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Anatomy of the Heart

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Heart

Location

Thorax between the


lungs

Approximately at the
level of the 5th
intercostal space

Pointed apex directed


toward left hip

Heart is approximately
the size of your fist

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Heart: Coverings


Percardumadouble
serous membrane
Visceral pericardium
Next to heart

Parietal pericardium
Outside layer

Serous fluid fills the


space between the
layers of pericardium to
allow the heart to beat
easily in a frictionless
environment

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Three layers of the Heart wall


Epicardium

- external surface of the heart

Myocardium

- thick bundles of cardiac


muscles
- this is the layer that
contracts

Endocardium

- thin, glistening sheath of


endothelium that lines the
heart chambers
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Internal Heart Anatomy


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Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Heart: Chambers

Right and left side act as separate


pumps
Four chambers
Atria
Receiving chambers
Right atrium receve
deoxygenated blood
from the veins of the
body through the
superior and inferior
vena cava
Left atriumreceve
oxygenated blood
through the pulmonary
veins
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Figure 11.2c

The Heart: Chambers


Ventricles
discharging
chambers
inferior thick
walled chambers
Right ventricle
Left ventricle

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Figure 11.2c

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Interatrial septum
Interventricular septum

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The Heart: Valves

Allow blood to flow in only


one direction
Four valves
Atroventrcularvalve
between atria and
ventricles
Bicuspid or Mitral
valve (left)
Tricuspid valve
(right)

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Heart: Valves


Semilunar valves
between ventricle and
artery
Pulmonary
semilunar valve
Aortic semilunar
valve

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Heart: Valves

Valves open as blood is


pumped through
Held in place by
chordae tendineae
(hearttrng)

Chordae tendineae are


attached to the
papillary muscles

valves close to prevent


Chordae tendineae
backflow of blood
Papillary muscles
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Fossa ovalis

depression in the right


atrium of the heart
remnant of a thin fibrous
sheet that covered the foramen
ovale during fetal development

During fetal development, the


foramen ovale allows blood to
pass from the right atrium to the
left atrium, bypassing the
nonfunctional fetal lungs while
the fetus obtains its oxygen from
the placenta.
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Ligamentum arteriosum

ligamentum arteriosum (or


arterial ligament)

- ligament attached to the


superior surface of the
left pulmonary artery and
the aorta
nonfunctional
vestige/remnant of the
ductus arteriosus in the fetal
heart
Ductus arteriosus shunts
blood fr. the pulmonary
artery to the aorta

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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Trabeculae carnae

Large, smooth,
irregular muscular
ridges along the inside
walls of the ventricles

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Pectinate muscles

prominent ridges
located on the inner
surface of the right
atrium

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Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Heart: Associated Great Vessels


Superior and Inferior
vena cava
Enter the right Superior vena cava
atrium
Two largest veins
of the body
Carry oxygen poor
(deoxygenated)
blood to the right
atrium
Inferior vena cava
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Pulmonary trunk
Branches into
right and left
pulmonary arteries
Leaves the right
ventricle
Carries oxygen
poor(deoxygenated)
blood to the lungs
for oxygenation

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary trunk

Aorta

Leaves left ventricle


Carries and
distributes oxygen
rich blood in all
arteries
Blood returned to the
left side of the heart
is pumped out of the
heart into the aorta
from which the
systemic arteries
branch to supply all
body tissues

Left common carotid artery


Brachiocephalic artery

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Left subclavian artery

Aorta

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Blue- aorta

Redaortcarch
Yellow
descending aorta

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Pulmonary veins
(four)

Enter left atrium


Carry oxygenated
blood from the
lungs to the left
atrium
Pulmonary veins
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Blood Circulation

The circulation from the right


side of the heart to the lungs
and back to the left side of the
heart is called
PULMONARY
CIRCULATION
function is to carry blood to
the lungs for gas exchange
and return it to the heart

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 11.3

Blood Circulation

The second circuit from the


left side of the heart to the
body tissues is called
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

supplies oxygen rich blood to


all body organs

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 11.3

Blood Circulation

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QUIZ

ANATOMY OF THE HEART

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16-17 Identify the structures
Give the function of 19-20

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Trace the flow of the blood from the brain to


the lungs

Trace the flow of the blood from lungs to the


upper extremities

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings