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ORCHESTRAL ETUDES: REPERTOIRE-SPECIFIC

EXERCISES FOR DOUBLE BASS


Jack Andrew Unzicker, A.A.S., B.MUS., M.M.

Dissertation Prepared for the Degree of


DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS


August 2011

APPROVED:
Jeff Bradetich, Major Professor
Clay Couturiaux, Committee Member
Nikola Ruzevic, Committee Member
John Holt, Chair of the Division of
Instrumental Studies
Lynn Eustis, Director of Graduate
Studies of the College of Music
James Scott, Dean of the College of
Music
James D. Meernik, Acting Dean of the
Toulouse Graduate School

Unzicker, Jack Andrew. Orchestral Etudes: Repertoire-Specific Exercises for


Double Bass. Doctor of Musical Arts (Performance), August 2011, 79 pp., 30
illustrations, 26 references, 43 titles.
In this project, frequently required double bass orchestral audition excerpts as
well as their individual technical difficulties are identified. A survey of professional
double bass players and teachers currently and formerly employed by major orchestras,
universities, and conservatories have participated to validate the importance of four of
the most frequently required orchestral excerpts: Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony
No. 9, Mvt. 4, and Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 3; Richard Strauss Ein Heldenleben; and
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Symphony No. 40, Mvt. 1. The survey respondents
identified the primary and secondary technical concerns of each of the four excerpts. I
have created technical studies, or etudes, that specifically address these difficulties and
help fill a literary gap within the existing pedagogical resources for the double bass.

Copyright 2011
by
Jack Andrew Unzicker

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Chapters
1.

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 1
Purpose
Thesis
Method

2.

SURVEY .................................................................................................... 6
Survey Questions
Survey Results

3.

ETUDES, STUDIES, AND EXERCISES .................................................. 13


State of Research

4.

CREATING REPERTOIRE-SPECIFIC TECHNICAL EXERCISES .......... 24


Beethoven Symphony No. 9, Fourth Movement
Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third Movement
Strauss Ein Heldenleben
Mozart Symphony No. 40, First Movement

5.

CONCLUSION ......................................................................................... 40

Appendices
A.

BEETHOVEN RECITATIVES ETUDE ..................................................... 41

B.

BEETHOVEN SYM. NO. 5 ETUDE ......................................................... 47

C.

EIN HELDENLEBEN ETUDE .................................................................. 50

D.

MOZART SYM. NO. 40 ETUDE .............................................................. 66

BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................... 77

iii

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Purpose
A literary gap exists within the available pedagogical resources for double
bassists. Several important and frequently studied pieces of orchestral repertoire have
yet to be incorporated into the collection of dedicated instructional resources, including
exercises and etudes. A large and diverse collection of solo and ensemble repertoire,
method books, technical studies, etudes, recordings, and videos are available for
double bass students, teachers, and professionals, referenced in Murray Grodners
extensive Comprehensive Catalog of Music, Books, Recordings and Videos for the
Double Bass.1 Existing within these resources are numerous collections of excerpts
and complete double bass parts of orchestral works, including many editions with
suggested bowings and fingerings, such as Fig. 1.
Figure 1: Ludwig van Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third Movement, Trio.
Bowing and fingerings by Oscar Zimmerman.2

The collections of complete double bass parts, edited by Oscar Zimmerman,3


contain suggested bowings and fingerings and are a helpful resource to begin problem
solving and confronting this repertoire (Fig. 1). However, they do not address the
1

Grodner, Murray, Comprehensive Catalog of Music, Books, Recordings and Videos for the Double
th
Bass, 4 ed. (Littleton: Grodner Publications, 2000).
2
Beethoven, Ludwig van, Symphony No. 5 Symphony No. 5, in The Complete Double Bass Parts of the
Beethoven Nine Symphonies and Leonore no. 3 Overture, Edited by Oscar G. Zimmerman (Interlochen:
Zimmerman Publications, 1970), 55.
3
Bach, J.S., et al., The Complete Double Bass Parts, 10 Volumes, Edited by Oscar G. Zimmerman
(Interlochen: Zimmerman Publications, 1970).

technical difficulties that may result from the suggested fingerings, bowings, string
crossings, etc.
Etudes and technical exercises are also available, including some based upon
solo, and chamber music repertoire. However, there is a lack of orchestral etudes based
upon the excerpts most commonly required for orchestra auditions, which represent
some of the most complex and challenging double bass repertoire. A few exist, but are
not organized, the original works upon which they are based are not identified, therefore
the students that could benefit greatly from the etudes are largely unaware of their
existence.
Figures 1-3 are examples of the resources currently available, and their
limitations. Figures 1 and 2 are examples of standard orchestral repertoire, with
fingerings and bowings by Oscar Zimmerman. This Sturm study (Fig. 3) contains two
quotations of Beethoven Symphony No. 5, mm. 1-4 and mm. 13-18, but does not
contain any exercises to aid with these passages. The study is related to the orchestral
work only thematically. The intent is to develop broad technical facility on the bass,
rather than repertoire-specific technique problem solving.

Figure 2: Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third Movement, Scherzo. Bowings and


fingerings by Oscar Zimmerman.4

Figure 3: Sturm Study No. 78. Based on Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third
Movement, Scherzo.5

Beethoven, Ludwig van, Symphony No. 5, in The Complete Double Bass Parts of the Beethoven Nine
Symphonies and Leonore No. 3 Overture, Edited by Oscar G. Zimmerman (Interlochen: Zimmerman
Publications, 1970), 54.
5
Sturm, Wilhelm, 110 Studies, Opus 20, Vol. 2, Edited by Frederick Zimmermann (New York:
International Music Company, 1963), 14.

