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RELATIVIZATION

Abul

Kalam

IN BENGALI'

Manzur

Morshed

Ph. D.
University

of
1982

Edinburgh

Declaration

This
in

thesis
it

is

was composed

by myself,

and the

my own.

12.. 10.82..

work

recorded

Abstract

The process
in

gated
of

the

present

different

of

relative

constituents

in

the

more

background,
major

syntactic

where

there,

the

been

clauses,

different

types

the

been

given

in

of

different

of

relative

is

present

of

relative

of

and deletion
and the

given

in

study.

the

the

of

relative

clefting
last

chapter

Bengali,
in
the

relationship
The

constructions.
deal

conclusion)

rules

in

pronouns,

and the

major

phrase

noun

pronouns

In

clauses.
the

clauses.
a detailed

of

clause

and complement

(preceding

introduction,

transformational

relative

the

clause,

the

types

a relative

of

and its

relative

different

of
A short

introduction,

the

nature

clauses

clauses

A summary
the

of

aspects

movement

relative

of

the

chapters

theoretical

head

the

relative

two

the

framework

Bengali

following

but

account;

aspects.

explaining

major

of
in

work

of

and distribution

relative

last

in

relevant

the

movement

into

theoretical

has

made of

taken

development

investi-

Bengali,

descriptive

an account

chapters

occurrence

between

also

are

can become

that
the

is

four
has

study

the

features,

that

studies

on the

than

showing

been

on the

placed.

clauses

relative

In

is

characteristics

Recent

clause.
has

the

and the

pronouns

grammar

been

in

clause

relative

has

determine

relative

of

distribution

emphasis

to

study

types

transformational

relativization

of

these

constituents
have
to

been

show the

with

some

chapters
in
explained.
findings

Abbreviations

in

used

AL:

Archivum

FL:

Foundations

Mansell

Linguisticum.
Language.

of

Journal

International
The University

of

Publishing,

International

and Philosophy,

Language
IJAL:

Bibliography

London.
Journal

of

Dordrecht-Holland.
of

American

Linguistics.

Press,

Chicago

Chicago:

Illinois.
IL:

JL:

LA:

Indian

Journal

Linguistics.

Society

of

India,

Journal

of

Linguistics.

Poona.

of

the

Linguistic

.I
The Journal

Linguistic

Association

Linguistic

Analysis.

Elsevier

Cambridge

Great

of

of

the

Britain,
North

London.
Holland,

New

York.
LI:

Linguistic

Inquiry.

Lg:

Language.

Journal

Studies

Society

Linguistic

the

of

Baltimore.

America,
SL:

of

Massachusetts.

in

Language.

John

Benjamins

B. V.

Amsterdam.
SLS:

Studies
Linguistics.

inLinguistic
University

Sciences.
of

Illinois.

Department

of

Acknowledgments

I would
directly
of

present

three

University

Edinburgh,

I am also

and for

my work
during

allowing

Professor

comments

and criticisms

very
for

views

grateful
two

scholarly

and discuss
are

terms

comment
subject.

insights
improve

into

my third

year

and passed

many parts

to

period

complete

University

flat

Asher

structure

his.

is

work

to

my

everlasting

and even

his

sabbatical

the

thesis.

during

page,

helpful

of Bengali

my research
Asher's

his

making

Miller

time

am also

-I

enthusiasm

and Dr.

found

leave.

Professor

me some of

every

a most

the

who supervised

on to

carefully

Professor

the

for

page,

during

J. E. Miller,

and displaying
Both

to

He made thoughtful

throughout

in

reading

syntax,

my work

Dr.

in

indebted

University

the

for

on every

to

leave

Asher,

guidance.

reflected

sabbatical

preparing

for

Committee,

required

in

me to

a Scholarship

Dacca

retain

R. E.

and

His

for

I am deeply

me to

debt

patience

read

the

who

abroad.

My greatest

to

for

the

those

completion

possible

Studies
which

to

leave

my absence

supervisor

for

grateful

me study

granting

became

Postgraduate

the

me in

assisted

only

to

my gratitude

when I was awarded

work

of

them.

It.

by the

years

express

have

work.

this

undertake

to

indirectly

or

the

like

knowledge
detailed
for

the

provided

which

helped

me to

taking

care

of our

of the dissertation.

