" p..sing through 90'
altrds
liehrlv dan,pcd sqrem. the rrsP'nr will be dpprui'imJrelvr
phi'e
a
quick
'hifl
in ptt^. o' oul oi pha'e nirh rhe inpu' "rrh
.i"r
damping
From the above discussion, it can be gathered that, hereas
a
big
plavs
Part in
!|as assumed negligible in free Iibration analysis,it
of a sysforcerl response"anidmust be quantified The overall damping
accurate
The
oniy
to
obtain
tem is usually the most diflicult parameter
to do .o is cxperimentally, often from the frce \ibntlon decaY
while mak
-."r1"
.u"t.a fty u tpif.. nput such as a hit with a rubber hammer'
are Provided
ir-rg.,.. oinq. Z.S: S.lected reptesentatle damping latios
in Table 2.3.

Tabte2.3.ReprcsenhtivedamPingratios
(lnelastic
Enge)
Melals

withloinis
slruclures
lVelal
ines
steel
lransrnission
/
Allminum

bulldings
Large

0.01-0.05

can be
For an z-degree o freedom system, all of the above concepts
lor \$c
e),oandedin"matrL{fonn. usins a derjrarion 'imilat lo lhrt used
follor":
nFc re\pon5e.l he marrL\ equalion cqui\dlenr ro Eq 2 86

## E q .2 .9 4 I .' u*i.c*r l,( ' ) = r ( ' )

whereo is now the drivingfrequency,C is a svstemdampingmatnx'
displacement vector, and F(o) is lhe
{(0)) is a genenlized ."".aitt"ti
be solved
fo..irre dn.tiott vector. This matrix equatioB can then
is
formulation
y bv some FEA systems Nlaking use of this
nu-.ilca
kli.ow]n as !1i1zctfrequenq responseanaUsis.

chdpter 2t Furrdd,ntent"ls

84

ol fieedom syslcm
-\r alrernate approach for sohing an d-degree
inlolves mnslering Eq. 2.94 into modal space E((D)with fie help ofLq.
2.88 as seenbelo\$.
Erl. 2.95

## I o'rIX + iocx + KxtEto) =.(o)

anabsis,rses rhe
Hence, this approach , kr;.o\\n as modallequenq respanse
its
generalized
coordinates, to
of
the
structure,
i
of
mode shapcs
dcscribe moLion. Note that for Eq. 2.95 to hold, the solution to el'ery
single one ofthc sLructure's mode shapesmust be oblained prior to the
anallsis. Of coursc, this is prohibitive fbr sFtenls with a large number of
degrees oflieedorn. Yet, Eq. 2.95 turns out to be a good approximarion
as long as every modc up to a f.cquenqr at least two to threc l;mes the
highest opcraling frequencv of the s,vstemis used. Becausethis number
of modes rvitl, in most cases, be less than the number of generalized
coordinates thar describe the s)stem, using (his method is generall,v
m ch mole numcricallv efficient than direct anal)'sis,although not as
Depending on the FLd package you use, you might be able to select thc
method for carling out your analysis.If the model is small, or subject
to only a fel! excitation frequencies, or subject to high excitation fte
quencics, the direct melhod should be rserl. Thjs nelhod should also
be used if a higher level of accuract is deemed necessarl.Yet, for large
models or models subject to many cxcitation frequencies, thc modal
method will prove to be the betier choice.

## Ironsrent Kesponse Anotysts

!\rhen the sysLemunder aralysis is subject to an excitation that changes
anabses
with time, the solution is also time-\'-ar)ing. Tratsicnt response
q?e,
as long as the excitation is
provide solutions to syslems of this
explicirlv delined in the time domain. The relevanl resulls ofthese analyses are tlpic ly displacements, velocities, and acceleralions ofthe svsterr, which can bc used lo calculate lorces and stressesin lhe s'stem.
All dynamic concept-sand derilntions presented thus far in this section
come rogether at dris point to prolide a solution to the transient
responsc problem. For an n-desree of freedom s,vstem,the geneml
equation ofmolion, in matrix form, is the familiar equation below.
14. 2.96

## NIi+ cJ+ Kt = r'(r)

85

Dyfi3ntic Andlysis

## lr\ rlirecLlransimt rffPrnv aDal,vsis,this cqr.1alionis solved usine direct

By tilizing Eq. 2.88 to tmnsfer the fomrLrlation of the p.oblem to
modal space q(r), Eq. 2.96 becomes the follo\$ing.

## Eq.2.97 M\EO + cxg(, + Kx-i(')= r(,

analysisand is solved
This equation gorerr's modall:ransientresponse
through numeical integration and summation ofthe indir,idual modal
responses. Note that Eq. 2.97 is only an approximation if the modal
conte t is incomplete. For this approximation to be valid, the liequencl content of the transient load must bc evaluated to deternrine a
cutolJJrequenq.This leill be the ftequenq above which no modes are
noticeably encited. Only modes above this freqlrency can be left out of
the modal transient response anallsrs.
Once ag:in, depending on vour FEA package, you might be able to
select the method for carrying out a transient anallsis. If the model is
small, or subject to only a few time steps, or subject to high excitatioD
frcquencies, the direct method should be used. This method should
also be used if a higher level of accuracy is deemed necessary.Yet, for
large models or models subject to manl excitation time steps, the
modal method is the prelened choice.
Note that a steady state harmonic forciDg funcdon, such as the one
used in Eq. 2.89, is explicitly defined for all time. \{'hen this tunction is
applied to a structure, there \$ill be a "scttiing" time period before
reaching steady state response. This "setding" is governed by the transient part of Eq. 2.91. Hence, if ,vou are interested in the effects
obsen'ed at *re start of steadystate operation, a tansient response anal)sis should be perforrned. Ofcourse, the results oflhis anallsis will contain aU of Eq. 2.91- Ior this reason, frequency response analysismay be
considered to be simply a subset of transient response analysis,which
itself can be conceived oi a-sthe most generalized form of fbrced
response analysis.Keep in mind though, that if the mnsienl solution is
of no interest, frequency response analysisis a much more appropriate
and efficient solution. Fig. 2.39 shorvsFLd ransieni analysisresults for
the cantilevered beam problem, using a sinusoidal forcing function
applied normally at the free end.

