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Biyani's Think Tank

Concept based notes


Ms Rashmi
Deptt. of IT
Biyani Girls College, Jaipur

Published by :

Think Tanks
Biyani Group of Colleges

Concept & Copyright :

Biyani Shikshan Samiti

Sector-3, Vidhyadhar Nagar,
Jaipur-302 023 (Rajasthan)
Ph : 0141-2338371, 2338591-95 Fax : 0141-2338007
E-mail : acad@biyanicolleges.org
Website :www.gurukpo.com; www.biyanicolleges.org

Edition : 2012

While every effort is taken to avoid errors or omissions in this Publication, any mistake or
omission that may have crept in is not intentional. It may be taken note of that neither the
publisher nor the author will be responsible for any damage or loss of any kind arising to
anyone in any manner on account of such errors and omissions.

Leaser Type Setted by :

Biyani College Printing Department



am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of the

students. The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness in
understanding the fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is self-explanatory and
adopts the Teach Yourself style. It is based on question-answer pattern. The language
of book is quite easy and understandable based on scientific approach.
Any further improvement in the contents of the book by making corrections,
omission and inclusion is keen to be achieved based on suggestions from the readers
for which the author shall be obliged.
I acknowledge special thanks to Mr. Rajeev Biyani, Chairman & Dr. Sanjay Biyani,
Director (Acad.) Biyani Group of Colleges, who are the backbones and main concept
provider and also have been constant source of motivation throughout this endeavour.
They played an active role in coordinating the various stages of this endeavour and
spearheaded the publishing work.
I look forward to receiving valuable suggestions from professors of various
educational institutions, other faculty members and students for improvement of the
quality of the book. The reader may feel free to send in their comments and suggestions
to the under mentioned address.

Artificial Intelligence and Expert System

Prerequisite: System Software, Operating System, Data and File Structure.
Introduction of Artificial Intellignce: Simulation of so called intelligent behavior, in
different areas. Problem solving: Games, natural language, question answering, visual
perception, learning, Aim-oriented (heuristic) algorithm versus solution guaranteed
Understanding Natural Languages: Parsing techniques. Context free and
transformational grammars, transition nets, augmented transition nets, Fillmore's
grammars. Shank's conceptual dependency, grammar-free analyzers, sentence
generation, translation.
Knowledge Representation: First-Order predicate calculus Horn's clauses, The
Language PROLOG, semantic nets, Partitioned rules, knowledge base, the inference
system, forward and backward deduction.
Expert Systems: Existing system (DENDRAL MYCIN): Domain exploration, metaKnowledge, expertise transfer, self-explanining systems machine perception, line
finding, interpretation semantics and models, object identification, speech recognition.




What is AI?
Artificial intelligence is the study of how to make computers do things which, at
the moment, people can do better.
Artificial Intelligence is the study of human intelligence such that it can be
replicated artificially.

Q.2 . What are the different applications of AI?

a) Game playing
b) Speech recognition
c) Understanding natural language
d) Computer vision
e) Expert system
f) Fuzzy logic system

What are the different problems involved in AI?


Problem solving
Knowledge representation
Learning Natural Language Processing
Motion and manipulation

Q.4. Explain Depth-First Search

1. Set L to be a list of the initial nodes in the problem.

2. If L is empty, fail otherwise pick the first node n from L

3. If n is a goal state, quit and return path from initial node.
4. Otherwise remove n from L and add to the front of L all of n's children. Label
each child with its path from initial node. Return to 2.

Explain Breadth-First Search .

1. Set L to be a list of the initial nodes in the problem.
2. If L is empty, fail otherwise pick the first node n from L
3. If n is a goal state, quit and return path from initial node.
4. Otherwise remove n from L and add to the end of L all of n's children. Label
each child with its path from initial node. Return to 2.

Q6 .

What is meant by heuristic search technique?What are different heuristic

search techniques.
It is a search technique that relies on the estimate provided by the heuristic
function. Heuristic search techniques make use of domain specic information
Generate and Test Search :In the Generate and Test Search
A. Generate a possible solution with generating a path from Start state
B. Then test to see if this is actually a solution by comparing the chosen point or
the endpoint of the chosen path to the set of acceptable goal states.
C. If the solution has found then quit. Otherwise, return to step A
The Generate and Test algorithm is a depth-first-serach procedure since
complete solution must be generate before they can be tested. It also operate by
generating solution randomly, but there is no guarantee that a solution will ever
be found
2. Hill Climbing Search :-


Hill Climbing is an optimization technique which improve the solution by

considering a neighboring configuration. It is an iterative algorithm that starts
with an arbitrary solution to a problem, then attempts to find a better solution by
incrementally changing a single element of the solution. If the change produces a
better solution, an incremental change is made to the new solution, repeating
until no further improvements can be found.
A. Evaluate the initial state If it also goal state, then return it and quit. Otherwise,
continue with the initial state as the current state.
B. Loop until a solution is found or until there are no new operators left to be
applied in the current state:
1. Select an operator that has not yet been applied to the current state and
applied in the current state;
2. Evaluate the new state.

if it is a goal state, then return it and quit.


If it is not a goal state but it is better than the current state, then
make it current state.


If it is not better than the current state, then continue in the loop.