I am grateful

to my wife

for

for

daughter,

me to

encouraging
our

shouldering

daughter,

forget

to

to

write
I would

Gerstl

for

her

made jelly
work

the

boredom

of

Ms.
the

her

the

and for

family

My thanks

work.

started

like

to

encouragement

and for

the

of

but

schooling

too,

go,
did

not

me.

and cake,

her

typing

complete

who just

burdens

all

thank
in

my work,

me for

inviting

arranging

my landlady

to

trips

Miss

Inge

home-

providing

evening

parties

see Scotland

H.

at
to

forget

work.
Alison

thesis

in

Jones
a very

has

done. a wonderful

short

time.

job

of

to

CONTENTS
Page
i

Declaration

ii

Abstract

iii

Abbreviations

iv

Acknowledgments

Chapter
1.1

1.2

One:

Introduction

Background

1.1.1

Introduction

1.1.2

Oldest

1.1.3

Word Groups

1.1.4

Loan

Outline

Specimens

Words

of

1.2.1

Sentence

1.2.2

Basic
in

1.2.3

6
8

Bengali

Structures

Structures

Syntax

Bengali

Aspectsof

Relevant

Bengali

in
in

Bengali

of

of
of

11

Bengali

Simple

sentences
15

Bengali

17

Complements
1.2-3.1

Complement

to

the

Predicate
19

Verb
1.2.4

The Place
1.2.4.1

of

the

Transitive

Verb

in

the

Sentence

21

and Intransitive
22

Verbs
and Non-finite

1.2-4.2

Finite

1.2.4.3

Verbless

Sentences

Verbs

25
26

PaRe
1.2.5

Adjective

31

and Adverb

1.2-5.1

Adjective

Non-Verbal

in

32

Sentences
and Particles

33

Quantifiers,

1.2.7

Number

and Person

1.2.7.1

Number

34

1.2.7.2

Person

35

1.2.8
1.3

Determiners

1.2.6

Concord

Bengali

in

Focusing

The Present

34

38

Work

Background

1.3.1

Theoretical

1.3.2

Transformational

Derivation

Relative

Clauses

1.3.2.1

The Matching

1.3.2.2

The Promotion

1.3.2.3

Underlying

1.3.2.4

Analysis,

Structure

1.3.4

Replacement

47

Structure

Correlative
Structure

42

Analysis

Analysis

Surface

of
42

Conjunction

1.3.3

Matrix

40

of Relative

of the Noun from

54
Analysis
Clauses

55
60

the

Sentence

65

Work

67

1.3.5

Previous

1.3.6

Design

1.3.7

Translation

of the

68

Study

of Bengali

Sentences

into
68

English

vi

Page

Chapter

Two:

Relativization
Phrase

2.1

Relativization

Process

and Noun
69

Accessibility

69

Process

69

2.1.1

Relativization

2.1.2

Derivation

of

Bengali

2.1.3

Occurrence

of

Head

2.1.4

Occurrence

of

Relative

Relative

Clauses

Nouns

86

and

Correlative

Markers
2.1.5

88

The

Position

the

Matrix

of

Relative

Sentence

Clause

in

the

and

Complement

Construction

2.2

70

89
Clauses

Relative

2.1.6

Restrictive

2.1.7

Non-restrictive

2.1.8

Headless

2.1.9

Stacked

2.1.10

Embedding

Relative

Clauses

90
92
99

Relatives

108

Relatives

115

2.1.10.1

Left-Embedding

118

2.1.10.2

Centre-Embedding

118

2.1-10.3

Right-Embedding

119

Noun Phrase

Accessibility

2.2.1

The Position

2.2.2

Accessibility

120
of

the

NP

120

Hierarchy

2.2.2.1

Pubject

2.2.2.2

Direct

2.2.2.3

Indirect

Relativization
Object

vii

123
126

Relativization

126

Object-Relativization

127

Paae
2.2.2.4

Oblique

2.2.2.5

Genitive

2.2.2.6

Relativization

Object

Relativization

128

NP Relativization
of

130

Object

of

Comparison
2.2.3

Relative

Clause

2.2.3.1

Prenom,

+ Case

132

2.2.3.2

Postnom,

+ Case

134

2.2-3.3

Internal7+
Studies

2.2.4

Recent

2.2.5

Maxwell's

2.2.6

Other

Chapter

Forming

131

Case

by Keenan

135
and Comrie

138
140

Works

143

of Relative

3.0

Introductory

3.1

Relative

Pronouns

3.1.1

'Whol:
-Je

3.1.. 2

Jini

'Who':

