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H2 Chemistry 9647

Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

Planning Questions (Prelims 2011) (Additional Practice)


AJC Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)
You are given two different acids to investigate how the enthalpy change of neutralisation, Hneut, varies
when the acids are neutralised with aqueous sodium hydroxide, NaOH.
FA 1
FA 2
FA 3

is a solution of sulfuric acid


is a solution of hydrochloric acid
is 1.00 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide

You may use the following information in answering the question.


The enthalpy change of neutralisation is the enthalpy change when 1 mol of water, H2O, is formed in the
neutralisation of an acid and base.
H+(aq) + OH(aq)

H2O(l)

You are to design a series of experiments using different volumes of FA 1 and FA 3 which together give
a total volume of 50 cm3. The temperature change, T, for each experiment will be determined and can
be used to plot a graph of T against volume of FA 1 used.

T / oC

volume of FA 1
used / cm3
Data from the graph can be used to determine the concentration of sulfuric acid in FA 1, and the
enthalpy change of neutralisation, Hneut.
(a)

State and explain the minimum number of experiments you will need to perform to plot the graph
shown above.
[1]

(b)

(i)
(ii)

Suggest a reason why the total volume is kept constant at 50 cm3.


State one consideration to be taken when deciding the minimum volume of FA 1 to be used.
[2]

The following procedure was carried out.


Step 1 Transfer 10 cm3 of FA 1 into a cup labelled FA 1.
Step 2 Transfer 40 cm3 of FA 3 into another cup labelled FA 3.
Step 3 Stir and measure the temperature of the FA 1 solution.
Step 4 Add the contents of the FA 3 cup to the FA 1 cup. Use the thermometer to stir the mixture
and measure the maximum temperature of the mixture.
Step 5 Wash and dry both the cups.
Step 6 Repeat steps 1 to 5 above for as many times as you have stated in (a).
(c)

Suggest the most appropriate apparatus for each of the following:


to contain FA 1 / FA 3
(i)
(ii) to transfer FA 1 / FA 3
[1]

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H2 Chemistry 9647

Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

(d)

Indicate, on the graph given in the question, the data that you would use to determine the
concentration of sulfuric acid in FA 1, and the enthalpy change of neutralisation, Hneut.
[2]

(e)

Using the data stated in (d), show the mathematical expression for
the concentration of sulfuric acid in FA 1.
(i)
(ii) the enthalpy change of neutralisation of sodium hydroxide with sulfuric acid.
[4.2 J of heat energy raise the temperature of 1 cm3 of any solution by 1 oC]
[2]

(f)

You are given two unlabelled bottles containing 1 mol dm3 sulfuric acid and 1 mol dm3
hydrochloric acid.
Outline the steps you will take to determine which bottle contains hydrochloric acid using only the
apparatus and chemicals you are given above.
Hence explain how your proposed steps will allow the identity of hydrochloric acid to be
determined.
[4]
[Total: 12]

NYJC Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


There are four colourless solutions, labelled as A1, A2, B1 and B2. You are told that A1 and A2 could
be 1.0 mol dm3 H2SO4 or 2.0 mol dm3 H2SO4. B1 and B2 are either 1.0 mol dm3 NaOH or 1.0 mol dm
3
Ba(OH)2.
You are required to plan a simple experiment to identify A1, A2, B1 and B2.
You are provided with 200 cm3 of each solution,
a thermometer
polystyrene cup
common apparatus in the laboratory
No pH indicators are provided.
(a)

Suggest how we can first identify Ba(OH)2. Write an equation (with state symbols) to explain your
answer.
[2]

(b)

Write an equation for the reaction between sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid.
[1]

(c)

Outline the steps you will take to determine the identities of A1 and A2, using the sodium
hydroxide solution.
[3]

(d)

Let T1 be the temperature change for the reaction between A1 and NaOH(aq) and T2 be the
temperature change for the reaction between A2 and NaOH(aq).
Illustrate how the identities of A1 and A2 can be deduced from the temperature changes obtained
in the procedure above.
[3]

(e)

Define the term enthalpy change of neutralisation.