This technique is slightly differ from generate-and-test technique in which

feedback from the test procedure is used to decide which direction to move in
the search space. The Key difference between this algorithm and the one we gave
for generate-and-test is the use of an evaluation function as a way to inject taskspecific knowledge into the current process.
For Example - : If you want to climb on hill on a foggy day, how you will climb
you will search to pick a stone which is above you height at your upward
side(picking of stone is right, left, up are solutions and examining is testing ,
getting the right choice which takes you upward is better current state)
3. Best First Search / Greedy Best-First Search :-

As we already know that heuristics always has information about the problem
and its parameter.
In the Best-First Search it follow a single path at a time but it has capability to
switch path whenever some competing path looks more promising than the
current one does.
The Best-First-Search is an instance of the general Tree-Search or Graph-Search
algorithm in which a Node is selected for expansion based on an evaluation
function f(n). The evaluation function measures distance to the Goal and the
Node with the lowest evaluation is selected for expansion first.
The Key component in Best-First algorithm is a heuristic function h(n) , which is
the estimated cost of his cheapest path from n to a goal node.
The heuristic function h(n) are the most common form in which addition
knowledge of the problem is imparted to the search algorithm
At the each step of the Best-First Search process, we select the most promising of
the nodes we have generated so far. This is done by applying an appropriate
heuristic function to each of them. We then expand the chosen node by using the
rules to generate its successor. If one of them is a solution, we can quit. If not, all
those new nodes are added to the set of new nodes generated so far. Again the
most promising node is selected and the process continue, if the solution not
found, then that branch will start to look less promising then one of the top-level
branches that has been ignored. At this point, the now more promising,
previously ignored branch will be explored. But the old branch not forgotten.
To implement it we will need to use two list of nodes
OPEN nodes that have been generated and have had the heuristic function
applied to them but which have yet to be examined. OPEN is actually a priority
queue in which the elements with the highest priority are those with the most
promising value of the heuristic function.
CLOSE nodes that have already been examined. We need to keep these nodes
in memory to check whenever a node is generated it already examined or not.


OPEN = initial state

while OPEN != null
1. Pick the best node on open.
2. Create open's successors
3. For each successor do:
a. If it has not been generated before: evaluate it,
add it to OPEN, and record its parent
b. Otherwise: change the parent if this new path is
better than previous one.

Lets consider the following example to find the path from Start to Goal in the
graph below


>>> First add the Start node to the fringe

>>> Visit the Start Node and add its neighbors to the fringe



>>> Visit the Node A and add its neighbors to the fringe

Now there is a choice on which node to visit next. Because we are using greedy
best-first search, the node with the lowest heuristic is used. If this solution was


implemented, a priority queue would be used for the fringe, so it would always
return the node with the lowest heuristic. Since node D has the lowest heuristic
value, we visit at that node and add its neighbors to the fringe.

Now, since node E has the lowest heuristic in the fringe, it is visited at and its
neighbors are added to the fringe.



Finally, since the Goal is in the priority queue with a heuristic of 0, it is visited
and a path to the goal is found. The path found from Start to Goal is: Start -> A ->
D -> E -> Goal. In this case, it was the optimal path, but only because the
heuristic values were fairly accurate.


Explain Best First Search .

The best first search allows us to switch between paths thus gaining the benefit
of both approaches. At each step the most promising node is chosen. If one of the
nodes chosen generates nodes that are less promising it is possible to choose
another at the same level and in effect the search changes from depth to breadth.
If on analysis these are no better then this previously unexpanded node and
branch is not forgotten and the search method reverts to the descendants of the
first choice and proceeds, backtracking as it were.

Best First Search Algorithm:

1. Start with OPEN holding the initial state
2. Pick the best node on OPEN


3. Generate its successors

4. For each successor Do
o If it has not been generated before evaluate it add it to OPEN and record
its parent
o If it has been generated before change the parent if this new path is better
and in that case update the cost of getting to any successor nodes
5. If a goal is found or no more nodes left in OPEN, quit, else return to 2.

Q.8. What are the achievements of AI?

Ans. The achievements of AI are as follows: 1. Deep thought is an international grand master chess player.
2. Sphinx can recognize continuous speech without training for each speaker. It
operates in nearreal time using a vocabulary of 1000 words and has 94% word
3. Navlab is a truck that can drive along a road at 55 KMPH in normal traffic.
4. Carlton and United Breweries use an AI planning system to plan production
of their beer.
5. Robots are used regularly in manufacturing.
6. Natural language interface to databases can be obtained on a PC.
7. Machine Learning methods have been used to build expert systems.
8. Expert systems are used regularly in finance, medicine, manufacturing, and
Q9 .

Comment on Best-First is a combination of depth first and breadth first

Ans. Depth first is good because a solution can be found without computing all nods
and breadth firstis good because it does not get trapped in dead ends. The best
first search allows us to switchbetween paths thus gaining the benefit of both
approaches. At each step the most promising node ischosen. If one of the nodes
chosen generates nodes that are less promising it is possible to chooseanother at
the same level and in effect the search changes from depth to breadth. If on
analysis theseare no better than this previously unexpanded node and branch is
not forgotten and the searchmethod reverts to the descendants of the first choice
and proceeds, backtracking as it were.



Q.10 . Write goals of A.I?

Ans Traditionally there are four possible Goal of A.I. and have been followed and
the approaches are
1. Cognitive Science Approach :- Cognitive means Process of Understanding and
In this approach we aspect that system should think like a human beings. It just
not focus on behavior and I/O, but to produce a sequence of steps of the
reasoning process, similar to the steps followed by a human in solving the same
2. Low of thought Approach :- It focus on logical thought rather than emotions to
make decisions. It inference mechanisms that are probably correct and guarantee
an optimal solution. As it tells about the system of logical rules and procedure
for final decision.
3. Turning Test Approach :- The art of creating machines that perform
tesk/function utilizing the same intelligence when they perform by the people
hence it is the study of, how to make computer to things in the same manner as
human beings do better. It focus on action not on intelligent behavior. Its dont
bother on how to get result be focus on result should be similar to what human
result are.
4. Rational agent Approach :- An Agent is one who act upon and a rational agent is
one who that act so as to achieve best outcome or if there is uncertainty in the
result then achieve at least best expected outcome. Moreover it concern with that
system should at least produce sufficient outcome if could not produce optimum
output in all case.
Q.11. Explain problem solving.
Ans Problem Solving:- Problem solving is the process of generating solution from
observed or given data (Inputs). It is however not always possible to use direct
methods. Instead, problem solving often use indirect or model based methods. In
the A.I. most of real word problems can be solved by searching for a solution. To
build a system to solve a particular problem, we need to
Define the problem precisely find input situation as well as final situation for
acceptable solution to the problem.
Analyze the problem find few important feature that may have impact on the
appropriateness of various possible technique for solving the problem.
Isolate and represent task knowledge necessary to solve the problem.