3.1.3

Ja:

'What,

that':

3.1.4

Je:

'What,

that,

Pronouns

145
145

Relatives

145
human and neutral

in

148

inanimate

150

-human
+inanimate

which':

Bengali

Double

3.3

Correlatives

in

3.4

Restrictions

on the

Occurrence

Je 'Who''as

a Relative

Bengali

a Deictic

146

human and honorific

3.2

3.4.1

Strategy

Proposal

Elements

Three:

131

Relative

Marker

viii

150
152

Constructions
of Je
Pronoun

158
160

and
160

PaRe
3.4.2

Je as a Complementizer

168

3.5

Relative

Pronoun

Deletion

171

3.6

Antecedent

and Postcedent

175

3.7

Determiners

185

3.7.1

Non-specific

3.7.2

Specified

3.7.3

Unique

Chapter

Determiners
Determiners

Introductory

4.1

Negatives

4.2

Infinitive,

192

and Different

and Clause

4.0

189

Determiners

Relativization

Four:

186

Sentence

Types

195

195
196

and Interrogation
Gerundive

and Participial
202

Constructions
4.2.1

Infinitive

4.2.2

Gerundive

4.2.3

Participial

Chapter

Five:

5.1

212

Construction

Complement

Constructions

Beng. :
-li:
Clauses
Complement
and
in

215

215

Introductory
Different

207

construction

Complementizers

5.0

202

Construction

Types of Je

ix

216

Paae
5.2

220

Types of Complementizer

'Different

5.3

Noun Phrase

5-4

Condition

and Verb Phrase

on the

Occurrence

Complements
of the

234

Complementizers
and Complement Clauses

5.5

Relative

5.6

Complementizer

5.7

Reduced Complementation

Chapter

Six:

228

Insertion

236

Rule

241

246

Deletion

and Movement

Relative

Clauses

Rules

in

Bengali
248

6.0

Introductory

248

6.1

Gapping

251

6.1.1

Gapping

6.1.2

Different

251

Bengali

in

Coordinate

Conjunctions

in

Bengali
6.1.3

Movement

6.1.4

Identical

262
of

Constituents

Verb

Phrases

Clauses

6.2

after
in

Gapping

274

Relative
281

6.1.5

Identical

Object

Gapping

283

6.1.6

Identical

Adverb

Gapping

284

286

Scrambling
6.2.1

Scrambling

Defined

286

Page

6.3

6.2.2

Scrambling

in

Bengali

6.2.3

Scrambling

of

Complex

6.2.4

Change

Word

Order

6.2.5

Gapping

of

and

Sentences
in

290

Relative

Clause

Scrambling,

300

6.3.1

Topicalization

6.3.2

Topic

6.3.3

Topicalization

of Object

6.3.4

Topicalization

of Constituents

6.3.5

292
296

Topicalization
Defined

300

and Comment

Relative

6.4.

286

Primary

6.3-5.2

Object

6.3.7

Secondary

of a
309

Topicalization
Subject

Adjectives

305

Clause

6.3-5.1

6.3.6

304

Primary
Primary

and Adverbs

312
Topic

313

Topic

314

as Topic

317
320

Topicalization

Extraposition

324

6.4.1

Introductory

324

6.4.2

Extraposition

6.4.3

eTa-insertion

6.4.4

Extraposition

6.4.5

Non-restrictive

in

Bengali

326
328

of Relative
Relative

Clauses
Clauses

Cannot be Extraposed
6.4.6

340

of PP and NP

Extraposition

336

343

6.4.6.1

Extraposition

of PP

343

6.4.6.2

Extraposition

of NP

344

xi

Page
6.4.6.3

Complex

6.4.6.4

Extraposition

345

NP Shift
of

Sentential

346

Subject

6.5

6.4.7

Extraposition.

