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Rabindranath Tagore
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rabindranath Tagore[] (Bengali pronunciation: [rbindr


nt tr] ( )), also written Rabndrantha Thkura
(pronounced: [rbindrnt tkr]),[2] (7 May 1861 7
August 1941),[] sobriquet Gurudev,[] was a Bengali
polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music in
the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of Gitanjali
and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful
verse",[3] he became the first non-European to win the
Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913.[4] In translation his
poetry was viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however,
his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely
unknown outside Bengal.[5] Tagore introduced new prose
and verse forms and the use of colloquial language into
Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditional
models based on classical Sanskrit. He was highly
influential in introducing the best of Indian culture to the
West and vice versa, and he is generally regarded as the
outstanding creative artist of the modern Indian
subcontinent, being highly commemorated in India and
Bangladesh, as well as in Sri Lanka, Nepal and
Pakistan.[6][7][8]
A Pirali Brahmin from Calcutta with ancestral gentry
roots in Jessore, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-yearold.[9] At age sixteen, he released his first substantial
poems under the pseudonym Bhnusiha ("Sun Lion"),
which were seized upon by literary authorities as longlost classics.[6][10] He graduated to his first short stories
and dramasand the aegis of his birth nameby 1877.
As a humanist, universalist internationalist, and strident
nationalist he denounced the Raj and advocated
independence from Britain. As an exponent of the Bengal
Renaissance, he advanced a vast canon that comprised
paintings, sketches and doodles, hundreds of texts, and
some two thousand songs; his legacy endures also in the
institution he founded, Visva-Bharati
University.[11][12][13][14][15]
Tagore modernised Bengali art by spurning rigid
classical forms and resisting linguistic strictures. His
novels, stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays spoke to
topics political and personal. Gitanjali (Song Offerings),
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore

Tagore c. 1915, the year he was knighted by George


V. Tagore repudiated his knighthood in protest
against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919.[1]
Born

Rabindranath Thakur
7 May 1861
Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British
India

Died

7 August 1941 (aged 80)


Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British
India

Occupation Poet, short story writer, song


composer, novelist, playwright,
essayist, painter
Language

Bengali, English

Nationality

British India

Ethnicity

Bengali

Notable
works

Gitanjali, Gora, Ghare-Baire, Jana


Gana Mana, Rabindra Sangeet,
Amar Shonar Bangla (other works)

Notable
awards

Nobel Prize in Literature


1913

Spouse

Mrinalini Devi (m. 18831902)

Children

five children, two of whom died in


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Gora (Fair-Faced) and Ghare-Baire (The Home and the


World) are his best-known works, and his verse, short
stories, and novels were acclaimedor pannedfor
their lyricism, colloquialism, naturalism, and unnatural
contemplation. His compositions were chosen by two
nations as national anthems: India's Jana Gana Mana and
Bangladesh's Amar Shonar Bangla. The original song of
Sri Lankas National Anthem was also written and tuned
by Tagore. [16]

childhood
Relatives

Tagore family

Signature

Contents
1 Early life: 18611878
2 Shelaidaha: 18781901
3 Santiniketan: 19011932
4 Twilight years: 19321941
5 Travels
6 Works
6.1 Music
6.2 Paintings
6.3 Theatre
6.4 Novels
6.5 Stories
6.6 Poetry
7 Politics
7.1 Repudiation of knighthood
8 Santiniketan and Visva-Bharati
8.1 Theft of Nobel Prize
9 Impact
10 List of works
10.1 Original
10.2 Translated
11 Adaptations of novels and short stories in cinema
11.1 Hindi
11.2 Bengali
12 See also
13 Notes
14 Citations
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15 References
15.1 Primary
15.2 Secondary
15.3 Texts
16 Further reading
17 External links

Early life: 18611878


The youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore was born in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta, India to
parents Debendranath Tagore (18171905) and Sarada Devi (18301875).[][17] The Tagore family came
into prominence during the Bengal Renaissance that started during the age of Hussein Shah (14931519).
The original name of the Tagore family was Banerjee. Being Brahmins, their ancestors were referred to as
'Thakurmashai' or 'Holy Sir'. During the British rule, this name stuck and they began to be recognised as
Thakur and eventually the family name got anglicised to Tagore.Tagore family patriarchs were the Brahmo
founders of the Adi Dharm faith. The loyalist "Prince" Dwarkanath Tagore, who employed European estate
managers and visited with Victoria and other royalty, was his paternal grandfather.[18] Debendranath had
formulated the Brahmoist philosophies espoused by his friend Ram Mohan Roy, and became focal in
Brahmo society after Roy's death.[19][20]

The last two


days a storm
has been
raging, similar
to the
description in
my song
Jhauro
jhauro borishe
baridhara [...
amidst it] a
hapless,
homeless man
drenched from
top to toe
standing on the
roof of his
steamer [...]
the last two
days I have
been singing
this song over
and over [...]
as a result the
pelting sound
of the intense
rain, the wail

"Rabi" was raised mostly by servants; his mother had died in his early childhood
and his father travelled widely.[22] His home hosted the publication of literary
magazines; theatre and recitals of both Bengali and Western classical music
featured there regularly, as the Jorasanko Tagores were the center of a large and
art-loving social group. Tagore's oldest brother Dwijendranath was a respected
philosopher and poet. Another brother, Satyendranath, was the first Indian
appointed to the elite and formerly all-European Indian Civil Service. Yet
another brother, Jyotirindranath, was a musician, composer, and playwright.[23]
His sister Swarnakumari became a novelist. Jyotirindranath's wife Kadambari,
slightly older than Tagore, was a dear friend and powerful influence. Her abrupt
suicide in 1884, soon after he married, left him for years profoundly distraught.
Tagore largely avoided classroom schooling and preferred to roam the manor or
nearby Bolpur and Panihati, idylls which the family visited.[24][25] His brother
Hemendranath tutored and physically conditioned himby having him swim the
Ganges or trek through hills, by gymnastics, and by practising judo and
wrestling. He learned drawing, anatomy, geography and history, literature,
mathematics, Sanskrit, and Englishhis least favourite subject.[26] Tagore
loathed formal educationhis scholarly travails at the local Presidency College
spanned a single day. Years later he held that proper teaching does not explain
things; proper teaching stokes curiosity:[27]

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of the wind,
the sound of
the heaving
Gorai [R]iver,
have assumed
a fresh life and
found a new
language and I
have felt like a
major actor in
this new
musical drama
unfolding
before me.

Letter to Indira
Devi.[21]

[It] knock[s] at the doors of the mind. If any boy is asked to


give an account of what is awakened in him by such
knocking, he will probably say something silly. For what
happens within is much bigger than what comes out in
words. Those who pin their faith on university examinations
as the test of education take no account of this.[27]

Tagore and his wife


Mrinalini Devi, 1883.

After he underwent an upanayan initiation at age eleven, he and his father left Calcutta in February 1873
for a months-long tour of the Raj. They visited his father's Santiniketan estate and rested in Amritsar en
route to the Himalayan Dhauladhars, their destination being the remote hill station at Dalhousie. Along the
way, Tagore read biographies; his father tutored him in history, astronomy, and Sanskrit declensions. He
read biographies of Benjamin Franklin among other figures; they discussed Edward Gibbon's The History
of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; and they examined the poetry of Klidsa.[28] In mid-April
they reached the station, and at 2,300 metres (7,546 ft) they settled into a house that sat atop Bakrota Hill.
Tagore was taken aback by the region's deep green gorges, alpine forests, and mossy streams and
waterfalls.[29] They stayed there for several months and adopted a regime of study and privation that
included daily twilight baths taken in icy water.[30][31]
He returned to Jorosanko and completed a set of major works by 1877, one of them a long poem in the
Maithili style of Vidyapati; they were published pseudonymously. Regional experts accepted them as the
lost works of Bhnusimha, a newly discovered[] 17th-century Vaishnava poet.[32] He debuted the shortstory genre in Bengali with "Bhikharini" ("The Beggar Woman"),[33][34] and his Sandhya Sangit (1882)
includes the famous poem "Nirjharer Swapnabhanga" ("The Rousing of the Waterfall"). Servants subjected
him to an almost ludicrous regimentation in a phase he dryly reviled as the "servocracy".[35] His head was
water-dunkedto quiet him.[36] He irked his servants by refusing food; he was confined to chalk circles in
parody of Sita's forest trial in the Ramayana; and he was regaled with the heroic criminal exploits of
Bengal's outlaw-dacoits.[37] Because the Jorasanko manor was in an area of north Calcutta rife with poverty
and prostitution,[38] he was forbidden to leave it for any purpose other than travelling to school. He thus
became preoccupied with the world outside and with nature. Of his 1873 visit to Santiniketan, he wrote:
What I could not see did not take me long to get overwhat I did see was quite enough.
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There was no servant rule, and the only ring which encircled me was the blue of the
horizon, drawn around these solitudes by their presiding goddess. Within this I was free to
move about as I chose.[39]

Shelaidaha: 18781901
Because Debendranath wanted his son to become a barrister, Tagore
enrolled at a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, England in 1878.[21]
He stayed for several months at a house that the Tagore family owned near
Brighton and Hove, in Medina Villas; in 1877 his nephew and nieceSuren
and Indira Devi, the children of Tagore's brother Satyendranathwere sent
together with their mother, Tagore's sister-in-law, to live with him.[40] He
briefly read law at University College London, but again left school. He
opted instead for independent study of Shakespeare, Religio Medici,
Tagore's house in
Coriolanus, and Antony and Cleopatra. Lively English, Irish, and Scottish
Shelaidaha, Bangladesh
folk tunes impressed Tagore, whose own tradition of Nidhubabu-authored
kirtans and tappas and Brahmo hymnody was subdued.[21][41] In 1880 he
returned to Bengal degree-less, resolving to reconcile European novelty with Brahmo traditions, taking the
best from each.[42] In 1883 he married Mrinalini Devi, born Bhabatarini, 18731902; they had five
children, two of whom died in childhood.[43]
In 1890 Tagore began managing his vast ancestral estates in Shelaidaha (today a region of Bangladesh); he
was joined by his wife and children in 1898. Tagore released his Manasi poems (1890), among his bestknown work.[44] As Zamindar Babu, Tagore criss-crossed the riverine holdings in command of the Padma,
the luxurious family barge. He collected mostly token rents and blessed villagers who in turn honoured him
with banquetsoccasionally of dried rice and sour milk.[45] He met Gagan Harkara, through whom he
became familiar with Baul Lalon Shah, whose folk songs greatly influenced Tagore.[46] Tagore worked to
popularise Lalon's songs. The period 18911895, Tagore's Sadhana period, named after one of Tagore's
magazines, was his most productive;[22] in these years he wrote more than half the stories of the threevolume, 84-story Galpaguchchha.[33] Its ironic and grave tales examined the voluptuous poverty of an
idealised rural Bengal.[47]

Santiniketan: 19011932

Tsinghua University, 1924.

