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Openings in the Base of the Skull and the structures that pass through them
Openings in the Skull

Bone of the Skull


Anterior Cranial Fossa

Structures Transmitted

Perforations in the Cribriform plate

Ethmoid

Optic Canal
Superior Orbital Fissure

Middle Cranial Fossa


Lesser wing of the Sphenoid
Between lesser and greater wings of the
Sphenoid

Foramen Rotundum
Foramen Ovale

Greater wing of the Sphenoid


Greater wing of the Sphenoid

Foramen Spinosum
Foramen Lacerum

Greater wing of the Sphenoid


Between petrous part of temporal and
Sphenoid
Posterior Cranial Fossa
Occipital

Foramen Magnum

Olfactory nerves

Hypoglossal Canal
Jugular Foramen

Occipital
Between petrous part of temporal and
condylar part of occipital

Internal Acoustic Meatus

Petrous part of temporal

Optic nerve, ophthalmic artery


Lacrimal, frontal, trochlear, oculomotor,
nasociliary and abducent nerves; superior
ophthalmic vein
Maxillary Division of the Trigeminal Nerve
Mandibular division of the Trigeminal
Nerve
Middle meningeal artery
Internal carotid artery
Medulla Oblongata, spinal part of accessory
nerve, and right and left vertebral arteries
Hypoglossal nerve
Glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory
nerves; sigmoid sinus becomes internal
jugular vein
Vestibulocochlear and facial nerves

Muscles of the Eyeball and Eyelids


Muscle
Superior Rectus
Inferior Rectus
Medial Rectus
Lateral Rectus
Superior Oblique

Inferior Oblique

Sphincter Pupillae of
Iris
Dilatory Pupillae of
Iris
Ciliary Muscle

Origin
Insertion
Innervation
Extrinsic Muscles of Eyeball (Striated Skeletal Muscle)
Tendinous ring on
Superior surface of
CNIII
posterior wall of orbital eyeball just posterior to
cavity
corneoscleral junction
Tendinous ring on
Inferior surface of
CNIII
posterior wall of orbital eyeball just posterior to
cavity
corneoscleral junction
Tendinous ring on
Medial surface of eyeball CNIII
posterior wall of orbital just posterior to
cavity
corneoscleral junction
Tendinous ring on
Lateral surface of eyeball CNVI
posterior wall of orbital just posterior to
cavity
corneoscleral junction
Posterior wall of orbital Passes through pulley
CNIV
cavity
and is attached to
superior surface of
eyeball beneath superior
rectus
Floor of orbital cavity
Lateral surface of eyeball CNIII
deep to lateral rectus
Intrinsic Muscles of Eyeball (Smooth Muscle)
Parasympathetic via
CNIII
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic via
CNIII

Action
Raises cornea upward
and medially
Depresses cornea
downward and medially
Rotates eyeball so that
cornea looks medially
Rotates eyeball so that
cornea looks laterally
Rotates eyeball so that
cornea looks downward
and laterally
Rotates eyeball so that
cornea looks upward
and laterally
Constricts pupil
Dilates pupil
Controls shape of lens;
in accommodation,
makes lens more
globular

Muscles of Eyelids
Orbicularis Oculi
Palpebral Part

Orbital Part

Levator Palpebrae
Superioris

Medial palpebral
ligament
Medial palpebral
ligament and adjoining
bone
Back of orbital cavity

Lateral palpebral raphe

Facial nerve

Loops return to origin

Facial nerve

Anterior surface and


upper margin of
superior tarsal plate

Striated muscle
oculomotor nerve,
smooth muscle
Sympathetic

Closes eyelids and


dilates lacrimal sac
Throws skin around
orbit into folds to
protect eyeball
Raises upper lid

Muscles of the Head


Muscle
Occipitofrontalis
Occipital belly

Frontal belly

Origin

Insertion
Muscle of Scalp

Highest nuchal line of


occipital bone
Skin and superficial facia
of eyebrows

Epicranial aponeurosis

Innervation

Action

Facial nerve

Moves scalp on skull and


raises eyebrows

Facial nerve
Facial nerve
Facial nerve

Closes eyelids and dilates


lacrimal sac
Throws skin around orbit
into folds to protect
eyeball
Vertical wrinkles of
forehead, as in frowning
Compresses mobile nasal
cartilages
Widens nasal aperture
Wrinkles skin of nose
Compresses lips together

Facial nerve

Separate lips

Outer surface of alveolar margins of maxilla, mandible


and pterygomandibular ligament
Deep fascia over
Body of mandible and
pectoralis major and
angle of mouth
deltoid
Muscles of Mastication
Zygomatic arch
Lateral surface ramus of
mandible
Floor of temporal fossa
Coronoid process of
mandible

Facial nerve

Compresses cheeks and


lips against teeth
Depresses mandible and
angle of mouth

Greater wing of sphenoid


and lateral pterygoid plate
Tuberosity of maxilla and
lateral pterygoid plate

Mandibular division of
trigeminal nerve
Mandibular division of
trigeminal nerve

Muscles of Facial Expression


Orbicularis Oculi
Palpebral Part

Medial palpebral ligament

Lateral palpebral raphe

Facial nerve

Medial palpebral ligament


and adjoining bone

Loops return to origin

Facial nerve

Corrugator Supercilii

Superciliary arch

Skin of eyebrow

Facial nerve

Compressor Nasi

Frontal process of maxilla

Facial nerve

Dilator Naris
Procerus
Orbicularis Oris

Maxilla
Nasal bone
Maxilla, mandible and skin

Aponeurosis of bridge of
nose
Ala of nose
Skin between eyebrows
Encircles oral orifice
Dilator Muscles of Lips

Orbital Part

Levator Labii
Superioris Alaeque
Nasi
Levator Labii
Superioris
Zygomaticus Minor
Zygomaticus Major
Levator Anguli Oris
Risorius
Depressor Anguli Oris
Depressor Labii
Inferioris
Mentalis
Buccinator
Platysma

Masseter
Temporalis

Lateral Pterygoid (two


heads)
Medial Pterygoid (two
heads)

Arise from bones and fascia around oral aperture and


insert into substance of lips

Neck of mandible and


articular sac
Medial surface of angle of
mandible

Facial nerve cervical


branch
Mandibular division of
trigeminal nerve
Mandibular division of
trigeminal nerve