6.4-8-

Condition

350

Rules
on Extraposition

356

Intraposition

Chapter

Seven:

Focus

and Clefting

358

7.0

Introductory

358

7.1

Focus

359

7.1.1

Focus

7.1.2

The Meaning
after

7.1.3

and Presupposition
of

359
before

a Sentence:

364

Focusing

Focus. in

Cleft

and Pseudo-cleft
368

Sentences
7.1.3.1

Focus

in

Negative
7.1-3.2

7.2

Cleft

and

Focus

Affirmative

and

Sentences
on Subject

369
and Object

Sentences

370

376

7.2.1

Clefting

Rule

7.2.2

Focus in

Cleft

7.2.3

Relative

Clauses

7.2.4

Clefting

of Relative

c11

376
Sentences
in

Cleft

382
Sentences

Constructions

385
388

Paae
7.3

Pseudo-cleft

Sentences

393

7.3.1

Construction

7.3.2

With and Without

7.3.3

Clefts

7.3.4

Relative

Chapter

Eight:

393
Negation

and Pseudo-clefts
Clauses in Pseudo-clefts

ConclUsion

394
398
402

405

Bibliography

414

xiii

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1

Background

1.1.1

Introductory
.

of

Indic

the

Sanskrit.

descendant
is

West

Bengal,

it

Asia,
Though
the

has

gible
dialects

into

Bangladesh

focal
the

of

area

different

the

of

both

two

in

Assam,

Tripura,

alphabet

of

dialects

of

Bengali.

render-some

to

Though

the

(India),

Bengali

widespread

of

province,

of
there

Phonological
them

of
the

causes.

partition

of

Calcutta

and regional
Dialects

among them

unintelli-

Bengali

was spoken

SCB.

bulk

Bengal,

and cultural

until

use

the

of

political

Bengal

by the

spoken

South

of

dialects.

and West

The survival

and West

of

is

Bangladesh

in

languages

and regional

social

centuries,

SCB.

a-distinct

Bengali

political

parts

and
of

people

of

many other

social,

province,

blocked

range

attributable
last

the

During

Like

SCB speakers.
is

in

differences

and morphological
to

by 150 million

written

divergent

several

family,

and-therefore

and some parts

Colloquial

class

educated

exist

is

a wide

Standard

language

Prakrit,

spoken

Script.

Devanagari

and a member

(India).

and Bihar
Bengali

the

Indo-Aryan
of

Bengali

Bangladesh,
Orissa

the

of

group

a direct

thus

an Indo-European-language

is

Bengali

Bengal

was the

throughout
factors
developed
the

in

Chittagong

2
and Noakhali

and North-west,

the North
and East

Bengali

Moreover,

into

the

unknown in

other

dialect

major

terms

in

of

groups

of a division

classes:

Northern

Bengali:

Rajshahi,

Bogra

b. -

Rajbangshi:

ce

Eastern

The dialects

Tippera,

Khulna.

Southern

Bengali:.

Dinajpur.

of

The dialects

Bengali:

Jessore,

Dinaipur,

of

and Pabna.

The dialects

Mymensingh,

d.

typical

formed

can be handled

Bangladesh

following

a.

Calcutta

were largely

of the

The outline
in

the West,

in

Bengal.

of undivided

Bengali

in

which

patterns,

and Bankura

Dacca and Mymensingh.

in

Bengali

and Rangpur in

Sylhet

south,

Midnapore

dialects

educated.

linguistic
parts

the

in

dialects

(i)

of
(ii)

Sylhet;

Dacca,

Faridpur,

Noakhali,

Chittagong,

Cakma.
The dialect
can be shown

Bengal

High

diagrammatically,

Bhasa:

4-

written
I

only)

thus:

(Chalit

Bhasa:
and

written

both
spoken)

I
dialects

Regional
(spoken
Figure

and West

SCB

Bengali

(Sadhu

Bangladesh

in

situation

Three

varieties

of

only)

Bengali

Speech

forms_

3
High

(HB) is

Bengali

language
spoken

and is

by the

spoken

are

by different

speech

language:

dialect

is

tendency

of

and authors

who comes from

a non-standard

textbooks

are

HB and SCB are

varieties

used

by a SCB speaker.

lexical
is
(2)

between

variations.

two

only

three

writers
patterns

distinct

example

varieties

of
Bengali

of

(Noakhali)

HB

SCB

Dialect

sae lok

sala

hala

brother-in-law

citra

chobi

obi

picture

puttra

chele

-aoal

son/boy

konya

meye

maia

daughter/girl

prabhat

s; )kal

bian

morning

mastak

matha

mata

head

lexical

non-reduced
here

SCB written

A sample

the

modern

shown here:

between

The difference
the

the

the

This-

purposes.
the

of

of

inter-

educational

following

books.

varieties

SCB for

as most

their

in

different
home,

at

rapidly,

changing

Regional
communities

and HB for

encounters,

commonly

respective

three

uses

area

SCB is

class.

their

A-person

regional

dialectal

in

mainly

groups.