In 1901 Tagore moved to Santiniketan to found an ashram with a marblefloored prayer hallThe Mandiran experimental school, groves of trees,
gardens, a library.[48] There his wife and two of his children died. His father
died in 1905. He received monthly payments as part of his inheritance and
income from the Maharaja of Tripura, sales of his family's jewellery, his
seaside bungalow in Puri, and a derisory 2,000 rupees in book royalties.[49]
He gained Bengali and foreign readers alike; he published Naivedya (1901)
and Kheya (1906) and translated poems into free verse.

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In November 1913, Tagore learned he had won that year's Nobel Prize in Literature: the Swedish Academy
appreciated the idealisticand for Westernersaccessible nature of a small body of his translated material
focussed on the 1912 Gitanjali: Song Offerings.[50] In 1915, the British Crown granted Tagore a
knighthood. He renounced it after the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
In 1921, Tagore and agricultural economist Leonard Elmhirst set up the "Institute for Rural
Reconstruction", later renamed Shriniketan or "Abode of Welfare", in Surul, a village near the ashram.
With it, Tagore sought to moderate Gandhi's Swaraj protests, which he occasionally blamed for British
India's perceived mentaland thus ultimately colonialdecline.[51] He sought aid from donors, officials,
and scholars worldwide to "free village[s] from the shackles of helplessness and ignorance" by "vitalis[ing]
knowledge".[52][53] In the early 1930s he targeted ambient
"abnormal caste consciousness" and untouchability. He lectured
against these, he penned Dalit heroes for his poems and his dramas,
and he campaignedsuccessfullyto open Guruvayoor Temple to
Dalits.[54][55]

Twilight years: 19321941


Tagore's life as a "peripatetic litterateur" affirmed his opinion that
human divisions were shallow. During a May 1932 visit to a
Bedouin encampment in the Iraqi desert, the tribal chief told him
that "Our prophet has said that a true Muslim is he by whose words
and deeds not the least of his brother-men may ever come to any
harm ..." Tagore confided in his diary: "I was startled into
A rare color photo of Rabindranath
recognizing in his words the voice of essential humanity."[56] To the
Tagore - with daughter Bela to his
end Tagore scrutinised orthodoxyand in 1934, he struck. That
left and daughter-in-law Pratima to
year, an earthquake hit Bihar and killed thousands. Gandhi hailed it
his right. This photograph was taken
as seismic karma, as divine retribution avenging the oppression of
by Albert KAHN in 1921.
Dalits. Tagore rebuked him for his seemingly ignominious
inferences.[57] He mourned the perennial poverty of Calcutta and the
socioeconomic decline of Bengal. He detailed these newly plebeian
aesthetics in an unrhymed hundred-line poem whose technique of searing
double-vision foreshadowed Satyajit Ray's film Apur Sansar.[58][59] Fifteen
new volumes appeared, among them prose-poem works Punashcha (1932),
Shes Saptak (1935), and Patraput (1936). Experimentation continued in his
prose-songs and dance-dramas: Chitra (1914), Shyama (1939), and
Chandalika (1938); and in his novels: Dui Bon (1933), Malancha (1934),
and Char Adhyay (1934).
Tagore's remit expanded to science in his last years, as hinted in VisvaParichay, 1937 collection of essays. His respect for scientific laws and his
exploration of biology, physics, and astronomy informed his poetry, which
exhibited extensive naturalism and verisimilitude.[60] He wove the process
Germany, 1931.
of science, the narratives of scientists, into stories in Se (1937), Tin Sangi
(1940), and Galpasalpa (1941). His last five years were marked by chronic
pain and two long periods of illness. These began when Tagore lost consciousness in late 1937; he
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remained comatose and near death for a time. This was followed in late 1940 by a similar spell. He never
recovered. Poetry from these valetudinary years is among his
finest.[61][62] A period of prolonged agony ended with Tagore's
death on 7 August 1941, aged eighty; he was in an upstairs room of
the Jorasanko mansion he was raised in.[63][64] The date is still
mourned.[65] A. K. Sen, brother of the first chief election
commissioner, received dictation from Tagore on 30 July 1941, a
day prior to a scheduled operation: his last poem.[66]

Last picture of Rabindranath, 1941

Clouds come
floating into
my life, no
longer to carry
rain or usher
storm, but to
add color to
my sunset sky.

Verse 292, Stray


Birds, 1916.

I'm lost in the middle of


my birthday. I want my
friends, their touch, with
the earth's last love. I will
take life's final offering, I
will take the human's last
blessing. Today my sack
is empty. I have given
completely whatever I
had to give. In return if I
receive anythingsome
love, some forgiveness
then I will take it with me
when I step on the boat
that crosses to the festival
of the wordless end.

A rare photograph of Prof. Francis R.


Pulipati (student then, Telugu pandit
Madras Christian College) with R.
Tagore and Sir. S.Radhakrishnan,
Waltair, 1934

Travels
Between 1878 and 1932, Tagore set foot in more than thirty
countries on five continents.[68] In 1912, he took a sheaf of his
translated works to England, where they gained attention from
missionary and Gandhi protg Charles F. Andrews, Irish poet
William Butler Yeats, Ezra Pound, Robert Bridges, Ernest Rhys,
Thomas Sturge Moore, and others.[69] Yeats wrote the preface to the
English translation of Gitanjali; Andrews joined Tagore at
Santiniketan. In November 1912 Tagore began touring the United
States[70] and the United Kingdom, staying in Butterton,
Rabindranath with Einstein in 1930
Staffordshire with Andrews's clergymen friends.[71] From May 1916
until April 1917, he lectured in Japan and the United States.[72] He
denounced nationalism.[73] His essay "Nationalism in India" was scorned and praised; it was admired by
Romain Rolland and other pacifists.[74]
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Shortly after returning home the 63-year-old Tagore accepted an invitation from the Peruvian government.
He travelled to Mexico. Each government pledged US$100,000 to his school to commemorate the visits.[76]
A week after his 6 November 1924
arrival in Buenos Aires,[77] an ill Tagore
shifted to the Villa Miralro at the behest
Our passions
and desires are
of Victoria Ocampo. He left for home in
unruly, but our
January 1925. In May 1926 Tagore
character
reached Naples; the next day he met
subdues these
elements into a
Mussolini in Rome.[78] Their warm
harmonious
rapport ended when Tagore pronounced
whole. Does
upon Il Duce's fascist finesse.[79] He had
something
earlier enthused: "[w]ithout any doubt he
similar to this
At the Majlis in Tehran, 1932.[67]
happen in the
is a great personality. There is such a
physical
massive vigour in that head that it
world? Are the
reminds one of Michael Angelo's chisel." A "fire-bath" of fascism was to have
elements
educed "the immortal soul of Italy ... clothed in quenchless light".[80]
rebellious,
dynamic with
individual
impulse? And
is there a
principle in the
physical world
which
dominates
them and puts
them into an
orderly
organization?

On 14 July 1927 Tagore and two companions began a four-month tour of


Southeast Asia. They visited Bali, Java, Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, Penang, Siam,
and Singapore. The resultant travelogues compose Jatri (1929).[81] In early 1930
he left Bengal for a nearly year-long tour of Europe and the United States. Upon
returning to Britainand as his paintings exhibited in Paris and Londonhe
lodged at a Birmingham Quaker settlement. He wrote his Oxford Hibbert
Lectures[] and spoke at the annual London Quaker meet.[82] There, addressing
relations between the British and the Indiansa topic he would tackle repeatedly
over the next two yearsTagore spoke of a "dark chasm of aloofness".[83] He
visited Aga Khan III, stayed at Dartington Hall, toured Denmark, Switzerland,
Interviewed by
and Germany from June to mid-September 1930, then went on into the Soviet
Einstein, 14 April
1930.[75]
Union.[84] In April 1932 Tagore, intrigued by the Persian mystic Hafez, was
hosted by Reza Shah Pahlavi.[85][86] In his other travels, Tagore interacted with
Henri Bergson, Albert Einstein, Robert Frost, Thomas Mann, George Bernard Shaw, H.G. Wells, and
Romain Rolland.[87][88][89] Visits to Persia and Iraq (in 1932) and Sri Lanka (in 1933) composed Tagore's
final foreign tour, and his dislike of communalism and nationalism only deepened.[56] Vice-President of
India M. Hamid Ansari has said that Rabindranath Tagore heralded the cultural rapprochement between
communities, societies and nations much before it became the liberal norm of conduct. Tagore was a man
ahead of his time. He wrote in 1932, while on a visit to Iran, that "each country of Asia will solve its own
historical problems according to its strength, nature and needs, but the lamp they will each carry on their
path to progress will converge to illuminate the common ray of knowledge."[90]

Works
Known mostly for his poetry, Tagore
wrote novels, essays, short stories,
travelogues, dramas, and thousands of
songs. Of Tagore's prose, his short stories
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are perhaps most highly regarded; he is


indeed credited with originating the
Bengali-language version of the genre.
His works are frequently noted for their
rhythmic, optimistic, and lyrical nature.
Such stories mostly borrow from
deceptively simple subject matter:
commoners. Tagore's non-fiction grappled
with history, linguistics, and spirituality.
He wrote autobiographies. His
travelogues, essays, and lectures were
compiled into several volumes, including
Europe Jatrir Patro (Letters from Europe)
and Manusher Dhormo (The Religion of
Man). His brief chat with Einstein, "Note
on the Nature of Reality", is included as
Primitivism: a pastelan appendix to the latter. On the occasion
coloured rendition of a
of Tagore's 150th birthday an anthology
Malaganmask from northern
(titled Kalanukromik Rabindra
New Ireland.
Rachanabali) of the total body of his
works is currently being published in
Bengali in chronological order. This
includes all versions of each work and
fills about eighty volumes.[92] In 2011,
Harvard University Press collaborated
with Visva-Bharati University to publish
The Essential Tagore, the largest
anthology of Tagore's works available in
English; it was edited by Fakrul Alam and
Radha Chakravarthy and marks the 150th anniversary of Tagore's birth.[93]

Tagore's Bengali-language
initials are worked into this
"Ro-Tho" wooden seal,
stylistically similar to
designs used in traditional
Haida carvings. Tagore
embellished his manuscripts
with such art.[91]

