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Translation strategies

Translation strategies are procedures for solving translation problems of the whole text.
Translation methods relate to the whole text procedures are used for smaller units of
languages.
Translation techniques refer to the minor unit of the text

Translation strategies and Procedures


Strategies are the procedures used by the translator to solve problems that emerge when
carrying out the translation process with a particular objective in mind. Translators use
strategies for (comprehension, which distinguishes main and secondary ideas; establish
conceptual relationships) and reformulation (paraphrase, retranslate, say out loud) to avoid
words that are close to the original
Strategies and techniques occupies different places in problem solving. Strategies are part of
the process while techniques affect the result.

Translation Methods
Global translation strategy is the overall strategy you apply to the text as whole. The priory
choice you have to make here is how close to the ST you want TT to be.
Local translation strategy implies strategies you apply in the translation of individual
expression in the ST such as words, idioms etc.
Translation methods refers to way a particular process is carried in terms of the translators
objective. That is a global option that affect the whole text.
There are several translation methods to be chosen depending of the aim of translation:
Interpretative communicative (translation of the sense)
Literal (linguistic transcodification free)
Free (modification of semiotic and communicative categories)
Philological (academic or critical)
The translation methods affect the way micro-units of the text are translated thus we should
distinguish between the methods chosen by the translator (literal or adaptation) that affects the
whole text and the translation techniques (literal or adaptation) that affects the micro-units of
the text.
Methods and techniques should function harmoniously in the text (e.g. if the aim of the
translation method is to produce a foreignizing version than borrowing will be one of the most
frequently used.

Peter Newmark Textbook of translation


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Direct are used when structural and conceptual elements of SLT can be transposed in
TLT. It occurs when there is an exact structural lexical and morphological equivalence
between languages.
Indirect are used when the structural or conceptual elements cannot be directly
transposed with altering the meaning or absenting the grammatical and stylistic elements
of the TL
Modulation consists at using a phrase that is different for SL and TL to convey the
same idea.
Borrowing can be for different reasons (when TL has no equivalent e.g. ;
when the SL words sounds better; to retain the same fell of the SL)
Calque it is literal translation at phrase level (to ensure quality)
Adaptation something specific to the SL culture is expressed in totally different way
that is familiar to the TT culture

Conclusions: Translation techniques are not good or bad by themselves. They are used in
terms of the genre of the text, the type of the translation in terms of the mode translation, the
purpose and the characteristics of the TA and the method chosen.