[1]

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(f)

Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

Do you expect the enthalpy change of reaction per mole of acid to be more exothermic, less
exothermic or the same if
hydrochloric acid was used instead of sulfuric acid? Explain your answer.
(i)
(ii) ethanedioic acid was used instead of sulfuric acid? Explain your answer.
[2]
[Total: 12]

IJC Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


You are given a number of different acids to investigate how the enthalpy change of neutralisation,
Hneutralisation, varies when the acids are neutralised with aqueous sodium hydroxide, NaOH.
(a)

(i)

Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulfuric acid are all strong acids.
Predict how Hneutralisation values for these acids would compare with each other.

(b)

(ii)

Predict and explain how the expected Hneutralisation for a weak acid, such as ethanoic acid or
ethanedioic acid, compares with that for hydrochloric acid.
[2]

(i)

Draw and label a diagram of the apparatus you would use to determine the temperature
change, T, when each of the acids reacts with 30.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 aqueous sodium
hydroxide.
Any experimental method that is normally carried out in a college laboratory may be used.

(ii)

(c)

Identify one possible source of error in the experiment and state how you would minimise the
effect.
[3]

In each experiment, 30.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 aqueous NaOH is to be used. Suggest appropriate
volumes for each of the acids to be used in the individual experiments.
Acid
Hydrochloric
Ethanedioic

Volume/ cm3
HCl
(CO2H)2

Concentration/ mol dm-3


2.0
1.0
[1]

(d)

Ethanedioic acid is a hydrated crystalline solid, (CO2H)2.2H2O.


Outline how you would prepare 100 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 solution of ethanedioic acid. In your answer,
you should show how you determine the initial mass of ethanedioic acid to be used. [Ar: C, 12.0; H,
1.0; O, 16.0]
[4]

(e)

Using the volume and concentration from (c) and T to represent the temperature change, derive a
mathematical expression for the enthalpy change of neutralisation of sodium hydroxide with
hydrochloric acid.
[4.3 J of heat energy raise the temperature of 1 cm3 of any solution by 1 C]
[1]

(f)

Suggest what modification you could make to your experimental procedure to ensure complete
neutralisation of the acid.
[1]
[Total: 12]

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H2 Chemistry 9647

Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

SAJC Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


FA 1 is a solution of sulphuric acid, H2SO4, of concentration approximately 1 mol dm-3.
FA 2 is a solution of 1.50 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH
When sulphuric acid neutralises sodium hydroxide, water is produced.
H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O
The neutralisation process is exothermic, that is, gives out heat, and the amount of heat produced
changes with the amount of water produced. From the temperature rise in various experiments, the
actual concentration of H2SO4 in FA 1 can be determined.
(a)

Calculate the approximate temperature rise, T, when 10 cm3 of FA 1 and 40 cm3 of FA 2 were
mixed.
In your calculations, you are to assume
specific heat capacity of the mixture = 4.18 J cm-3 K-1
standard enthalpy change of neutralisation (per mole of water) = 57.4 kJ mol-1
[3]

(b)

Fill in the table below, the approximate temperature rise when various volumes of FA 1 and FA 2
were mixed. In each case, the total volume of mixture is 50 cm3.

[2]
(c)

With the help of (b), describe the steps you would carry out to determine the exact concentration of
H2SO4 in FA 1.
[3]

(d)

Identify one source of error in your procedure and explain how you would minimise the error.
[2]

(e)

From the graph of temperature rise against volume of FA 1, show how you would treat the data in
order to determine the actual concentration of H2SO4 in FA 1.
[2]
[Total: 12]

PJC Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


There were two unknown solutions labelled FA1 and FA2, which could either be 1.00 mol dm-3 sodium
hydroxide or 1.00 mol dm3 barium hydroxide.
A student was tasked to plan a simple experiment to identify FA1 and FA2 by determining the heat
evolved from the reactions of each solution with 1.00 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.
She was provided with:
a thermometer
a polystyrene cup
other common apparatus in the laboratory
(a)

With reference to the reaction between hydrochloric acid and barium hydroxide, write an equation
to represent the standard enthalpy change of neutralisation.
[1]

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H2 Chemistry 9647

(b)

Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

The student proposed to carry out two experiments using the volumes given in the table and
measuring the temperature rise for each experiment.