Music
Tagore was a prolific composer with 2,230 songs to his credit. His songs are known as rabindrasangit
("Tagore Song"), which merges fluidly into his literature, most of whichpoems or parts of novels, stories,
or plays alikewere lyricised. Influenced by the thumri style of Hindustani music, they ran the entire
gamut of human emotion, ranging from his early dirge-like Brahmo devotional hymns to quasi-erotic
compositions.[94] They emulated the tonal color of classical ragas to varying extents. Some songs
mimicked a given raga's melody and rhythm faithfully; others newly blended elements of different
ragas.[95] Yet about nine-tenths of his work was not bhanga gaan, the body of tunes revamped with "fresh
value" from select Western, Hindustani, Bengali folk and other regional flavours "external" to Tagore's own
ancestral culture.[21] Scholars have attempted to gauge the emotive force and range of Hindustani ragas:

[...] the pathos of the purabi raga reminded Tagore of the evening tears of a lonely widow,
while kanara was the confused realization of a nocturnal wanderer who had lost his way. In
bhupali he seemed to hear a voice in the wind saying 'stop and come hither'.Paraj conveyed
to him the deep slumber that overtook one at night's end.[21]

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Reba Som, Rabindranath Tagore: The Singer and His Song.[96]

Tabu Mone Rekho sung by


Tagore influenced sitar maestro Vilayat Khan and
Rabindranath Tagore
sarodiyas Buddhadev Dasgupta and Amjad Ali
MENU
0:00
Khan.[95] His songs are widely popular and undergird
Tabu Mone Rekho Sung a song of
the Bengali ethos to an extent perhaps rivalling
Tagore in his own voice a 3-minute 3
Shakespeare's impact on the English-speaking world. It
seconds audio file. The song was
written in 1887 CE (1294 Bengali
is said that his songs are the outcome of five centuries
year.[97]
of Bengali literary churning and communal yearning.
Dhan Gopal Mukerji has said that these songs transcend
Problems playing this file? See media help.
the mundane to the aesthetic and express all ranges and
categories of human emotion. The poet gave voice to all
big or small, rich or poor. The poor Ganges boatman and the rich landlord air their emotions in them.
They birthed a distinctive school of music whose practitioners can be fiercely traditional: novel
interpretations have drawn severe censure in both West Bengal and Bangladesh.

For Bengalis, the songs' appeal, stemming from the combination of emotive strength and beauty described
as surpassing even Tagore's poetry, was such that the Modern Review observed that "[t]here is in Bengal no
cultured home where Rabindranath's songs are not sung or at least attempted to be sung ... Even illiterate
villagers sing his songs". A. H. Fox Strangways of The Observer introduced non-Bengalis to
rabindrasangit in The Music of Hindostan, calling it a "vehicle of a personality ... [that] go behind this or
that system of music to that beauty of sound which all systems put out their hands to seize."[98]
In 1971, Amar Shonar Bangla became the national anthem of Bangladesh. It was writtenironicallyto
protest the 1905 Partition of Bengal along communal lines: lopping Muslim-majority East Bengal from
Hindu-dominated West Bengal was to avert a regional bloodbath. Tagore saw the partition as a ploy to
upend the independence movement, and he aimed to rekindle Bengali unity and tar communalism. Jana
Gana Mana was written in shadhu-bhasha, a Sanskritised register of Bengali, and is the first of five stanzas
of a Brahmo hymn that Tagore composed. It was first sung in 1911 at a Calcutta session of the Indian
National Congress[99] and was adopted in 1950 by the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of India as its
national anthem.

Paintings
At sixty, Tagore took up drawing and painting; successful exhibitions of his many workswhich made a
debut appearance in Paris upon encouragement by artists he met in the south of France[100]were held
throughout Europe. He was likely red-green color blind, resulting in works that exhibited strange colour
schemes and off-beat aesthetics. Tagore was influenced by scrimshaw from northern New Ireland, Haida
carvings from British Columbia, and woodcuts by Max Pechstein.[91] His artist's eye for his handwriting
were revealed in the simple artistic and rhythmic leitmotifs embellishing the scribbles, cross-outs, and word
layouts of his manuscripts. Some of Tagore's lyrics corresponded in a synesthetic sense with particular
paintings.[21]

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[...]Surrounded by several painters Rabindranath had always wanted to paint. Writing and
music, playwriting and acting came to him naturally and almost without training, as it did to
several others in his family, and in even greater measure. But painting eluded him. Yet he
tried repeatedly to master the art and there are several references to this in his early letters
and reminiscence. In 1900 for instance, when he was nearing forty and already a celebrated
writer, he wrote to Jagadishchandra Bose, "You will be surprised to hear that I am sitting
with a sketchbook drawing. Needless to say, the pictures are not intended for any salon in
Paris, they cause me not the least suspicion that the national gallery of any country will
suddenly decide to raise taxes to acquire them. But, just as a mother lavishes most affection
on her ugliest son, so I feel secretly drawn to the very skill that comes to me least easily.
He also realized that he was using the eraser more than the pencil, and dissatisfied with the
results he finally withdrew, deciding it was not for him to become a painter.[101]

R. Siva Kumar, The Last Harvest : Paintings of Rabindranath Tagore.[102]

Rabindra Chitravali, edited by noted art historian R. Siva Kumar, for the first time makes the paintings of
Tagore accessible to art historians and scholars of Rabindranth with critical annotations and comments It
also brings together a selection of Rabindranath's own statements and documents relating to the
presentation and reception of his paintings during his lifetime.[103]
The Last Harvest : Paintings of Rabindranath Tagore was an exhibition of Rabindranath Tagore's paintings
to mark the 150th birth anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore. It was commissioned by the Ministry of
Culture, India and organised with NGMA Delhi as the nodal agency. It consisted of 208 paintings drawn
from the collections of Visva Bharati and the NGMA and presented Tagore's art in a very comprehensive
way. The exhibition was curated by Art Historian R. Siva Kumar. Within the 150th birth anniversary year it
was conceived as three separate but similar exhibitions,and travelled simultaneously in three circuits. The
first selection was shown at Museum of Asian Art, Berlin,[104] Asia Society, New York,[105] National
Museum of Korea,[106] Seoul, Victoria and Albert Museum,[107] London, The Art Institute of Chicago,[108]
Chicago, Petit Palais,[109] Paris, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome, National Visual Arts Gallery
(Malaysia),[110] Kuala Lumpur, McMichael Canadian Art Collection,[111] Ontario, National Gallery of
Modern Art,[112] New Delhi

Theatre
At sixteen, Tagore led his brother Jyotirindranath's adaptation of Molire's
Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme.[113] At twenty he wrote his first drama-opera:
Valmiki Pratibha (The Genius of Valmiki). In it the pandit Valmiki
overcomes his sins, is blessed by Saraswati, and compiles the
Rmyana.[114] Through it Tagore explores a wide range of dramatic styles
and emotions, including usage of revamped kirtans and adaptation of
traditional English and Irish folk melodies as drinking songs.[115] Another
play, Dak Ghar (The Post Office), describes the child Amal defying his
stuffy and puerile confines by ultimately "fall[ing] asleep", hinting his
physical death. A story with borderless appealgleaning rave reviews in
EuropeDak Ghar dealt with death as, in Tagore's words, "spiritual
freedom" from "the world of hoarded wealth and certified creeds".[116][117]
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Tagore performing the title


role inValmiki Pratibha
(1881) with his niece Indira
Devi as the goddess
Lakshmi.
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In the Nazi-besieged Warsaw Ghetto, Polish doctor-educator Janusz Korczak had orphans in his care stage
The Post Office in July 1942.[118] In The King of Children, biographer Betty Jean Lifton suspected that
Korczak, agonising over whether one should determine when and how to die, was easing the children into
accepting death.[119][120][121] In mid-October, the Nazis sent them to Treblinka.[122]

[I]n days long


gone by [...] I
can see [...] the
King's
postman
coming down
the hillside
alone, a lantern
in his left hand
and on his
back a bag of
letters
climbing down
for ever so
long, for days
and nights, and
where at the
foot of the
mountain the
waterfall
becomes a
stream he takes
to the footpath
on the bank
and walks on
through the
rye; then
comes the
sugarcane field
and he
disappears into
the narrow
lane cutting
through the tall
stems of
sugarcanes;
then he reaches
the open
meadow where
the cricket
chirps and
where there is
not a single
man to be
seen, only the
snipe wagging
their tails and
poking at the
mud with their

[...] but the meaning is less intellectual, more emotional and


simple. The deliverance sought and won by the dying child is the
same deliverance which rose before his imagination, [...] when
once in the early dawn he heard, amid the noise of a crowd
returning from some festival, this line out of an old village song,
"Ferryman, take me to the other shore of the river." It may come
at any moment of life, though the child discovers it in death, for
it always comes at the moment when the "I", seeking no longer
for gains that cannot be "assimilated with its spirit", is able to
say, "All my work is thine" [...].[124]

W. B. Yeats, Preface, The Post Office, 1914.

His other works fuse lyrical flow and emotional rhythm into a tight focus on a
core idea, a break from prior Bengali drama. Tagore sought "the play of feeling
and not of action". In 1890 he released what is regarded as his finest drama:
Visarjan (Sacrifice).[114] It is an adaptation of Rajarshi, an earlier novella of his.
"A forthright denunciation of a meaningless [and] cruel superstitious rite[s]",[125]
the Bengali originals feature intricate subplots and prolonged monologues that
give play to historical events in seventeenth-century Udaipur. The devout
Maharaja of Tripura is pitted against the wicked head priest Raghupati. His latter
dramas were more philosophical and allegorical in nature; these included Dak
Ghar. Another is Tagore's Chandalika (Untouchable Girl), which was modelled
on an ancient Buddhist legend describing how Ananda, the Gautama Buddha's
disciple, asks a tribal girl for water.[126]
In Raktakarabi ("Red" or "Blood Oleanders"), a kleptocrat rules over the
residents of Yaksha puri. He and his retainers exploit his subjectswho are
benumbed by alcohol and numbered like inventoryby forcing them to mine
gold for him. The naive maiden-heroine Nandini rallies her subject-compatriots
to defeat the greed of the realm's sardar classwith the morally roused king's
belated help. Skirting the "good-vs-evil" trope, the work pits a vital and joyous
lse majest against the monotonous fealty of the king's varletry, giving rise to
an allegorical struggle akin to that found in Animal Farm or Gulliver's
Travels.[127] The original, though prized in Bengal, long failed to spawn a "free
and comprehensible" translation, and its archaic and sonorous didacticism failed
to attract interest from abroad.[4] Chitrangada, Chandalika, and Shyama are
other key plays that have dance-drama adaptations, which together are known as
Rabindra Nritya Natya.

