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9/25/2014 10:38:00 AM

4. Court bouillon is made by simmering vegetables and seasonings in water and


an acid liquid such as vinegar or wine. It is used to poach fish or vegetables.
Beef and Veal Bones -- the best bones come from younger animals because they have
a higher percentage of cartilage and other connective tissue than older animals.
Connective tissue has a high collagen (protein) content; the collagen converts to
gelatin and water and adds richness and body to the finished stock
Mirepoix a mixture of onions, carrots, and celery added to the stock to enhance its
flavor.

50% onions

25% carrots

25% celery
Seasonings Sachet depices or bouquet garni. Peppercorns, bay leaves, thyme,
parsley stems, and garlic optionally (sachet depices is added in the last hour of
cooking).
5.

Mother Sauce

Liquid

Thickening Agent

Bchamel

Milk

Roux (White Roux)

Velout

Blond Stock

Roux (Blond Roux)

Brown Sauce

Brown Stock

Brown Roux

Tomato

Tomato + White Stock

Reduced

Hollandaise

Clarified Butter

Egg Yolks

Leading Sauce

Component

Small Sauce

Bchamel

Cream

Cream Sauce

Bchamel

Cheese

Mornay

Bchamel

Crayfish

Nantua

Bchamel

Onion

Soubise

Velout

Cream

Sauce Supreme

Velout

Cream & Glace de Viande

Albufera or Ivoire

Velout

Tomato

Aurora

Velout

Cream, Lemon Juice,


Parsley

Poulette

Brown Sauce
(Espagnole)

1/2 Brown Sauce


(Espagnole) & 1/2 brown
stock reduced by half

Demi Glace

Demi-glace

Red wine & shallots

Bordelaise

Demi-glace

Madeira Wine

Madeira

Demi-glace

Black Truffles

Perigueux

Demi-glace

Mushrooms

Forestiere

Hollandaise

Tarragon reduction

Barnaise

Hollandaise

Tomato Paste

Choron

Hollandaise

Glace de Viande

Foyot

Hollandaise

Whipped heavy cream

Mousseline

Tomato

Onions, celery, green


pepper, garlic

Creole

Tomato

Green peppers, garlic,


mushroom, onion

Spanish

Tomato

Tomato concasse, garlic,


onions

Portuguese

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9/25/2014 10:38:00 AM
Contemporary Sauce

Liquid

Thickening Agent

Double Cream

Cream

Reduction

Demi Glace

Brown Stock

Reduction

Mayonnaise

Salad Oil

Egg Yolks

Fresh Tomato

Tomato

Pureed

Hollandaise

Clarified Butter

Egg Yolks

Beurre Blanc

Acid reduction

butter

Modern Sauce

Component

Small Sauce

Double Cream

Cream, Pesto

Pesto Cream
Sauce

Double Cream

Cream, Red Pepper


Puree

Roasted Red
Pepper Sauce

Double Cream

Cream, Asiago Sauce

Asiago Sauce

Beurre Blanc

Acid reduction, butter

Citrus butter
sauce or beurre
rouge

Beurre Blanc

Soy and acid reduction

Soy Ginger
Beurre Blanc

Beurre Blanc

Wasabi and acid


reduction

Wasabi Beurre
Blanc

Beurre Blanc

Lime juice and herb


reduction

Lime Cilantro
Beurre Blance

Demi-glace

Red wine & shallots

Bordelaise

Demi-glace

Madeira Wine

Madeira

Demi-glace

Black Truffles

Perigueux

Demi-glace

Mushrooms

Forestiere

Hollandaise

Tarragon reduction

Barnaise

Hollandaise

Tomato Paste

Choron

Hollandaise

Glace de Viande

Foyot

Hollandaise

Whipped heavy cream

Mousseline

Tomato

Onions, celery, green

Creole

pepper, garlic
Tomato

Green peppers, garlic,


mushroom, onion

Spanish

Tomato

Tomato concasse,
garlic, onions

Portuguese

THE PURPOSE OF A SAUCE:


A sauce adds to the food it is served with in four different ways:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Adds moisture and texture,


Adds flavor and richness,
Changes the appearance and contrasts,
Creates interest and stimulates the appetite.

