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Programmable Logic

Controllers
PLC Addressing and Basic
Instructions

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-1

Basic addressing
For the Allen-Bradley PLCs and the simulator
used, the input and output image areas (in
addition to other data) are held in data files
Each data file holds information such as

Discrete input values


Discrete output values
Values associated with timers
Values associated with counters
Status information
Etc.

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-2

3-1

PLC data files

Simulator data files

AB PLC data files

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-3

I/O memory mapping


Basic AB PLC addressing
Data file type
I input
O output
S status
B binary
T- timer
C-counter

Slot number (not used with the simulator)

X1:x.0/0

Data file number


(can be omitted for the
basic data files)

Bit number

Word number: selects


a specific word in
a data file

I/O located on the controller (embedded I/O) is slot 0.


I/O added to the controller (expansion I/O) begins with slot 1.
Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-4

3-2

Example Addressing

CPU
Module
(slot 0)

Digital
Input
Module
(slot 1)
16 inputs

Digital
Output
Module
(slot 2)
8 outputs

Would occupy
addresses
I1:1.0/0
through
I1:1.0/15

Would occupy
addresses
O0:2.0/0
through
O0:2.0/7

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-5

Basic instructions

Examine If Closed (XIC)


Examine If Open (XIO)
Output Energize (OTE)
Output Latch (OTL)
Output Unlatch (OTU)
One-shot Rising (OSR)

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-6

3-3

Examine if closed (XIC)


Alternate name: Normally open contact
Use the XIC instruction in your ladder program to
determine if a bit is on.
When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is on
(1), then the instruction is evaluated as TRUE.
When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off
(0), then the instruction is evaluated as FALSE.

Instruction symbol

Normally open switch is open

Normally open switch is closed


Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-7

Examine if open (XIO)


Alternate name: Normally closed contact
Use the XIO instruction in your ladder program to
determine if a bit is off.
When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is on
(1), then the instruction is evaluated as FALSE.
When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off
(0), then the instruction is evaluated as TRUE.

Instruction symbol
Normally open switch is open

An XIO instruction inverts the


state of the bit it references.
Electrical & Computer Engineering

Normally open switch is closed

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-8

3-4

Output energize (OTE)


Alternate name: coil
This instruction is usually used in conjunction with
XIC or XIO or any other input instruction.
If the logic preceding the OTE instruction is true (1),
the OTE instruction will be energized
Instruction symbol

An OTE instruction can


only be the last
instruction on a rung.
Electrical & Computer Engineering

Not energized

Energized
Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-9

Output latch (OTL)


The OTL instruction is used only to turn
a bit on and latch it on
Initially not
energized

Instruction symbol
Energized

L
Latched

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-10

3-5

Output unlatch (OTU)


The OTU instruction is used only to turn
a bit off and latch it off
OTL and OTU are generally used in pairs
Instruction symbol

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-11

One-shot rising (OSR)


When the rung conditions preceding the OSR
go from false-to-true, the OSR instruction
goes true also but for only one scan

Instruction symbol
OSR

I:1/0
B3:0/0
One PLC scan

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-12

3-6

Branches
Branches can be inserted in ladder logic programs to
create parallel combinations of various ladder logic
elements

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-13

Multiple Series/Parallel Branches


Multiple series/parallel branches can be utilized with
multiple inputs and also affecting multiple outputs in
parallel

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-14

3-7

PLC simulator usage


Ladder logic elements (instructions) can be dragged
and dropped onto the ladder window to create a
ladder logic program
The ladder logic program is executed by going
online, downloading the PLC program, and
switching to run mode

OFFLINE/ONLINE control

Download

Electrical & Computer Engineering

PLC run mode


Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-15

ProSim simulations
The Logixpro simulator provides a set of built-in simulations
The I/O simulation initially will be of most use since it provides
access to simulated discrete inputs (switches) and outputs
(lamps)

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-16

3-8

Other Prosim simulations


Available simulators

Door simulator
Silo simulator
Traffic simulator
Batch simulator
Dual Compressor simulator
Bottle line simulator
Four floor elevator simulator

Most projects will involve designing ladder


logic programs to control these simulations
Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-17

Batch simulator showing example I/O

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 3-18

3-9