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Time frame: 3 weeks


1. PRODUCTION At the end of the lessons, students Activity 1: Identify the stages of production
should be able to:
1.1 The chain in production. Provide a picture of different stages of production. Ask the
• Define production. students to identify each of them.
• Production of goods and
services to satisfy human • Explain the chain in production.
wants and needs. Activity 2: Satisfy the human wants
• Define and give examples of
• Process of production from the different types of Show how the workers engaged in the production of for
primary through secondary industries:- examples; handbags, t-shirts watches or computers satisfy
to tertiary production. human wants.
• Extractive industries.
• Manufacturing
• Extractive, manufacturing industries. Activity 3: Activities in the production process
and construction industries • Construction industries. (the
and tertiary activities. • Tertiary industries. chain in production)
• Meaning of these types of • Define specialization and Show the stages in the production for example; making of
industries with examples. division of labour. papers (a chain of production for making paper). Then, link
them with the different types of industries involve.
• Describe specialization and
1.2 Specialization and Division of division of labour by country,
Labour. by region, by town, by firm and Activity 4: How specialization and division of
by individual. labour works?
• Meaning and use of the
terms specialization and • Define the followings: - By looking at school environment, show how the different
division of labour.
people in the school specialize at in their jobs. Examples;

• Forms of specialization; by • Commerce. chemistry teachers, economics teachers and history
country, by region, by town, • Trade. teachers. The specialization of services.
by firm, by factory, by • Home trade.
individual. • Foreign trade. Activity 5: Testing Ideas
• Describe how aids to trade help
trade/business. Discuss together with the student how trade is important for
1.3 Commerce. a country.
• Explain the relationship
• Process of exchange of between industry, commerce
goods and services. and direct services. Activity 6: Testing Ideas

Take one or more of the aids to trade and show how for
1.4 Trade.
example transport and banks assist the production of
mineral water.
• Nature, purposes and
importance of trade, both at
home and overseas.

1.5 Aids to trade.

• Banking and finance, Suggested places for a visit:

advertising, transport, • Kingston Beverages Company, Beribi.
warehousing, insurance. • Suci Mas Compay (Mineral water), Perindustrian Lambak

• The relationship between

industry, commerce and
direct services.

• Ways in which industry,

commerce and direct
services are inter-related
and interdependent.


Suggested time frame: 3 weeks


2. RETAIL TRADE At the end of the lessons, students Activity 1: Retailers’ Role.
should be able to:
2.1 Role of retailer in the chain of Give an example of a retailer in Brunei, lets say Hua Ho
distribution. • Explain the role of retailer in Department and show how its role in the chain of
the chain of distribution. distribution.
• Services of the retailer as
the middleman between • Explain the features of both For example;
manufacturer and consumer. small-scale retailers and large-
scale retailers. 1. How does Hua Ho Department Store in our country
• Responses to changes in helps in the chain of distribution?
customer requirements and • Identify the examples of small-
expectations. scale and large-scale retailers.
Activity 2: Retailers’ services.
• Explain the advantages and
2.2 Types of retailer. disadvantages of the following Create questions to show the services of the retailer to the
retailers:- manufacturer as well as to the customers;.
• Large and small; their
characteristics, advantages • department store. For example;
and disadvantages. • supermarket.
• mail order business. 1. A small town has the following shops;

2.3 Selling techniques, trends in Pertama Jaya supermarkets

• State the reasons for the
retailing and the implications Mum Care Sdn Bhd
survival of small-scale retailers
of e-commerce. Tailor shop
despite the stiff competition
from large-scale retailers.
• E.g. branding, packaging, (a) What are the services of these shops to the
self-service, after-sales customers?
• Recognize the selling
service, bar coding, EPOS, techniques, trends in retailing
shopping centers, loyalty (b) State the services of these shops to the
and implications of e-
cards, implications of e- manufacturers.
commerce in retailing.
• Recognize the methods of

2.4 Home shopping. home shopping. Activity 3: Identify the retailers.

• Mail order, shopping by Show some pictures of small-scale retailers (SSR) and large-
phone, telesales, shopping scale retailers (LSR) to students, Students then, identify
by television, shopping on them.

• Characteristics and reasons Or

for the use of each.
Create some names of SSR and LSR to students. Students
then, identify them.
2.5 Large-scale retailing.
For example;
• Advantages and
disadvantages. 1. The following are lists of retailers:

• Effects on wholesalers, other Grocer shop, school canteen, small shops in the mall,
retailers and consumers. Mother Care, Harrods Department Store and largest
Nazmi Textile Company, Kentucky Fried Chicken
• Reasons for the survival of
the small-scale retailer, e.g. Identify them into;
personal service, opening i. Small-scale retailer
hours, additional services. ii. Large-scale retailer

Activity 4: The Survival of small-retailers.