QUALITY STANDARDS OF A SAUCE:


The quality standards of a good sauce are measured by the following characteristics:
1. Thickness: Consistency is given by reduction, emulsion or pure
starch. Viscosity is the resistance of the sauce to movement, and is then
achieved by reducing the sauce over a period of time.
2. Texture: Proper distribution of all particles in the sauce is given by perfect
combining and homogenizing of ingredients. Reduction and depouillage of all
impurities achieve this perfection. The sauce is given its final texture by straining
through a cloth or chinois.
3. Color: The proper color is the result of its components, stock, and various
seasonings and flavorings. The color of each sauce is part of its character.
4. Shine: This is the degree to which the sauce reflects light. The shine
comes from the starch used and the process of reduction and depouillage.
5. Taste: The cardinal rule of flavoring and seasoning sauces is that it should
be well balanced. A well-balanced sauce aims for a subtle equilibrium of many
ingredients, without a single flavor dominating. The food it will be served with
must be taken into consideration.

Sauce: Is a flavorful liquid either thickened or reduced to a proper consistency.

Liquid + Reduction = Contemporary Industry Sauce

Contemporary Industry Sauce + Flavoring = Small Sauce (Small


Sauce)

How long should I cook a stock?


Veal 6 hours Beef 8 Hours, Chicken 3 hours
What is a good ratio of the ingredients in a stock?
1. 8 pounds of bones
2. 6 quarts of water
3. 1 pound of mirepoix
4.
Pinc:
Frying the tomato paste.
5. Dglacer:
Adding liquid to dissolve the pan drippings.
6. Remouillage:
Add water to reuse the bones from a stock
7. Caramelizing:

Browning the sugar content in the vegetables.

What are the qualities of a consomm

Crystal clear

Amber in color

Rich tasting and aromatic

Distinct flavor or major ingredient

Have body that can be felt in the mouth, (gelatinous)


3. What is the procedure for consomm

Cut mirepoix

Add mirepoix to ground meat

Add beaten egg white to the ground meat

Add cold stock and sachet components

Stir until 140 until raft begins to form

Check raft and make window

Cook for about 1 hours


Strain through cheese cloth and then through coffee filter to remove
any excess fat
4. What is the procedure for clear soups

Sweat long cooking vegetable in butter or fat

Add stock or liquid and bring to a simmer

Add seasonings or aromatics

Add additional ingredients according to their cooking times

Simmer to blend all flavors

Garnish for service


5. Reduction as soups cook moisture is released in the form of steam. As
steam escapes, the remaining ingredients concentrate, thickening the soup and
strengthening the flavors. This process is commonly used to thicken soups
because no starch or other flavor-altering ingredients are needed. Soups are
often finished by allowing them to reduce until the desired consistency is
reached.

THICK SOUPS
Is a term used for soups served as a substantial first course of a meal? They may be
making with veal, chick, fish, or vegetable stock. Various ingredients are attended to
the stock, giving them they are particular taste and usually a heavy consistency. Thick
soups can be divided in to two different types:

Cream thicken with roux or other starch


Puree thicken with main ingredient

The standard of quality is the same for both soups, and is based on three factors
1. thickness should be the consistency of heavy cream
2. texture should be smooth, creamy and velvety, no lumps or graininess
3. taste should have a distinct, delicate flavor of the main ingredients
Cream soups are always composed of four main items

1. a puree of the main flavor or ingredient


2. a light bchamel or veloute prepared a little thinner
3. the cream soup is finished with hot heavy cream - always added just before
service, and must not come back to a boil to prevent breaking or scorching, to
maintain the temperature of the soup
4. a garnish in keeping with the flavor of the soup
Qualities

thickness of heavy cream


texture should be smooth, creamy and velvety with no lumps or graininess

Procedure for roux

Heat fat - clarified butter or oil

Add flour and stir to a paste

Cook until the desired color

Ratio of roux for 1 gallon of light sauce or soup is 12 oz to 1 gallon of stock


(6-oz fat. 6-oz flour)

Starch bound sauces and soups must be skimmed

Flour or starch is a protein, mostly cellulose, and below this layer of scum is
a layer of fat

If this layer isnt removed it will fall back into the sauce or soup and make it
heavy, starch tasting
PUREE SOUPS

Puree soups are hearty soups made by cooking starchy vegetables or


legumes, in a stock or broth and then pureeing all or a portion of them to thicken
the soup.
Difference between cream soups and purees