Choose the best problem solving technique(s) and apply to the particular
Q12. What is Natural Language Processing?
Ans Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an area of research and application that
explores how computers can be used to understand and manipulate natural
language text or speech to do useful things. NLP researchers aim to gather
knowledge on how human beings understand and use language so that
appropriate tools and techniques can be developed to make computer systems
understand and manipulate natural languages to perform the desired tasks. The
foundations of NLP lie in a number of disciplines, viz. computer and information
sciences, linguistics, mathematics, electrical and electronic engineering, artificial
intelligence and robotics, psychology, etc. Applications of NLP include a number
of fields of studies, such as machine translation, natural language text processing
and summarization, user interfaces, multilingual and cross language information
retrieval (CLIR), speech recognition, artificial intelligence and expert systems,
and so on.
Q13. What is the Turing test?
Ans Alan Turing's 1950 article Computing Machinery and Intelligence discussed
conditions for considering a machine to be intelligent. He argued that if the
machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable observer
then you certainly should consider it intelligent. This test would satisfy most
people but not all philosophers. The observer could interact with the machine
and a human by teletype (to avoid requiring that the machine imitate the
appearance or voice of the person), and the human would try to persuade the
observer that it was human and the machine would try to fool the observer.
The Turing test is a one-sided test. A machine that passes the test should
certainly be considered intelligent, but a machine could still be considered
intelligent without knowing enough about humans to imitate a human.
Q.14. Isn't AI about simulating human intelligence?
Ans Sometimes but not always or even usually. On the one hand, we can learn
something about how to make machines solve problems by observing other
people or just by observing our own methods. On the other hand, most work in
AI involves studying the problems the world presents to intelligence rather than



studying people or animals. AI researchers are free to use methods that are not
observed in people or that involve much more computing than people can do.
Q.15. Are computers the right kind of machine to be made intelligent?
Ans Computers can be programmed to simulate any kind of machine.
Many researchers invented non-computer machines, hoping that they would be
intelligent in different ways than the computer programs could be. However,
they usually simulate their invented machines on a computer and come to doubt
that the new machine is worth building. Because many billions of dollars that
have been spent in making computers faster and faster, another kind of machine
would have to be very fast to perform better than a program on a computer
simulating the machine.
Q.16. Explain term simulation?
Ans Simulation
A simulation is a system that is constructed to work, in some ways, analogously
to another system of interest. The constructed system is usually made simpler
than the original system so that only the aspects of interest are mirrored.
Simulations are commonly used to learn more about the behavior of the original
system, when the original system is not available for manipulation. It may not be
available because of cost or safety reasons, or it may not be built yet and the
purpose of learning about it is to design it better. If the purpose of learning is to
train novices, then cost, safety, or convenience are likely to be the reasons to
work on a simulated system. The simulation may be a computer simulation
(perhaps a realistic one of a nuclear power station's control room, or a
mathematical one such as a spreadsheet for "what-if" analysis of a company's
business); or it may be a small-scale physical model (such as a small-scale bridge,
or a pilot chemical plant).
Q17. Explain Cognitive Science.
Ans Artificial intelligence can be defined as the mimicking of human thought to
perform useful tasks, such as solving complex problems. This creation of new
paradigms, algorithms, and techniques requires continued involvement in the
human mind, the inspiration of AI. To that end, AI software designers team with


cognitive psychologists and use cognitive science concepts, especially in

knowledge elicitation and system design

Multiple Choice Questions


Weak A.I. is the

Study of mental fecilities through the use of mental methods
implemented on a computer
Set of computer program
All of the above
None of the above
Ans: a


Cognitive science is a
Combination of AI and Phychology
Combination of AI and medicine
Combination of AI and Sociology
None of the above
Ans: a


A.I can be defined as

A branch of computer science concerned with creating computer
systems exhibiting intelligence
A branch of computer science dealing with graph theory
A branch of computer science used for creating a databases
None of the above
Ans :a


What is the term used for describing the judgmental or commonsense

part of problem solving?
Value based
None of the above
Ans: a




Which kind of planning consists of successive representations of

different levels of a plan?
Hierachial planning
Non-hierachial planning
All of the above and
None of the above
Ans: a


What was originally called the "imitation game" by its creator?

Turning test
None of the above
Ans: b


If a robot can alter its own trajectory in response to external conditions

it is considered to be
Open loop
Ans: a


An A.I technique that allows computers to understand association and

relationship between objects and events called
Heuristic processing
Cogiitive science
Pattern matching
Ans: c


The field that investigate the machanics of human intelligence is

Coginitive science
Ans: a



Natural language processing is divided in to subfields of

Symbolic and numeric
Time and motion
Understanding and generation


Father of A.I
Alan Turning
Fisher Ada
Allen Newell


Area of A.I. that investigate methods of facilitating communication

between people and computers is
Natural language processing
Symbolic processing
Ans: a


Which approach to speech regonition avoids the problem caused by the

differences in the way words words are prounced accordibng to context
isolated word recognition
continous speech regonition


Field of A.I. that covers finger print identification , handwriting

recognition, wheather forecasting is
pattern recognition
image processing
fuzzy logic
parsing program






Which is true regarding BFS?

BFS will get trapped exploring a single path
The entire tree so far been generated must be stored in BFS
BFS is not guaranteed to find a solution, if exists
BFS is nothing but Binary First Search
BFS is one type of sorting.
Ans : (b)
What is a heuristic function?
A function to solve mathematical problems
A function which takes parameters of type string and returns an
integer value
A function whose return type is nothing
A function which returns an object
A function that maps from problem state descriptions to measures of
Ans : (e)
The traveling salesman problem involves n cities with paths connecting
the cities. The time taken for traversing through all the cities, without
knowing in advance the length of a minimum tour, is
Ans : (c)


Unit 2

Knowledge Representation

What is Knowledge?Explain natural level processing.

