Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS

TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS
- Framework of routes between locations:

A permanent track (e.g. roads, rail and canals).

A scheduled service (e.g. airline, transit, train).


- Various types of links between points along which movement can take place.
- Creates accessibility
The term network refers to the framework of routes within a system of locations, identified as
nodes. A route is a single link between two nodes that are part of a larger network that can
refer to tangible routes such as roads and rails, or less tangible routes such as air and sea
corridors.
NETWORK STRUCTURES
- Ranges from centripetal to centrifugal.
- Express inequalities between places.
- Express transport rates.
- Integration processes impacted on the structure and flows of transportation networks
Centrifugal and Centripetal Networks

Network structure ranges from centrifugal to centripetal in terms of the accessibility they
provide to locations. These effects depend on the structure of the network and its relationship
with the distribution of origins and destinations.

Centrifugal networks have no specific centrality as no node is significantly more


connected than the others. They typically have a grid-like pattern.

Centripetal networks have a strong centrality where one or several nodes are much
more connected that the others. They typically have a radial pattern.

NETWORK STRUCTURES

CENTRALIZED

DECENTRALIZED

DISTRIBUTED

Transportation network are designed to offer a level of service which is related to their
structure. Conceptually, three basic network structures can be designed to link the same
locations:

Centralized. One center has privileged accessibility and thus represents the dominant
element of the network and the spatial structure it supports.

Decentralized. Although the center is still the point of highest accessibility, the network
is structured so that sub-centers have also significant levels of accessibility.

Distributed. No center has a level of accessibility significantly different from the others.

TRANSPORT HUB

Transport hub, where traffic is exchanged across several modes of transport.


Hubs, as a network structure, allow a greater flexibility within the transport system, through a
concentration of flows. For instance, on the above figure, a point-to-point network involves 16
independent connections, each to be serviced by vehicles and infrastructures. By using a huband-spoke structure, only 8 connections are required.

COST, REVENUE, AND LEVEL OF NETWORK COVERAGE

Connecting a set of locations with a transport network is commonly a cost-benefit consideration;


how much each option costs and what is the related benefit. This is the reason why an area
may not be entirely serviced since the additional costs related to expanding a transport network
may not justify the marginal benefits. The above example considers a set of alternatives to
service five locations by a transport route.

IMPACTS OF INTEGRATION PROCESSES ON NETWORK AND FLOWS


After Integration

Flows
Network

Before Integration

Transport networks reflect the political context, namely the capacity to trade. Prior to an
economic integration process (such as a free trade agreement) networks tended to service their
respective national economies with flows representing this structure (limited crossborder flows).

TOPOLOGY AND TYPOLOGY OF NETWORKS

TOPOLOGY
The arrangement and connectivity of a network.

Each network has a specific topology

Mode of territorial occupation


Clearly defined and delimited:
Strictly reserved space for transport infrastructure.
Ownership can also be clearly established.
Major examples include road, canal and railway networks.
Vaguely defined and delimited:
Space may be shared with other modes.
Not the object of any particular ownership, only rights of passage.
Examples include air and maritime transportation networks.
Without definition:
Space has no tangible meaning, except for the distance it imposes.
Little control and ownership are possible.
Agreements must be reached for common usage.
Examples are radio, television and cellular networks.

TOPOLOGY OF A NETWORK

Network topology looks at the arrangement of nodes and links, particularly their locations
and the nature of their connections. Network connectivity involves a specific configuration of
links and nodes. Links indicate which nodes are linked and how they are linked, namely with a
directional attribute. Nodes indicate how it is possible to access connected links, namely as a
link being an entry and/or an exit to the node.

TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY

Depending upon the arrangement of nodes and links, a specific network topology is created:
Mesh networks. Networks where there are at least two nodes with two or more links
between them.
Hub-and-spoke networks. Networks where peripheral nodes are connected to a central
node; the hub.

Linear networks. Networks where there is only one link between each node pairs and
where each nodes has a maximum of two links.

Tree networks. Networks that are converging to one node from a hierarchy of other
nodes.

NETWORK STRATEGIES TO SERVICE A SET OF LOCATIONS

Minimum construction costs network (A). Network where all locations are linked
through a single route.

Minimum accessibility network (B). Network where all locations are linked and have
the same accessibility.

Nodal network (C). One location is better connected and becomes the most accessible.

Maximum accessibility network (D). Every location is directly linked to all others, but
the construction costs are high (maximum construction costs network).

Minimal length network (E) where the summation of the links are minimal. Depending
on the configuration of nodes the minimal length network could be the same than the
minimum construction costs network.

Traveling salesperson network (F). It provides minimal distance for a route between all
locations. Also known as the traveling salesperson network.

MODE OF TERRITORIAL OCCUPATION BY TRANSPORT NETWORKS

CLEARLY DEFINED

VAGUELY DEFINED

WITHOUT DEFINITION

NETWORKS AND SPACES


Transportation networks and space
Territorial organization of economic activities
Efforts incurred to overcome distance
Measured in absolute or relative terms
Related to continuity, topographic space and spatial control.
The territory is a topological space having two or three dimensions, depending on
the transport mode considered
Flows and infrastructures are linear; having one dimension.
Spatial continuity
Ubiquity:
The possibility to reach any location from any other location.
Fractionalization:
The possibility for a traveler or an unit of freight to be transported without
depending on a group.
Instantaneous:

The possibility to undertake transportation at the desired moment.


Topographic space
Not a continuous space.
Variety of physical features
Level of influence on the structure of transport networks:
Depends on the mode
Tool for Spatial Control
Roman and Chinese empires relied on transportation networks to control their
respective territories.
During the colonial era, maritime networks became a significant tool of trade,
exploitation and political control.
In the 19th century, transportation networks also became a tool of nation building
and political control.
In the 20th century, road and highways systems were built to reinforce this
purpose.
For the early 21st century, telecommunication networks have become means of
spatial cohesion and interactions
TRANSPORT NETWORKS AND SPACE

NETWORKS AND SPATIAL CONTINUITY

The purpose of a transportation network is to confer a level of spatial continuity and thus
link locations. Networks A and B are servicing the same territory, but both have a level of
discontinuity (especially network A). If a transfer between those two networks is possible then
their combination (network C) increases the level of spatial continuity. If networks A and B
concern different modes, then the spatial continuity is provided by intermodal nodes. If
networks A and B involve the same mode, then the spatial continuity is provided
by transmodal nodes.

ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE DISTANCE IN A NETWORK

The above network represents the same topology but with different distance
measurement units between nodes. In an absolute context, distance in a network is a
fixed attribute that does not change. For instance, the straight distance between New
York and Boston is about 310 km. The location of the nodes of such a network is also
absolute and fixed. In a relative context, distance is a variable attribute that depends on
numerous factors, such as the mode being used, its efficiency, regulations (e.g. speed
limits) and congestion. Under such circumstances, some nodes of the network are
"closer" when that are considered from a relative distance perspective instead of an
absolute distance.