Novels

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bills. I can feel


him coming
nearer and
nearer and my
heart becomes
glad.
Amal in The Post
Office, 1914.[123]

Rabindranath Tagore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tagore wrote eight novels and four novellas, among them Chaturanga, Shesher
Kobita, Char Odhay, and Noukadubi. Ghare Baire (The Home and the World)
through the lens of the idealistic zamindar protagonist Nikhilexcoriates rising
Indian nationalism, terrorism, and religious zeal in the Swadeshi movement; a
frank expression of Tagore's conflicted sentiments, it emerged from a 1914 bout
of depression. The novel ends in Hindu-Muslim violence and Nikhil'slikely
mortalwounding.[128]

Gora raises controversial questions regarding the Indian identity. As with Ghare
Baire, matters of self-identity (jti), personal freedom, and religion are developed in the context of a family
story and love triangle.[129] In it an Irish boy orphaned in the Sepoy Mutiny is raised by Hindus as the
titular gora"whitey". Ignorant of his foreign origins, he chastises Hindu religious backsliders out of love
for the indigenous Indians and solidarity with them against his hegemon-compatriots. He falls for a Brahmo
girl, compelling his worried foster father to reveal his lost past and cease his nativist zeal. As a "true
dialectic" advancing "arguments for and against strict traditionalism", it tackles the colonial conundrum by
"portray[ing] the value of all positions within a particular frame [...] not only syncretism, not only liberal
orthodoxy, but the extremest reactionary traditionalism he defends by an appeal to what humans share."
Among these Tagore highlights "identity [...] conceived of as dharma."[130]
In Jogajog (Relationships), the heroine Kumudinibound by the ideals of iva-Sati, exemplified by
Dkshyaniis torn between her pity for the sinking fortunes of her progressive and compassionate elder
brother and his foil: her roue of a husband. Tagore flaunts his feminist leanings; pathos depicts the plight
and ultimate demise of women trapped by pregnancy, duty, and family honour; he simultaneously trucks
with Bengal's putrescent landed gentry.[131] The story revolves around the underlying rivalry between two
familiesthe Chatterjees, aristocrats now on the decline (Biprodas) and the Ghosals (Madhusudan),
representing new money and new arrogance. Kumudini, Biprodas' sister, is caught between the two as she is
married off to Madhusudan. She had risen in an observant and sheltered traditional home, as had all her
female relations.
Others were uplifting: Shesher Kobitatranslated twice as Last Poem and Farewell Songis his most
lyrical novel, with poems and rhythmic passages written by a poet protagonist. It contains elements of satire
and postmodernism and has stock characters who gleefully attack the reputation of an old, outmoded,
oppressively renowned poet who, incidentally, goes by a familiar name: "Rabindranath Tagore". Though
his novels remain among the least-appreciated of his works, they have been given renewed attention via
film adaptations by Ray and others: Chokher Bali and Ghare Baire are exemplary. In the first, Tagore
inscribes Bengali society via its heroine: a rebellious widow who would live for herself alone. He pillories
the custom of perpetual mourning on the part of widows, who were not allowed to remarry, who were
consigned to seclusion and loneliness. Tagore wrote of it: "I have always regretted the ending".

Stories
Tagore's three-volume Galpaguchchha comprises eighty-four stories that reflect upon the author's
surroundings, on modern and fashionable ideas, and on mind puzzles.[33] Tagore associated his earliest
stories, such as those of the "Sadhana" period, with an exuberance of vitality and spontaneity; these traits
were cultivated by zamindar Tagore's life in Patisar, Shajadpur, Shelaidaha, and other villages.[33] Seeing
the common and the poor, he examined their lives with a depth and feeling singular in Indian literature up
to that point.[132] In "The Fruitseller from Kabul", Tagore speaks in first person as a town dweller and
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novelist imputing exotic perquisites to an Afghan seller. He channels the lucubrative lust of those mired in
the blas, nidorous, and sudorific morass of subcontinental city life: for distant vistas. "There were autumn
mornings, the time of year when kings of old went forth to conquest; and I, never stirring from my little
corner in Calcutta, would let my mind wander over the whole world. At the very name of another country,
my heart would go out to it [...] I would fall to weaving a network of dreams: the mountains, the glens, the
forest [...]."[133]
The Golpoguchchho (Bunch of Stories) was written in Tagore's Sabuj Patra period, which lasted from 1914
to 1917 and was named for another of his magazines.[33] These yarns are celebrated fare in Bengali fiction
and are commonly used as plot fodder by Bengali film and theatre. The Ray film Charulata echoed the
controversial Tagore novella Nastanirh (The Broken Nest). In Atithi, which was made into another film, the
little Brahmin boy Tarapada shares a boat ride with a village zamindar. The boy relates his flight from
home and his subsequent wanderings. Taking pity, the elder adopts him; he fixes the boy to marry his own
daughter. The night before his wedding, Tarapada runs offagain. Strir Patra (The Wife's Letter) is an
early treatise in female emancipation.[134] Mrinal is wife to a Bengali middle class man: prissy, preening,
and patriarchal. Travelling alone she writes a letter, which comprehends the story. She details the pettiness
of a life spent entreating his viraginous virility; she ultimately gives up married life, proclaiming, Amio
bachbo. Ei bachlum: "And I shall live. Here, I live."
Haimanti assails Hindu arranged marriage and spotlights their often dismal domesticity, the hypocrisies
plaguing the Indian middle classes, and how Haimanti, a young woman, due to her insufferable sensitivity
and free spirit, foredid herself. In the last passage Tagore blasts the reification of Sita's self-immolation
attempt; she had meant to appease her consort Rama's doubts of her chastity. Musalmani Didi eyes
recrudescent Hindu-Muslim tensions and, in many ways, embodies the essence of Tagore's humanism. The
somewhat auto-referential Darpaharan describes a fey young man who harbours literary ambitions. Though
he loves his wife, he wishes to stifle her literary career, deeming it unfeminine. In youth Tagore likely
agreed with him. Darpaharan depicts the final humbling of the man as he ultimately acknowledges his
wife's talents. As do many other Tagore stories, Jibito o Mrito equips Bengalis with a ubiquitous epigram:
Kadombini moriya proman korilo she more nai"Kadombini died, thereby proving that she hadn't."

Poetry
Tagore's poetic style, which proceeds from a lineage established by 15th- and 16th-century Vaishnava
poets, ranges from classical formalism to the comic, visionary, and ecstatic. He was influenced by the
atavistic mysticism of Vyasa and other rishi-authors of the Upanishads, the Bhakti-Sufi mystic Kabir, and
Ramprasad Sen.[135] Tagore's most innovative and mature poetry embodies his exposure to Bengali rural
folk music, which included mystic Baul ballads such as those of the bard Lalon.[136][137] These,
rediscovered and repopularised by Tagore, resemble 19th-century Kartbhaj hymns that emphasise inward
divinity and rebellion against bourgeois bhadralok religious and social orthodoxy.[138][139] During his
Shelaidaha years, his poems took on a lyrical voice of the moner manush, the Buls' "man within the heart"
and Tagore's "life force of his deep recesses", or meditating upon the jeevan devatathe demiurge or the
"living God within".[21] This figure connected with divinity through appeal to nature and the emotional
interplay of human drama. Such tools saw use in his Bhnusiha poems chronicling the Radha-Krishna
romance, which were repeatedly revised over the course of seventy years.[140][141]

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The time that


my journey
takes is long
and the way of
it long.
I came out on
the chariot of
the first gleam
of light, and
pursued my
voyage
through the
wildernesses of
worlds leaving
my track on
many a star
and planet.
It is the most
distant course
that comes
nearest to
thyself, and
that training is
the most
intricate which
leads to the
utter simplicity
of a tune.
The traveller
has to knock at
every alien
door to come
to his own, and
one has to
wander
through all the
outer worlds to
reach the
innermost
shrine at the
end.
My eyes
strayed far and
wide before I
shut them and
said 'Here art
thou!'
The question
and the cry
'Oh, where?'
melt into tears
of a thousand
streams and
deluge the
world with the

Rabindranath Tagore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tagore reacted to the halfhearted uptake of modernist and realist techniques in


Bengali literature by writing matching experimental works in the 1930s.[143]
These include Africa and Camalia, among the better known of his latter poems.
He occasionally wrote poems using Shadhu Bhasha, a Sanskritised dialect of
Bengali; he later adopted a more popular dialect known as Cholti Bhasha. Other
works include Manasi, Sonar Tori (Golden Boat), Balaka (Wild Geese, a name
redolent of migrating souls),[144] and Purobi. Sonar Tori's most famous poem,
dealing with the fleeting endurance of life and achievement, goes by the same
name; hauntingly it ends: Shunno nodir tire rohinu poi / Jaha chhilo loe glo
shonar tori"all I had achieved was carried off on the golden boatonly I was
left behind." Gitanjali ( ) is Tagore's best-known collection
internationally, earning him his Nobel.[145]
Song VII of Gitanjali:

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'

Amar e gan
chheechhe tar
shkol longkar
Tomar kachhe rakhe
ni ar shajer
hongkar
longkar je majhe
pe milnete aal
kre,
Tomar ktha hake
je tar mukhro
jhngkar.
Tomar kachhe khae
na mor kobir grbo
kra,
Mhakobi, tomar
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flood of the
assurance 'I
am!'

Song XII, Gitanjali,


1913.[142]

paee dite chai je


dhra.
Jibon loe jton kori
jodi shrol bshi
goi,
Apon shure dibe
bhori skol chhidro
tar.

Hungary, 1926.

Tagore's free-verse translation:

My song has put off her adornments.


She has no pride of dress and decoration.
Ornaments would mar our union; they would come
between thee and me; their jingling would drown thy whispers.
My poet's vanity dies in shame before thy sight.
O master poet, I have sat down at thy feet.
Only let me make my life simple and straight,
like a flute of reed for thee to fill with music.[146]

"Klanti" ( ; "Weariness"):

, ,


,
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Klanti amar khma kro probhu,


Pthe jodi pichhie poi kobhu.
Ei je hia thro thro kpe aji montro,
Ei bedona khma kro khma kro
probhu.
Ei dinota khma kro probhu,
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,
, ,

Pichhon-pane takai jodi kobhu.


Diner tape roudrojalae shukae mala
pujar thalae,
Shei mlanota khma kro khma kro,
probhu.