Knowledge is a general term. Knowledge is a progression that starts with data
which is of limited utility.
knowledge--1. In artificial intelligence, symbolic information used by a domain
expert to solve problems. 2. Facts and relationships used to solve problems.
Natural Language Processing
English is an example of a natural language, a computer language. For a
computer to process a natural language, it would have to mimic what a human
does. That is, the computer would have to recognize the sequence of words
spoken by a person or another computer, understand the syntax or grammar of
the words (i.e., do a syntactical analysis), and then extract the meaning of the
words. A limited amount of meaning can be derived from a sequence of words
taken out of context (i.e., by semantic analysis); but much more of the meaning
depends on the context in which the words are spoken (e.g., who spoke them,
under what circumstances, with what tone, and what else was said, particularly
before the words), which would require a pragmatic analysis to extract. To date,
natural language processing is poorly developed and computers are not yet able
to even approach the ability of humans to extract meaning from natural
languages; yet there are already valuable practical applications of the


What is Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR or KRR):

A subarea of Artificial Intelligence concerned with understanding, designing,
and implementing ways of representing information in computers, and using
that information to derive new information based on it. KR is more concerned



with belief than knowledge". Given that an agent (human or computer) has
certain beliefs, what else is reasonable for it to believe, and how is it reasonable
for it to act, regardless of whether those beliefs are true and justified.

What is logic? Explain

different types of logic used in knowledge
Logic is the study of correct reasoning.It is a collection of rules we use when
doing logical reasoning. Human reasoning has been observed over centuries
from at least the times of Greeks, and patterns appearing in reasoning have been
extracted, abstracted, and streamlined. The foundation of the logic we are going
to learn here was laid down by a British mathematician George Boole in the
middle of the 19th century, and it was further developed and used in an attempt
to derive all of mathematics by Gottlob Frege, a German mathematician, towards
the end of the 19th century. A British philosopher/mathematician, Bertrand
Russell, found a flaw in basic assumptions in Frege's attempt but he, together
with Alfred Whitehead, developed Frege's work further and repaired the
damage. The logic we study today is more or less along this line.
In logic we are interested in true or false of statements, and how the
truth/falsehood of a statement can be determined from other statements.
However, instead of dealing with individual specific statements, we are going to
use symbols to represent arbitrary statements so that the results can be used in
many similar but different cases. The formalization also promotes the clarity of
thought and eliminates mistakes.
There are various types of logic such as logic of sentences (propositional logic),
logic of objects (predicate logic), logic involving uncertainties, logic dealing with
fuzziness, temporal logic etc. Here we are going to be concerned with
propositional logic and predicate logic, which are fundamental to all types of
Propositional logic is a logic at the sentential level. The smallest unit we deal
with in propositional logic is a sentence. We do not go inside individual
sentences and analyze or discuss their meanings. We are going to be interested
only in true or false of sentences, and major concern is whether or not the truth
or falsehood of a certain sentence follows from those of a set of sentences, and if
so, how. Thus sentences considered in this logic are not arbitrary sentences but
are the ones that are true or false. This kind of sentences are called propositions.



Explain Horn Clause.

A Horn clause is a clause containing at most one positive literal.
Examples of a Horn Clause
[Child, Mail,Boy]


Explain the process of Skolemization. How is this accomplished? Give

suitable examples insupport of your answer.

Ans. Skolemization is the process of removing existential quantifiers by elimination.

In the simpletranslate into P (A), where A is a constant that does not appear
elsewhere in the KB. But thereis the added complication that some of the
existential quantifiers, even though move left, may still benested inside a
universal quantifier.Skolemization is accomplished as follows: If the first (leftmost) quantifier in an expression is an existential quantifier,
replace alloccurrences of the variable it quantifier with an arbitrary constant not
appearingelsewhere and delete the quantifier. The same procedure should be
followed for all otherexistential quantifiers not preceded by a universal
quantifier, in each case, using differentconstant symbols in the substitution.
For each existential quantifier that is preceded by one or more universal
quantifiers (iswithin the scope of one or more universal quantifiers) replace all
occurrences of theexistentially quantified variable by a function symbol not
appearing elsewhere in theexpression. The argument assigned to the function
should match all the variablesappearing in each universal quantifier which
preceded the existential quantifier. Thisexistential quantifier should then be
deleted. The same procedure should be repeated foreach remaining existential
quantifier using a different function symbol and choosingfunction arguments
that correspond to all universally quantified variables that precede
theexistentially quantified variable being replaced.Example of Skolemization
Consider Everyone has a heart:
Has (x, y)
If we just replaced y with a constant, H, we would get,



Has (x, H)
Which says that everyone has the same heart H.? We need to say that the heart
they have is notnecessarily shared, that is, it can be found by applying to each
person a function that maps from personto heart:
Has (x, F(x))
Where F is a function name that does not appear elsewhere in the KB. F is called
a SkolemFunction. In general, the existentially quantified variable is replaced by
a term that consists of a SkolemFunction applied to all the variables universally
quantified outside the existential quantifier in question.Skolemization eliminates
all existentially quantified variables, so we are now free to drop the
universalquantifiers, because any variable must be universally quantified.
Q.6. Comment on Heuristics are fallible.
Ans. Heuristics are fallible because they rely on limited information, they may lead to
a suboptimalsolution or to a dead end.Heuristics is a rule of thumb or
judgmental technique that leads to a solution some of the timebut provides no
guarantee of success. It may in fact end in failure. Heuristics plays an important
rolein search strategies because of the exponential nature of most problems. They
help to reduce thenumber of alternatives from an exponential number to a
polynomial number and, thereby, obtain asolution to a tolerable amount of time.
When exhaustive search is impractical, it is necessary tocompromise for a
constrained search which eliminates many paths but offers the promise of
successsome of the time. Here, success may be considered to be finding an
optimal solution a fair proportionof the time or just finding good solutions much
of the time.


Requirements of KR languages
1. At the implementational level, the main concern is efficiency (space and time).
2. At the logical level, one is concerned with two things: the syntax (Freges
compositionality principle, which states that the meaning of a compound
expression should be derivable from the meanings of its parts) and the
soundness of the inference rules.


3. At the epistemological level, there are four main concerns: If there exists a
natural way of organising knowledge, the KR language has to respect this; the
KR language has to be modular; attention to the granularity (=size of the
information chunks) is important; and the language should support the actual
primitives of the conceptual level.
4. At the conceptual level, one is concerned with how concisely one can
represent particular pieces of knowledge.