Purees are naturally thickened with the starch of the vegetable or legume

Cream soups are thickened with a roux

Size or weight Minimum net weight


class
per dozen

Jumbo

30 ounces

Extra Large

27 ounces

Large

24 ounces

Medium

21 ounces

Small

18 ounces

Peewee
COMPOSITION
The primary parts of an egg are the shell, yolk, and white, or albumen
An average-sized egg weighs approximately 57 grams (about 2 ounces). Of
this weight, the shell constitutes 11 percent; the white, 58 percent; and the yolk, 31
percent.
Normally, these proportions do not vary appreciably for small or large eggs. When the
egg is freshly laid, the shell is completely filled.
The air cell is formed by contraction of the contents during cooling and by the loss of
moisture. A high-quality egg has only a small air cell.
COMPOSITION : Continued
The yolk is the yellow portion of the egg. It contains three-fourths of the calories, most of
the minerals and vitamins, and all of the fat. The yolk is well centered in
the albumen and is surrounded by the vitelline membrane, which is colorless.
The germinal disc, where fertilization takes place, is attached to the yolk.
On opposite sides of the yolk are two twisted, whitish cordlike structures known
as chalazae. Their function is to support the yolk in the center of the albumen. Chalazae
may vary in size and density but do not affect either cooking performance or nutritional
value.
The albumen is the clear portion of the egg, referred to as the egg white. It contains
more than half of the protein and riboflavin. A large portion of the albumen is thick.
Surrounding the albumen are two shell membranes and the shell itself. The shell
contains several thousand pores that permit the egg to breathe.
Name the three different USDA Grades of eggs available, and What they are
used for. (AA/ any use preferred for poaching, frying, A/ any use, B/ only used
when appearance is not important).
2. Explain all the part which make up an egg. (Shell, Yolk, Chalazae, thin white,
thick white, membrane, air cell).

3. What are some of the problems we encounter with today's eggs versus an
egg freshly laid from the small farmer. (Today's eggs have thin shells, are watery,
week in color and have little power of coagulation).
4. Name some of the uses for eggs in cooking and baking. (The eggs will add
body, color, flavor, texture, hold air, and acts as an emulsifier in food
preparation).
5. Why do you suppose we add vinegar when poaching eggs, how much, and
what is the effect on the eggs. (One gallon of water, I oz vinegar .5 oz salt. the
vinegar will keep the egg from spreading).
6. Estimate the number of large eggs needed to coagulate one quart of milk
when making custard. (It will take 8 Eggs, and coagulation will occur at 180).
1.
What is our goal when cooking vegetables, what are we trying to preserve
and enhance when cooking vegetables. (Flavor, texture, color and nutritional
content)
2.
Are mild flavored vegetables and strong flavored vegetables cooked in the
same manner. (Mild/small amount, strong/large amount of water)
3.
Explain the difference between blanching and parboiling when preparing
vegetables. (Blanche, place in boiling water, when water boils again, remove
vegetables and shock in ice water. Parboil, place in boiling water, when water
boils again, boil for a given time and shock in ice water).
4.
Name the four pigments and their color in vegetables. (Flavone/white,
Anthocyanin/red, Chlirophill/green, Carotine/orange and yellow).
5.
Are nutrients important? How can we avoid the loss of nutrients when
cooking vegetables? (Steam vegetables, use short cooking time, avoid alkali,
(Baking Soda) do not store vegetables in water or steam table.)
6.
From what you have learned, is it appropriate to cook the green beans
at 10 AM and place them in the steam table until lunch is served, how would you
prepare the green beans. (Parboil, then saut a la minute or in batches).
7.
Describe the difference between a sautoire and sauteuse. (A sautoire, has
straight sides, a sauteuse has curved sides).
8.
Which one do we use for sauting meat and vegetables? (The sauteuse
with the curved sides).

9.
What happens if we select a pan to large for the product we want to
saut? (To much fat, pan gets hot spots and fat burns).
10. Why do we heat the pan and fat before adding the product to be
sauted? (To season the pan and prevent the product from sticking).
11. Name a similar method as sauting using the same procedure. (Stir-frying).
How vegetables are affected by the cooking process:
Pigment:
Color:
Acids:

Chlorophyll

Flavones

Anthocyanin

Carotenoids

Green

White

Red

Yellow &
Orange

Turns the
Color
Olive Green

Stable
No Changes

Toughens
Cellulose

Toughens
Cellulose

Toughens
Cellulose

Intensifies the
Green Color

Stable
No Changes

Turns the
Color
Blue

Stable
No Changes

Breaks down
Cellulose

Breaks down
Cellulose

Water

Both

Toughens
Cellulose
Alkaline:

Intensifies the Intensifies the


White Color
Red Color

Breaks down
Cellulose

Breaks down
Cellulose

Water or
Oil Based:

Vegetables: Asparagus
Green Beans
Spinach
Broccoli
Peas
etc,

CHLOROPHYLL

Potatoes
Cauliflower
Onions

Water
Red Cabbage
Beets
Purple

Turnips
Onions
White parts of Skin of Egg
Veg., etc,
Plants
Fruits
etc,

Oil
Carrots
Corn
Squash
Tomatoes
Red Peppers
etc,

All green vegetables both mild and strong. The mild vegetables should
Be cooked quickly in small amounts of water uncovered. The stronger
Flavored vegetables should be allowed to cook longer in a larger amount of water to
allow the strong flavor to diminish. These vegetables should also be cooked uncovered
to allow the volatile acids to dissipate.
CAROTENE
All orange and yellow vegetables and fruits, including tomatoes, watermelon, pink
grapefruits, apricots, and bell peppers. This is the most stable of all the pigments it is
relatively unaffected by heat. These vegetables contain high amounts of vitamin a
FLAVONES
All white colored vegetables. Also called or known flavones. This group contains
vegetables such as cauliflower, potatoes, and onions.
ANTHOCYANIN
Responsible for the most of the red, purple and blue in fruits and vegetables, including
many berries, red grapes, red cabbage, radishes and eggplant
Proper breading

Flour

Egg wash
Bread crumbs
1. Describe the four major potatoes on the market by name and their uses.
(Russet-, Idaho-, Bake Potatoes. White Skin-, Chefs-, all-purpose. Red
Skin- A,B,C, Salad, Roasting, New Potatoes-, Creamers, Boiling, Roasting.
2. List the starch and moister content of the four major Potatoes. (Russet,High starch / low moister, White Skin-, low starch / high moister, Red Skin-,
low starch / high moister.
3. What happens if we use white skin potatoes to make mashed potatoes,
or russet potatoes to make potato salad. (Mashed potatoes would be like
clue, not fluffy. Potato salad would fall apart).
4. Explain the ten steps we follow when making Croquette Potatoes. (Peel,
cut, boil, dry, mash, add other ingredients, pipe, cut, bread. fry).

5. Give me the name of an other potato, which uses the same, first seven
steps, the bakes to an internal temperature of 165. (Duchesse Potatoes).
6. From what you have heard me say in class, what would happen if we do
not dry the potatoes thoroughly after cooking, when making Croquette
Potatoes. (La bomba).
7. Describe the way we boil potatoes, and why it is important to use cold
water. (Peel, wash, add cold salt water, bring to a boil, simmer until tender,
drain.)
8. Compare blanching and parboiling, tell me the difference, and why we do
it. (Blanching, bring to a boil. Parboil for a certain amount of time. To speed
up final cooking at time of service).
9. In what ways are Potato "Olivette, Chateau, Nature, (Anglaise) and
Fondant, the same, and in what way are they different. (They are all "Tourned
Potatoes", but are cooked in different ways).
10. What are the steps you take when making "Chateau Potatoes" (Tourne,
blanch, and saut in clarified butter.)
11. Suppose you where serving a poached Fish "Vin Blanc" which tourned
potato would you serve with it. (Pommes Nature, (Anglaise).
12. Can you recommend a potato to be used in a stew, based on the
information you now possess, and why. (Yes, a red skin or new potato,
because it is high in moisture, low in starch and will hold up well in a stew.)

Rice

The rice most commonly used in the US is white or polished rice. This is grains of rice
of any length, from which the germ has been removed. The resulting rice has a
superior shelf live. The germ of the rice is the part most likely to become rancid or
infested by insects.
The four steps of processing Rice:
1. Thrashing: Separating the rice from the stalk = Patty Rice.
2. Milled 1st time: Removing the outer husk = Brown Rice.
3. Milled 2nd time: Bran & embrio germ are removed = White Rice.
4. Washed, cleaned, polished and a coating of corn syrup and talcum is applied to
give it a pearly luster.
The types of rice most used in kitchens today are as follows:
Long Grain
Medium Grain
Short Grain
Converted Rice

Low Starch
Medium Starch
High Starch
Uncle Ben's

Par cooked Rice

Uncle Ben's Minute Rice

Boiled, Pilaf
Boiled, Pilaf
Arborio, Risotto, Croquette
Boiled, Pilaf

Wild Rice
Wild rice is not actually rice. It is the grain of a single
stemmed aquatic plant, a wild grass
. List the three different grains of rice grown in the USA. (Long grain,
Medium grain and short grain rice)
2.