Thesis
In this project, frequently required double bass orchestral audition excerpts, as
well as their individual technical difficulties, are identified. Technical studies, or etudes
are created that specifically address these difficulties and help fill a literary gap within
the existing pedagogical resources for the double bass. This project encourages
continued scholarship and further creation of similarly designed technical studies based
upon other specific orchestral repertoire.
Method
The orchestral etudes of this project are based upon the most commonly
required repertoire for orchestral auditions, in order to be most useful. In the 1990
journal, International Society of Bassists, Vol. 16, No. 2, the International Society of
Bassists (ISB) published a survey by David M. Sickle of the most frequently required
solos and excerpts from the most recent auditions of fifty-three American orchestras.6
In Sickles survey, the four most requested works were Ludwig van Beethoven
Symphony No. 9 and Symphony No. 5, Richard Strauss Ein Heldenleben, and
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Symphony No. 40. These works were required thirty-six,
thirty-two, twenty-six and twenty-one times, respectively.
Due to the age of Sickles survey, a new survey was conducted. Professional
double bass players and teachers currently and formerly employed by major orchestras,
universities, and conservatories have participated in an on-line or electronic mail survey
to validate the importance of the four previously mentioned works. They were also
asked to identify any existing or commonly used etudes or technical studies based upon
6

Sickle, David M., Orchestra Audition Report, International Society of Bassists, Vol. 16, No. 2
(International Society of Bassists, Winter 1990), 47-49.

these works, identify the primary and secondary technical concerns presented by each
work, and identify other works to be the basis for possible future series of etudes.

CHAPTER 2
SURVEY
This chapter discusses the intent of the survey, its questions, and the results of
the survey. Specifically, the primary and secondary technical concerns of the orchestral
excerpts are identified. These concerns represent the central focus of the technical
studies and etudes introduced in Chapter 3.
Survey Questions
Introduction: The purpose of this survey and the resulting project is two-fold:
1)

To document the existing importance of four orchestral excerpts, ranked


highest by David M. Sickles International Society of Bassists survey,
from the orchestral literature that are frequently required for double bass
auditions, identifying their unique and most problematic technical
difficulties.

2)

To design etudes to assist double bass students to develop the


technique used in this repertoire.

It is understood that auditions require much more than technical ability alone,
including musicality, phrasing, style, and elements that escape music notation, such as
sound production, vibrato, and rubato. While these artistic attributes are essential, they
are beyond the scope of this project. The technical elements that are discussed and
addressed within this project include intonation, rhythm, string crossings, shifting, bow
strokes, and other fundamental techniques.
Double bass students, during their introduction to this specific repertoire and/or
the technique that occurs within, are the intended beneficiaries of these etudes.
6

1) Please list your name, orchestral and teaching positions currently and previously
held.
2) In how many double bass orchestra auditions have you participated, as a
performer and as a panel member?
3) What percentages of the auditions in which you have participated, as either a
performer or a panel member, have included each of the following excerpts?
a. L.v. Beethoven Symphony No. 9, Recitatives in Mvt. IV
b. L.v. Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Trio in Mvt. III
c. R. Strauss Ein Heldenleben, at Rehearsal No. 9
d. W.A. Mozart Symphony No. 40, Development Section in Mvt. I
4) Are there other excerpts that are more frequently required in auditions? If so,
please identify the composer, compositions, excerpt, and percentage of
inclusion.
5) For each of the following excerpts, are you familiar with any etudes or technical
studies that are based directly upon this repertoire? (For example: L.v.
Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Scherzo in Mvt. III is the basis for Wilhelm Sturms
Study No. 78, in 110 Studies, Op. 20.)
a. L.v. Beethoven Symphony No. 9, Recitatives in Mvt. IV
b. L.v. Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Trio in Mvt. III
c. R. Strauss Ein Heldenleben, at Rehearsal No. 9
d. W.A. Mozart Symphony No. 40, Development Section in Mvt. I
6) Of the following excerpts, which technical difficulties would you first need to see
addressed in a etude in order to be most helpful for double bass students?

a. L.v. Beethoven Symphony No. 9, Recitatives in Mvt. IV


b. L.v. Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Trio in Mvt. III
c. R. Strauss Ein Heldenleben, at Rehearsal No. 9
d. W.A. Mozart Symphony No. 40, Development Section in Mvt. I
7) For the same excerpts, which technical difficulties would you need to see
addressed second?
a. L.v. Beethoven Symphony No. 9, Recitatives in Mvt. IV
b. L.v. Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Trio in Mvt. III
c. R. Strauss Ein Heldenleben, at Rehearsal No. 9
d. W.A. Mozart Symphony No. 40, Development Section in Mvt. I
8) Following the completion of etudes based upon the four excerpts previously
mentioned, which orchestral audition excerpts would you appreciate being
examined in future orchestral etudes?
Survey Results
The survey questions and answers were completed either by electronic mail, or
through an on-line survey service, SurveyMonkey.7 The survey answers have been
compiled to assess the relevance of the listed excerpts, identify existing technical
studies related to each excerpt, and identify the primary and secondary technical
concerns.
Question 1: The surveyed professional double bassists and teachers currently
and formerly perform and teach in major orchestras, universities, and conservatories,
including the American Symphony, Columbus Symphony Orchestra, Delaware
Symphony, Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra, Los Angeles Philharmonic, Metropolitan
7

SurveyMonkey, 10 Feb. 2011, <https://www.surveymonkey.com/>.

Opera Orchestra, National Symphony Orchestra, New York Ballet Orchestra, New York
Philharmonic, Oklahoma City Philharmonic, Orchestre Symphonique de Montral,
Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, San Francisco Symphony, Winnipeg Symphony
Orchestra, Bowling Green State University, Brigham Young University, Carnegie Mellon
University, Catholic University of America, Columbia University, Duquesne University,
Eastman School of Music, Indiana University, Manhattan School of Music, McGill
University, Mills College, Peabody Conservatory, San Francisco Conservatory of Music,
Stanford University, University of California Berkeley, University of California Santa
Cruz, University of Manitoba, University of Maryland, University of North Texas,
University of Oklahoma, and the University of Washington.
Question 2: The survey respondents have collectively taken part in 302
auditions, either as candidates for positions or panel members.
Question 3: Of those 302 auditions, 91.7% have included Beethoven Symphony
No. 9, 93.6% have included Beethoven Symphony No. 5, 87.7% have included Strauss
Ein Heldenleben, and 70% have included Mozart Symphony No. 40. These figures
parallel Sickles findings, published twenty years ago; the same excerpts are still the
most commonly requested.
Question 4: The survey respondents also identified Mozart Symphony No. 35 as
occurring in 60.8% of the auditions in which they have participated. Mozart Symphony
No. 39 was required in 29.3% of auditions, followed by Johannes Brahms Symphony
No. 2 (22%), Brahms Symphony No. 1 (19%), Felix Mendelssohn Symphony No. 4
(13%), Mozart Symphony No. 41 (6%), Giuseppe Verdi Otello (6%), Franz Schubert
Symphony No. 9, The Great (5%), and Richard Strauss Also Sprach Zarathustra (2%).