Gloss by Tagore scholar Reba Som:

Forgive me my weariness O Lord


Should I ever lag behind
For this heart that this day trembles so
And for this pain, forgive me, forgive me, O Lord
For this weakness, forgive me O Lord,
If perchance I cast a look behind
And in the day's heat and under the burning sun
The garland on the platter of offering wilts,
For its dull pallor, forgive me, forgive me O Lord.[147]

Tagore's poetry has been set to music by composers: Arthur Shepherd's triptych for soprano and string
quartet, Alexander Zemlinsky's famous Lyric Symphony, Josef Bohuslav Foerster's cycle of love songs,
Leo Janek's famous chorus "Potuln lenec" ("The Wandering Madman") for soprano, tenor, baritone,
and male chorusJW 4/43inspired by Tagore's 1922 lecture in Czechoslovakia which Janek attended,
and Garry Schyman's "Praan", an adaptation of Tagore's poem "Stream of Life" from Gitanjali. The latter
was composed and recorded with vocals by Palbasha Siddique to accompany Internet celebrity Matt
Harding's 2008 viral video.[148] In 1917 his words were translated adeptly and set to music by Anglo-Dutch
composer Richard Hageman to produce a highly regarded art song: "Do Not Go, My Love". The second
movement of Jonathan Harvey's "One Evening" (1994) sets an excerpt beginning "As I was watching the
sunrise ..." from a letter of Tagore's, this composer having previously chosen a text by the poet for his piece
"Song Offerings" (1985).[149]

Politics
Tagore opposed imperialism and supported Indian nationalists,[150][151][152] and these views were first
revealed in Manast, which was mostly composed in his twenties.[44] Evidence produced during the Hindu
German Conspiracy Trial and latter accounts affirm his awareness of the Ghadarites, and stated that he
sought the support of Japanese Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake and former Premier kuma
Shigenobu.[153] Yet he lampooned the Swadeshi movement; he rebuked it in "The Cult of the Charka", an
acrid 1925 essay.[154] He urged the masses to avoid victimology and instead seek self-help and education,

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and he saw the presence of British administration as a "political symptom of our social disease". He
maintained that, even for those at the extremes of poverty, "there can be no question of blind revolution";
preferable to it was a "steady and purposeful education".[155][156]
Such views enraged many. He escaped assassinationand only narrowlyby Indian expatriates during his
stay in a San Francisco hotel in late 1916; the plot failed when his would-be assassins fell into
argument.[158] Tagore wrote songs lionising the Indian independence movement.[159] Two of Tagore's more
politically charged compositions, "Chitto Jetha Bhayshunyo" ("Where the Mind is Without Fear") and
"Ekla Chalo Re" ("If They Answer Not to Thy Call, Walk Alone"), gained mass appeal, with the latter
favoured by Gandhi.[160] Though somewhat critical of Gandhian
activism,[161] Tagore was key in resolving a GandhiAmbedkar
dispute involving separate electorates for untouchables, thereby
mooting at least one of Gandhi's fasts "unto death".[162][163]

Repudiation of knighthood
Tagore renounced his knighthood, in response to the Jallianwala
Bagh massacre in 1919. In the repudiation letter to the Viceroy,
Lord Chelmsford, he wrote[1]
Gandhi with poet Rabindranath
Tagore, 1940

So I repeat we
never can have
a true view of
man unless we
have a love for
him.
Civilisation
must be judged
and prized, not
by the amount
of power it has
developed, but
by how much
it has evolved
and given
expression to,
by its laws and
institutions, the
love of
humanity.

The time has come when badges


of honour make our shame
glaring in the incongruous
context of humiliation, and I for
my part, wish to stand, shorn, of
all special distinctions, by the
side of those of my countrymen
who, for their so called
insignificance, are liable to suffer
degradation not fit for human
beings.

Tagore hosts Gandhi and


wife Kasturba at
Santiniketan in 1940.

Santiniketan and Visva-Bharati

Tagore despised rote classroom schooling: in "The Parrot's Training", a bird is


caged and force-fed textbook pagesto death.[164][165] Tagore, visiting Santa
Barbara in 1917, conceived a new type of university: he sought to "make
Santiniketan the connecting thread between India and the world [and] a world
center for the study of humanity somewhere beyond the limits of nation and
Sdhan: The
Realisation of Life,
geography."[158] The school, which he named Visva-Bharati,[] had its
1916.[157]
foundation stone laid on 24 December 1918 and was inaugurated precisely three
years later.[166] Tagore employed a brahmacharya system: gurus gave pupils
personal guidanceemotional, intellectual, and spiritual. Teaching was often done under trees. He staffed
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the school, he contributed his Nobel Prize monies,[167] and his duties as steward-mentor at Santiniketan
kept him busy: mornings he taught classes; afternoons and evenings he wrote the students' textbooks.[168]
He fundraised widely for the school in Europe and the United States between 1919 and 1921.[169]

Theft of Nobel Prize


On 25 March 2004, Tagores Nobel Prize was stolen from the safety vault of the Visva-Bharati University,
along with several other of his personal belongings.[170] On 7 December 2004, the Swedish Academy
decided to present two replicas of Tagores Nobel Prize, one made of gold and the other made of bronze, to
the Visva Bharati University.[171]

Impact
Every year, many events pay tribute to Tagore: Kabipranam, his birth
anniversary, is celebrated by groups scattered across the globe; the annual
Tagore Festival held in Urbana, Illinois; Rabindra Path Parikrama
walking pilgrimages from Calcutta to Santiniketan; and recitals of his
poetry, which are held on important anniversaries.[70][172][173] Bengali
culture is fraught with this legacy: from language and arts to history and
politics. Amartya Sen deemed Tagore a "towering figure", a "deeply
relevant and many-sided contemporary thinker".[173] Tagore's Bengali
originalsthe 1939 Rabndra Rachanvalis canonised as one of his
nation's greatest cultural treasures, and he was roped into a reasonably
humble role: "the greatest poet India has produced".[174]

Who are you,


reader, reading
my poems an
hundred years
hence?
I cannot send
you one single
flower from
this wealth of
the spring, one
single streak of
gold from
yonder clouds.
Open your
doors and look
abroad.
From your
blossoming
garden gather
fragrant
memories of
the vanished
flowers of an

Tagore was renowned throughout much of


Europe, North America, and East Asia. He cofounded Dartington Hall School, a progressive
coeducational institution;[176] in Japan, he
influenced such figures as Nobel laureate
Yasunari Kawabata.[177] Tagore's works were
widely translated into English, Dutch, German,
Spanish, and other European languages by
Czech indologist Vincenc Lesn,[178] French
Nobel laureate Andr Gide, Russian poet Anna
Akhmatova,[179] former Turkish Prime Minister
Blent Ecevit,[180] and others. In the United
States, Tagore's lecturing circuits, particularly
those of 19161917, were widely attended and
wildly acclaimed. Some controversies[]
involving Tagore, possibly fictive, trashed his
popularity and sales in Japan and North America
after the late 1920s, concluding with his "near
total eclipse" outside Bengal.[5] Yet a latent

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hundred years
before.
In the joy of
your heart may
you feel the
living joy that
sang one
spring
morning,
sending its
glad voice
across an
hundred years.

reverence of Tagore was discovered by an


astonished Salman Rushdie during a trip to
Nicaragua.[181]

By way of translations, Tagore influenced


Chileans Pablo Neruda and Gabriela Mistral;
Mexican writer Octavio Paz; and Spaniards Jos
Ortega y Gasset, Zenobia Camprub, and Juan
Ramn Jimnez. In the period 19141922, the
Jimnez-Camprub pair produced twenty-two
Spanish translations of Tagore's English corpus;
they heavily revised The Crescent Moon and
The Gardener,
other key titles. In these years, Jimnez
1915.[175]
developed "naked poetry".[182] Ortega y Gasset
wrote that "Tagore's wide appeal [owes to how]
he speaks of longings for perfection that we all have [...] Tagore awakens a
Tagore Room, Sardar Patel
dormant sense of childish wonder, and he saturates the air with all kinds of
Memorial, Ahmedabad.
enchanting promises for the reader, who [...] pays little attention to the
deeper import of Oriental mysticism". Tagore's works circulated in free
editions around 1920alongside those of Plato, Dante, Cervantes, Goethe, and Tolstoy.
Tagore was deemed over-rated by some. Graham Greene doubted that "anyone but Mr. Yeats can still take
his poems very seriously." Several prominent Western admirersincluding Pound and, to a lesser extent,
even Yeatscriticised Tagore's work. Yeats, unimpressed with his English translations, railed against that
"Damn Tagore [...] We got out three good books, Sturge Moore and I, and then, because he thought it more
important to know English than to be a great poet, he brought out sentimental rubbish and wrecked his
reputation. Tagore does not know English, no Indian knows English."[5][183] William Radice, who
"English[ed]" his poems, asked: "What is their place in world literature?"[184] He saw him as "kind of
counter-cultur[al]," bearing "a new kind of classicism" that would heal the "collapsed romantic confusion
and chaos of the 20th [c]entury."[183][185] The translated Tagore was "almost nonsensical",[186] and subpar
English offerings reduced his trans-national appeal:

[...] anyone who knows Tagore's poems in their original Bengali cannot feel satisfied with
any of the translations (made with or without Yeats's help). Even the translations of his
prose works suffer, to some extent, from distortion. E.M. Forster noted [of] The Home and
the World [that] "[t]he theme is so beautiful," but the charms have "vanished in translation,"
or perhaps "in an experiment that has not quite come off."

Amartya Sen, "Tagore and His India".[5]

List of works
The SNLTR hosts the 1415 BE edition of Tagore's complete Bengali works (http://www.rabindrarachanabali.nltr.org). Tagore Web (http://tagoreweb.in/) also hosts an edition of Tagore's works, including
annotated songs. Translations are found at Project Gutenberg
(http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/t#a942) and Wikisource. More sources are below.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

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Original
Bengali
Poetry
*

*
*
*
*
*
Dramas
*
*

Bhnusiha hkurer
Paval
Manasi
Sonar Tari
Gitanjali
Gitimalya
Balaka

(Songs of Bhnusiha
hkur)
(The Ideal One)
(The Golden Boat)
(Song Offerings)
(Wreath of Songs)
(The Flight of Cranes)

Valmiki-Pratibha
Visarjan

1884
1890
1894
1910
1914
1916

Raja

*
*
*
*
Fiction
*
*
*
*
Memoirs
*

Dak Ghar
Achalayatan
Muktadhara
Raktakaravi

(The Genius of Valmiki)


(The Sacrifice)
(The King of the Dark
Chamber)
(The Post Office)
(The Immovable)
(The Waterfall)
(Red Oleanders)

1881
1890

Nastanirh
Gora
Ghare Baire
Yogayog

(The Broken Nest)


1901
(Fair-Faced)
1910
(The Home and the World) 1916
(Crosscurrents)
1929

Jivansmriti
Chhelebela

(My Reminiscences)
(My Boyhood Days)

1910
1912
1912
1922
1926

1912
1940

English
* Thought Relics

1921[original 1]

Translated
English
* Chitra
* Creative Unity
* The Crescent Moon
* The Cycle of Spring
* Fireflies
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