Create some names of SSR and LSR, then, set a question

about the survival of this SSR despite the competition from

For example;

1. Ravy Enteprise is a small grocer shop in a village,

which is about 20 km from a town. In the town, there
is a big, popular supermarket.

State and explain three factors that enable Ravy

Enterprise to survive in the business.

Activity 5: Listing the advantages and

Listing the important keys of the following LSR:

• Supermarket
• Department store
• Multiple chain

Activity 6: The selling techniques.

The following are the selling techniques that the retailers

might adopt in their businesses.
• bar coding
• after-sale services
• vending machines
• point-of-sale advertising

For example;

1. How the following trends in retailing help the

retailers in their daily business transactions.

i. bar coding
ii. point-of-sale advertising
iii. vending machine

Activity 7: Advantages and disadvantages of

home shopping.

Identify and define the methods of home shopping. Discuss

its advantages and disadvantages for consumers.

For example;

1. Nowadays, there are many modern techniques for

consumers to do their shopping comfortably at
home. Explain two of them (with examples of goods
being offered).

2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the

following home shopping:

i. Shopping on internet
ii. Shopping by television
iii. Shopping by phone


Suggested time frame: 2 weeks


3. WHOLESALE TRADE At the end of the lessons, students Activity 1: Wholesaler’s roles/services
should be able to:
3.1 The role of the wholesaler in Show the roles/services of the wholesaler to the
the chain of distribution. manufacturer, to the retailer as well as to the consumers.
• Define wholesale trade and
• Different patterns of wholesaler. For example;
• Recognize the different patterns 1. Malar Company is a wholesale trade selling
• Trends in wholesaling: forces of distributing goods from the foodstuffs and supplies to the retailers in small
making for the elimination and manufacturer to the final town.
the survival of the consumers.
independent wholesaler. (a) What are the services of Malar Compay (a
wholesaler) to the retailers?
• Produce reasons for the
3.2 Functions and services of the elimination and the survival of (b) State the services of Malar Company to the
wholesaler. the independent wholesalers in manufacturers.
the chain of distribution.
• Services provided for the (c) Identify the services of Malar Company to the

manufacturer, retailer, • State the functions and services customers.
consumer. of the wholesaler to the
manufacturer, retailer and
consumer. Activity 2: Recognizing the pattern of
3.3 Intermediaries. distributing goods

• Role of merchants and • Define the role of broker, factor Aeroplanes, helicopters, customers’ own design
agents. and forwarding agent. furniture, soft drinks, vehicles, cables, stationery,
haircut, insurance services and cooking oil.
• Forwarding agents. • Differentiate between a broker
and factor. By referring to the above goods and services. Identify the
channels of distributing goods/services from the
manufacturer to the final consumers.

Activity 3: Who are these agents?

Create questions to show the importance of the following

agents for exporters (for foreign trade activity):

(i) a forwarding agent

(ii) broker
(iii) factor


1. Why do exporters need the services of: -

i. i. Forwarding agents
ii. ii. Brokers
to sell their product overseas?

Suggested places for a visit:

• Malar Setia, Perindustrian Lambak Kanan


Suggested time frame: 2 weeks


4. DOCUMENTS OF TRADE At the end of the lessons, students

should be able to:
• Activity 1: Identify the documents in correct
4.1 Documents of home trade. order.
• Identify each document used in
Show the correct order of the documents in home trade.
• Enquiry, quotation, home trade.
catalogue, price list, order, • Recognize the order by which For example;
invoice, advice and delivery the documents being used.
note, credit note, statement
1. The following are the documents of home trade.
of account, receipt. • Describe the functions and key They are not according to the correct sequence.
information of each document.
• Key information and o Order
purposes of these • Differentiate between cash

documents. discount, trade discount and o Letter of inquiry
mark up. o Invoice
4.2 Terms of payment. o Delivery order

• Cash and trade discounts, (a) From the above documents, identify one
mark-up. document sent by the customer to agree to buy
the goods.

(b) Re-arrange the above documents in correct


a. Activity 2: Purposes of the documents.

Show the keys and purposes of each document.

For example;

1. (a) Why does a retailer use catalogues before

buying goods from the wholesaler?

(b) What are the purposes of the following


i. Invoice
ii. Delivery order
iii. Statement of account
iv. Receipt
• Activity 3: Cash and trade discounts.