Question 5: Only one of the survey respondents was aware of the Sturm Study
No. 78, based on Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third Movement. No additional etudes
or technical studies were identified that were based upon the four specific excerpts of
this project. However, the respondents identified numerous etudes, technical studies,
and methods that are beneficial to the development of techniques required in the four
excerpts. Although the identified existing studies may aid with technical development,
i.e. spiccato bow strokes, the studies vary dramatically from the excerpts. In these
cases, the identified studies are written in different keys and meters than the specific
excerpts.
Question 6 & 7: The survey respondents were asked to identify the primary and
secondary technical concerns for each etude. A simple tally of the responses identifies
theses concerns as:

Beethoven Symphony No. 9, Fourth Movement, Intonation and Legato

Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third Movement, Bow Strokes and Articulation

Strauss Ein Heldenleben, Shifting and Bow Technique

Mozart Symphony No. 40, Bow Strokes and String Crossings


Further evaluation of results identified additional technical concerns. In

Beethoven Symphony No. 9, right hand concerns were mentioned repeatedly, including,
in order of rank, sound production, bow technique, smooth bow, and dynamics. Overall,
right hand concerns surpassed left hand concerns slightly, totaling twenty-three and
eighteen respectively.
For Beethoven Symphony No. 5, bow strokes were identified as the primary
technical concern, twice as often as the secondary technical concern, articulation.

10

Rhythm and string crossings were among the following concerns. Bow strokes,
articulation, rhythm, and string crossings are all functions of the right hand. And, for this
excerpt, right hand concerns surpassed left hand concerns greatly, totaling twenty-five
and nine respectively.
For Strauss Ein Heldenleben, left hand concerns surpassed right hand concerns
slightly for this excerpt and only this excerpt, totaling twenty-four and twenty
respectively. Shifting, intonation, and arpeggios were identified as the principal left
hand concerns of this excerpt. Legato and sound production ranked slightly behind the
secondary technical concern of this excerpts, bow technique.
For Mozart Symphony No. 40, bow strokes were identified as the primary
technical concern, twice as often as the secondary technical concern, string crossings.
The next two highest ranked concerns were coordination between the two hands and
sound production. For this excerpt, right hand technical concerns more than doubled
left hand concerns, totaling twenty-three and eleven respectively.
For all four excerpts, right hand technical concerns surpassed left hand concerns
by a ratio of approximately three to two, totaling ninety-one and sixty-two respectively.
Question 8: Respondents identified thirteen excerpts from less commonly
requested orchestral excerpts for possible future repertoire-specific etudes. The order
of recommended excerpts does not parallel the frequency in which these excerpts are
required for auditions, as outlined in Question 4 of the survey. Respondents identified
Mendelssohn Symphony No. 4, Brahms Symphonies No. 1 and No. 2, Mozart
Symphonies No. 35 and No. 40 (Fourth Movement), Beethoven Symphony No. 7, and

11

Gustav Mahler Symphony No. 2, in order from highest to lowest number of


recommendations.

12

CHAPTER 3
ETUDES, STUDIES, AND EXERCISES
State of Research
The highly regarded work by Frederick Zimmermann, A Contemporary Concept
of Bowing Technique for the Double Bass, focuses on the duties of the bow arm and
hand.8 Zimmermanns concept of isolating the right arm, hand, and bow to facilitate
focused practice and improvement is not unique to the double bass, as practicing the
part of each hand separately is a common practice method of pianists, for example.
Zimmermann addresses complex string crossing and bowing patterns by simplifying the
left hand to play only the pitches E and A, in order to focus on bowing precision.
When applying this concept to specific passages, including excerpts,
Zimmermann establishes a fingering, then notates the string crossing and bowing
pattern, determined by that fingering. (Fig. 4)

Zimmermann, Frederick, A Contemporary Concept of Bowing Technique for the Double Bass (New
York: MCA Publishing, 1966).

13

Figure 4: Beethoven Symphony No. 3 passage with Frederick Zimmermanns


exercise below. Simplified left hand with two lowest open strings E and A, and A
and E fingered on the D and G strings, respectively.9

Zimmermanns selection of pitches, E and A, simply designed not to detract from


the focus of his exercises for the right hand, could certainly be improved. Exercises that
focus on the right hand may be more effective by including the tonality, register, and the
approximate string length of specific passages. Zimmermanns selection of the two
open bottom strings, E and A represent the longest string length which is the most
difficult to articulate and requires the shortest bow stroke. The octave higher A and E,
played on the D and G strings, respectively, have shortened the string length by one
third and two fifths, respectively, greatly reducing the resistance of the string, allowing
for quicker articulation and demanding longer bow strokes. In the previous example
(Fig. 4), Zimmermann has assigned only the pitches E and A to the left hand for an
exercise based upon a passage from Beethoven Symphony No. 3. The original
9

Beethoven, Ludwig van, Symphony No. 3, in Zimmermann, Frederick, A Contemporary Concept of


Bowing Technique for the Double Bass (New York: MCA Publishing, 1966) 41.

14

passage, with Zimmermanns fingering, remains in half-position until the end of the fifth
measure. Zimmermanns exercise, written underneath the original passage, shortens
the D and G strings lengths by thirty to forty percent. By altering the string length for the
exercise, the resistance of the string and length of bow stroke differs from that of the
original passage. This exercise would be more beneficial if the string lengths remained
more closely related to that of the original passage, expanding the exercise to aid not
only string crossing patterns, but bow strokes as well. Furthermore, a left-hand
fingering can be selected that requires no shifting, as not to detract from focus on the
right hand, yet maintains the tonality of the original passage. This improvement would
simultaneously aid the development and security of intonation in half position, without
interfering with the primary focus of the exercise, right hand string crossings (Fig. 5).

15

Figure 5: Enhancements to Zimmermanns practice method.