Which one do we use when making steamed rice, and which one for

risotto. (Long grain rice, for steamed. Short grain for risotto.)
3. What process produces brown rice, what happens when we cook
brown rice. (The first milling only removes the tough outer husk, and
produces brown rice. Brown will take much longer to cook then white)

4. Why is wild rice not really a rice, what is it, and how long will it take to
cook. (Wild rice is the grain of a wild grass, valued for its nutty flavor, simmer
for 60 to 75 minutes in three times the amount of liquid.)
5. Why do you suppose we add the liquid in several additions while stirring
and not at once when making risotto? (To develop a creamy consistency.)
Determining Doneness in Roasted Foods:
o For poultry: 165F (74C)
o For veal and pork: Medium 140F to 145F (60C to 63C), Well Done
140F to 145F (60C to 63C) * FDA guidelines require that pork reach a
finished internal temperature of 160F (71C) to be considered medium.
o For beef and lamb: Very Rare:125F (52C) Medium rare130F to
135F (54C to 57C) Medium140F - 145F (60C to 63C) Medium
well150F to155F (66C to 68C) Well done160F (71) or more.

1.

List the four ways of cooking, included in the application of "Dry-heat

cooking without fat or oil". (Grilling, Broiling, Roasting and Poling, (Butter
roasting).
2. Summarize the steps involved when roasting a chicken. (Seasoning,
trussing, oven searing, roasting, resting, and carving).
3. At what temperature do we oven sear, and roast a chicken. (We oven
sear at 450F and roast at 375F).
4. What is the reason for roasting a chicken to the internal temperature of
165? (To kill all the Bacteria found in poultry (Salmonella)
5. Why do you suppose carryover cooking happens and how many degrees
are we talking about, in a chicken or a small roast. (The heat remaining in the
roast will continue to increase after it is removed from the oven, about 10 in a
chicken, or a small roast,.

6. I want you to select a cooking method best suited for the Quail you have
on hand, from the four applications of "Dry-heat cooking". (Poling or butter
roasting).
Sauting is a dry heat cooking method with fat, today mostly done on the stove in a
Sauteuse or a Sautoire.
Pan-frying is a dry heat cooking method with fat, today mostly done on the stove in a
sauteuse or a sautoir.
Cook the product to an internal temperature of 165F for Poultry
Pan-frying shares similarities with both sauting and deep-frying. It is a dry heat cooking
method with fat, in which heat is transferred by conduction from the pan, to the fat, to
the food, using a moderate amount of fat.
Foods to be pan-fried are always coated in some form of breading. The breading forms
a seal that keeps the meat moist and prevents the hot fat from touching the meat,
causing it to become greasy.

Questions to ask students or groups:


1. List the four ways of cooking, included in the application of "Dry-heat cooking with
fat or oil". (Sauting, Stir-frying, Pan-frying, Deep-frying).
2.

Summarize the steps involved when sauting a breast of Chicken

"Chardonnay". (Seasoning, dredge in flour, when pan is ready saut, remove chicken,
saut mushrooms, deglaze pan add stock reduce, add cream reduce, S & P to taste).
3. Why do we saut the chicken breast in the pan and than finish it in the oven.
(Naturally tender meat, seal in the juices, use moderate heat application until cooked,
so chicken will not get tough).
4. To what internal temperature do we heat chicken breast before plating and serving?
(165F).
5. Why do you suppose sauting a Beef Tenderloin would be a preferred method over
broiling. (Tenderloin is relatively low in fat and dry, sauting will add moisture and
flavor).
6. Summarize the steps involved when Pan-frying chicken.

7.

Describe or illustrate the method of pan-frying foods. (Moderate amount of fat,

moderate amount of heat, a crisp outer coat and a juice center would be the desired
outcome).
8. What temperature should the oil be heated to for pan-frying . (300 - 325).
9. Why do you suppose pan-frying is not used so much in the industry today. (Time
and dangers involved, deep fat fryers are readily available today)"
10. 1 want you to select a cooking method best suited for a "Wiener Schnitzel, from
the four applications of "Dry-heat cooking". (Pan-frying, What is a Wiener Schnitzel.