Show the definition of cash discount and trade discount.

Then, show how to obtain cash and trade discounts.

For example;

1. Miss Fonda bought several goods totaling

$900. She is given 5% trade discount and
another 3% discount if she pays within 10 days.

(a) Calculate how much she would pay if she paid

after 10 days?

(b) How much she would pay if she paid within 10

(c) What is the advantage of trade discount and

cash discount to the consumers?

Topic 5: BANKING

Suggested time frame: 3 weeks


5. BANKING At the end of the lessons, students • Activity 1: Recognize the banking
should be able to: services.
5.1 Banking Services

Show to the students what are the services provided by a
• Deposit, savings accounts and • Recognize the services provided commercial bank to their customers especially business
current accounts and services by the commercial banks. community.
provided e.g. paying –in-slip,
bank statement. • Identify the different means of For example;
payment for home and
international trade activities. 1. Mr. Jackie has a bank current account and a
5.2 Means of payment for home fixed deposit account.
and international trade • Describe the purpose of each
activities. means of making payment. (a) State two advantages to Mr. Jackie of having
both accounts.
• Cash; cheques; credit • State the advantages and
transfers; standing orders; disadvantages of the following
direct debits; electronic trends in banking: - (b) Why is a fixed deposit account suitable to
transfers; documentary people who have excess amount of funds?
credits; bank drafts; debit • ATMs.
cards; credit cards. (c) Mr. Jackie is able to use the following bank
• Telebanking.
services to pay bills:
• Internet banking.
• Purposes of each means of
making payment.
5.3 Trends in banking.

State, with reasons, which bank service Mr. Jackie

• E.g. ATMs, telebanking,
should use to pay each of the following:
Internet banking.
i. Mortgage payments, which vary with
changes in interest rates.
ii. Settlement of a hotel bill
iii. Payment of his insurance premium to
National Insurance Company.

2. ATMs, telebanking and internet banking are

some of the services offer by a bank to the
customers. Answer the following questions;

(a) Why a bank offers ATMs to the customers?

(b) What are the advantages of internet

banking to: (a) customers and (b) a bank?

(c) What is telebanking and state the services

Suggested places for a visit:

• Hongkong and Shangai Banking Corporation

• Standard and Chartered Banking


Suggested time frame: 3 weeks

6. COMMUNICATIONS At the end of the lessons, students • Activity 1: Applying the methods of
should be able to: communication
6.1 Importance of
communications in the global • State the importance of Show examples how each method of communication
economy. communications in the global would be appropriately used in a given situation.
• Rapid and accurate For example;
transmission of information • Apply the usage of different
in the global economy. methods of communication to a 1. The following are the means/methods of
given situation. communication, which are very useful for the
• Identify the services provided by business community.
6.2 Methods of communications, the Post Office and the
internal and external. Telecoms. E-mail, Fax, Letter, Telephone, Teleconferencing,
frank machine and registered post.
• Oral, written, telephonic, • Produce reasons for the usage
of services offered by the Post (a) When would a trader use:
Office and the Telecoms.
i. Fax rather than the other means of
6.3 Post Office, Telecoms.
ii. Telephone rather than e-mail?
• Services provided.
iii. Frank machine rather than registered post?

2. Baiduri bank always sends many statements of

accounts and other documents to its clients
towards the end of the month. Describe the
appropriate means, which is provided by post
office that may help with this.

3. State one method of communication, which

might be used to communicate the following
information. In each case, give a reason for your

i. A company wants to give information about a

offer for the new year.

ii. An exporter in Brunei has sent his goods to a
customer in Thailand and wishes to tell the
buyer the
date when they will arrive.

iii. Berjaya Association would like to invite over a

thousand of its members for the opening of its

Suggested places for a visit:

• Telbru
• Post Office

Note: The order of syllabus contents may change from year to year in accordance to the
syllabus provided by CIE but there is no change to the content of topics.

Recommended Textbooks:

Betsy Li and Tan Sai Kim, Modern Certificate Guides: Elements of Commerce, 1999
Bill Jones, Revise Commerce, A Complete Revision Course For GCSE
D Butler, GCSE Business Studies, 2001
Dave Hall, GCSE Applied Business
Gerry Gorman, GCSE Business Studies, 1989
Richard Barrett and Mario Gow, Commerce Skills, 1998

Other sources;

• Past 7100 Commerce “O” Level Papers, From Examination Department
• Past 7101/2 Commercial Studies “O” Level Papers, From Examination Department