Reflecting upon his audition preparation after winning a Section Bass position
with The Cleveland Orchestra, Scott Dixon remarks, Another helpful technique was to
isolate each hand. Once I had solved the problems of each hand separately, I was able
to put them together quite easily.10 Similarly, after winning a Section Bass position with
the Fort Worth Symphony, Brian Perry adds, by creating a daily regimen of technical
exercises that focus on fundamentals, you will develop and solidify the necessary
foundation for a successful audition. Things like Galamian scales, Zimmerman[n]
bowing etudes, Hal Robinson's Strokin' etudes, and some of Jeff Bradetich' s technical
exercises are all great ways to build this foundation.11 Many professional bassists
attribute both their audition successes and refinement of other difficult passages to
Zimmermanns isolated right hand practicing concept.
10

Dixon, Scott, Hot Shots, edited by Jeffrey Turner, Bass World: The Magazine of the International
Society of Bassists, Vol. 31, No. 1 (International Society of Bassists, 2007) 23.
11
Perry, Brian, Hot Shots, edited by Jeffrey Turner, Bass World: The Magazine of the International
Society of Bassists, Vol. 28, No. 3 (International Society of Bassists, 2005) 19.

16

Survey respondents recommended using Zimmermanns book for Beethoven


Symphony No. 9, Symphony, No. 5, and Mozart Symphony No. 40. Although
Zimmermann focuses on string crossings with separate bows, his concept of right hand
isolation is equally valuable when applied to string crossings with slurred bowings, such
as found in Strauss Ein Heldenleben. The survey responses indicated that right hand
technical concerns surpassed left hand concerns by a factor of approximately three to
two. The recommendation of Zimmermanns book, by numerous survey respondents,
further emphasizes the technical burden of the right hand in orchestral auditions.
Other useful tools for improving passagework are the rhythm exercises derived
from Ivan Galamians publication, Contemporary Violin Technique, of scale, double
stop, and arpeggio exercises, and bowing and rhythm patterns.12 A repetitive scale or
arpeggio rhythm, all eighth notes for example, is altered into countless versions of
combinations of slow and fast rhythms in an effort to gain control of mind over
muscle.13 Championing the validity of this method of practice, Galamian asserts, Any
scale or passage that the player can perform with a great many different rhythms,
accentuations and bowings is one that has been completely assimilated by the mind
and muscles.14 (Fig. 6)

12

Galamian, Ivan and Neumann, Frederick, Contemporary Violin Technique, Vol. 1 (Parts 1 & 2), Scale
and Arpeggio Exercises with Bowing and Rhythm Patterns, (New York: Galaxy Music Corp., 1966).
13
Ibid. Part 1, Preface, ii.
14
rd
Galamian, Ivan, Principles of Violin Playing & Teaching, 3 Ed. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985) 6.

17

Figure 6: Galamian rhythm patterns.15

First, we encounter these motifs in less demanding forms and, later on, in
various levels of difficulty. In the process, we shall discover a certain
development has taken place. In the eyes (sight), then in the ears (hearing), and
finally in the mind, the rhythmic motif can solve the almost endless challenges
presented by this manner of practicing.16
Essentially, combinations of slow and fast rhythms in two-note through sixteennote groupings provide moments for mental preparation during slower rhythms.
Elizabeth Green describes the mental preparation benefits of rhythmic motive-based
practice, This type of practice focuses the attention because two notes must be
prepared (read) ahead. This is the first step in what becomes a lengthy period of
mental development.17 Simon Fischer has also integrated this practice method into his
suggested training regime, Practicing in rhythms is a key practice method, and one of
rd

15

Galamian, Ivan, Principles of Violin Playing & Teaching, 3 Ed. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985). Part
2, 24-25.
16
Green, Elizabeth, Practicing Successfully: A Masterclass in the Musical Art (Chicago: GIA, 2006) 20.
17
Ibid. 23.

18

the fastest and easiest ways to improve many different types of medium-tempo to fast
passage work.18 The repetition of a passage with many different rhythmic
combinations aids the construction of muscle memory, mental anticipation, and exposes
technical issues in passagework. Again, Fischer explains, Rhythm practice works by
setting the mind a series of timing and co-ordination problems to solve. In solving them
the mental picture of the passage becomes clearer, and the physical response to each
mental command becomes quicker. Although Galamians original implementation of
these exercises was intended for scale and arpeggio studies, the exercises are very
beneficial when applied to passagework, such as in Mozart Symphony No. 40, First
Movement and Mozart Symphony No. 35, Fourth Movement. Jeff Bradetich identifies
rhythmic motives as one of three major practice methods, along with multiple strokes
and add-a-note, for improving fast passages.19 Bradetich has demonstrated how
different rhythms emphasize different technical issues, such as a string crossing or a
shift. After winning a Section Bass position with the Nashville Symphony Orchestra,
Ryan Kamm attributes his success to this type of practice, It is also important to
practice excerpts with different rhythms and accents to solidify the coordination.20

18

Fischer, Simon, Practice (London: Peters, 2004) 36.


Bradetich, Jeff, Practice_Methods, Web, 20 March 2011,
<http://music.unt.edu/strings/mp3/Practice_Methods.html>.
20
Kamm, Ryan, Hot Shots, edited by Jeffrey Turner, Bass World: The Magazine of the International
Society of Bassists, Vol. 28, No. 2 (International Society of Bassists, 2004) 25.
19

19

Figure 7: Mozart Symphony No. 40, First Movement. Eighth-note passage


beginning in the fifth measure of the excerpt below.21

Figure 8: Applying four of Galamians four-note rhythm patterns to an excerpt.


Rhythms need not to change each measure.

21

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, Symphony No. 40, in The Complete Double Bass Parts: Selected Works
of Mozart, Haydn and Weber, Edited by Oscar G. Zimmerman (Interlochen: Zimmerman Publications,
1970), 46.

20

Wilhelm Sturm has composed several etudes based upon orchestral repertoire,
some implicitly, such as No. 23 (Fig. 9) being closely related to Mendelssohn Symphony
No. 4 and others overtly, such as No. 39 (Fig. 10) that even quotes the opening of
Beethoven Symphony No. 5.
Figure 9: Sturm Study No. 23, based on Mendelssohn Symphony No. 4. 22

22

Sturm, Wilhelm, 110 Studies, Op. 20, Vol. 1, ed. Fred Zimmermann (New York: International Music
Company, 1963), 13-15.