1914[text 1]
1922[text 2]
1913[text 3]
1919[text 4]
1928
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* Fruit-Gathering
* The Fugitive
* The Gardener
* Gitanjali: Song Offerings
* Glimpses of Bengal
* The Home and the World
* The Hungry Stones
* I Won't Let you Go: Selected Poems
* The King of the Dark Chamber
* Letters from an Expatriate in Europe
* The Lover of God
* Mashi
* My Boyhood Days
* My Reminiscences
* Nationalism
* The Post Office
* Sadhana: The Realisation of Life
* Selected Letters
* Selected Poems
* Selected Short Stories
* Songs of Kabir
* The Spirit of Japan
* Stories from Tagore
* Stray Birds
* Vocation

1916[text 5]
1921[text 6]
1913[text 7]
1912[text 8]
1991[text 9]
1985[text 10]
1916[text 11]
1991
1914[text 12]
2012
2003
1918[text 13]
1943
1991[text 14]
1991
1914[text 15]
1913[text 16]
1997
1994
1991
1915[text 17]
1916[text 18]
1918[text 19]
1916[text 20]
1913[187]

Adaptations of novels and short stories in cinema


Hindi
Sacrifice 1927 (Balidaan) Nanand Bhojai and Naval Gandhi
Milan 1947 (Nauka Dubi) Nitin Bose
Kabuliwala 1961 (Kabuliwala) Bimal Roy
Uphaar 1971 (Samapti) Sudhendu Roy
Lekin... 1991 (Kshudhit Pashaan) Gulzar
Char Adhyay 1997 (Char Adhyay) Kumar Shahani
Kashmakash 2011 (Nauka Dubi) Rituparno Ghosh
"Bhikharin"

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

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Bengali
Natir Puja 1932 The only film directed by Rabindranath Tagore
Naukadubi 1947 (Noukadubi) Nitin Bose
Kabuliwala 1957 (Kabuliwala) Tapan Sinha
Kshudhita Pashaan 1960 (Kshudhita Pashan) Tapan Sinha
Teen Kanya 1961 (Teen Kanya) Satyajit Ray
Charulata - 1964 (Nastanirh) Satyajit Ray
Ghare Baire 1985 (Ghare Baire) Satyajit Ray
Chokher Bali 2003 (Chokher Bali) Rituparno Ghosh
Shasti 2004 (Shasti) Chashi Nazrul Islam
Shuva 2006 (Shuvashini) Chashi Nazrul Islam
Chaturanga 2008 (Chaturanga) Suman Mukhopadhyay
Elar Char Adhyay 2012 (Char Adhyay) Bappaditya Bandyopadhyay

See also
Tagore family

Notes
^ : Bengali: ,
pronounced: [obind
onat
aku] (

nat
akr] (

);

Hindi: [rind
r

).

^ : Romanised from Bengali script:


Robindronath hakur.
^ : Bengali calendar: 25 Baishakh, 1268 22 Srabon,
1348 ( , , ).
^ : Gurudev translates as "divine mentor".[188]
^ : Tagore was born at No. 6 Dwarkanath Tagore
Lane, Jorasankothe address of the main mansion
(the Jorasanko Thakurbari) inhabited by the

Gordon Square, London.

Gandhi Memorial
Museum, Madurai.

Jorasanko branch of the Tagore clan, which had earlier


suffered an acrimonious split. Jorasanko was located
in the Bengali section of Calcutta, near Chitpur Road.[189]
^ : ... and wholly fictitious ...
^ : Etymology of "Visva-Bharati": from the Sanskrit for "world" or "universe" and the name of a Rigvedic
goddess ("Bharati") associated with Saraswati, the Hindu patron of learning.[166] "Visva-Bharati" also translates
as "India in the World".
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

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^ : Tagore was no stranger to controversy: his dealings with Indian nationalists Subhas Chandra Bose[5] and
Rash Behari Bose,[190] his yen for Soviet Communism,[191][192] and papers confiscated from Indian nationalists
in New York allegedly implicating Tagore in a plot to overthrow the Raj via German funds.[193] These destroyed
Tagore's imageand book salesin the United States.[190] His relations with and ambivalent opinion of
Mussolini revolted many;[80] close friend Romain Rolland despaired that "[h]e is abdicating his role as moral
guide of the independent spirits of Europe and India".[194]
^ : On the "idea of the humanity of our God, or the divinity of Man the Eternal".

Citations
1. ^ a b "Tagore renounced his Knighthood in protest for Jalianwalla Bagh mass killing"
(http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-04-13/india/29413338_1_knighthood-protest-honour). The
Times of India (Mumbai: Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.). 13 April 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
2. ^ "Tagore, Sir Rabindranath", in Webster's Biographical Dictionary (1943), Springfield, MA: G. & C. Merriam.
3. ^ The Nobel Foundation.
4. ^ a b O'Connell 2008.
5. ^ a b c d e Sen 1997.
6. ^ a b Thompson 1926, pp. 2728.
7. ^ Tribute: Tagore belongs to all South Asians The Express Tribune
(http://tribune.com.pk/story/552101/tribute-tagore-belongs-to-all-south-asians/)
8. ^ Radhakrishnan, R. K. (5 May 2011). "Sri Lanka to release stamp on Tagore"
(http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/sri-lanka-to-release-stamp-on-tagore/article1993905.ece). The
Hindu (Chennai, India).
9. ^ Tagore 1984, p. xii.
10. ^ Dasgupta 1993, p. 20.
11. ^ "Visva-Bharti-Facts and Figures at a Glance" (http://www.visva-bharati.ac.in/at_a_glance/at_a_glance.htm).
12. ^ Datta 2002, p. 2.
13. ^ Kripalani 2005a, pp. 68.
14. ^ Kripalani 2005b, pp. 23.
15. ^ Thompson 1926, p. 12.
16. ^ "Celebrating Rabindranath Tagore's legacy" (http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/celebrating-rabindranathtagores-legacy/article2026880.ece).
17. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 37.
18. ^ The News Today 2011.
19. ^ Roy 1977, pp. 2830.
20. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, pp. 89.
21. ^ a b c d e f g Ghosh 2011.
22. ^ a b Thompson 1926, p. 20.
23. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 10.
24. ^ Thompson 1926, pp. 2124.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

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25. ^ Das 2009.


26. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 4849.
27. ^ a b Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 50.
28. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 5455.
29. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 55.
30. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 5556.
31. ^ Tagore, Stewart & Twichell 2003, p. 91.
32. ^ Tagore, Stewart & Twichell 2003, p. 3.
33. ^ a b c d e Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 45.
34. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 265.
35. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, pp. 4647.
36. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 47.
37. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, pp. 4748.
38. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 35.
39. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 5354.
40. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 68.
41. ^ Thompson 1926, p. 31.
42. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, pp. 1112.
43. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 373.
44. ^ a b Scott 2009, p. 10.
45. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 109111.
46. ^ Chowdury, A. A. (1992), Lalon Shah, Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangla Academy, ISBN 984-07-2597-1
47. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 109.
48. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 133.
49. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 139140.
50. ^ Hjrne 1913.
51. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 239240.
52. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 242.
53. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 308309.
54. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 303.
55. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 309.
56. ^ a b Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 317.
57. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 312313.
58. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 335338.
59. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 342.
60. ^ Tagore & Radice 2004, p. 28.
61. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 338.
62. ^ Indo-Asian News Service 2005.
63. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 367.
64. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 363.
65. ^ The Daily Star 2009.
66. ^ Sigi 2006, p. 89.
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66. ^ Sigi 2006, p. 89.


67. ^ Flickr 2006.
68. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 374376.
69. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 178179.
70. ^ a b University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
71. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 12.
72. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 206.
73. ^ Hogan & Pandit 2003, pp. 5658.
74. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 182.
75. ^ Tagore 1930, pp. 222225.
76. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 253.
77. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 256.
78. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 267.
79. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 270271.
80. ^ a b Kundu 2009.
81. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 1.
82. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 289292.
83. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 303304.
84. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 292293.
85. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 2.
86. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 315.
87. ^ South Asian Women's Forum.
88. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 99.
89. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, pp. 100103.
90. ^ "Vice President speaks on Rabindranath Tagore | 17033"
(http://www.newkerala.com/news/newsplus/worldnews-17033.html#.T8iO5bBDxrc). Newkerala.com. Retrieved
5 September 2012.
91. ^ a b Dyson 2001.
92. ^ Pandey 2011.
93. ^ The Essential Tagore (http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674057906), Harvard University
Press, retrieved 19 December 2011
94. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 94.
95. ^ a b Dasgupta 2001.
96. ^ Som 2010, p. 38.
97. ^ "Tabu mone rekho" (http://tagoreweb.in/Render/ShowContent.aspx?ct=Songs&bi=56BEA81B-A4A0-40E5B51D-7D0726&ti=56BEA81B-A4A1-4595-851D-7D0726E8B799&ch=c) (in Bengali). http://tagoreweb.in/.
Retrieved 11 May 2012.
98. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 359.
99. ^ Monish R. Chatterjee (13 August 2003). "Tagore and Jana Gana Mana"
(http://www.countercurrents.org/comm-chatterjee310803.htm). http://www.countercurrents.org.
100. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 222.
101. ^ [[#CITEREFR._Siva_Kumar2011|R. Siva Kumar 2011]].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

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101. ^ [[#CITEREFR._Siva_Kumar2011|R. Siva Kumar 2011]].


102. ^ R. Siva Kumar 2012.