Elevates mandible to
occlude teeth
Anterior and superior
fibers elevate mandible;
posterior fibers retract
mandible
Pulls neck of mandible
forward
Elevates mandible

Muscles of Tongue
Muscle
Longitudinal

Origin
Median septum and
submucosa

Insertion
Intrinsic Muscles
Mucous membrane

Innervation
CNXII

Alters shape of tongue

CNXII

Protrudes apex of
tongue through mouth
Depresses tongue

Transverse
Vertical
Genioglossus
Hyoglossus
Styloglossus
Palatoglossus

Superior genial spine of


mandible
Body of greater cornu of
hyoid bone
Styloid process of
temporal bone
Palatine aponeurosis

Extrinsic Muscles
Blends with other
muscles of tongue
Blends with other
muscles of tongue
Blends with other
muscles of tongue
Side of tongue

Action

CNXII
CNXII
Pharyngeal plexus

Draws tongue upward


and backward
Pulls roots of tongue
upward and backward,
narrows oropharyngeal
isthmus

Muscles of the Neck


Muscle
Platysma
SCM

Digastric
Posterior belly

Origin
Deep fascia over
pectoralis major and
deltoid
Manubrium sterni and
medial third of the
clavicle

Insertion
Body of mandible and
angle of mouth

Innervation
Facial nerve cervical
branch

Action
Depresses mandible and
angle of mouth

Mastoid process of
temporal bone and
occipital bone

Spinal part of accessory


nerve and C2 and C3

Two muscles acting


together extend head
and flex neck; one
muscle rotates head to
opposite side

Mastoid process of
temporal bone

Intermediate tendon is
held to hyoid by fascial
sling

Facial nerve

Depresses mandible or
elevates hyoid bone

Anterior belly
Stylohyoid
Mylohyoid

Body of mandible
Styloid process
Mylohyoid line of body
of mandible

Geniohyoid

Inferior mental spine of


mandible
Manubrium sterni and
clavicle
Manubrium sterni

Sternohyoid
Sternothyroid
Thyrohyoid
Omohyoid
Inferior belly

Oblique line on lamina


of thyroid cartilage

Body of hyoid bone


Body of hyoid bone and
fibrous raphe

Nerve to mylohyoid
Facial nerve
Inferior alveolar nerve

Body of hyoid bone

First cervical nerve

Body of Hyoid bone

Ansa cervicalis; C1, 2 &


3
Ansa cervicalis; C1, 2 &
3
First cervical nerve

Oblique line on lamina


of thyroid cartilage
Lower border of body
of hyoid bone

Elevates hyoid bone


Elevates floor of mouth
and hyoid bone or
depresses mandible
Elevates hyoid bone or
depresses mandible
Depresses hyoid bone
Depresses larynx
Depresses hyoid bone
or elevates larynx

Upper margin of scapula


and suprascapular
ligament
Lower border of body
of hyoid bone
Transverse processes of
3rd, 4th 5th and 6th
cervical vertebrae

Intermediate tendon is
held to clavicle and first
rib by fascial sling

Ansa cervicalis; C1, 2 &


3

Depresses hyoid bone

First rib

C4, 5 & 6

Scalenius Medius

Transverse processes of
upper six cervical
vertebrae

First rib

Anterior rami of cervical


nerves

Scalenius Posterior

Transverse process of
lower cervical vertebrae

Second rib

Anterior rami of cervical


nerves

Elevates first rib;


laterally flexes and
rotates cervical part of
vertebral column
Elevates first rib;
laterally flexes and
rotates cervical part of
vertebral column
Elevates second rib;
laterally flexes and
rotates cervical part of
vertebral column

Superior belly

Scalenius Anterior

Cranial Nerves
Nerve
Olfactory

Components
Sensory

Optic
Oculomotor

Sensory
Motor

Trochlear

Motor

Trigeminal
Ophthalmic
division

Sensory

Maxillary division

Sensory

Mandibular
division

Motor
Sensory

Abducent

Motor

Facial

Motor

Sensory
Secretomotor
parasympathetic
Vestibulocochlear
Vestibular
Cochlear
Glossopharyngeal

Sensory
Sensory
Motor
Secretomotor
parasympathetic
Sensory

Vagus

Motor

Sensory
Accessory
Cranial root

Spinal root

Hypoglossal

Motor
Motor
Motor

Function
Smell
Vision
Lifts upper eyelid, turns eyeball
upward, downward and medially;
constricts pupil; accommodates eye
Assists in turning eyeball downward
and laterally

Opening in Skull
Openings in cribriform plate
of ethmoid
Optic canal
Superior Orbital Fissure
Superior Orbital fissure

Cornea, skin of forehead, scalp, eyelids


and nose; also mucous membrane of
paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity
Skin of face over maxilla and the upper
lip; teeth of upper jaw; mucous
membrane of nose, the maxillary air
sinus, and palate
Muscles of mastication, mylohyoid,
anterior belly of digastrics, tensor veli
palatini and tensor tympani
Skin of cheek, skin over mandible,
lower lip and side of head; teeth of
lower jaw and temporomandibular
joint; mucous membrane of mouth and
anterior two thirds of tongue
Lateral rectus muscle: turns eyeball
laterally
Muscles of face, cheek and scalp;
stapedius muscle of middle ear;
stylohyoid; and posterior belly of
digastrics
Taste from anterior two thirds of
tongue, floor of mouth and palate
Submandibular and sublingual salivary
glands, lacrimal gland and glands of
nose and palate

Superior Orbital Fissure

Position and movement of head


Hearing
Stylopharyngeus muscle; assists
swallowing
Parotid salivary gland

Internal acoustic meatus

General sensation and taste from


posterior third of tongue and pharynx;
carotid sinus and carotid body
Constrictor muscles of phaynx and
intrinsic muscles of larynx; involuntary
muscle of trachea and bronchi, heart,
alimentary tract from pharynx to
splenix flexure of colon; liver and
pancreas
Taste from epiglottis and vallecula and
afferent fibers from structures named
above
Muscles of soft palate, pharynx and
larynx
Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
muscles
Muscles of tongue controlling its shape
and movement (except palatoglossus)

Foramen Rotundum

Foramen Ovale

Superior orbital fissure


Internal acoustic meatus, facial
canal stylomastoid foramen

Jugular Foramen

Jugular Foramen

Jugular Foramen

Hypoglossal Canal

Muscles Connecting the Upper Limb to the Thoracic Wall/ Muscles of the Pectoral Region (except Serratus Anterior)
Muscle
Pectoralis Major

Insertion
Lateral lip of the bicipital
groove of humerus

Pectoralis Minor

Origin
Clavicle, sternum and
upper six costal
cartilages
3rd, 4th and 5th ribs

Subclavius

First costal cartilage

Clavicle

Nerve to subclavius from


upper trunk of brachial
plexus

Serratus Anterior

Upper eight ribs

Medial border and inferior


angle of the scapula

Long thoracic nerve

Coracoid process of
scapula

Innervation
Medial and lateral pectoral
nerves form brachial
plexus
Medial pectoral nerve
from brachial plexus

Action
Adducts arm and rotates it
medially; clavicular fibers
also flex arm
Depresses point of
shoulder; if the scapula is
fixed, it elevates the ribs of
origin
Depresses the clavicle and
steadies this bone during
movements of the shoulder
girdle
Draws the scapula forward
around the thoracic wall;
rotates the scapula

Muscles Connecting the Upper limb to the Vertebral Column/ Superficial (Appendicular) Group of Back Muscles
Muscle
Trapezius

Latissimus Dorsi

Levator Scapulae
Rhomboid Minor

Rhomboid Major

Origin
Occipital bone,
ligamentum nuchae,
spine of 7th cervical
vertebra, spines of all
thoracic vertebra
Iliac crest, lumbar fascia,
spines of lower six
thoracic vertebrae,
lower three or four ribs,
and inferior angle of the
scapula
Transverse processes of
first four cervical
vertebrae
Ligamentum nuchae and
spines of 7th cervical
vertebra and 1st thoracic
vertebra
2nd to 5th thoracic spines

Insertion
Upper fibers into lateral
third of clavicle; middle and
lower fibers into acromion
and spine of the scapula

Innervation
Spinal part of accessory
nerve (motor) and C3 and
C4 (sensory)

Action
Upper fibers elevate the
scapula; middle fibers pull
the scapula medially; lower
fibers pull medial border of
the scapula downward
Extends, adducts and
medially rotates the arm

Floor of bicipital groove of


humerus

Thoracodorsal nerve

Medial border of the


scapula

C3 and C4 and dorsal


scapular nerve

Raises medial border of the


scapula

Medial border of the


scapula

Dorsal scapular nerve

Raises medial border of


scapula upward and medially

Medial border of scapula

Dorsal scapular nerve

Raises medial border of


scapula upward and medially

Muscles Connecting the Scapula to the Humerus


Muscle
Deltoid

Origin
Lateral third of clavicle,
acromion, spine of
scapula

Insertion
Middle of lateral surface of
shaft of humerus

Innervation
Axillary nerve

Supraspinatus

Supraspinous fossa of
scapula

Spurascapular nerve

Infraspinatus

Infraspinous fossa

Teres Major

Lower third of lateral


border of scapula

Greater tuberosity of
humerus; capsule of
shoulder joint
Greater tuberosity of
humerus; capsule of
shoulder joint
Medial lip of bicipital
groove of humerus

Teres Minor

Upper two thirds of


lateral border of the
scapula
Subscapular fossa

Greater tuberosity of the


humerus; capsule of
shoulder joint
Lesser tuberosity of
humerus

Axillary nerve

Subscapularis

Action
Abducts arm; anterior fibers
flex and medially rotate
arm; posterior fibers extend
and laterally rotate arm
Abducts arm and stabilizes
shoulder joint

Suprascapular nerve

Laterally rotates arm and


stabilizes shoulder joint

Lower subscapular nerve

Medially rotates and


adducts arm and stabilizes
shoulder joint
Laterally rotates arm
stabilizes shoulder joint

Upper and lower


subscapular nerves

Medially rotates arm and


stabilizes shoulder joint

Muscles of the Arm


Muscle
Biceps Brachii
Long head

Short head

Coracobrachialis
Brachialis
Triceps
Long head

Lateral head
Medial head

Origin

Insertion
Anterior Compartment

Innervation

Supraglenoid tubercle of
scapula

Tuberosity of radius and


bicipital aponeurosis
into deep fascia of
forearm

Musculocutaneous nerve

Supinator of forearm
and flexor of elbow
joint; weak flexor of
shoulder joint

Medial aspect of shaft of Musculocutaneous nerve


humerus
Coronoid process of
Musculocutaneous nerve
ulna
Posterior Compartment

Flexes arm and also


weak adductor
Flexor of elbow joint

Coracoid process of
scapula
Coracoid process of
scapula
Front of lower half of
humerus

Action

Infraglenoid tubercle of
scapula
Upper half of posterior
surface of shaft of
humerus
Lower half of posterior
surface of shaft of
humerus

Olecranon process of
ulna

Radial nerve

Extensor of elbow joint

Muscles of the Anterior Fascial Compartment of the Forearm


Muscle
Pronator Teres
Humeral head

Ulnar head

Flexor Carpi Radialis


Palmaris Longus
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Humeral head

Ulnar head

Flexor Digitorum
Superficialis
Humeroulnar
head

Radial head

Origin
Medial epicondyle of
humerus
Medial border of
coronoid process of
ulna
Medial epicondyle of
humerus
Medial epicondyle of
humerus

Insertion

Lateral aspect of the


shaft of radius
Bases of 2nd and 3rd
metacarpal bones
Flexor retinaculum and
palmar aponeurosis

Medial epicondyle of
humerus
Medial aspect of
olecranon process and
posterior border of ulna

Pisiform bone, hook of


the hamate, base at 5th
metacarpal bone

Medial epicondyle of
humerus; medial border
of coronoid process of
ulna
Oblique line on anterior
surface of shaft of radius