What are semantic nets?

There are two types of primitives: nodes and links. Nodes correspond to objects,
or classes of objects, in the world, whereas links correspond to relationships
between these objects. They are often labeled to indicate their meaning. No
information is stored in a node as such; this is done with the links associating
Quillians original work was taken up by psychologists, but also work done in
linguistics was important for the development of the semantic net approach.
Representing information in semantic nets
Quillian distinguished between type and token nodes, corresponding to the two
ways in which a word can occur in a dictionary (as entry or as part of an
Quillian distinguished furthermore between five link types:
A is 1. subclass of B
2. B modifies A
3. Conjunction of a number of nodes
4. Disjunction of a number of nodes
5. B is subject of the relation A which has as object C
(see p. 118 for a figure with an example)
Quillian did not have problems with the circularity caused by the fact that he did
not set up primitives. Others took this primitive word approach (see further).
A second important source was the development of Case Grammar (Fillmore).
He distinguished between a surface structure and a deep structure in each
sentence, related by a number of transformations. The deep structure has a
modality (tense, mood) and a proposition (a verb with a number of cases, i.e.,
roles to be filled in by other parts of the sentence).



Inferencing in semantic nets

The basic inference mechanism consists of following links between nodes. There
are two types of strategies:
Spreading of activation (or intersection search)
The first type tries to find a concept that is related to the words to be related by
the inference. Each node can have an activation tag during this process. When a
new node N is reached following a link from A or from a certain C that can be
reached from A, three things can happen:
There is already an activation tag mentioning word B associated with N:
in this case, N is a basis for comparison.
There is already an activation tag mentioning word A: no new tag is
There is no tag: an activation tag is created.
Also here, the problem of control returns. In Quillians approach, this is solved
by bidirectional search (first from A, then B, then A and so on). But there are
other possibilities.
Not all associative network representations use spreading of activation: in
frames, for example, this is never used. But inheritance is. Inheritance consists in
deriving properties of subclasses from superclasses.
Some researchers do not distinguish between Inst links between tokens and their
types and the Sub link between classes and their superclasses. This is a mistake;
you have to.

What is Prolog ?
Prolog (programming in logic) is a logic-based programming language:
programs correspond to sets of logical formulas and the Prolog interpreter uses
logical methods to resolve queries.
Prolog is a declarative language: you specify what problem you want to solve
rather than how to solve it.
Prolog is very useful in some problem areas, such as artificial intelligence,
natural language processing, databases, . . . , but pretty useless in others, such as
for instance graphics or numerical algorithms.


Q10. Explain Backtracking.

Ans Backtracking: During goal execution Prolog keeps track of choicepoints. If a
particular path turns out to be a failure, it jumps back to the most recent
choicepoint and tries the next alternative. This process is known as backtracking.
Q11. Explain Traveling Salesman problem?
Ans The traveling salesman problem is too complex to be solved via exhaustive
search for large values of N. The nearest neighbor heuristic work well most of the
time, but with some arrangements of cities it does not find the shortest path.
Consider the following two graphs. In the first, nearest neighbor will find the
shortest path. In the second it does not:



Example: Consider the game of tic-tac-toe. Even if we use symmetry to reduce

the search space of redundant moves, the number of possible paths through the
search space is something like 12 x 7! = 60480. That is a measure of the amount of
work that would have to be done by a brute-force search.

Simple heuristic for tic-tac-toe: Move to the square in which X has the most
winning lines. Using this rule, we can see that a corner square has heuristic
value of 3, a side square has a heuristic value of 2, but the center square has a
heuristic value of 4. So we can prune the left and right branches of the search tree.
This removes 2/3 of the search space on the first move. If we apply the heuristic
at each level of the search, we will remove most of the states from consideration
thereby greatly improving the efficiency of the search.

Multiple Choice Questions


Knowledge can be defined as

Combination of state and facts
Gathering of new information
Possession of facts and principles gathered


None of the above

Horn clause is a clause having

At most one positive literal
All literal as +ve literal
At most one ve literal
None of the above
Ans: a


A.I. programming language which solves problems with a form of

symbolic logic
Ans: a


In a rule based system, procedural domain knowledge in the form of

Production rule
Rule interpreters
Meta rule
Common rule
Ans: a


The simulation approach in regard to A.I includes all of the following

problem EXCEPT:
Among the following which is not a horn clause?
p q
All the above.
Ans : (d)


Knowledge may be
I. Declarative.
II. Procedural.



III. Non-procedural.
Only (I) above
Only (II) above
Only (III) above
Both (I) and (II) above
Ans : (a)
Reason :
Idempotency Law is P V P = P

What is the goal of artificial intelligence?

To solve real-world problems
To solve artificial problems
To explain various sorts of intelligence
To extract scientific causes
To restrict problems.


An algorithm is complete if
It terminates with a solution when one exists
It starts with a solution
It does not terminate with a solution
It has a loop
It has a decision parameter.
Ans : (a)
Reason :
An Algorithm is complete if It terminates with a solution
when one exists.


In language understanding, the levels of knowledge that does not

Ans : (e)
Reason :
In language understanding, the levels of knowledge that does
not include empirical knowledge




What is a heuristic function?

A function to solve mathematical problems
A function which takes parameters of type string and returns an
integer value
A function whose return type is nothing
A function which returns an object
A function that maps from problem state descriptions to measures of
Ans : (e)

Default reasoning is another type of

Monotonic reasoning
Analogical reasoning
Bitonic reasoning
Non-monotonic reasoning
Closed world assumption.
Ans : (d)



Unit 3

Expert System

What is Expert System and its advantage?

Expert system is an A.I. program that has expert-level knowledge about a
particular domain and knows how to use its as knowledge-based systems and
knowledge-based expert systems. The experts knowledge about solving the
given specific problems is called knowledge domain of the expert.
Advantages of Expert Systems
Availability: Expert systems are availabe easily due to mass production
Cheaper: The cost of providing expertise is not expensive.
Reduced danger: They can be used in any risky environments where humans
cannot work with.
Permanence: The knowledge will last long indefinitely.
Multiple expertise: It can be designed to have knowledge of many experts.
Explanation: They are capable of explaining in detail the reasoning that led to a
Fast response: They can respond at great speed due to the inherent adavantages
of computers over humans.
Unemotional and repsonse at all times: Unlike humans, they do not get tense,
fatigue or panic and work steadily during emergency situations.