Shallow Poaching
Poaching is a moist heat cooking method, subcategorized by shallow and submerged
poaching.
The steps involved in order of preparation when shallow poaching are:
1. Protein preparation
2. Select an appropriate size pan
3. Smear whole butter on bottom
4. Add aromatics
5. Place item over aromatics
6. Add cold liquid half way up
7. Cover item with a buttered cartouche
8. Adjust heat to poaching temperature (160-180 degrees Fahrenheit)
9. Cover and poach until done (165 degrees Fahrenheit)
10. Remove the protein and keep warm while preparing sauce

11.

Reserve poaching liquid to be used to prepare sauce according to recipe

12. Serve the protein with the sauce

Shallow Poaching is best suited for boneless, naturally tender, single serving size,
sliced or diced pieces of meat, poultry or fish. To shallow poach food properly, begin
by selecting an appropriately sized saute pan or sautoir. Smear the inside of the pan
with whole butter and add the aromatics into the pan.
Braising:
Braising is a combination cooking method of dry and moist heat application.

The steps involved in order of preparation when braising are;


1. Meat preparation
2. Truss the meat
3. Sear the meat
4. Season the meat
5. Caramelize the mirepoix
6. Pinc the tomato product
7. Add the flour and stir in
8. Deglaze the pan
9. Add the liquid half way up the meat
10. Cover and braise until tender
11. Remove the meat and strain the sauce
12. Finish sauce and serve over the meat
Braising:
Braised foods benefit from the best qualities of both dry- and moist-heat cooking
application.
The meat used is often from an older animal or from a less expensive cut. These
tougher pieces of meat contain more connective tissue and collagen that is dissolved
by long slow cooking with moist heat.
Foods to be braised are usually larger pieces that are first seared in a small amount of
fat at high temperatures. This chases the juices to the inside of the meat and
caramelizes the outside of the meat to form flavor compounds that will determine the
final outcome and taste of the dish.
Vegetables are caramelized, seasonings are added, deglazed with wine and enough
stock is added to come one third to half way up the item being cooked. The liquid is
brought to a simmer, covered with a paper liner and a lid. The food is braised at a
medium heat in the oven at 350 - 375.
The slow cooking process will help tenderize the meat. Prolonged cooking in a moist
heat environment at temperatures above 185 will dissolve the connective tissue and
muscle fibers (Collagen and Protein) in the meat and an exchange of liquid will
happen.

When the process is complete, the connective tissue has melted into the liquid and
will give the sauce made from the braising liquid a gelatin shine. The meat will be
tender and very juicy from the absorbed liquid, and the flavors introduced through the
cooking process will be successfully developed. Braised foods are always served
coated with the sauce made from the cooking liquid.

Stewing:
Stewing also uses a combination of dry- and moist-heat cooking methods. Stewing is associated
with smaller pieces of food that are first seared in a small amount of fat or oil, or by blanching
them in a liquid. Cooking is then finished in stock or sauce.

Stewed foods have enough liquid added to cover them completely and are simmered
at a constant temperature until tender. Cooking time is generally shorter for stewing
than for braising because the main items are smaller.

Basic Fundamental Techniques of Cooking.


____________________________________________________________
Braising and Stewing:
Braising and stewing is a combination cooking method of dry and moist heat
application.
The steps involved in braising and stewing:
Braising:
1. Preparation
2. Trussing
3. Searing

Stewing:
1. Preparation
2. Searing
3. Seasoning

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Seasoning
Caramelize Mirepoix
Pinc Tomato Product
Deglazing
Braising
Remove Meat, Strain Sauce
Sauce Preparation
Serving

4. Caramelize Mirepoix
5. Pinc Tomato Product
6. Deglazing
7. Stewing
8. Remove Meat, Strain Sauce
9. Sauce Preparation
10. Re-heating
11. Serving

Questions to ask students or groups:


1. List the four techniques of cooking, included in the application of "Moist-heat
Cooking". (Steaming, en Papillote, Shallow Poaching, Poaching).
2. Summarize the steps involved when shallow poaching Chicken Breast
"Eugene". (Heat butter in pan. sweat shallots, add chicken and stock, bring to a
simmer, cover, poach in oven, remove chicken, reduce caisson, thicken with
beurre mani, add whipped cream, taste).
3. What type and size, portions are generally used when shallow poaching.
(Naturally tender and single serving size, are cooked a'la minute.)
4. To what internal temperature do we reheat chicken breast before plating and
serving? (165F)
5. Elaborate on the dilemma created when preparing an item en Papillote in
todays philosophy of serving food. (The beauty of preparing an item en
papillote lies in the accumulation of flavors in the paper; we would like the
customer to experience. Our philosophy is to serve only edible food on the
plate).
6. I want you to select a cooking method best applied to a "New England" Boiled
dinner, from the four applications of "Moist-heat cooking". (Poaching).