Middle phalanx of medial


four fingers

Flexor Pollicis
Longus
Flexor Digitorum
Profundus

Anterior surface of shaft


of radius
Anteromedial surface of
shaft of ulna

Distal phalanx of thumb

Pronator Quadratus

Anterior surface of shaft


of ulna

Anterior surface of shaft


or radius

Distal phalanges of
medial four fingers

Innervation

Median nerve

Median nerve
Median nerve

Action

Pronation and flexion of


forearm
Flexes and abducts hand
at wrist joint
Flexes hand

Ulnar nerve

Flexes and adducts hand


at wrist joint

Median nerve

Flexes middle phalanx of


fingers and assists in
flexing proximal phalanx
and hand

Anterior interosseus
branch of median nerve
Ulnar (medial half) and
median (lateral half)
nerves
Anterior interosseus
branch of median nerve

Flexes distal phalanx of


thumb
Flexes distal phalanx of
fingers; then assists in
flexion of middle and
proximal phalanges and
wrist
Pronates forearm

Muscles of the Lateral Fascial Compartment of the Forearm


Muscle
Brachioradialis

Origin
Lateral supracondylar
ridge of humerus

Insertion
Base of styloid process
of radius

Innervation
Radial nerve

Extensor Carpi
Radialis Longus

Lateral supracondylar
ridge pf the humerus

Posterior surface of
base of 2nd metacarpal
bone

Radial nerve

Action
Flexes forearm at elbow
joint; rotates forearm to
the midprone position
Extends and abducts
hand at wrist joint

Muscles of the Posterior Fascial Compartment of the Forearm


Muscle
Extensor Carpi
Radialis Brevis

Origin
Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Extensor Digitorum

Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Extensor Digiti
Minimi

Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Extensor Carpi
Ulnaris
Anconeus

Lateral epicondyle of
humerus
Lateral epicondyle of
humerus

Supinator
Abductor Pollicis
Longus
Extensor Pollicis
Brevis
Extensor Pollicis
Longus
Extensor Indicis

Insertion
Posterior surface of
base of third metacarpal
bone
Middle and distal
phalanges of medial
four fingers
Extensor expansion of
little finger

Innervation
Deep branch of radial
nerve

Action
Extends and abducts hand
at wrist joint

Deep branch of radial


nerve

Extends fingers and hand

Deep branch of radial


nerve
Deep branch of radial
nerve
Radial nerve

Lateral epicondyle of
humerus
Posterior surface of
shaft of radius and ulna
Posterior surface of
shaft or radius

Base of fifth metacarpal


bone
Lateral surface of
olecranon process of
ulna
Neck and shaft of
radius
Base of first metacarpal
bone
Base of proximal
phalanx of thumb

Extends
metacarpophalangeal joint
of little finger
Extends and adducts hand
at wrist joint
Extends elbow joint

Posterior surface of
shaft of ulna
Posterior surface of
shaft of ulna

Base of distal phalanx of


thumb
Extensor expansion of
index finger

Deep branch of radial


nerve
Deep branch of radial
nerve

Deep branch of radial


nerve
Deep branch of radial
nerve
Deep branch of radial
nerve

Supination of forearm
Extends and abducts thumb
Extends
metacarpophalangeal joint
of thumb
Extends distal phalanx of
thumb
Extends
metacarpophalangeal joint
of index finger

Small Muscles of the Hand


Muscle
Palmaris Brevis
Lumbricals (4)

Interossei (8)
Palmar (4)

Dorsal (4)

Abductor Pollicis
Brevis
Flexor Pollicis
Brevis

Origin
Flexor retinaculum,
palmar aponeurosis
Tendons of flexor
digitorum profundus

Insertion
Skin of palm

First arises from base of


1st metacarpal;
remaining three from
anterior surface of
shafts of 2nd, 4th and 5th
metacarpals
Contiguous sidesof
shafts of metacarpal
bones

Proximal phalanges of
thumb and index, ring
and little fingers and
dorsal extensor
expansion of each
finger
Proximal phalanges of
index, middle and ring
fingers and dorsal
extensor expansion

Extensor expansion of
medial four fingers

Innervation
Superficial branch of
ulnar nerve
1st and 2nd (i.e. lateral
two) median nerve; 3rd
and 4th deep branch of
ulnar nerve

Action
Corrugates skin to improve
grip of palm
Flexes metacarpophalangeal
joints and extend
interphalangeal joints of
fingers except thumb

Deep branch of ulnar


nerve

Palmar interossei adduct


fingers toward center of
third finger

Deep branch of ulnar


nerve

Dorsal interossei abduct


fingers from center of third
finger; both palmar and
dorsal flex
metacarpophalangeal joints
and extend interphalangeal
joints

Short Muscles of Thumb (Thenar Muscles; pollicis- thumb)


Scaphoid, trapezium,
Base of proximal
Median nerve
flexor retinaculum
phalanx of thumb
Flexor retinaculum
Base of proximal
Median nerve
phalanx of thumb

Abduction of thumb
Flexes metacarpophalangeal
joint of thumb

Flexor retinaculum

Adductor Pollicis

Oblique head; 2nd and


Deep branch of ulnar
3rd metacarpal bones;
nerve
transverse head; 3rd
metacarpal bone
Short Muscles of Little Finger (Hypothenar Muscles; digiti minimi- 5th digit)
Pisiform bone
Base of proximal
Deep branch of ulnar
Abducts little finger
phalanx of little finger
nerve
Flexor retinaculum
Base of proximal
Deep branch of ulnar
Flexes little finger
phalanx of little finger
nerve