21

Figure 10: Sturm Study No. 39, based on Beethoven Symphony No. 5.23

Sturms etudes are not identified as orchestral etudes and are thus likely to remain
unknown to double bassists as they study the works upon which the etudes are based.
Furthermore, these etudes are at least as difficult as the excerpts upon which they were
based, yet do not offer sequential, focused, or varied practice methods to aid students.
An excellent example of existing orchestral etudes is Karl Hinterbichlers book,
11 Orchestral Etudes for Bass Trombone.24 The purpose of Hinterbichlers work is
summarized in the Introduction and Practice Notes:
These etudes are based on some of the more challenging excerpts in the
bass trombone orchestral repertoire. It is assumed that the player already has a
basic familiarity with the original excerpts and the works they are drawn from.
The etudes are for the most part more challenging than the excerpts. They offer
different ways of approaching this music and adding variety to ones practice
routine. It is hoped that by practicing and mastering these etudes, the excerpts
themselves will become less daunting and easier to perform.25

23

Sturm, Wilhelm, 110 Studies, Op. 20, Vol. 1, ed. Fred Zimmermann (New York: International Music
Company, 1963), 30-31.
24
Hinterbichler, Karl, 11 Orchestral Etudes for Bass Trombone (Vancouver: Cherry Classics Music,
2006).
25
Ibid. Introduction and Practice Notes.

22

The bass trombone and double bass often perform the same or similar parts in the
orchestral repertoire from the nineteenth century through the present, causing even
some of the excerpts chosen for orchestra auditions to overlap. Unfortunately, the
technical problems encountered in this common repertoire differ because the bass
trombone and double bass are physically such different instruments. Therefore, a
simple transcription of Hinterbichlers etudes for the double bass would not be ideal.
The concept and intent of Hinterbichlers etudes parallels those of this project. Both the
Hinterbichler etudes and those of this project aim to aid the performers technical
security through exercises that mimic the excerpts upon which they are based,
rhythmically, melodically, stylistically, and dynamically. Where Hinterbichler assumes
that the player of his etudes has some experience with the original excerpts, the etudes
in this project will be accessible for students approaching this repertoire for the first time
and be beneficial to more experienced players. Furthermore, Hinterbichlers etudes
may be performed from beginning to end. That is not the design of the etudes in this
project. Each etude is a combination of exercises that should be practiced and
developed individually.

23

CHAPTER 4
CREATING REPERTOIRE-SPECIFIC TECHNICAL EXERCISES
This chapter will discuss the creation of exercises for the technical concerns
identified in the survey and apply and enhance the suggested practice methods of
Zimmermann, Galamian, and Hinterbichler for each specific excerpt.
Etudes composed by the author (Appendix) are titled as follows:

Beethoven Recitatives Etude. Based upon Beethoven Symphony No. 9, Fourth


Movement

Beethoven Sym. No. 5 Etude. Based upon Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third
Movement

Ein Heldenleben Etude. Based upon Strauss Ein Heldenleben

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude. Based upon Mozart Symphony No. 40


Beethoven Symphony No. 9, Fourth Movement
Intonation and legato are the primary and secondary concerns of the survey

respondents for Beethoven Symphony No. 9, Fourth Movement. The instrumental


recitatives, featuring the cello and double bass sections playing in octaves, are greatly
exposed and prone to intonation problems. The recitatives consist of six phrases
separated by brief orchestral interludes, including quotations from the previous three
movements. The tonality of each phrase varies and may modulate. The tonalities
include D minor, G minor, B-flat major, A minor, G-flat major, C-sharp minor, and D
major in less than one hundred measures.
The vocal, singing style of these recitatives encourages legato slurs and dictated
separate bows. Later in the fourth movement, a baritone soloist sings similar material to
24

the instrumental recitatives. The articulation of the cello and double bass phrases
should match those of the baritone soloist. Consistent legato slurred passages over
string crossings are a major technical issue of the bow and right hand.
In Beethoven Recitative Etude (Appendix A), consistent intonation is aided
through first hearing the first three notes of the first phrase in harmonics. Then, the
pitches are repeated stopped (fingered). A to E and A to D are both perfect intervals
which have little ambiguity in perfect intonation. (Fig. 11)
Fig. 11: Beethoven Recitative Etude, First Phrase

Following the first fragment, the phrase is oriented around G1 and G2. Often, G2
is played first with the open G string, and then fingered on the D string. The add-a-note
concept26 has been applied to repeatedly sound both the closed and open G2, and then
gradually build the remainder of the phrase fragment. Through add-a-note and
repetition, the legato bow stroke across string crossings is also exposed. (Fig. 12)

26

Add-a-note is a practice method that begins by focusing on one note, two notes, or the transition from
one note to the next. Then, another note from the original passage is added to the exercise, either before
or after the current notes being practiced. This process is repeated to gradually rebuild the original
phrase.

25

Fig. 12: Beethoven Recitative Etude, First Phrase

The second recitative phrase moves away from D minor toward G minor, then an
F dominant seven passage resolves to B-flat major. In Beethoven Recitative Etude, the
first measures are designed to isolate the movement from F-sharp to F-natural and to
solidify the perfect fifth interval from C to F, as well as the minor thirds of the F dominant
seven harmony, A C E-flat. (Fig. 13)
Fig. 13: Beethoven Recitative Etude, Second Phrase

Further into the second phrase, the fourth finger to fourth finger shifts between C to Eflat, and E-flat to C have been isolated with a shifting drill that includes a perfect fifth
interval, B-flat to E-flat, to secure intonation. The following B-flat and A finger

26

replacements and first finger to first finger shifts have also been isolated using a shifting
drill. (Fig. 14)
Fig. 14: Beethoven Recitative Etude, Second Phrase

The remaining phrases of the recitatives receive similar treatment in the


Beethoven Recitative Etude. Problematic shifts and intonation concerns are exposed
and exercised through shifting drills, repeating recurring pitches, and isolating perfect
intervals. (Fig. 15-16)

27

Fig. 15: Beethoven Recitative Etude, Third Phrase.

28

Fig. 16: Beethoven Recitative Etude, Fifth Phrase.

Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third Movement


Survey respondents identified bow strokes and articulation as technical concerns
within Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third Movement. The bow stroke alternates
between marcato eighth notes and staccato quarter notes. The eighth notes range
between G1 (written G2) and B-flat 2. (Fig. 17)

29

Fig. 17: Eighth note passages from Beethoven Symphony No. 5, Third
Movement

Playing low, fast, short, articulately, and loud, as required by this excerpt, is
difficult and requires an advanced bowing technique on the double bass. The staccato
quarter notes in this excerpt range between C2 and F3. Within the quarter note
passages, the changing string length creates dramatic corresponding changes in the
length of bow stroke. As the passage ascends, the bow stroke must lengthen
considerably to match the note length of the lower pitches.
Exercises with a simplified left hand will allow one to maintain focus upon
consistency of bow strokes, string crossings, and articulation. Both multiple strokes
(Fig. 18) and Zimmermann (Fig. 19) concepts have been applied, in the Beethoven Trio
Etude (Appendix B), to encourage maximum focus on the right hand.

30

Fig. 18: Beethoven Trio Etude. Exercise eighth note triplets are equal to the
original quarter note. Likewise, the sixteenth note triplets are equal to the original
eighth note. The exercise bow stroke and direction are the same as the original
with three strokes per note.

31

Fig. 19: Beethoven Trio Etude. Zimmermann concept string crossing exercises.

The Beethoven Trio Etude (Fig. 19) enhances Zimmermanns concept by


retaining a simplified left-hand fingering yet also replicates the approximate string
lengths, position, and tonality of the original passage.
Strauss Ein Heldenleben
Strauss Ein Heldenleben includes difficult arpeggio and shifting issues for the left
hand. (Fig. 20) Each dash in the fingering below, notated as 1 -2, indicates a shift or
pivot between positions. 1 -2 indicates a shift or pivot to second finger in another
position. The first two measures below contain four shifts and/or pivots to perform nine
pitches.
32

Figure 20: Strauss Ein Heldenleben.

The Ein Heldenleben Etude (Appendix C) of this project combines shifting


exercises of shifting between two pitches with Galamians rhythmic patterns and the
add-a-note concept of gradually adding the surrounding musical context to the exercise.
The first two measures state the original passage with fingerings and string crossings
that are to be maintained throughout the exercise. The exercises that follow are based
upon only the first two measures of the original passage. The maximum benefit of
these exercises may be derived from repeating and improving each section, rather than
performing from beginning to end. Each alteration of rhythm will expose and emphasize
different technical issues. Although the original passage begins down bow, many of the
exercises are indicated to begin up bow. In the original passage, the ascending shifts
occur during an up bow. The exercises imitate this same relationship of ascending
shifts and up bow. (Fig. 21)

33

Fig 21: Ein Heldenleben Etude

The survey respondents also identified legato as one of the main technical
concerns within Strauss Ein Heldenleben. The right hand is required to perform difficult
slurred string crossings while compensating for drastic changes in string length.
Applying Zimmermanns bowing concept to this passage, using open strings, the odd
rhythm of the string crossing is quickly apparent. (Fig. 22)

34

Fig. 22: Strauss Ein Heldenleben with Zimmermann concept, right hand
isolation, and open strings.

One of the limitations of Zimmermanns concept is the absence of string length


consideration. The string length greatly influences the weight, placement, and speed of
the bow. Changes in string length greatly affect the resulting distribution of the bow.
Incorporating the left hand to replicate the string length will enhance these exercises by
adding changes in bow weight, speed, and placement in addition to string crossings.
Zimmermanns concept isolates the right hand by removing shifts and anything else that
that requires focusing on the left hand. Understanding that poor intonation, shifting, and
complex fingerings may detract from the right hand focus, the Ein Heldenleben Etude
require shifting only to harmonics. Although the pitches vary from the original passage,
the string crossings and very similar string lengths are maintained. (Fig. 23)

35

Fig. 23: Strauss Ein Heldenleben, Enhanced Zimmerman concept, isolating right
hand, incorporates string length without creating distracting intonation problems.
The first note of the enhanced exercise may be played E-flat, if the double
bassist has a C-extension with locking chromatic stops. Otherwise, the first note
may be played E-natural.

Mozart Symphony No. 40


The survey respondents identified bow strokes and string crossings as technical
concerns found in Mozart Symphony No. 40, First Movement. Galamians concept of
applying various rhythmic patterns is useful for improving passagework. Often these
rhythmic patterns dramatically alter the bow strokes of the original passage. Using
multiple strokes in passagework, repeating each pitch two, three, or more times, allows
increased attention to the right hand while essentially performing the left hand at halfspeed, or slower. In Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude (Appendix D), Galamian-style rhythms
36

and multiple strokes are combined to receive the benefits of Galamians concept while
retaining the bow stroke from the original passage. (Fig. 24)
Fig. 24: Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude. Galamian rhythms combined with multiple
strokes. Dotted quarter - eighth note rhythm, expanded with multiple strokes

The string length and tuning of the double bass generally requires more shifting
and string crossings than the other members of the string family. Arpeggio passages,
as in this Mozart excerpt, require precise and agile technique to be performed quickly
and articulately. Fig. 25 (below) shows one such complicated measure, with Mozarts
original passage on the top line, usually played in half position. The lower line illustrates
the string-crossing pattern using open strings.

37

Fig. 25: Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude. String-crossing pattern for open strings.

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude combines Galamian, Zimmermann, and Add-a-note


concepts in its progressive exercises. (Fig. 26)

38

Fig. 26: Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
With these orchestral etudes and technical exercises, double bass students and
professionals have new tools at their disposal to learn and improve the technical
requirements of the most commonly requested orchestral audition excerpts. By
creatively applying appropriate and successful practice methods to this repertoire,
students may progressively develop the necessary technique and advanced players
may refine this repertoire with a fresh approach. These concepts may and should be
applied to more of the double bass repertoire, especially to our most popular and
important works.

40

APPENDIX A
BEETHOVEN RECITATIVES ETUDE

41

Beethoven Recitatives Etude


Jack Unzicker

Original

Exercises

b
b

?b

?b

13

3
4
!o
3
4

# .

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"o
.

!o

o o
.

"
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J
#

?b

0
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4

"
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#

J
b

19

?b

j
j

#
.
.

2011

42

Beethoven Recitatives Etude

? b .
J

26

0
4
?b

?b
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33

b.

j
.

# J

# J

"
.
b

? b #

J
J

J
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4 -4

?b

39

b b.

?b

-4

?b

-1 4

45

-4

b.
J
b
J
b . 1 -2 -1 -2 2 1 2 -1 -1 -1

J
!