Experiment
1
2

Volume of Volume of Volume of Temperature


FA1 / cm3 FA2 / cm3 HCl / cm3
rise / C
45
45
T1
45
45
T2

Briefly explain why she would not be able to identify the two solutions.
[1]
(c)

(i)

Assuming you were the student, suggest appropriate volumes of FA1, FA2 and hydrochloric
acid for experiment 3 and 4 which will allow you to determine the identity of the solutions.
You are required to keep the total volume of the reaction mixture at 90 cm3.
Experiment

Volume of
FA1 / cm3

4
Value of x = ________________
(ii)

Volume of
FA2 / cm3

Volume of
HCl / cm3

Temperature
rise / C

T3

T4

Value of y = ________________

Using the values of x and y you have suggested in (c)(i) and the following data, calculate the
temperature rise for
(I) reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid
(II)reaction between barium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid
Hence, explain how the identity of the unknown solutions can be determined.
Standard enthalpy change of neutralisation = -57.3 kJ mol-1
Specific heat capacity of the solutions = 4.2 J K-1 cm-3

(iii) Write a plan to carry out experiments 3 and 4. You may use the apparatus normally found in
a school or college laboratory. Your plan should include essential details such as the volume
of solutions and apparatus.
[7]
(d)

The experiment can be carried out using a thermometer with 1C or 0.2C interval to measure the
change in temperature for the reaction between FA1 and hydrochloric acid.
It is known that the error (or uncertainty) that is associated with each reading when using a
thermometer with 1 C interval is 0.5 C, while that using a thermometer with 0.2C interval is
0.1 C.
Given that the temperature rise = 6.5C, calculate the maximum total percentage error (or
uncertainty) in the temperature rise of the reaction mixture for the above experiment when using:
(i)
thermometer with 1C interval
(ii) thermometer with 0.2C interval
[2]

(e)

Identify one potential safety hazard in this experiment and explain how you would minimise this

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Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

risk.
[1]
[Total: 12]
TJC Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)
The literature value of standard enthalpy change of reaction between solid copper and aqueous
hydrochloric acid is +64.8 kJ mol-1.
Cu(s) + 2HCl(aq) CuCl2(aq) + H2(g)

HOreaction = +64.8 kJ mol-1

HOreaction = +64.8 kJ mol-1 is a hypothetical value as copper does not react with hydrochloric acid under
normal room conditions. Hence, to determine the hypothetical value for the enthalpy change, a suitable
Hess cycle needs to be constructed.
To construct a suitable Hess cycle, the enthalpy change of the following two reactions needs to be
determined experimentally.
Reaction 1:
Reaction 2:

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)


Mg(s) + CuCl2(aq) Cu(s) + MgCl2(aq)

HO1 = x kJ mol-1
HO2 = y kJ mol-1

(a)

Draw an enthalpy cycle diagram that shows the relationship between HOreaction, HO1 and HO2.
Hence, show how HOreaction can be calculated.
[2]

(b)

An online website reported that the enthalpy change of Reaction 1, HO1, is about -460 kJ mol-1.
Write a plan to verify if the enthalpy change of Reaction 1, HO1, is -460 kJ mol-1.
Reaction 1: Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

HO1 = x kJ mol-1

You may use the apparatus normally found in the school laboratory and the following apparatus
and chemical reagents.
200 cm3 Styrofoam cup
Magnesium powder
HCl(aq) of concentration 5 mol dm-3
NOTE: 4.2 J of heat energy raise the temperature of 1 cm3 of water or aqueous solution by 1 oC
Density of HCl = 1 g cm-3
In your plan you should give the essential details of the procedures, including quantities used, for
the determination of HO1.
[5]
(c)