Abductor Digiti
Minimi
Flexor Digiti Minimi
Opponens Digiti
Minimi

Flexor retinaculum

Shaft of metacarpal
bone of thumb
Base of proximal
phalanx of thumb

Median nerve

Medial border of 5th


metacarpal bone

Deep branch of ulnar


nerve

Opponens Pollicis

Pulls thumb medially and


forward across palm
Adduction of thumb

Pulls 5th metacarpal forward


as in cupping the palm

Summary of the Branches of the Brachial Plexus and their Distribution


Branches

Distribution
Roots
Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C5)
Rhomboid minor, rhomboid major, levator scapulae
Long Thoracic Nerve (C5, 6, 7)
Serratus anterior
Upper Trunk
Suprascapular Nerve (C5, 6)
Supraspinatus and infraspinatus
Nerve to Subclavius (C5, 6)
Subclavius
Lateral Cord
Lateral Pectoral Nerve (C5, 6, 7)
Pectoralis major
Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5, 6, 7)
Coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis; supplies skin along
lateral border of forearm when it becomes the lateral cutaneous
nerve of the forearm
Lateral root of Median Nerve (C5, 6, 7)
(See medial root of median nerve)
Posterior Cord
Upper Subscapular Nerve (C5, 6)
Subscapularis
Thoracodorsal Nerve (C6, 7, 8)
Latissimus dorsi
Lower Subscapular Nerve (C5, 6)
Subscapularis and teres major
Axillary Nerve (C5, 6)
Deltoid and teres minor; upper and lateral cutaneous nerve of
arm supplies skin over lower half of deltoid muscle
Radial Nerve (C5, 6, 7, 8; T1)
Triceps, anconeus, part of brachialis, ECRL; via deep radial nerve
branch supplies extensor muscles of forearm: supinator, ECRB,
ECU, ED, EDM, EI, AbPL, EPL, EPB; skin, lower lateral cutaneous
nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of arm, and posterior
cutaneous nerve of forearm; skin on lateral side of dorsum of
hand and dorsal surface of lateral three and a half of fingers;
articular branches to elbow, wrist and hand
Medial Cord
Medial Pectoral Nerve (C8; T1)
Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
Medial Cutaneous Nerve of arm joined by intercostals
Skin of medial side of arm
brachial nerve from second intercostals nerve (C8; T1, 2)
Medial Cutaneous Nerve of forearm (C8; T1)
Skin of medial side of forearm
Ulnar Nerve (C8; T1)
FCU and medial half of FDP, FDM, ODM, AbDM, AdP, 3rd and 4th
lumbricals, interossei, PB, skin of medial half of dorsum of hand
and palm, skin of palmar and dorsal surfaces of medial one and a
half fingers
Medial root of Median Nerve (with lateral root) forms
PT, FCR, PL, FDS, AbPB, FPB, OP, first two lumbricals (by way of
Median Nerve (C5, 6, 7, 8; T1)
anterior interosseus branch), FPL, FDP (lateral half), PQ, palmar
cutaneous branch to lateral half of palm and digital branches to
palmar surface of lateral three and a half fingers; articular
branches to elbow, wrist and carpal joints

9
Muscles of the Gluteal Region
Muscle
Gluteus
maximus

Origin
Outer surface of ilium,
sacrum, coccyx,
sacrotuberous ligament
Gluteus medius Outer surface of ilium

Insertion
Iliotibial tract and gluteal
tuberosity of femur

Nerve Supply
Inferior gluteal nerve

Lateral surface of greater


trochanter of femur

Superior gluteal nerve

Gluteus
minimus

Anterior surface of greater Superior gluteal nerve


trochanter of femur

Outer surface of ilium

Tensor fasciae Iliac crest


Iliotibial tract
latae
Piriformis
Anterior surface of sacrum Upper border of greater
trochanter of femur
Obturator
Inner surface of obturator Upper border of greater
internus
membrane
trochanter of femur
Gemellus
Spine of ischium
Upper border of greater
superior
trochanter of femur
Gemellus
Ischial tuberosity
Upper border of greater
inferior
trochanter of femur
Quadratus
Lateral border of ischial
Quadrate tubercle of
femoris
tuberosity
femur

Superior gluteal nerve

Action
Extends and laterally rotates hip
joint; through iliotibial tract, it
extends knee joint
Abducts thigh at hip joint; tilts pelvis
when walking to permit opposite leg
to clear ground
Abducts thigh at hip joint; tilts pelvis
when walking to permit opposite leg
to clear ground
Assists gluteus maximus in extending
the knee joint
Lateral rotator of thigh at hip joint

First and second sacral


nerves
Sacral plexus
Lateral rotator of thigh at hip joint
Sacral plexus

Lateral rotator of thigh at hip joint

Sacral plexus

Lateral rotator of thigh at hip joint

Sacral plexus

Lateral rotator of thigh at hip joint

Muscles of the Anterior Fascial Compartment of the Thigh


Muscle
Sartorius

Origin
Anterior superior iliac
spine

Insertion
Upper medial surface of
shaft of tibia

Nerve Supply
Femoral nerve

Iliacus

Iliac fossa of hip bone

With psoas into lesser


trochanter of femur

Femoral nerve

Psoas

Transverse processes,
With iliacus into lesser
Lumbar plexus
bodies, and intervertebral trochanter of femur
discs of the 12th thoracic
and five lumbar vertebrae
Superior ramus of pubis
Upper end of linea aspera Femoral nerve
of shaft of femur

Pectineus
Quadriceps
femoris
Rectus
femoris
Vastus
lateralis
Vastus
medialis
Vastus
intermedius

Straight head: anterior


Quadriceps tendon into
Femoral nerve
inferior iliac spine
patella, then via ligamentum
Reflected head: ilium above patellae into tubercle of
acetabulum
tibia
Upper end and shaft of
Quadriceps tendon into
Femoral nerve
femur
patella, then via ligamentum
patellae into tubercle of
tibia
Upper end and shaft of
Quadriceps tendon into
Femoral nerve
femur
patella, then via ligamentum
patellae into tubercle of
tibia
Anterior and lateral
Quadriceps tendon into
Femoral nerve
surfaces of shaft of femur patella, then via ligamentum
patellae into tubercle of
tibia

Action
Flexes, abducts, laterally rotates thigh
at hip joint; flexes and medially
rotates leg at knee joint
Flexes thigh on trunk; if thigh is fixed,
it flexes the trunk on the thigh as in
sitting up from lying down
Flexes thigh on trunk; if thigh is fixed,
it flexes the trunk on thigh as in
sitting up from lying down
Flexes and adducts thigh at hip joint

Extension of leg at knee joint; flexes


thigh at hip joint
Extension of leg at knee joint

Extension of leg at knee joint;


stabilizes patella
Extension of leg at knee joint;
articularis genus retracts synovial
membrane

Muscles of the Medial Fascial Compartment of the Thigh


Muscle
Gracilis
Adductor
longus
Adductor
brevis
Adductor
magnus
Obturator
externus

Origin
Inferior ramus of pubis,
ramus of ischium
Body of pubis, medial to
pubic tubercle
Inferior ramus of pubis

Insertion
Nerve Supply
Upper part of shaft of tibia Obturator nerve
on medial surface
Posterior surface of shaft Obturator nerve
of femur (linea aspera)
Posterior surface of shaft Obturator nerve
of femur (linea aspera)
Inferior ramus of pubis,
Posterior surface of shaft Adductor portion:
ramus of ischium, ischial
of femur, adductor tubercle obturator nerve
tuberosity
of femur
Hamstring portion:
sciatic nerve
Outer surface of obturator Medial surface of greater Obturator nerve
membrane and pubic and trochanter
ischial rami

