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Work with your partner

1. Decide which is the structure of the literature review (chronological or thematic structure?)
2. Find out ways to cite the source of information
3. Underline phrases used to show the similarities/differences in previous researchers ideas
4. Find out the authors comments on the literature. What features are chosen by the author to be
used in the research?
5. What is the gap?

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW


1. Definition of key concepts
1.1 Microsoft PowerPoint
1.2 Shortcomings
2. The use of technology in education
2.1. Technological applications used in education
2.2 The role of technologies in teaching and learning
3. Using Microsoft PowerPoint in English Language Teaching
3.1 The role of Microsoft PowerPoint
3.2 Using PowerPoint in English Language Teaching
3.2.1 Usages
3.2.2 Benefits
4. Frequent shortcomings when using Microsoft PowerPoint for in-class activities
4.1 Shortcomings in showing information on slide
In terms of information format on slides, Hebahashim (n.d.) listed out a range of frequent errors as can
be seen in the followings:
Slides are visually poor and/or boring or even over the top this is particularly the case when
reds and greens dominate.
Too much text is put on a slide detracting from its legibility.
Excessive use of graphics just because you can!
Irritating noises and slide transitions.
Inappropriate use of multimedia options.
This list points out an error in not taking good advantage of PowerPoint shown through poorly designed
slides. It also exhibits inappropriate use of slide animation, graphics, audio effects and multimedia. In
agreement with this point, Catharina (2006) mentioned teachers overuse these features and merely
distract students with visual overload that has no connection to information presented.
4.2 Shortcomings in presenting information using slide
Regarding shortcomings of presentation skills using slideshow, the most notable one by far is error in
choosing the proper amount of contents to be on slides. Lee (2011) pointed out "One of the most
common rookie-mistakes is to have too much content on the slides." Sharing the same ideas with Lee,
Hebahashim (n.d.) stated including excessive detail so that students need not be active (or even
present if files are made available) during delivery is a shortcoming. This viewpoint is also shared by
Catharina (2006), namely when teachers dump on the slide a big amount of information without
considering what and how to present, it can make PowerPoint a potentially lethal tool.
This opinion from Catharina also suggests another error of presentation skills lying in the way the
information is conveyed by the presenters. There exists a tendency to go too fast is common simply

because of the ease of delivery of the material (Hebahashim, n.d.). The Time to Market online
magazine also indicates sometimes, "the speaker fails to capture the attention of their audience. They
fail to make the link between themselves, the material and the images in their presentation." Similarly,
Lee (2011) reported the case in which teachers keep reading slides all the time and break the
engagement with students while teaching. A survey on presentation-skills.biz highlighted this problem
by giving statistics that "about 90% of PowerPoint presentations where the lack of PowerPoint
presentation skills actually undermines the very presentations PowerPoint is supposed to enhance."
5. Models to evaluate the Microsoft PowerPoint slides
There are 3 different possible models to evaluate PowerPoint slides.
The first model is suggested by http://www.ithaca.edu/jwiggles/computers/ppt1_rubrics.htm (Table 1)
Table 1. Evaluation on slides as suggested by ithaca.edu
This is an extract from a bigger rubric to evaluate the whole presentation. The amount of criteria is
satisfactory; however there is a lack of clarity in this marking scheme. This can be seen through having
no detailed description for a slide to gain 3 marks. Besides this rubrics only looks at whether the slides
have effects or transitions or not, but overlook checking the appropriate use of those effects.
Another one is PowerPoint Evaluation Rubric from Victorian Essential learning standards (Table 2).
Table 2. PowerPoint Evaluation Rubric from Victorian Essential learning standards
This marking scheme is developed in more details than the previous one, in which it gives a look at the
appropriate use of PowerPoints visual and audio effects. Though covering the majority of main factors
in presenting information on slides, this model has not get approached to the suitable amount of text
should be put on slides, whereas this is reviewed as a frequent shortcoming in making slides with
PowerPoint.
A deeper and more comprehensive model is Design Considerations for Effective Presentations
(Catharina, 2006) (Table 3). This model integrates almost all factors of a slides, also includes
evaluating the amount of text on slides. Though it lacks the marking scheme, this model provides the
evaluator enough criteria with clear description addressing almost all aspects of a slide. Therefore, a
slide can be evaluated thoroughly for further improvement. This paper, therefore, adapts this model to
assess the slides of first-year Fast-track students and detect particular shortcomings in the way they
show information on slides.
Table 3. Design Considerations for Effective Presentations
In conclusion, not only in international context but also in Vietnam, Microsoft PowerPoint has become
a necessary tool for education for its various benefits. However, due to the shortcomings of the users in
terms of slide designing and information presenting using slides, sometimes PowerPoint cannot bring
effectiveness to the presentation. The common limitations when using PowerPoint have already been
discussed thoroughly by other researchers, together with many criteria to systematically evaluate a slide
show. Specifically regarding to Vietnamese students who are required to use PowerPoint for in-class
activities; however, there is not much detailed analysis on their weaknesses. In addition, students like
the first year fast-track students in ULIS, who are required to conduct in class activities using
technology like PowerPoint from the very first semester, are even more likely to reveal those
shortcomings without awareness.
For those reasons, the researchers decide to investigate deeper into this certain group of students
limitations when using PowerPoint for their in-class activities. It is believed that thanks to the findings
of this paper, their limitation will be addressed clearly, which can in turns bring about certain valuable
recommendations for them to better their performance when using PowerPoint for those activities.