(non-SCB)

educated

of the

form

written

by anyone.

spoken

not

and written

dialects

Sanskritized

the

to

variations
words

show the

from
lexical

of

the

HB and SCB lies

language,

Sanskrit.
patterns

Gloss

HB having

A few
of

examples

HB and SCB.

mainly

in

more
are

given

4
a.

Verbal

forms:

HB

SCB

Gloss

koriachilo

korechilo

(he/she/they)

khaiachilam

kheechilam

(I/we)

ate

bokiachilam

bokeehilam

(I/we)

rebuked

jabe

(he/she/they)

maribo

marbo

(I/we)

koritechi

korchi

j aibe

b.

c.

Pronominal

Ist

person
sive

Forms:

HB

SCB

Gloss

tahara

tara

they

tomadigoke

tomader

your

tahader

tader

their

-guli

-gulo.

-S

-digake

-der

-s

mastak

matha

head

candra

c9d

moon

hasti

hati

elephant

Plural

will

Markers:

Noun Forms:

did

will
beat
Progres-

go

5
Specimen

Oldest

1.1.2

The first
mystic
seventh
the

'Charyapadas'

the

time

uniquely
is

following

the

of

presen

the

Buddhists
old,

brought

at

India.

The

Bengali.

The

in

form

of

manuscript

was perhaps

the

the

in

some time

poets

it

'Charyapadas',

are

discovered

where

insurrection

the

'Charyapadas'

Nepal,

in

Buddhist

(1907)

Sastri

century.

of

by the

Bengali

of

works

extant

written

songs

Bengali

of

of

a specimen:

'uca

'uca

pabot

tahi

basoi.

sabari

bali

high

high

mountain

there

dwell.

Sabari

girl

morogi

piccha

parhina

sabori

gibate

g'unjari

mali

peacock

feather

wearing

Sabari

neck

catechu

garland

umato

saboro

pagolo

sa,boro

ma

kara

guli

exhflarated

Sabara

mad

Sabara

not

do

noise

guhara

tohari
your
nia

tThe

gharini

name. sahajo

sundari

house-wife

name simple

pretty

Sabari

She is

girl

wearing

on her

feathers

high
and

mountain
catechu

garland

Sabara!

Oh mad Sabara!

don't

make noise

her

against
your

After
represented

peacock

on the

neck

Oh exhilarated

She is

resides

house-wife
the

by the

who is

'Charyapadas',
twelfth-century

simple
written

and pretty'
Bengali

ISrikrishnakirtan',

is

.
a

long

narrative

followed

by the

translations

and Bhagava4gita
of Saghir's

work by Baru Chandidas,

poetical

(5)

b.

Middle

C*

Modern Bengali:

in

1800

educated

and written

These

may be called

(derived

from

(foreign
are

from

words
their

changing

have

Sanskrit,
(and

are

Deshi

Bengali).

indirect

direct

or

have

survived

in

that

words

words

(Sanskrit),

in

retained

with
from

the

which
the

the

stocks.

Tadbhava

used

are

common words
those

in

used

and Bideshi

in

Non-Aryan

language
derived

words,
the

last

few

Colloquial

do not
Sanskrit

Bengali

in

the

in

many changes

most

the

of

word

Tadbhava

structure.

are

commonly

different

that

in

present

present

(Indigenous)

and are

relation
Bengali

four

Tatsama

undergone
the

the

of
are

at

by-most

used

basis

Deshi

Tatsama

spoken

is

have

as the

Sanskrit),

origin).

centuries

It
the

system

Sanskriticized

without

Bengal.
and is

spoken

- onwards.

is

The SCB words

dissertation.

way:

Bengali

The same SCB variety

speakers,

of

1201 - 1799 A. D.;

Bengali:

and West

writings

750 - 1200 A. D.;

a.

Bangladesh

original

of the development

the following

Old Bengali:

Word Groups

the

with

stages

can be shown in

1.1.3

along

and Zulekhal.

The distinctive
Bengali

was

of the. R&m&yana, MahRbharata

in Bengali

'Yousuf

which

have

any

lexicon
speech

and
of

the

7
early

in

settlers

These may also


words

through

of

the

are

be classified

(India)

Bangal

or

the

foreign

Persian,

examples

direct

the

other

that

here

neighbouring

in

are

from
trade

used

in

four

words.

a.

b.