10

Action
Adducts thigh at hip joint; flexes leg
at knee joint
Adducts thigh at hip joint and assists
in lateral rotation
Adducts thigh at hip joint and assists
in lateral rotation
Adducts thigh at hip joint and assists
in lateral rotation; hamstring
portion extends thigh at hip joint
Laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

Muscles of the Posterior Fascial Compartment of the Thigh


Muscle
Biceps femoris

Semitendinosus

Origin
Long head: ischial
tuberosity

Insertion
Head of fibula

Short head: linea aspera,


lateral supracondylar ridge
of shaft of femur
Ischial tuberosity
Upper part of medial
surface of shaft of tibia

Semimembranosus Ischial tuberosity

Medial condyle of tibia

Adductor magnus Ischial tuberosity


(hamstring
portion)

Adductor tubercle of
femur

Nerve Supply
Action
Long head: tibial
Flexes and laterally rotates leg
portion of sciatic nerve at knee joint; long head also
extends thigh at hip joint
Short head: common
peroneal portion of
sciatic nerve
Tibial portion of sciatic Flexes and medially rotates leg
nerve
at knee joint; extends thigh at
hip joint
Tibial portion of sciatic Flexes and medially rotates leg
nerve
at knee joint; extends thigh at
hip joint
Tibial portion of sciatic Extends thigh at hip joint
nerve

Muscles of the Anterior Fascial Compartment of the Leg


Muscle
Origin
Tibialis anterior Lateral surface of shaft of
tibia and interosseous
membrane
Extensor
digitorum
longus
Peroneus
tertius

Insertion
Nerve Supply
Medial cuneiform and base Deep peroneal nerve
of first metatarsal bone

Anterior surface of shaft of Extensor expansion of


fibula
lateral four toes

Deep peroneal nerve

Anterior surface of shaft of Base of fifth metatarsal


fibula
bone

Deep peroneal nerve

Extensor
Anterior surface of shaft of Base of distal phalanx of
hallucis longus fibula
great toe
Extensor
digitorum
brevis

Calcaneum

Deep peroneal nerve

By four tendons into the Deep peroneal nerve


proximal phalanx of big toe
and long extensor tendons
to second, third, and fourth
toes

Action
Extendsb foot at ankle joint; inverts
foot at subtalar and transverse
tarsal joints; holds up medial
longitudinall arch of foot
Extends toes; extends foot at ankle
joint
Extends foot at ankle joint; everts
foot at subtalar and transverse
tarsal joints
Extends big toe; extends foot at
ankle joint; inverts foot at subtalar
and transverse tarsal joints

Muscles of the Lateral Fascial Compartment of the Leg


Muscle
Peroneus
longus

Origin
Lateral surface of shaft of
fibula

Peroneus brevis Lateral surface of fibula


shaft of fibula

Insertion
Nerve Supply
Base of first metatarsal and Superficial peroneal
the medial cuneiform
nerve

Base of fifth metatarsal


bone

Superficial peroneal
nerve

11

Action
Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint;
everts foot at subtalar and
transverse tarsal joints; supports
lateral longitudinal and transverse
arches of foot
Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint;
everts foot at subtalar and
transverse tarsal joint; supports
lateral longitudinal arch of foot

Muscles of the Posterior Fascial Compartment of the Leg


Muscle

Origin

Insertion
Nerve Supply
Superficial Group
Via tendo calcaneus into Tibial nerve
posterior surface of
calcaneum

Gastrocnemius Lateral head from lateral


condyle of femur and
medial head from above
medial condyle
Plantaris
Lateral supracondylar ridge Posterior surface of
of femur
calcaneum
Soleus
Shafts of tibia and fibula
Via tendo calcaneus into
posterior surface of
calcaneum

Tibial nerve
Tibial nerve

Popliteus

Lateral surface of lateral


condyle of femur

Deep Group
Posterior surface of shaft Tibial nerve
of tibia above soleal line

Flexor
digitorum
longus

Posterior surface of shaft


of tibia

Bases of distal phalanges of Tibial nerve


lateral four toes

Flexor hallucis Posterior surface of shaft


longus
of fibula

Base of distal phalanx of big Tibial nerve


toe

Tibialis
posterior

Posterior surface of shafts Tuberosity of navicular


of tibia and fibula and
bone and other
interosseous membrane
neighboring bones

Tibial nerve

Action
Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint;
flexes knee joint
Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint;
flexes knee joint
Together with gastrocnemius and
plantaris is powerful plantar flexor
of ankle joint; provides main
propulsive force in walking and
running
Flexes leg at knee joint; unlocks
knee joint by lateral rotation of
femur on tibia and slackens
ligaments of joint
Flexes distal phalanges of lateral
four toes; plantar flexes foot at
ankle joint; supports medial and
lateral longitudinal arches of foot
Flexes distal phalanx of big toe;
plantar flexes foot at ankle joint;
supports medial longitudinal arch of
foot
Plantar flexes foot at ankle joint;
inverts foot at subtalar and
transverse tarsal joints; supports
medial longitudinal arch of foot

Muscles of the Sole of the Foot


Muscle
Abductor
hallucis
Flexor
digitorum
brevis

Origin
Medial tuberosity of
calcaneum and flexor
retinaculum
Medial tubercle of
calcaneum

Insertion
Nerve Supply
First Layer
Base of proximal phalanx of Medial plantar nerve
big toe