" b # b

?b
b #
# #

J
-2 1

-1 4

. b
b
?b
J
J #
b # " b
b

?b
#

51

43

. b
J
# b
. b
J
#

Beethoven Recitatives Etude

?b

57

. b

?b
J
# # # b . #
J
?b

? b b . j n .
?b

? b n
?b

73

?b
?b

-1 -4

n .
1 -4

4
-4
-1
n

79

?b

68

n
. j n n J
J

63

n
0

n 1

-2

44

n
j


n n J
J

-4

-1

n-4 -1 .
n

j
n n J J

" -2 -4 -2 -4 -2

b b

b b b b b

Beethoven Recitatives Etude

? b b

86

b b b b b

? b b b
?b

93

?b

b b

b #

# # # # # #. # # # # #

? b #
J

#. J

#
# # " . J

99

"

? b #
?b

104

# # # #

?b
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?b

109

#
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# # # # # #
?b
45

!
#

# # # # #

# # " . # #
# J #

# . J

b b

# # # # # b #. # # # # #
J

b b

b #

# " # #

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#

J
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# #
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"

.
# J
#

Beethoven Recitatives Etude

# # # b #. # # # # #
?b
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114

# # # b #. # #. # #. # # # # #
?b
J
J
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?b

119

?b

#.
#.

#
J
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46

APPENDIX B
BEETHOVEN SYM. NO. 5 ETUDE

47

Beethoven Sym. No. 5 Etude


Jack Unzicker

? 43

Original

Exercises

2 1 0 2 1 0

IV III II III - - - - IV

2 1 0 1

IV III II III - - - - IV

IV III II III - - 2 1 0 1

IV III II III - - -

III - - - - - - - - - - -

1 1 4 0

1 2

1 2

4 1 0 1

0 1 2 1 2 4

III - - - IV III - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

II - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

2 1 0 2 1 0

III - - - - - - - - - - -

III - - - - - - - - IV III - - - - - - - - - II - - - - - - - - - -

2 4 2 1 0

# n

III - - - - - - - - IV III - - - - - - - - - II - - - - - - - - - -

? 43

2 1

III - - - IV III - - - - - - - - - - - - -

II - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

12

1 0 1

0 1 2

III II - - - - - - - - - - 0

III II - - - - - - - - - - -

16

3
?
3

2011

48

20

Beethoven Sym. No. 5 Etude


?
#
3

24

? #

28


3
3
3
3

3
3

# n
3

32

49

APPENDIX C
EIN HELDENLEBEN ETUDE

50

Ein Heldenleben Etude

"3

? b b 44 !
b

Strauss

-2

E------

? b b 44 !
b n

Exercises

!
? bb
b

? bb

!
b n

D--------

? bb

2 1-4 -3

-4

A D - -G

D--------

n w>
-1

3
D---------

A---

n
0

!
n

n o w
3
n

A----- E A D-----

51
2011

"3

A D-----

"3

-2 2 1 -4 -3

E------ A D--G

n o w
n

E A D-----

n o

2 2 1 -4 -1

A---

!
n

"
3
w

2 2 1 -4 -1

"3

3
1 -2 1 T
G
A--- D---

2 2 1

!
n

"

"

b
? bb
b

b "

"
3
nw

10

-4

-T 3
1 -2 1
G
A - - -D - - -

4
E

"

3

"3

o !

Jack Unzicker

"3

11 4

-3

E------ A D--G

4
E

-T 3
1 -2 1
G
A-- - D---

n w>

o o
n

-1
A

n w>o

1 -T T

E----

A-

D---

? bb
b

15

3
1 -2 1 T
G
A--- D---

Ein Heldenleben Etude

o o wo
n

? bb
b
E----

1 -T T
A-- D--

n b b
.
? bb
b
n b b
.
? bb
b

19

? bb

25

? bb
? bb

28

? bb

b
3

b
b

52

!
!
3

n
3

n
n

nw
n
3

? bb
b

31

? bb
b
3

? bb

34

? bb

b
b

? bb

? bb w
b

b n

b
.

n b b
n

? bb w
b

n b

46

? bb
b
b

b n n b b n
3

? bb
b

? bb

Ein Heldenleben Etude

# n b b .

38

42

3
3

3
3

53

b

3

? bb

49

? bb

n w

Ein Heldenleben Etude

b n

b n
3

? bb n w
b

52

? bb
b

55

? bb
b

? bb .
b
? bb
? bb

63

? bb

b
b
b

n b

b n n b b

58

? bb b
b
3

n b

b n n b b
3

54

? bb .
b

65

Ein Heldenleben Etude

-2 2

? bb w
b

-4

.
. .
.
? bb .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
b .
? bb

74

? bb
? bb

78

? bb

b
b .

sim.

. .
"
!
. .

.
.

55

! "
.
.

.
.

70

-3
1 -4
A D--G

E----------

? bb .
b

.
#

"
!

"!
#

? bb

82

? bb
? bb

86

Ein Heldenleben Etude

? bb
? bb
? bb

95

b
b
b


sim.

? bb
b

56

? bb
b
91

" # sim.

Ein Heldenleben Etude

? bb

100

? bb
b
? bb

105

2 2 1 -4 -1
E A D----

.
n. .

1
G

n o

n .
n . n.
.
.

.
? bb .

.
.
b n .
n .
n .
? bb

108

? bb
? bb

111

? bb

b
b
b
b

n .

n.
n .
.

. n n.
!

n.
.

57

n
!

n. .
.

n .

Ein Heldenleben Etude

? bb

? bb

115

n
? bb

b n
118

n
? bb

b n
3

? bb

122

? bb
? bb

126

? bb
? bb

129

? bb

b
b
b
b
b

n
3

b n

n n

58

n
!

Ein Heldenleben Etude

? bb

133

? bb n
b
? bb

137

? bb

b n

? bb

141

!
n

? bb

n w>
1
A

.
.
.

. .
. . .
!

1 T 3
1 2
D--G
A--

. .

? bb .
b

. .
.

.
.

? bb . .
. .
b
145

n w

n.

59

.
!

.
n
.

10

? bb

149

Ein Heldenleben Etude

? bb
b
? bb

153


? bb
b
3

? bb

158

? bb

nw


n
? bb
b
3

? bb

165

nw

? bb
b
162

? bb
b
60

nw

nw

11

Ein Heldenleben Etude

? bb

170

? bb
? bb

175

b
b
b

!
nw

? bb

? bb

179

? bb . .
b
183

? bb
b

. .
.