7. List the two techniques of cooking, included in the application of


"Combination Cooking Method". (Braising and Stewing).
8. Summarize the steps involved when braising Yankee Pot Roast. (Trim, Tie,
Pan sear, Season, Caramelize Mirepoix, Pince the tomato product, Deglaze, add
Liquid, bring to a simmer, Cover, Braise, remove Meat, reduce Sauce (thicken),
adjust Seasoning, Strain, Serve).
9. What types and cuts of meat are generally used for Braising. (Mostly older
and less expensive and tougher cuts of meat are used).
10. Analyze what happens to the meat when we "Braise" them. (The searing
process or caramelization of proteins will add color and flavor, at 110 the
muscle fibers begin to coagulate, through this contraction most of the water is
squeezed out of the meat between 140 and 160 (adding flavor to the sauce), at
180 collagen begins to dissolve in to gelatin, prolonged cooking above 180 an
exchange will occur and restore tenderness and moistness).
11. I want you to select a cooking method best suited for a Veal Shank from the
two applications of "Combination Cooking Method". (Veal Shanks are
inexpensive cuts of meat and contain lots of collagen, making them prime
pieces to be braised).

illing and broiling are dry-heat cooking methods that rely on heat being conducted through the
air from an open flame. This type of cooking produces browning reactions on the surface of the
food, thus encouraging the development of complex flavors and aromas.
Grilling Cooks Hot and Fast
Because air is a poor conductor of heat, broiling and grilling require the food to be quite close to
the heat source, which in this case is likely to be an open flame.
Thus the surface of the food cooks very quickly, making this type of cooking ideal for extremely

tender cuts of meat, poultry or fish. In fact, because of the extremely hot and dry nature of this
cooking method, it is customary to marinate meats that will be broiled or grilled.
The "Turn"
An important part of grilling and broiling is the "turn" which refers to flipping the item over
to cook the other side. Though it can be tempting to move things around while grilling, a little
restraint will go a long way. Generally speaking, you should only turn an item once, which
means cooking one side, turning it to finish the cooking, and then taking it off the grill.
Since there's not much else to do, knowing when to turn is pretty much the essence of grilling,
and it's a sense that you'll develop with experience.
Grill Marks
One exception to the "don't move it" rule is that cooks will often rotate an item on the grill to
mark it with cross-hatched grill lines. About one-third of a turn like from 12 o'clock to 8
o'clock on a watch dial would give the most attractive results.
Heat From Above Vs. Below
Incidentally, there is one significant distinction between broiling and grilling, which is that
grilling involves heating the food from below, while broiling involves heating from above.
In both cases, the food is typically turned once during cooking, and a grid or grate of some kind
is used, which gives the food the distinctive grill-marks that are the hallmark of this cooking
technique. As with sauting, it's critical to heat the broiler or grill before putting the food on it.
What About Barbecuing?
Barbecuing is similar to grilling and broiling in that it also uses an open flame to cook. But what
defines barbecue is the use of wood or coals to produce the flame.
But as with most things in the culinary world, there is a bit of wiggle room here. Some chefs
consider charcoal cooking to be a form of barbecuing, while plenty of others would insist that

barbecue entails cooking over a wood fire in an open pit. Either way, everyone agrees that
cooking with wood imparts a smoky flavor that just isn't possible with a gas grill.
What About Grill Pans?
Grill pans are specially constructed pans that have elevated ridges designed to simulate the grill
marks obtained by cooking food on an open-flame grill. But is that really grilling?
Technically, no. Remember, grilling cooks through the conduction of hot air, while a pan cooks
by the conduction of heat through the pan itself.
Here's an example of the difference: Suppose you're cooking burgers on a grill. Any fat that drips
off of the burgers falls away, and doesn't interfere with the heat from the flame or coals below.
With a grill pan, however, the fat merely collects in the pan, meaning the burgers are effectively
fried instead of grilled.