103. ^ Commemoration of 150th Birth Anniversary of, Shri Rabindranath Tagore (http://rabindranathtagore150.gov.in/chitravali.html)
104. ^ "Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Kalender" (http://www.smb.museum/smb/kalender/details.php?
objID=31839&n=0&datum=02.09.2011). Smb.museum. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
105. ^ Current Exhibitions Upcoming Exhibitions Past Exhibitions. "Rabindranath Tagore: The Last Harvest | New
York" (http://asiasociety.org/new-york/exhibitions/rabindranath-tagore-last-harvest). Asia Society. Retrieved 18
December 2012.
106. ^ "Exhibitions | Special Exhibitions" (http://www.museum.go.kr/program/show/showDetailEng.jsp?
menuID=002002002&searchSelect=A.SHOWKOR&showCategory1Con=SC1&showCategory2Con=SC1_1&p
ageSize=10&langCodeCon=LC2&showID=5371). Museum.go.kr. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
107. ^ "Rabindranath Tagore: Poet and Painter Victoria and Albert Museum"
(http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/r/rabindranath-tagore-poet-and-painter/). Vam.ac.uk. Retrieved 18
December 2012.
108. ^ http://www.artic.edu/sites/default/files/press_pdf/Tagore.pdf
109. ^ "Le Petit Palais Rabindranath Tagore (18611941) Paris.fr"
(http://www.petitpalais.paris.fr/en/expositions/rabindranath-tagore-1861-1941). Petitpalais.paris.fr. 11 March
2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
110. ^ "Welcome to High Commission of India, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)"
(http://www.indianhighcommission.com.my/tagore.php). Indianhighcommission.com.my. Retrieved 18
December 2012.
111. ^ "McMichael Canadian Art Collection > The Last Harvest: Paintings by Rabindranath Tagore"
(http://mcmichael.com/exhibitions/tagore/info.cfm). Mcmichael.com. 15 July 2012. Retrieved 18 December
2012.
112. ^ http://www.ngmaindia.gov.in/pdf/The-Last-Harvest-e-INVITE.pdf
113. ^ Lago 1977, p. 15.
114. ^ a b Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 123.
115. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 7980.
116. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, pp. 2123.
117. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, pp. 123124.
118. ^ Lifton & Wiesel 1997, p. 321.
119. ^ Lifton & Wiesel 1997, pp. 416417.
120. ^ Lifton & Wiesel 1997, pp. 318321.
121. ^ Lifton & Wiesel 1997, pp. 385386.
122. ^ Lifton & Wiesel 1997, p. 349.
123. ^ Tagore & Mukerjea 1914, p. 68.
124. ^ Tagore & Mukerjea 1914, pp. vvi.
125. ^ Ayyub 1980, p. 48.
126. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 124.
127. ^ Ray 2007, pp. 147148.
128. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 192194.
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129. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 154155.


130. ^ Hogan 2000, pp. 213214.
131. ^ Mukherjee 2004.
132. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, pp. 4546.
133. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, pp. 4849.
134. ^ Ray 2007, pp. 5960.
135. ^ Roy 1977, p. 201.
136. ^ Tagore, Stewart & Twichell 2003, p. 94.
137. ^ Urban 2001, p. 18.
138. ^ Urban 2001, pp. 67.
139. ^ Urban 2001, p. 16.
140. ^ Tagore, Stewart & Twichell 2003, p. 95.
141. ^ Tagore, Stewart & Twichell 2003, p. 7.
142. ^ Prasad & Sarkar 2008, p. 125.
143. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 281.
144. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 192.
145. ^ Tagore, Stewart & Twichell 2003, pp. 9596.
146. ^ Tagore 1952, p. 5.
147. ^ Tagore, Alam & Chakravarty 2011, p. 323.
148. ^ Harding 2008.
149. ^ Harvey 1999, pp. 59, 90.
150. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 127.
151. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 210.
152. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 304.
153. ^ Brown 1948, p. 306.
154. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 261.
155. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, pp. 239240.
156. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 181.
157. ^ Tagore 1916, p. 111.
158. ^ a b Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 204.
159. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 215216.
160. ^ Chakraborty & Bhattacharya 2001, p. 157.
161. ^ Mehta 1999.
162. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 306307.
163. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 339.
164. ^ Tagore, Dutta & Robinson 1997, p. 267.
165. ^ Tagore & Pal 2004.
166. ^ a b Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 220.
167. ^ Roy 1977, p. 175.
168. ^ Tagore & Chakravarty 1961, p. 27.
169. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 221.
170. ^ "Tagore's Nobel Prize stolen" (http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2004-03http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

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170. ^ "Tagore's Nobel Prize stolen" (http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2004-0325/india/28342931_1_tagore-s-nobel-prize-mrinalini-devi-visva-bharati-university). The Times of India (The
Times Group). 25 March 2004. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
171. ^ "Sweden to present India replicas of Tagore's Nobel" (http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2004-1207/india/27146417_1_rabindranath-tagore-s-nobel-prize-visva-bharati-university-replicas). The Times of India
(The Times Group). 7 December 2004. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
172. ^ Chakrabarti 2001.
173. ^ a b Hatcher 2001.
174. ^ Kmpchen 2003.
175. ^ Tagore & Ray 2007, p. 104.
176. ^ Farrell 2000, p. 162.
177. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 202.
178. ^ Cameron 2006.
179. ^ Sen 2006, p. 90.
180. ^ Kinzer 2006.
181. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 255.
182. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 254255.
183. ^ a b Bhattacharya 2001.
184. ^ Tagore & Radice 2004, p. 26.
185. ^ Tagore & Radice 2004, pp. 2631.
186. ^ Tagore & Radice 2004, pp. 1819.
187. ^ Vocation, Ratna Sagar, 2007, p. 64, ISBN 81-8332-175-5
188. ^ Sil 2005.
189. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 34.
190. ^ a b Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 214.
191. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 297.
192. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, pp. 214215.
193. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 212.
194. ^ Dutta & Robinson 1995, p. 273.

References
Primary
Anthologies
TAGORE, Rabindranath (1952), Collected Poems and Plays of Rabindranath Tagore, Macmillan Publishing
(published January 1952), ISBN 978-0-02-615920-3
TAGORE, Rabindranath (1984), Some Songs and Poems from Rabindranath Tagore, East-West Publications,
ISBN 978-0-85692-055-4
TAGORE; Fakrul Alam (editor); Radha Chakravarty (editor)., Rabindranath; ALAM, F. (editor); CHAKRAVARTY, R.
(editor) (2011), The Essential Tagore, Harvard University Press (published 15 April 2011), p. 323, ISBN 978-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

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674-05790-6
TAGORE; Amiya Chakravarty (editor)., Rabindranath; CHAKRAVARTY, A. (editor) (1961), A Tagore Reader,
Beacon Press (published 1 June 1961), ISBN 978-0-8070-5971-5
TAGORE; Krishna Dutta (editor); W. Andrew Robinson (editor)., Rabindranath; DUTTA, K. (editor); ROBINSON, A.
(editor) (1997), Selected Letters of Rabindranath Tagore, Cambridge University Press (published 28 June 1997),
ISBN 978-0-521-59018-1
TAGORE; Krishna Dutta (editor); W. Andrew Robinson (editor)., Rabindranath; DUTTA, K. (editor); ROBINSON, A.
(editor) (1997), Rabindranath Tagore: An Anthology, Saint Martin's Press (published November 1997),
ISBN 978-0-312-16973-2
TAGORE; Mohit K. Ray (editor)., Rabindranath; RAY, M. K. (editor) (2007), The English Writings of
Rabindranath Tagore 1, Atlantic Publishing (published 10 June 2007), ISBN 978-81-269-0664-2

Originals
TAGORE., Rabindranath (1916), Sdhan: The Realisation of Life (http://books.google.com/books?
id=1ADftQVyteYC), Macmillan
TAGORE., Rabindranath (1930), The Religion of Man, Macmillan

Translations
TAGORE; Devabrata Mukerjea (translator)., Rabindranath; MUKERJEA, D. (translator) (1914), The Post Office,
London: Macmillan
TAGORE; Palash Baran Pal (translator)., Rabindranath; PAL, P. B. (translator) (2004), "The Parrot's Tale"
(http://www.parabaas.com/translation/database/translations/stories/gRabindranath_parrot.html), Parabaas (1
December 2004)
TAGORE; William Radice (translator)., Rabindranath; RADICE, W. (translator) (1995), Rabindranath Tagore:
Selected Poems (1st ed.), London: Penguin (published 1 June 1995), ISBN 978-0-14-018366-5
TAGORE; William Radice (translator)., Rabindranath; RADICE, W (translator) (2004), Particles, Jottings, Sparks:
The Collected Brief Poems, Angel Books (published 28 December 2004), ISBN 978-0-946162-66-6
TAGORE; Tony K. Stewart (translator); Chase Twichell (translator)., Rabindranath; STEWART, T. K. (translator);
TWICHELL, C. (translator) (2003), Rabindranath Tagore: Lover of God, Lannan Literary Selections, Copper
Canyon Press (published 1 November 2003), ISBN 978-1-55659-196-9

Secondary
Articles
BHATTACHARYA, S. (2001), Translating Tagore
(http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/2001/09/02/stories/1302017r.htm), Chennai, India: The Hindu (published 2
September 2001), retrieved 9 September 2011
BROWN, G. T. (1948), "The Hindu Conspiracy: 19141917", The Pacific Historical Review (University of
California Press, published August 1948) 17 (3): 299310, doi:10.2307/3634258
(http://dx.doi.org/10.2307%2F3634258), ISSN 0030-8684 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0030-8684)
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CAMERON, R. (2006), "Exhibition of Bengali Film Posters Opens in Prague"


(http://www.radio.cz/en/article/77431), Radio Prague (31 March 2006), retrieved 29 September 2011
CHAKRABARTI, I. (2001), "A People's Poet or a Literary Deity?"
(http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pIndrani1.html), Parabaas (15 July 2001), retrieved 17
September 2011
DAS, S. (2009), "Tagore's Garden of Eden"
(http://www.telegraphindia.com/1090802/jsp/calcutta/story_11299031.jsp), The Telegraph (Calcutta, India,
published 2 August 2009), retrieved 29 September 2011
DASGUPTA, A. (2001), "Rabindra-Sangeet as a Resource for Indian Classical Bandishes"
(http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pAnirban1.html), Parabaas (15 July 2001), retrieved 17
September 2011
DYSON, K. K. (2001), "Rabindranath Tagore and His World of Colours"
(http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pKetaki2.html), Parabaas (15 July 2001), retrieved 26
November 2009
FRENZ, H. (1969), Rabindranath TagoreBiography
(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1913/tagore-bio.html), Nobel Foundation, retrieved 30
August 2011
GHOSH, B. (2011), "Inside the World of Tagore's Music"
(http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pBhaswati2.html), Parabaas (August 2011), retrieved 17
September 2011
HARVEY, J. (1999), In Quest of Spirit: Thoughts on Music (http://www.vivosvoco.com/listofworks.html),
University of California Press, retrieved 10 September 2011
HATCHER, B. A. (2001), "Aji Hote Satabarsha Pare: What Tagore Says to Us a Century Later"
(http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pBrian1.html), Parabaas (15 July 2001), retrieved 28 September
2011
HJRNE, H. (1913), The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913: Rabindranath TagoreAward Ceremony Speech
(http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1913/press.html), Nobel Foundation (published 10
December 1913), retrieved 17 September 2011
JHA, N. (1994), "Rabindranath Tagore" (http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/ThinkersPdf/tagoree.PDF),
PROSPECTS: The Quarterly Review of Education (Paris: UNESCO: International Bureau of Education) 24
(3/4): 60319, retrieved 30 August 2011
KMPCHEN, M. (2003), "Rabindranath Tagore in Germany"
(http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pMartin1.html), Parabaas (25 July 2003), retrieved 28
September 2011
KINZER, S. (2006), "Blent Ecevit, Who Turned Turkey Toward the West, Dies"
(http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/06/world/europe/06iht-web.1106ecevit.3406951.html), The New York Times
(5 November 2006), retrieved 28 September 2011
KUNDU, K. (2009), "Mussolini and Tagore" (http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pKalyan.html),
Parabaas (7 May 2009), retrieved 17 September 2011