.
!

61

.
.

1 T 3
1 2
G
A--D--

.
. . .

. .
.
.

.
.
.

? bb . .
. .
. .
b
1
D

.
!

12

? bb

187

Ein Heldenleben Etude

? bb
b
? bb

? bb

191


? bb
b
195

? bb

? bb

202

? bb
b

62


? bb
b

? bb
b
198

13

Ein Heldenleben Etude

? bb

207

? bb
b
? bb

211

? bb
? bb
? bb

219

b
b
b

1 -1 4

4 1 -4

3 -3 2 1

-4

? bb
b

2 1

-1

-4 1

63

-1 -2 4 -1 2

. . .

n b b
.

? bb .
b
215

-T

. .
!

. . #.

14

? bb

223

? bb
? bb

227

? bb
? bb

231

? bb
? bb

235

Ein Heldenleben Etude

b
b
b
b
b
b
b

. . . #
!

n b

n b n b

? bb
b

64

15

Ein Heldenleben Etude

? bb

239

? bb

b
b

#
3

n b

65

b
.

APPENDIX D
MOZART SYM. NO. 40 ETUDE

66

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

Original

Exercises

? bb C

? bb C

n n n
n n n

# n
n

# n
n

? bb n b n # n # n n #

? bb n b n # n # n n #

? bb

? bb

n b n #
n # n
n

? bb n #

13

? bb n #
n n #
n #

67

? bb

17

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

n b n #

? bb

? bb n # n n #

21

#
? bb n
n # n
? bb

25

? bb n #

n b
n

? bb n # n # n n #

29


n b

? bb

n
? bb

33

? bb # n
n n # n
68

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

? bb

37

? bb n n #

#
? bb n b n n # n n #

41

#
? bb n n
n #
? bb

45

? bb

n #
n

n b
n

? bb n # n # n n #

49

? bb

n n # n

? bb

53

n b n #

? bb #

n b
69

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

? bb n # n n #

57

#
? bb n
n # n #

? bb

61

? bb

n b n #
n # n
n b n #

? bb n #

65


? bb

n


? bb

69

? bb

? bb

73

? bb

70

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

# n b
n

#
? bb
# n b
n

#
? bb

77

? bb

81

? bb

# n b
n

? bb

85

? bb


? bb #

89

? bb
? bb

93

# n # n
? bb
71

? bb

97

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

? bb #

# n

? bb

101

? bb


# n b
#
? bb

? bb

105

? bb
109

? bb
? bb

113

# n # n
!

? bb #
72

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

# n

? bb

117

? bb
# n b
#
? bb

121

? bb


? bb

? bb

125

? bb
129

n #

? bb
? bb

133

n #
? bb
73

? bb

137

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

#
n

? bb b n

. . . .

? bb

!
J

. .

#
. .
? bb . . n . . . . n . . . . . .

141

? bb

145

.
.
.
.


? bb

? bb

148

? bb n

n
J

n n
J
J

? bb n #

152

.
.
? bb n . # . . . n . # . n #
74

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

? bb

155

#
#

? bb n n
? bb

158

? bb n

n
3

4
4
2 4 2 1 2 1
b

D- G D----- GD

D-- G D----- GD---

D- G D----- GD

. . . . . . . .

? bb

D- GDA D G A

? bb
J

D- GD

A D G A

166

4
4

2 4 2 1 2 # 1
#

n n

? bb
J

162

? bb




3

j
? bb

169

D- GDA D G A

? bb

75

10

Mozart Sym. No. 40 Etude

? bb

173

? bb

? bb

177

? bb
? bb

182

? b b j

J
!

76

!
!

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bach, Johann Sebastian. The Complete Double Bass Parts: Selected Works of Joh.
Seb. Bach, Edited by Oscar G. Zimmerman. Rochester: Zimmerman Publications,
1974.
Beethoven, Berlioz, et al. The Complete Double Bass Parts of Thirty-Six Overtures,
Edited by Oscar G. Zimmerman. Rochester: Zimmerman Publications, 1971.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. The Complete Double Bass Parts of the Beethoven Nine
Symphonies and Leonore No. 3 Overture, Edited by Oscar G. Zimmerman.
Interlochen: Zimmerman Publications, 1970.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 3. in The Complete Double Bass Parts of the
Beethoven Nine Symphonies and Leonore No. 3 Overture, Edited by Oscar G.
Zimmerman. Interlochen: Zimmerman Publications, 1970.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 5. in The Complete Double Bass Parts of the
Beethoven Nine Symphonies and Leonore No. 3 Overture, Edited by Oscar G.
Zimmerman. Interlochen: Zimmerman Publications, 1970.
Berlioz, Borodine, et al. The Complete Double Bass Parts of Selected Romantic
Symphonies, Edited by Oscar G. Zimmerman. Rochester: Zimmerman
Publications 1975.
Bottesini, Giovanni. Metodo Completo per Contrabbasso, Selections, Edited by Rodney
Slatford. London: Yorke Edition, 1982.
Bradetich, Jeff. Double Bass: The Ultimate Challenge. Moscow, ID: Music For All To
Hear, 2009.
Bradetich, Jeff. Practice_Methods. Web. 20 March 2011
<http://music.unt.edu/strings/mp3/Practice_Methods.html>.
Brahms, Johannes, The Complete Double Bass Parts: Orchestral Works of Brahms,
Edited by Oscar G. Zimmerman. Rochester: Zimmerman Publications, 1971.
Brun, Paul. A New History of the Double Bass. Paris: Paul Brun Productions, 2000.
Dixon, Scott. Hot Shots, Edited by Jeffrey Turner. Bass World: The Magazine of the
International Society of Bassists, Vol. 31, No. 1, International Society of Bassists,
2007.
Duckles, Vincent H.; Reed, Ida. Music Reference and Research Materials: An
Annotated Bibliography, 5th Ed. New York: Schirmer, 1997.
Fischer, Simon. Practice. London: Peters, 2004.
Findeisen, Theodore A. 25 Technical Studies: Opus 14, for String Bass, Edited by
Frederick Zimmermann. New York: International Music, 1957.

77

Galamian, Ivan and Neumann, Frederick. Contemporary Violin Technique, Vol. 1 (Parts
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