C.

(Sanskrit

krisna
.0
sarpa

'black'

matsa

'fish'

settlers

and culture.

Most

and English.

word

groups

words). -

(derived

from

Sanskrit):

Sanskrit

Bengali

Gloss

mKta

ma

mother

b-agghra

bagh

tiger

viVaha

bie

wedding

puspa
0

phul

flower

Foreign
U)

Loan Words:

deshi

(Indigenous):

peT

'stomach'

cap

'fresh'

ciiire

'shrimp'

cal

'husked

h^Ak

'loud

rice'
call'

Bengazli.

present-day

?snake'

Tadbhava

Bideshi

foreign

Bengali.
Tatsama

provinces.

communities

the

Portuguese
the

of

loan

speech

and mostly

French,

given

the

as foreign

contact

words
Arabic,

are

from

or

borr owed from

are

outside

Bengal

A few

retained

in

8
(ii)

(Foreign)

Bideshi

darbar

'court'

asami

'prisonerl

setar

'sitar'

kagoe

'paper'

hindu

'Hindu'
I

Loan Words

1.1.4

Bengali
Munda,

Dravidian,

Persian,

by English,
foreign

loan

words

in

Bengali

has been
Santal,

Kol,

Arabic,
used

frequently

English:
Tebil

'table'

cear

'chair'

Tul

I stool

laiT

'light/lamp'

gws

I gas I

skul

'school'

Persian:
-goenda

Bhil

Ispy,

cakor

'servant'

calak

'clever'

languages,

Portuguese

here.

b.

influenced

considerably

in

as well

and French.
Bengali

by

are

as
A few

shown

co

d.

cada

'subscription'

b;; ndor

'port'

Portuguese:
ispat

'steel'

cabi

'key?

janala

'window'

toale

towel,

jisu

'Christ'

saban

'soap'

girja

'church'

Greek:
suro5go

e.

f.

g.

IItunnel'

French:
kartuj

'cartridge'

rest`6ra

frestaurant'

kaphe

'cafe'

kupon

'coupon'

semij

'chemise'

Dutch:

ruiton

'diamonds?

h:Drton

'hearts'

iskapon

tspadest

Arabic:

ojuhat

'excuse'

10

gorib

'Poor'

julum

?torture'

sinduk

'chest'

Chinese:
ca
i.

'teal

Japanese:
riksa

'rickshaw'

11

.
1.2

Outline

Structures

Sentence

1.2.1

This
sentence

in

structure

stylistic

word-order
This

is

of

the

present

dissertation

normally

precedes

also
the

(8),

in

word-order

a.

and due to

sentence,

the
in

(Chapter
a direct

object,

A few

examples

may

to

show

book given-has

Mohua book

given-has

has

mohua boi

given

given
a book

dieche

'Mohua has given


mou boi

to

Mouj

Mou-to

a book to Moul

porche

reading

a book'

mouke

Mou book reading


'Mou is

given

a book to Moul

Mou-to

a bookl

the

order

Mohua Mou-to

dieche

in

section

though

dieche

Mou Mohua has

can be altered.

object

a sentence.

mohua boi

free

An indirect

are

mouke

For

relative

Gapping

6).

Mohua book given-has

d.

the

boi

['Mohua

the

SOV pattern

mohua mouke

'To

C*

a SOV structure.

purposes,

detail

Bengali

terms.

non-transformational

'Mohua has given


b.

of

an outline

have

be reversed.

Syntax

Bengali:

of

sentences

in

explained

Bengali

of

provides

section

Bengali
special

Aspects

Relevant

of

this
here

12
The four

examples
for

possibilities
the

SOV pattern

verb,

sentence

a direct

is

the

at the

which

occurs

the

indirect

Mout is

of the

object
pattern

is

stands

object

at

changing

the

indirect

object

'has

of the

is

basic

and (8c).
of the

the

of

where
is

the

mouke tto
the direct
sentence

The indirect
(8b)

sentence
(8c),

In

sentence.

at the

occurs

(8a),

given'

'book'

from. the

the beginning

is

The occurrence

dieche

and boi

shows

of the

object

shown in

(8b)

in

meaning

the

is

Deviation

illustrated

is

end of th, e sentence,

object

verb.