Four tendons to four


Medial plantar nerve
lateral toes inserted
into borders of middle
phalanx; tendons
perforated by those of
flexor digitorum longus
Abductor digiti Medial and lateral tubercles Base of proximal phalanx of Lateral plantar nerve
minimi
of calcaneum
fifth toe
Second Layer
Quadratus
Medial and lateral sides of Tendon of flexor digitorum Lateral plantar nerve
plantae
calcaneum
longus
Lumbricals (4) Tendons of flexor
Dorsal extensor expansion; First lumbrical: medial
digitorum longus
bases of proximal phalanges plantar nerve;
of lateral four toes
remainder: lateral
plantar nerve
Flexor
digitorum
longus tendon
Flexor hallucis
longus tendon
Third Layer
Flexor hallucis Cuboid, lateral cuneiform, Medial tendon into medial Medial plantar nerve
brevis
tibialis posterior insertion side of base of proximal
phalanx of big toe; lateral
tendon into lateral side of
base of proximal phalanx of
big toe
Adductor
Oblique head bases of
Lateral side of base of
Deep branch lateral
hallucis
second, third, and fourth proximal phalanx of big toe plantar nerve
metatarsal bones;
transverse head from
plantar ligaments
Flexor digiti
Base of fifth metatarsal
Lateral side of base of
Lateral plantar nerve
minimi brevis bone
proximal phalanx of little
toe
Fourth Layer
Interossei
Dorsal (4)

Plantar (3)
Peroneus
longus tendon
Tibialis
posterior
tendon

Adjacent sides of
metatarsal bones

Bases of proximal
Lateral plantar nerve
phalanges first: medial side
of second toe; remainder:
lateral sides of second,
third, and fourth toes also
dorsal extensor expansion
Inferior surfaces of third, Medial side of bases of
Lateral plantar nerve
fourth, and fifth metatarsal proximal phalanges of
bones
lateral three toes

12

Action

Flexes and abducts big toe; braces


medial longitudinal arch
Flexes lateral four toes; braces
medial and lateral longitudinal
arches

Flexes and abducts fifth toe; braces


lateral longitudinal arch
Assists flexor digitorum longus in
flexing lateral four toes
Extends toes at interphalangeal
joints

Flexes metatarsophalangeal joint of


big toe; supports medial longitudinal
arch

Flexes metatarsophalangeal joint of


big toe; holds together metatarsal
bones
Flexes metatarsophalangeal joint of
little toe

Abduction of toes; flexes


metatarsophalangeal joints and
extends interphalangeal joints

Adduction of toes; flexes


metatarsophalangeal joints and
extends interphalangeal joints

Muscle of the Dorsum of the Foot


Muscle
Extensor
digitorum
brevis

Origin
Anterior part of upper
surface of the calcaneum
and from the inferior
extensor retinaculum

Insertion
Nerve Supply
By four tendons into the Deep peroneal nerve
proximal phalanx of big toe
and long extensor tendons
to second, third, and fourth
toes

13

Action
Extends toes

Branches of the Sacral Plexus and Their Distribution


Branches
Superior gluteal nerve
Inferior gluteal nerve
Nerve to piriformis
Nerve to obturator internus
Nerve to quadratus femoris
Perforating cutaneous nerve
Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
Sciatic nerve (L4, 5; S1, 2, 3) Tibial portion

Common peroneal portion

Pudendal nerve

Distribution
Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae muscles
Gluteus maximus muscle
Piriformis muscle
Obturator internus and superior gemellus muscles
Quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles
Skin over medial aspect of buttock
Skin over posterior surface of thigh and popliteal fossa, also over lower part
of buttock, scrotum, or labium majus
Hamstring muscles (semitendinosus, biceps femoris [long head], adductor
magnus [hamstring part]), gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, popliteus, tibialis
posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, and via medial and
lateral plantar branches to muscles of sole of foot; sural branch supplies skin
on lateral side of leg and foot
Biceps femoris muscle (short head) and via deep peroneal branch: tibialis
anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, peroneus
tertius, and extensor digitorum brevis muscles; skin over cleft between first
and second toes. The superficial peroneal branch supplies the peroneus
longus and brevis muscles and skin over lower third of anterior surface of
leg and dorsum of foot
Muscles of perineum including the external anal sphincter, mucous
membrane of lower half of anal canal, perianal skin, skin of penis, scrotum,
clitoris, and labia majora and minora

Branches of the Lumbar Plexus and Their Distribution


Branches
Iliohypogastric nerve
Ilioinguinal nerve
Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh
Genitofemoral nerve (L1, 2)
Femoral nerve (L2, 3, 4)

Obturator nerve (L2, 3, 4)


Segmental branches

Distribution
External oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis muscles of anterior
abdominal wall; skin over lower anterior abdominal wall and buttock
External oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis muscles of anterior
abdominal wall; skin of upper medial aspect of thigh; root of penis and
scrotum in the male; mons pubis and labia majora in the female
Skin of anterior and lateral surfaces of the thigh
Cremaster muscle in scrotum in male; skin over anterior surface of thigh;
nervous pathway for cremasteric reflex
Iliacus, pectineus, sartorius, quadriceps femoris muscles, and intermediate
cutaneous branches to the skin of the anterior surface of the thigh and by
saphenous branch to the skin of the medial side of the leg and foot; articular
branches to hip and knee joints
Gracilis, adductor brevis, adductor longus, obturator externus, pectineus,
adductor magnus (adductor portion), and skin on medial surface of thigh;
articular branches to hip and knee joints
Quadratus lumborum and psoas muscles

14

Back

Muscles Connecting the Upper limb to the Vertebral Column/ Superficial (Appendicular) Group of Back Muscles
*Trapezius
*Latissimus Dorsi
*Levator Scapulae
*Rhomboid Major
*Rhomboid Minor
Intermediate (Respiratory) Group of Back Muscles
Muscle
Origin
Insertion
Serratus Posterior
Lower portion of
Upper border of
Superior
ligamentum nuchae,
ribs 2 to 5 just
spinous process of
lateral to their
C7 to T3 and
angles
supraspinous
ligaments
Serratus Posterior
Spinous process of
Lower border of
Inferior
T11 to L3 and
ribs 9 to 12 just
supraspinous
lateral to their
ligaments
angles

Innervation
Anterior rami of
upper thoracic
nerves (T2 to T5)

Action
Elevates ribs 2 to 5

Anterior rami of
lower thoracic
nerves (T9 to T12)

Depresses ribs 9 to
12 and may prevent
lower ribs from
being elevated when
the diaphragm
contracts

Insertion
Mastoid process,
skull below lateral
1/3 of superior
nuchal line

Innervation
Posterior rami
middle cervical
nerves

Transverse
processes of C1 to
C3

Posterior rami
middle cervical
nerves

Action
Together- draw
head backwards
extending neck;
individually- draw
and rotate head to
one side (turn face
to same side)
Together- extend
neck; individuallydraw and rotate
head to one side
(turn face to same
side)