Explain MYCIN?
Mycin is a program that diagnoses infectious diseases. It reasons backward from
its goal of determining the cause of a patient illness. It attempts to solve its goal
of recommending a therapy for a particular patient by first finding the cause of
the patients illness. It uses its production rule4s to reason backward from goals
to clinical observations. To solve the top-level diagnostic goal, it looks for rules
whose right sides suggest diseases. It then uses the left sides of those rules (the
preconditions) to set up sub goals whose success would enable the rules to be
invoked . these sub goals are again matched against rules, and their
preconditions are used to set up additional sub goals.
Mycin is a well known rule based deduction system. Its expertise lies in the
domain of bacterial Infections. Physicians usually must begin antibiotic
treatment for patient who have bacterial infections without knowledge exactly
which organism is the culprit. There is no time to wait for definitive laboratory
culture evidence, which accumulates too slowly. For the desperately sick,
therapy must begin at once not 2 days from can either prescribe a broad
spectrum drug that covers all possibilities , or she can prescribed a better, disease
specific drug.
Mycin helps the physician to prescribe disease specific drugs. Mycin in-forms it
self about particular cases by requesting information from the physician about a
patients symptoms, general condition. History, and laboratory test results that
can be obtained easily and quickly. At each point, the question mycin asks is
determined by Mycins current hypothesis and the answers to all previous


Explain DENDRAL.
DENDRAL is a program that analyses organic compounds to determine their
structure. It is one of the early example of a successful AI program . It uses a
strategy called plan-generate-test in which a planning process that used
constraint-satisfaction techniques, creates lists of recommended and
contraindicated substructures.


Explain Parameter required in building of any Expert System:




(1) Meta-knowledge: Meta-knowledge is knowledge about knowledge. or we

can say thatmeta-knowledge is systematic problem and domain independent
knowledge which performs or enables operation in another more or less specific
domain dependentknowledge in different domain of human activities.Meta
knowledge can be considered as a fundamental conceptual instrument in
suchresearch and scientific domains as, knowledge engineering, knowledge
management andothers dealing with study & operations on knowledge that we
(2) Expertise Transfer : the objective of expertise transfer is to transfer expertise
from one expert system to a computer system. these process evolved four
activities:(a)Knowledge acquisition( from expert or other sources)(b)Knowledge
representation( in the computer)(c)Knowledge inferencing.(d)Knowledge
transfer to user.
(3) Domain Exploration : in general Domain knowledge in the knowledge which
is validand directly used for preselected domain of human or autonomous
computer activity.different specialist and expert use and develop their own
domain knowledge. Domainrefer to the knowledge that is part of the world the
system knows about .this includeobject description, relationship and other
relevant concepts.


Explain Self Explaining System.

The more interesting feature of expert system is their ability toexplain
themselves, is known as self explaining system. Most system has the self
explainingfacility that means why it asked certain question, how it arrived its
answers. Most of theseanswers are provided by explanation module. It provides
the used with an explanation of reasoning process when requested.Expert system
contains many modules to make it operate (Ex: memory). One of the module
isself explaining module. This module is very much required in medical expert
systems. Themodule explains how a conclusion is arrived about a patient and
what its basics assumptions for deriving that conclusion.


Characterestic of expert system

Characteristics of Expert system (comparison between the Expert systemand
conventional computer system)


1. Expert system use knowledge rather than data to control the solution
process. Much of the knowledge used in heuristic in nature rather than
2. The knowledge is encoded and manipulate as an entity separate from
the control programsuch as if not compiled together with the control
program itself. In some cases, it is possible to use different knowledge
bases with the same control program to producedifferent types of
expert system such system are known as Expert system shells.
3. Expert systems are capable of explaining how a particular conclusion
was drawn and whyrequested information is needed during a
4. Expert system use symbolic representation for knowledge (rules,
networks or frames) and perform their inference through symbolic
computations that closely resemble manipulateof manual language.

Advantage of Expert system:

Expert systems do not forget, but human expert may forget.
An expert system needs the symbolic representation.
It reduces the risk of doing business.
It provides the permanent documentation of the decision process.5.An
Expert system can review all the transactions but human expert system
can onlyreview a sample.6.Expert system able to deal with uncertainty.
Expert systems are not focus on abstract. It delivers the answer to goal
oriented of the interview


Disadvantage of Expert system (or limitations of Expert system):

Expert system has no any common sense.
Expert system cannot respond creatively to unusual situation.
Expert system must be explicitly updates while any changes in
Expert system is currently dependent on symbolic input.
Measuring the performance of an expert system is difficult because we do
not know howto quantify the use of knowledge.6.An Expert system has
access to highly specific domain knowledge.



Multiple Choice Questions



Mycin developed for

Blood pressure
Underground minerals
Meningitis and infectious blood desease
None of the above
Ans: c

PROLOG is an AI programming language which solves problems with a

form of symbolic logic known as predicate calculus. It was developed in
1972 at the University of Marseilles by a team of specialists. Can you name
the person who headed this team?
Alain Colmerauer
Nicklaus Wirth
Seymour Papert
None of the above
Ans: a

Travelling salesman problem can be solved using

Hill climbing
Means and analysis
Constraint satisfaction
None of the above
Ans: b


An expert system differs from a database program in that only an expert



Contains declarative knowledge
Contains procedural knowledge
Features the retrieval of stored information
Expects users to draw their own conclusion
Ans: b

Which one is NOT the advantage of Neural Network

Excellent for pattern recognition
Excellent classifiers
Handles noisy data well
None of the given
Ans: d


Decision trees give us disjunctions of conjunctions, that is, they have

the form: (A AND B) _______ (C AND D).
None of the given
Ans: a



Default reasoning is another type of

Monotonic reasoning
Analogical reasoning
Bitonic reasoning
Non-monotonic reasoning
Closed world assumption.
Ans : (d)
Consider a good system for the representation of knowledge in a
particular domain. What property should it possess?
Representational Adequacy
Inferential Adequacy
Inferential Efficiency
Acquisitional Efficiency
All the above.