Draw up tables with appropriate headings to show the data you would record in (b).
[1]

(d)

Outline how you would use the data collected to determine enthalpy change of Reaction 1, HO1.
You may use letters such as a, b, c and the like to represent the various data collected.
[2]

(e)

Identify one potential safety hazard in this experiment and state how you would minimize this risk.
[1]

(f)

Copper does not react with hydrochloric acid under normal room conditions. In thermodynamic
terms, explain if copper is able to react with hydrochloric acid at high temperature.
[1]
[Total: 12]

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H2 Chemistry 9647

Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

HCI Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


Ammonium salts are commonly used in instant cold packs. The cold pack contains water, and in the
water is another pouch containing the ammonium salt. When the pack is squeezed, this inner pouch is
broken, releasing the salt, which quickly dissolves and lowers the packs temperature.
To determine whether ammonium chloride or ammonium nitrate is more effective as the ingredient in the
cold pack, a student decided to conduct an experiment to find out the enthalpy change of solution of the
two salts, starting with ammonium chloride.
He added ammonium chloride to water and found the temperature change by plotting a suitable graph to
correct for surrounding heat transfer.
Solubility of ammonium chloride at 25 oC = 6.95 mol dm3
4.3 J are required to raise the temperature of 1.0 cm3 of any solution by 1C.
In a preliminary investigation, the enthalpy change of solution of ammonium chloride was found to be
approximately +15 kJ mol1.
(a)

Draw a labelled diagram to show the apparatus you could use in a school laboratory to carry out
the experiment.
[1]

(b)

(i)
(ii)

By considering the apparatus chosen in your diagram, state a volume of water you could use
in the experiment.
Calculate the maximum mass of ammonium chloride that can be added to the volume of
water stated in (b)(i).
[2]

(c)

Suggest a minimum mass of ammonium chloride that could be used. Justify your choice with
relevant calculations, stating any assumptions you made.
[2]

(d)

Describe the procedure to find the enthalpy change of solution of ammonium chloride.
In your plan, you should:
allow for the plotting of a suitable graph
include appropriate apparatus, masses and volumes of reagents, using your answers in parts
(a), (b) and (c), and
draw table(s) with headings to show the measurements you would make.
[4]

(e)

Draw a sketch of the graph that you expect to obtain in the experiment. Indicate clearly on the
graph the initial and final temperatures that you would read.
[1]

(f)

In the students experiment, he dissolved m g of ammonium chloride in v cm3 of water, and


obtained a temperature change of T oC.
Outline how you would use his results to calculate a value for the enthalpy change of solution of
ammonium chloride.
[1]

(g)

The student repeats the same procedure for ammonium nitrate. How might he conclude which of
the two salts is more effective as the ingredient in the cold pack?
[1]
[Total: 12]

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H2 Chemistry 9647

Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

CJC Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


A mixture of sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 and sodium hydrogencarbonate, NaHCO3 is heated strongly
with a bunsen burner. Only sodium hydrogencarbonate, NaHCO3 decomposes on heating.
2 NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g)
You are to design an experiment to determine the percentage by mass of sodium hydrogencarbonate,
NaHCO3 in a 5.00 g sample of a mixture of sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 and sodium hydrogencarbonate,
NaHCO3, by heating alone.
The only apparatus available consists of a boiling-tube and holder, a heat-proof mat, a chemical balance
and a bunsen burner.
(a)

Outline step by step, the practical sequence for the method you would use to
make appropriate weighings,
decompose NaHCO3 in the sample by heating,
ensure that decomposition was complete.
[4]

(b)

Show how you would tabulate your results. Include in your table and other masses you would
calculate from the experimental results to enable you to determine the percentage by mass of
NaHCO3 in the sample of the mixture. Insert in your table, the letters A, B, C etc. to represent each
measurement of mass.
[3]

(c)

Use the letters you have entered in (b) to show how you would process the results to find
the mass of NaHCO3 in the sample of the mixture
(i)
(ii) the % by mass of NaHCO3 in the sample of the mixture.