86

Chapi.r 2t FvndomGn'!. t

## Fig,2,3g.hansientrcslr,nseFEAof a canfibverbeamsubhcttoe hatmonicexcitation

peryendiculatty
at fts frceend.
applied
The excitaion io a transient analysiscan be a load, acceleration, or dis
Dlacementofa givenduration with a sPecfied amPlinrde The ramP of
ihe input, or du--racion
effect on the resultant behavior. In the strucrural damping test mentioned earlier, where a systemb excited with a hammer strike, it is the
transient rsponse which ir being studied. These studies can often tre
rxed to corrilate damping mlues and model approximations pnor to a
frequency resPonseana\sis
ln desiqninga s'stemsubjectto uansienrloading' it is often helPfiri ro
.orrrp"i" ,tti reciprocal o1the loading duration to Lhe knortn natu-ral
fieoiencies. If th_eselzlues are comPamble, it may be wortlwhile to
ewjuate the ana\$ical resPonseto this loading Transient analpes are
rtpicalty run for a 6nite number of cycles. If longer-term resPonse ui
n;eded, t}Ie systemmay need to be evaluatedusing frequencyresponse
ot other means

E7

5o\$tficrY

Summrry
This chapter should be thought of as a Pocket calculator/dictionrry
torr lo I drr\ oul J Lom'
ro
s.r.l*er-ruu shoul.l nuI e\Pe( t ir Jrone rllo\L
-p1".'nn,fl.i. o..n"ut. lou ro definc "ten engincerinc 'uir'liriun r| :r
Con
llouta pioue !o be an extremcl]' helptul and concise companion
in
thc
arc
you
\$'henel'er
available
Prosirter miking rhis chapter reediiy
presented
fund'unentals
engineering
basic
The
IEe
ofcona-"cti"g
l."s
in this chapter should be referenced ar all stagesofthe analysisProcess
time m
At Lhe beginning ofthe FEA process,,voushould alr{a,vstake the
so llill
doing
u.rae..tand the"nature of thi problem at hand because
usuullr s.rrelorr rime l.lrer b' helpine 'oLt aroid unnece-an 'al'ul'
rhe andv(r'l
riorr. U hrr are (hr lunddmenlal princiPlesthat will gotern
miSht find
you
How can they be qualifred and quantified? Sometimes
ptoblem
that a simple manual calculadon is all vou need to solve lhe
Try nol ro lose perspective ar this initiai stage'
phe\{hen setling uP ,volrr FEA modet, try to enYision the fundamental
sate will be
nomena to b"ee.raluaredin the analpis. What kind ofstress
Will
modFl;
oi
dre
,au.e.l br rh. geometn and bound.r^ '"ndirions
or
bc
!implilied
il5ell
rl,ere b" bendins, lor.ionl Cdn rlre geomeLn
a
broken into a sum ofsimpler, more manageable shapes?AttemPl Prerts numert_
diction of the resulling slressstate conto\$r or even some ot
resul\$
eYaluatrng
\$'hen
ca.lmagnitudes. This rill prove inv.duable
draw yourNer.t, veriS that the boundary conditions make sense Alwa,vs
confiHoN
state
equilibrium
the
self a free lodv cliagram and e\aluate
biinq
rror
Lion(
dre
re'r'
.l.n' ,,. u.u ,h., ui.xpecr.d and or unde'ired
drc
in,.oau..a by ,.ur r"pre.errurion ol rhe run'traint5l {re
b}' their rep
rhemse\'es adding or subtracting stiffness to the strucrure
to leave out
decide
you
svstem
resentation? Rem;mber, anY part ofthe
aoal,vsis
of the model must bc accurately accounted for in the

.z
i
t
:
t .:-

IF-A'
As mentroned above, when you hal'e obtained results in vour
Set,il
alrulaLion,,r.-p' r" . t'..f, lhF\c b\ meansol a Iough manurl '
lo br anle
r.u ere rn Lh. bcllpark.Of r our \e \oucdnnor e\pecl\oul}ell
are
io solv. every probl.m accuratell after all, this is the reason you
a
closer
off,
usine IL\. Yet, ifvour calculation is an order ofmagnitude
insplction is warranted. Remember Lhat engineering arralysishas been
taking place since long before lhe introdu.tion of the {inite element

88

Choprer2, Fundomentdls
method. l'EA is a relatively new tool. When used with care and forethought, it can certainlyprovide excelleDtresultsin an extremelyeflficient manner. Yet, as with any powedul root, if it is usd blindly, the
magnitudeof the error can bejust asmagnificent.
The material coveredin this chapter wasintentionally conciseand, in
addition to servingasa useful rcference,it wasmeant to remind you or
inlroduce\ou lo somebasiccngineeringcon(ep(s.lr is hightyier ummended that you explore thesetopicsin more depth by usingyour college textbook, the FnA software documentation, or references
mentioned in the Bibliography. Armed wirh the appropriate background information on the technology and underlying phlsics, you will
bc better equippedto succeedin the excitingworld ofsimulation based
designusing finite elementanaltsis.