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MEHTA, S. (1999), The First Asian Nobel Laureate


(http://www.time.com/time/asia/asia/magazine/1999/990823/tagore1.html), Time (published 23 August 1999),
retrieved 30 August 2011
MEYER, L. (2004), "Tagore in The Netherlands" (http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pMeyer.html),
Parabaas (15 July 2004), retrieved 30 August 2011
MUKHERJEE, M. (2004), "Yogayog ("Nexus") by Rabindranath Tagore: A Book Review"
(http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/brMeenakshi.html), Parabaas (25 March 2004), retrieved 29
September 2011
PANDEY, J. M. (2011), Original Rabindranath Tagore Scripts in Print Soon
(http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-08-08/india/29864127_1_tagore-work-maharshi-debendranathtagore-first), Times of India (published 8 August 2011), retrieved 1 September 2011
O'CONNELL, K. M. (2008), "Red Oleanders (Raktakarabi) by Rabindranath TagoreA New Translation and
Adaptation: Two Reviews" (http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/brRedOleanders.html), Parabaas
(December 2008), retrieved 28 September 2011
RADICE, W. (2003), "Tagore's Poetic Greatness" (http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pRadice.html),
Parabaas (7 May 2003), retrieved 30 August 2011
ROBINSON, A., "Rabindranath Tagore" (http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9070917?tocId=9070917),
Encyclopdia Britannica, retrieved 30 August 2011
SEN, A. (1997), "Tagore and His India" (http://www.countercurrents.org/culture-sen281003.htm), The New York
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SIL, N. P. (2005), "Devotio Humana: Rabindranath's Love Poems Revisited"
(http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/articles/pNarasingha.html), Parabaas (15 February 2005), retrieved 13
August 2009

Books
AYYUB, A. S. (1980), Tagore's Quest, Papyrus
CHAKRABORTY, S. K.; BHATTACHARYA, P. (2001), Leadership and Power: Ethical Explorations, Oxford University
Press (published 16 August 2001), ISBN 978-0-19-565591-9
DASGUPTA, T. (1993), Social Thought of Rabindranath Tagore: A Historical Analysis, Abhinav Publications
(published 1 October 1993), ISBN 978-81-7017-302-1
DATTA, P. K. (2002), Rabindranath Tagore's The Home and the World: A Critical Companion (1st ed.),
Permanent Black (published 1 December 2002), ISBN 978-81-7824-046-6
DUTTA, K.; ROBINSON, A. (1995), Rabindranath Tagore: The Myriad-Minded Man, Saint Martin's Press
(published December 1995), ISBN 978-0-312-14030-4
FARRELL, G. (2000), Indian Music and the West, Clarendon Paperbacks Series (3 ed.), Oxford University Press
(published 9 March 2000), ISBN 978-0-19-816717-4
HOGAN, P. C. (2000), Colonialism and Cultural Identity: Crises of Tradition in the Anglophone Literatures of
India, Africa, and the Caribbean, State University of New York Press (published 27 January 2000), ISBN 978-07914-4460-3

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HOGAN, P. C.; PANDIT, L. (2003), Rabindranath Tagore: Universality and Tradition, Fairleigh Dickinson
University Press (published May 2003), ISBN 978-0-8386-3980-1
KRIPALANI, K. (2005), Dwarkanath Tagore: A Forgotten PioneerA Life, National Book Trust of India,
ISBN 978-81-237-3488-0
KRIPALANI, K. (2005), TagoreA Life, National Book Trust of India, ISBN 978-81-237-1959-7
LAGO, M. (1977), Rabindranath Tagore, Boston: Twayne Publishers (published April 1977), ISBN 978-0-80576242-6
LIFTON, B. J.; WIESEL, E. (1997), The King of Children: The Life and Death of Janusz Korczak, St. Martin's
Griffin (published 15 April 1997), ISBN 978-0-312-15560-5
PRASAD, A. N.; SARKAR, B. (2008), Critical Response To Indian Poetry in English, Sarup and Sons, ISBN 97881-7625-825-8
RAY, M. K. (2007), Studies on Rabindranath Tagore (http://books.google.com/books?id=hptK6GTo43QC) 1,
Atlantic (published 1 October 2007), ISBN 978-81-269-0308-5, retrieved 16 September 2011
ROY, B. K. (1977), Rabindranath Tagore: The Man and His Poetry, Folcroft Library Editions, ISBN 978-08414-7330-0
SCOTT, J. (2009), Bengali Flower: 50 Selected Poems from India and Bangladesh (published 4 July 2009),
ISBN 978-1-4486-3931-1
SEN, A. (2006), The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture, and Identity (1st ed.), Picador
(published 5 September 2006), ISBN 978-0-312-42602-6
SIGI, R. (2006), Gurudev Rabindranath TagoreA Biography, Diamond Books (published 1 October 2006),
ISBN 978-81-89182-90-8
SOM, R. (2010), Rabindranath Tagore: The Singer and His Song
(http://openlibrary.org/books/OL23720201M/Rabindranath_Tagore), Viking (published 26 May 2010),
ISBN 978-0-670-08248-3
THOMPSON, E. (1926), Rabindranath Tagore: Poet and Dramatist, Pierides Press, ISBN 978-1-4067-8927-0
URBAN, H. B. (2001), Songs of Ecstasy: Tantric and Devotional Songs from Colonial Bengal, Oxford University
Press (published 22 November 2001), ISBN 978-0-19-513901-3
DARUWALLA, K. N. (2007), Poetry Magic, Ratna Sagar P.Ltd. (published 2006), ISBN 81-8332-175-5

Photographs
Photo of Tagore in Shiraz (http://www.flickr.com/photos/nima_flickr/125239520/in/set-909995/), 29.616445;
52.542114: Flickr (published 16 March 2006), 2006, retrieved 30 August 2011

Videos
HARDING, M. (2008), Where the Hell is Matt? (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zlfKdbWwruY), YouTube
(published 20 June 2008), retrieved 26 November 2009

Other
"68th Death Anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore" (http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?
nid=100259), The Daily Star (Dhaka, published 7 August 2009), 2009, retrieved 29 September 2011
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

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"Recitation of Tagore's Poetry of Death", Hindustan Times (Indo-Asian News Service), 2005
Archeologists Track Down Tagore's Ancestral Home in Khulna (http://www.newstoday.com.bd/index.php?
option=details&news_id=26140&date=2011-04-29), The News Today (published 28 April 2011), 2011,
retrieved 9 September 2011
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913 (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1913/), The Nobel
Foundation, retrieved 14 August 2009
Tagore and EinsteinA Conversation (http://www.schoolofwisdom.com/history/teachers/rabindranathtagore/tagore-and-einstein/), School of Wisdom (published 28 June 2010), 2010, retrieved 7 July 2013
"History of the Tagore Festival" (http://tagore.business.uiuc.edu/history.html), Tagore Festival Committee
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: College of Business), retrieved 29 November 2009

Texts
Original
^ Thought Relics (http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/tagore/tr/tr01.htm), Internet Sacred Text Archive

Translated
^ Chitra at Project Gutenberg
^ Creative Unity at Project Gutenberg
^ The Crescent Moon at Project Gutenberg
^ The Cycle of Spring at Project Gutenberg
^ Fruit-Gathering at Project Gutenberg
^ The Fugitive at Project Gutenberg
^ The Gardener at Project Gutenberg
^ Gitanjali at Project Gutenberg
^ Glimpses of Bengal at Project Gutenberg
^ The Home and the World at Project Gutenberg
^ The Hungry Stones at Project Gutenberg
^ The King of the Dark Chamber at Project Gutenberg
^ Mashi at Project Gutenberg
^ My Reminiscences at Project Gutenberg
^ The Post Office at Project Gutenberg
^ Sadhana: The Realisation of Life at Project Gutenberg
^ Songs of Kabir at Project Gutenberg
^ The Spirit of Japan at Project Gutenberg
^ Stories from Tagore at Project Gutenberg
^ Stray Birds at Project Gutenberg

Further reading
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore

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ABU ZAKARIA, G. (editor) (2011), Rabindranath TagoreWanderer zwischen Welten (http://www.klemmoelschlaeger.de/product_info.php?products_id=102), Klemm and Oelschlger, ISBN 978-3-86281-018-5
CHAUDHURI, A. (editor) (2004), The Vintage Book of Modern Indian Literature (1st ed.), Vintage (published 9
November 2004), ISBN 978-0-375-71300-2
DEUTSCH, A. (editor); ROBINSON, A. (editor) (1989), The Art of Rabindranath Tagore (1st ed.), Monthly Review
Press (published August 1989), ISBN 978-0-233-98359-2

External links
Analyses
... and His India (http://130.242.18.21/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1913/tagore-article.html), The New York
Review of Books
Ezra Pound: "Rabindranath Tagore" (http://fortnightlyreview.co.uk/2013/04/rabindranath-tagore/), The
Fortnightly Review
... Current Articles (http://www.parabaas.com/rabindranath/), Parabaas
... The Founder (http://www.visva-bharati.ac.in/Rabindranath/Rabindranath.htm), Visva-Bharati University
Mary Lago Collection (http://mulibraries.missouri.edu/specialcollections/lago.htm), University of Missouri
Audiobooks
Sadhana: ... (http://librivox.org/sadhana-by-rabindranath-tagore/), LibriVox
Talks
... with Albert Einstein (http://www.schoolofwisdom.com/tagore-einstein.html) and H. G. Wells
(http://www.schoolofwisdom.com/tagore-wells.html), School of Wisdom
Texts
... at Bichitra: Online Tagore Variorum (http://bichitra.jdvu.ac.in/)
... at Project Gutenberg (http://www.gutenberg.org/author/Rabindranath_Tagore)
... at South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA) (http://www.saadigitalarchive.org/entity/rabindranathtagore)
... at SNLTR (http://www.rabindra-rachanabali.nltr.org/node/1)
... at Tagore Web (http://tagoreweb.in/)
... at Wikilivres

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rabindranath_Tagore&oldid=625295306"


Categories: Rabindranath Tagore 1861 births 1941 deaths Presidency University, Kolkata alumni
Alumni of University College London Bengali Nobel laureates Bengali philosophers Bengali writers
Bengali zamindars Brahmos Contemporary Indian philosophers
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English-language poets from India Bengali poets Bengali-language poets
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Indian portrait painters
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