Deep Group of Back Muscles


SpinoTransversales Muscles
Muscle
Origin
Splenius Capitis
Lower half of
ligamentum nuchae,
spinous processes of
C7 to T4

Splenius Cervicis

Spinous processes
of T3 to T6

Erector Spinae Group of Back Muscles


Muscle
Origin
Iliocostalis Lumborum
Sacrum, spinous process of lumbar
and lower two thoracic vertebrae
and their supraspinous ligaments
and the iliac crest
Iliocostalis Thoracis
Angles of the lower 6 ribs
Iliocostalis Cervicis
Longissimus Thoracis
Longissimus Cervicis
Longissimus Capitis

Spinalis Thoracis
Spinalis Cervicis
Spinalis Capitis

Angles of ribs 3 to 6
Blends with iliocostalis in lumbar
region and is attached to transverse
processes of lumbar vertebrae
Transverse processes of upper 4 or
5 thoracic vertebrae
Transverse processes of upper 4 or
5 thoracic vertebrae and articular
processes of lower three or four
cervical vertebrae
Spinous processes of T10 or T11 to
L2
Lower part of ligamentum nuchae
and spinous processes of C7
(sometimes T1 to T2)
Usually blends with semispinalis
capitis

Insertion
Angles of the lower 6 or 7 ribs

Angles of the upper 6 ribs and the


transverse process of C7
Transverse processes of C4 to C6
Transverse processes of all thoracic
vertebrae and just lateral to the
tubercles of the lower 9 or 10 ribs
Transverse processes of C2 to C6
Posterior margin of the mastoid
process
Spinous processes of T1 to T8
(varies)
Spinous process of C2 (axis)
With semispinalis capitis

Transversospinales Group of Back Muscles


Muscle
Origin
Semispinalis Thoracis
Transverse processes of T2 to T10
Semispinalis Cervicis
Semispinalis Capitis
Multifidus

Rotatores Lumborum
Rotatores Thoracis
Rotatores Cervicis

Transverse processes of upper 5 or


6 thoracic vertebrae
Transverse processes of T1 to T6
(or T7) and C7 and articular
processes of C4 to C6
Sacrum, origin of erector spinae,
PSIS, mammillary processes of
lumbar vertebrae, transverse
processes of thoracic vertebrae and
articular processes of lower four
cervical vertebrae
Mammillary processes of lumbar
vertebrae
Transverse processes of thoracic
vertebrae
Articular processes of cervical
vertebrae

Segmental Back Muscles


Muscle
Origin
Levatores Costarum
Short paired muscles
arising from transverse
processes of C7 to T11
Interspinales
Short paired muscles
attached to the spinous
process of contiguous
vertebrae, one on each
side of the interspinous
ligament
Intertransversarii
Small muscles between
the transverse processes
of contiguous vertebrae
Suboccipital Gorup of Back Muscles
Muscle
Origin
Rectus Capitis
Spinous process of
Posterior Major
axis (C2)
Rectus Capitis
Posterior Minor

Posterior tubercle
of atlas (C1)

Obliquus Capitis
Superior

Transverse process
of atlas (C1)

Obliquus Capitis
Inferior

Spinous process of
axis (C2)

Insertion
Spinous processes of upper 4
thoracic and lower 2 cervical
vertebrae
Spinous processes of C2 (axis) to
C5
Medial area between the superior
and inferior nuchal lines of occipital
bone
Base of spinous processes of all
vertebrae from L5 to C2

Spinous processes of ;umbar


vertebrae
Spinous processes of thoracic
vertebrae
Spinous processes of cervical
vertebrae

Insertion
The rib below vertebra of
origin near tubercle

Insertion
Lateral portion of
occipital bone below
inferior nuchal line
Medial portion of
occipital bone below
inferior nuchal line
Occipital bone
between superior
and inferior nuchal
lines
Transverse process
of atlas (C1)

Action
Contraction elevates rib

Innervation
Posterior ramus of
C1
Posterior ramus of
C1

Function
Extension of head;
rotation of face to
same side as muscle
Extension of head

Posterior ramus of
C1

Extension of head
and bends it to same
side

Posterior ramus of
C1

Rotation of face to
same side

15

16

Thorax

Muscles Connecting the Upper Limb to the Thoracic Wall/ Muscles of the Pectoral Region (except Serratus Anterior)
*Pectoralis Major
*Subclavius
*Pectoralis Minor
Muscles of the Thorax/ Thoracic Wall
Muscle
Origin
External Intercostal
Inferior margin of
rib above

Internal Intercostal

Lateral edge of
costal groove of rib
above

Innermost
Intercostal

Medial edge of
costal groove of rib
above
Internal surface
(near angle) of
lower ribs
Lower margins and
internal surfaces of
cocostal cartilages
of 2nd to 6th ribs

Subcostales
Transversus
Thoracis

Diaphragm (most
important muscle of
respiration)

Xiphoid process;
lower six costal
cartilages, first three
lumbar vertebrae

Levatores Costarum
(12)

Tip of transverse
process of C7 and
T1-11 vertebrae

Serratus Posterior
Superior
Serratus Posterior
Inferior

Insertion
Superior surface f
rib below

Innervation
Intercostal nerves;
T1-T11

Superior surface of
rib below deep to
the attachment of
the related external
intercostal
Internal aspect of
superior surface of
rib below
Internal surface of
2nd to 3rd rib below

Intercostal nerves;
T1-T11

Function
Most active during
inspiration; supports
intercostals space;
moves ribs
superiorly
Most active during
expiration; supports
intercostals space;
moves ribs inferiorly

Intercostal nerves;
T1-T11

Acts with internal


intercostals muscles

Related intercostal
nerves

May depress ribs

Inferior aspect of
deep surface of
body of sternum,
xiphoid process and
costal cartilages ribs
4-7
Central tendon

Related intercostals
nerves

Depresses costal
cartilages

Phrenic nerve

Rib below

Posterior rami of
thoracic spinal
nerves

Very important
muscle of
inspiration;
increases vertical
diameter of thorax
by pulling central
tendon downward;
assists in raising
lower ribs. Also
used in abdominal
straining and weight
lifting
Raises ribs and
therefore
inspiratory muscles

(see Intermediate (Respiratory) Group of Back Muscles)

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