Ans: (e)
9. Perception involves
Sights,rounds,smell and touch
Ans : d

Name of the computer programm that contains expertise in particular

domain is called an
Expert system
Personel information
Human logic


Component of expert system

Inference engine
User interface
Knowledge base
None of the above
All of the above


Key Terms
User Interface: Provides the means for dialog between the user and system.
Explanation facility : Provides the user with Explanations of how a conclusion was
reached or why a piece of knowledge is needed. They also need to be convinced that the
solution isappropriate and applicable in their circumstances.
Inference Engine
accepts user input quarries and response to questions through the user interface and
uses this dynamic information together with the static knowledge (the rules andfacts)
stored in the knowledge base.
The inference process is carried out recursively in three stages (I) match (II) select (III)
execute.During the match stage, the contents of working memory are compared to facts
and rulescontained in the knowledge base.
Knowledge base contains facts and rules about some specialized knowledge domain.
Learning module implies that an organize or machine must be able to adapt to new
situations.The job of Knowledge engineer is to extract the knowledge from the expert
and other sourceslike book, journals, article etc.
Adaptive Interface A computer interface that automatically and dynamically adapts to
the needs and competence of each individual user of the software.
Agents Agents are software programs that are capable of autonomous, flexible,
purposeful and reasoning action in pursuit of one or more goals. They are designed to
take timely action in response to external stimuli from their environment on behalf of a
human. When multiple agents are being used together in a system, individual agents
are expected to interact together as appropriate to achieve the goals of the overall
system. Also called autonomous agents, assistants, brokers, bots, droids, intelligent
agents, software agents.
AI Languages and Tools: AI software has different requirements from other,
conventional software. Therefore, specific languages for AI software have been



developed. These include LISP, Prolog, and Smalltalk. While these languages often
reduce the time to develop an artificial intelligence application, they can lengthen the
time to execute the application. Therefore, much AI software is now written in
languages such as C++ and Java, which typically increases development time, but
shortens execution time. Also, to reduce the cost of AI software, a range of commercial
software development tools have also been developed. Stottler Henke has developed its
own proprietary tools for some of the specialized applications it is experienced in
Algorithm : An algorithm is a set of instructions that explain how to solve a problem. It
is usually first stated in English and arithmetic, and from this, a programmer can
translate it into executable code (that is, code to be run on a computer).
Applications of Artificial Intelligence :
The actual and potential applications are virtually endless. Reviewing Stottler Henke's
work will give you some idea of the range. In general, AI applications are used to
increase the productivity of knowledge workers by intelligently automating their tasks;
or to make technical products of all kinds easier to use for both workers and consumers
by intelligent automation of different aspects of the functionality of complex products.
Associative Memories :
Associative memories work by recalling information in response to an information cue.
Associative memories can be autoassociative or heteroassociative. Autoassociative
memories recall the same information that is used as a cue, which can be useful to
complete a partial pattern. Heteroassociative memories are useful as a memory.
Human long-term memory is thought to be associative because of the way in which one
thought retrieved from it leads to another. When we want to store a new item of
information in our long term memory it typically takes us 8 seconds to store an item
that can't be associated with a pre-stored item, but only one or two seconds, if there is
an existed information structure with which to associate the new item.
Autonomous Agents
A piece of AI software that automatically performs a task on a human's behalf, or even
on the behalf of another piece of AI software, so together they accomplish a useful task
for a person somewhere. They are capable of independent action in dynamic,
unpredictable environments. "Autonomous agent" is a trendy term that is sometimes


reserved for AI software used in conjunction with the Internet (for example, AI software
that acts as your assistance in intelligently managing your e-mail).
Autonomous agents present the best hope from gaining additional utility from
computing facilities. Over the past few years the term "agent" has been used very
loosely. Our definition of a software agent is: "an intelligent software application with
the authorization and capability to sense its environment and work in a goal directed
manner." Generally, the term "agent" implies "intelligence", meaning the level of
complexity of the tasks involved approaches that which would previously have
required human intervention.
Backtracking A control method used to search backwards for solutions
Clauses Either a Prolog fact or rule.
Cognitive Science : Cognitive Science, as a discipline, is concerned with learning how
animals (and machines) acquire knowledge, represent that knowledge, and how they
manipulate those representations..
Computer Vision :Making sense of what we see is usually easy for humans, but very
hard for computers. Practical vision systems to date are limited to working in tightly
controlled environments. Synonym: machine vision
Domain : An overworked word for AI people. "Domain" can mean a variety of things
including a subject area, field of knowledge, an industry, a specific job, an area of
activity, a sphere of influence, or a range of interest, e.g., chemistry, medical diagnosis,
putting out fires, operating a nuclear power plant, planning a wedding, diagnosing
faults in a car. Generally, a domain is a system in which a particular set of rules, facts, or
assumptions operates. Humans can usually easily figure out what's meant from the
context in which "domain" is used; computers could probably not figure out what a
human means when he or she says "domain."

Domain Expert
The person who knows how to perform an activity within the domain, and whose
knowledge is to be the subject of an expert system. This person's or persons' knowledge
and method of work are observed, recorded, and entered into a knowledge base for use



by an expert system. The domain expert's knowledge may be supplemented by written

knowledge contained in operating manuals, standards, specifications, computer
programs, etc., that are used by the experts. Synonym: subject-matter expert (SME).
Extension Language A general-purpose programming language accessible to the users
of the application created with that language. LISP dialects (including Scheme) are often
suitable extension languages.
Expert System
An expert system encapsulates the specialist knowledge gained from a human expert
(such as a bond trader or a loan underwriter) and applies that knowledge automatically
to make decisions. For example, the knowledge of doctors about how to diagnose a
disease can be encapsulated in software. The process of acquiring the knowledge from
the experts and their documentation and successfully incorporating it in the software is
called knowledge engineering, and requires considerable skill to perform successfully.
Applications include customer service and helpdesk support, computer or network
troubleshooting, regulatory tracking, autocorrect features in word processors,
document generation such as tax forms, and scheduling.
Game Theory
Game theory is a branch of mathematics that seeks to model decision making in conflict
A term describing an exploratory method of attacking a problem in which the solution
is obtained by successive evaluations of progress toward the final results.
Inference Engine
The part of an expert system responsible for drawing new conclusions from the current
data and rules. The inference engine is a portion of the reusable part of an expert system
(along with the user interface, a knowledge base editor, and an explanation system),
that will work with different sets of case-specific data and knowledge bases.
Knowledge-based Representations
The form or structure of databases and knowledge bases for expert and other intelligent
systems, so that the information and solutions provided by a system are both accurate
and complete. Usually involves a logically-based language capable of both syntactic
and semantic representation of time, events, actions, processes, and entities. Knowledge


representation languages include Lisp, Prolog, Smalltalk, OPS-5, and KL-ONE.

Structures include rules, scripts, frames, endorsements, and semantic networks.
knowledge--1. In artificial intelligence, symbolic information used by a domain expert
to solve problems. 2.
Facts and relationships used to solve problems.
Knowledge-based Systems
Usually a synonym for expert system, though some think of expert systems as
knowledge-based systems that are designed to work on practical, real-world problems.
Knowledge Elicitation
Synonym: knowledge acquisition.

Knowledge Engineering Knowledge engineering is the process of collecting knowledge

from human experts in a form suitable for designing and implementing an expert
system. The person conducting knowledge engineering is called a knowledge engineer.
Knowledge Representation
Knowledge representation is one of the two basic techniques of artificial intelligence,
the other is the capability to search for end points from a starting point. The way in
which knowledge is represented has a powerful effect on the prospects for a computer
or person to draw conclusions or make inferences from that knowledge. Consider the
representation of numbers that we wish to add. Which is easier, adding 10 + 50 in
Arabic numerals, or adding X plus L in Roman numerals? Consider also the use of
algebraic symbols in solving problems for unknown numerical quantities, compared
with trying to do the same problems just with words and numbers.
LISP (short for list processing language), a computer language, was invented by John
McCarthy, one of the pioneers of artificial intelligence. The language is ideal for
representing knowledge (e.g., If a fire alarm is ringing, then there is a fire) from which
inferences are to be drawn.
Machine Learning:



Machine learning refers to the ability of computers to automatically acquire new

knowledge, learning from, for example, past cases or experience, from the computer's
own experiences, or from exploration.
machine code--An operation code that a machine is designed to recognize.
Natural Language Processing
The study of strategies for computer programs to recognize and understand language
in spoken and written form.

Neural Networks Neural networks are an approach to machine learning which

developed out of attempts to model the processing that occurs within the neurons of the
Procedural Language The traditional programming that is based on algorithms or a
logical step-by-step process for solving a problem.
Proposition An expression about an object which can have either a true or false value.
Propositional Calculus The formal logic system used to define the true or false values
of objects.
Pattern Recognition
1.The recognition of forms, shapes, or configurations by automatic means. A subfield of
artificial intelligence. 2. The use of a computer to identify patterns.. 3. The use of
statistical techniques and templates to process and classify patterns of data
Plan Recognition
The goal of plan recognition is to interpret an agent's intentions by ascribing goals and
plans to it based on partial observation of its behavior up to the current time. Divining
the agent's underlying plan can be useful for many purposes including: interpreting the
agent's past behavior, predicting the agent's future behavior, or acting to collaborate
with (or thwart) the agent.
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation,
structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots.
Rule A clause that defines the relationship or relationships between facts and objects.


Relevance Feedback
Relevance feedback methods are used in information retrieval systems to improve the
results produced from a particular query by modifying the query based on the user's
reaction to the initial retrieved documents. Specifically, the user's judgments of the
relevance or non-relevance of some of the documents retrieved are used to add new
terms to the query and to reweight query terms. For example, if all the documents that
the user judges as relevant contain a particular term, then that term may be a good one
to add to the original query.

Rule-based System
An expert system based on IF-THEN rules for representing knowledge.
Scheme Langauge A LISP dialect often used within computer science curricula and
programming language research.
Speech Recognition The ability of a computer to understand spoken words for the
purpose of receiving commands and data input from the speaker.
Source Code
Symbolic coding in its original form before being processed by a computer.
A simulation is a system that is constructed to work, in some ways, analogously to
another system of interest. The constructed system is usually made simpler than the
original system so that only the aspects of interest are mirrored. Simulations are
commonly used to learn more about the behavior of the original system, when the
original system is not available for manipulation. It may not be available because of cost
or safety reasons, or it may not be built yet and the purpose of learning about it is to
design it better. If the purpose of learning is to train novices, then cost, safety, or
convenience are likely to be the reasons to work on a simulated system. The simulation
may be a computer simulation (perhaps a realistic one of a nuclear power station's
control room, or a mathematical one such as a spreadsheet for "what-if" analysis of a
company's business); or it may be a small-scale physical model (such as a small-scale
bridge, or a pilot chemical plant).
Turing Test--A game to determine whether a computer might be considered to possess
intelligence, developed by British mathematician Alan Turing. Participants include two



respondents (a computer and a human) and a human examiner who tries to determine
which of the unseen respondents is the human. According to this test, intelligence and
the ability to think would be demonstrated by the computer's success in fooling the
Unification The pattern matching technique used by Prolog to match goals and subgoals in a program.


AI :

Artificial Intelligence
Question Answering
Information Retrieval
Information Extraction
Natural Language Processing
Extensible Markup Language
Artificial Intelligence Markup Language
Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity
Pay No Attention to that Man Behind the Curtain



1. Charniak, E.: Introcuction of Artificial Intelligence, Narosa Publishing House.
2. Winton. P.H. : LISP, Narosa Publishing House.
3. Marcellus: Expert System Programming in TURBO PROLOG PrenticeHall Inc. 1989.
4. Clark, K. L. & McCabe, F.G.: Micro-Prolog Prentice-Hall Inc. 1987
5. Elaine rich & Kevin Knight: Artificial Intelligence and Expert System, PHI.