(d)

[4]

Suggest an alternative experimental method, not involving weighing, which could be used to
determine the % by mass of NaHCO3 in the sample of the mixture.
[1]
[Total: 12]

RI(JC) Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


You are to design an experiment to determine the identity of a soluble metal sulfate, MSO4, by using a
gravimetric method. A solid sample containing MSO4, with some carbonate and sulfite impurities, is
provided.
You may assume that the following are available:
1.0 g of the solid sample of MSO4, of a known percentage purity
0.50 mol dm3 aqueous barium chloride, BaCl2
concentrated hydrochloric acid, HCl
250 cm3 and 500 cm3 beakers
weighing bottle
measuring cylinders
glass rod
filter paper
filter funnel
deionised water
infra-red lamp
You may also assume that standard laboratory apparatus are available.
(a)

Write an ionic equation, including state symbols, for the reaction between the unknown metal

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Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

sulfate and aqueous barium chloride.


[1]
(b)

Explain why concentrated hydrochloric acid should be added to the impure metal sulfate.
[2]

(c)

Using your answers to (a) and (b), outline a sequence of steps in which the experiment should be
carried out to determine the identity of MSO4. You should state clearly the measurements to take
and any assumption(s) made.
[Treatment of results is not required.]
[7]

(d)

A 0.892 g impure solid sample of the unknown metal sulfate, MSO4, reacted with excess acidified
aqueous barium chloride to form 1.049 g of barium sulfate. Given that the sample contained 80.4%
by mass of metal sulfate, determine the identity of the unknown metal sulfate.
[2]
[Total: 12]

RVHS Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


John went on an excursion to a limestone cave in Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak. In there, he
picked up a limestone rock and decided to investigate the percentage by mass of CaCO3 in this rock
sample. When he was back in his school laboratory, he weighed the rock sample and the reading was
0.200 g.
(a)

2H+ + CO32
CO2 + H2O
Given the equation above, draw a labelled experimental setup of how collection of CO2 gas can be
achieved.
[3]

(b)

Given that the percentage by mass of CaCO3 in the limestone rock sample is at least 60% and
assuming that other substances in the rock sample are inert to acid, calculate the volume of 0.100
mol dm3 of HCl that should be used to react with the rock sample.
Ar: Ca, 40.1; C, 12.0; O, 16.0;
Assuming that the experiment is carried out under room temperature and pressure, 1 mole of
gas occupies 24000 cm3 under these conditions.
[2]

(c)

Using the information given in (a) and (b), calculate the volume of the apparatus needed for the
collection of CO2 gas in this experiment.
[2]

(d)

With the help of your diagram in (a), describe the procedure to find the percentage mass of CaCO3
in the rock sample.
Your plan should give a step-by-step description of the method, including the calculations to
determine the percentage by mass of CaCO3.
[3]

(e)

Suggest a possible error in the above experiment and propose how it can be minimised.
[2]
[Total: 12]

TPJC Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


A sample of sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3, is believed to be contaminated with 5 to 10 % of
sodium chloride, NaCl.

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Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

The percentage purity of sodium hydrogen carbonate in the mixture can be determined through the
reaction of sodium hydrogen carbonate with sulfuric acid.
2 NaHCO3 (s) + H2SO4 (aq) Na2SO4 (aq) + 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l)
Sodium chloride does not react with sulfuric acid.
You are to design an experiment in which the carbon dioxide gas produced from the reaction between a
known quantity of sodium hydrogen carbonate and sulfuric acid is collected and its volume measured.
From the data collected in the experiment, you should be able to determine the percentage purity of
sodium hydrogen carbonate in the mixture.
You are provided with the following:
A sample of the sodium hydrogen carbonate sodium chloride mixture
2.0 mol dm-3 sulfuric acid
All of the common laboratory apparatus (glassware, tubings)
(a)

Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus and set-up you would use to
add sulfuric acid without the loss of gas produced on mixing.
collect and measure the volume of gas evolved.
Your diagram should show how standard pieces of laboratory apparatus are assembled. You
should also show clearly how these pieces of apparatus are connected together.
[3]

(b)

By means of relevant calculations, determine:


the mass of sodium hydrogen carbonate
(i)
(ii) the volume of sulfuric acid
to be used in the experiment.
[3]

(c)

Draw tables to show the measurements that you would take during the experiment.
[2]

(d)

A student carried out the experiment, and found that x g of sodium hydrogen carbonate sodium
chloride mixture reacted with an excess of sulfuric acid to produce v cm3 of carbon dioxide at 25oC.
Show how you would process the results to find the percentage purity of sodium hydrogen
carbonate in the mixture.
[3]

(e)

State one assumption that you have made in your calculations in (d).
[1]
[Total: 12]

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H2 Chemistry 9647

Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

YJC Prelims 2011 (Paper 2)


One method of studying the kinetics of a reaction is using the initial rate method.
To determine the initial rate we can time how long it takes to reach an identifiable point early in the
reaction.
When aqueous sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3, is added to a solution containing aqueous sodium
metaarsenite, NaAsO2, that is acidified with ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, a bright yellow suspension of solid
arsenic(III) sulfide, As2S3, will be formed after some time. This is the identifiable point in the reaction.
It is believed that the rapid precipitation of a large amount of bright yellow solid after a short time interval
is due to the build-up of the concentration of arsenic(III) sulfide to that of a supersaturated solution
before precipitation begins.
The equation for the overall reaction can be taken to be:
4AsO2(aq) + 27S2O32(aq) + 34H+(aq) 2As2S3(s) + 12S4O62(aq) + 17H2O(l)
A student carried out a series of preliminary experiments, using approximate volumes of the three
reagents, and each solution was made up to the same total volume with distilled water. He found that the
time taken for the bright yellow precipitate to appear doubled when the volume of sodium thiosulfate
added was halved.
(a)

Briefly explain why it is necessary to top up the solution with distilled water.
[1]

(b)

Assuming that the rapid precipitation occurred when the same amount of arsenic(III) sulfide was
produced in all experiments, state the simple relationship between the time taken for the bright
yellow precipitate to appear and the initial rate of reaction.
[1]

(c)

(i)
(ii)

(d)

Using the results of the preliminary experiments, predict the relationship between the
concentration of sodium thiosulfate and the rate of reaction.
State what can be deduced regarding the role of the thiosulfate ion, S2O32, in the mechanism
of the reaction, based on your prediction in (c)(i).
[1]

You are to design an experiment to determine the order of reaction with respect to sodium
metaarsenite.
Experiment 1 is carried out using the quantities given in the table below:

(i)

(ii)

Fill in the volumes of the three reagents and distilled water to be used for Experiment 2 in the
table above, such that the order of reaction with respect to sodium metaarsenite could be
determined with a simple comparison of the time taken of the bright yellow ppt to appear with
that of experiment 1.
Outline in a series of numbered steps, how Experiment 1 could be carried out.

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Planning Questions (Prelims 2011)

Your plan should include:


the apparatus used to measure the various volumes;
the sequence that the various solutions are mixed;
how the time for the appearance of the bright yellow precipitate is measured; and
other experimental details to ensure the consistency of the experiment.
[5]
(e)

Taking the time for the bright yellow precipitate to appear in Experiments 1 and 2 to be t1 and t2
respectively, explain how the results of the two experiments can be used to determine the order of
reaction with respect to sodium metaarsenite.
[2]

(f)

Aqueous sodium metaarsenite and solid arsenic(III) sulfide were identified to be potential safety
hazards in this experiment. Explain briefly how they are hazardous, and state how you would
minimise the risk.
[1]
[Total: 12]

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