(8d)

Bengali.

the verb.

object

subject,

show the different

where mohua 'Mohual

'book'

is

and an indirect

mohua 'Mohual
verb,

boi

'reading'

and porche

in

patterns

sentence,

sentence,

(8)

in

are given

of the

of the

subject

that

end of the

without

the

sentence,

preceded

by the verb.
Though the
at the'beginning
in

the

grammatical

sentence

without
for

the following

examples:

co

the

can be placed
the

affecting
occurrence

meaning.

of a subject

boi

porche

Mohua morning-in-the

book

reading

is

reading

book

occurs

normally

mohua nkalbeelae

'Mohua

b.

it

of a sentence,

possibilities

a.

subject

in

the

nkalbEelae

boi

morning-in-the

book reading

porche

morning'

mohua
Mohua

sakalbeelae

mohua boi

porche

morning-in-the

Mohua book

reading

elsewhere
Three

are

shown in

13
The position
Normally

vary.

the

though

object,

'Moina
b.

d.

boiTa

Moina

that

n;)ena

oi

Moina

that

that
The various

pattern

of

the

the

before

of

above

the

possibilities

are

shown in

occurrence

the

direct

object

(mou

the

being

placed

objects
(mou
direct
fbookl)

'Mouf)

occurs

object
occurs

after
in

Moina

and indirect
(10a)

the

is

shown in

subject

the
subject

not

position

before,
of

both

The indirect
in

(.10d)

The. direct
in

the

immediately

(10c).

determiner.

mou IMout

before

The ocau3nnee

position.

usual

the

shows

'book')

though

the

The remaining

(10b)
(boi

objects

object

'book'.

(lob-e).

between.

shows

indirect

boi

object

in

in

gave

gave

object

'Mout),.

by side

side

diechilo

moena

direct

where

direct

verb

Mou-to

diechilo

examples.

sentence,

indirect

10

mzena mouke diechilo


10 1
Moina Mou-to gave

the

of

mouke

mouke
DO '
Id
book-the
Mou-to

positions

shown in

Moul

to

boiTa

boiTa
DO
book-the

oi

(10).

as shown in

gave

gave

boiTa
DO
book-the

the direct

diechilo

diechilo

DO
book-the

mouke oi
10
Mou-to that

e.

book

may also

before

occurs

15oiTa
DO
book-the

that

gave

a sentence

can be changed,

order

maena oi

ce

occurs

object

maena mouke oi
10
Moina Mou-to that

a.

are

indirect

this

in

of an object

(10e)

after

object

and the
object
the

(boi

14

direct

the

without

string

is

Pla-ced in

the

between,

if

the

before

the

the

indirect

in

the direct

if

is

verb

becomes grammatical.

a sentence

any particle

without

does not

sentence

indirect

resulting

and the

object

If

any indirect

contain

(cf. 10i).

object
(JO)
.

diechilo
mouke
10
Mou-t. o gave

mDena boi
DO
Moina book

g. *

'Moina

'Moina

'Moina
is

ately

before

objects
before
the

as the

a book

reading
reading

between

as the

sentence.

(10h)

the

verb

by side

object,
examples,

occurs

in

object

and the
is

and the

direct
side

direct

previous

direct

object

can occur
the

a book'

indirect

the
the

to-Moul

porche

ungrammatical

end of

occurs

is

mouke
10
Mou-to

gave

gave

Moul

to

diechilo

m; ena boi
DO
Moina book

(log)

a book

gave

ena boi
DO
Moina book

h.

In

subject.

However,

Bengali.

sentence

can occur

object

the

or determiner,

in
the

before

or determiner

the

immediately

placed

ungrammatical

after

object

any particle

occurs

direct

is

object

object

object

indirect

and the

determiner

if

is

grammatical

which
(10c)

is

as the

is

more acceptable
in

at
verb

Both
used
in

shown already

position

placed

object.

a determiner
is

sentence-final

verb

indirect

immedi-

occurs

(10c).
than

(10c).

(10b),

15
(10i)
the

shows the
direct

grammatical

object

indirect

object

1.2.2

Basic

Bengali

in

finite

the

word

order

is

second

noun

the
in

finally

placed

a single

of

rence

may be added

to

used

here

say,

it

the

ting

se gotokal
se boi
a.

to

the

to

otherelements
boi

porchilo

porchilo

porche

Moina

reading
is

maena boi
Moina
'Moina

first

noun

the

verb

and the

book
is

the

the

element

in

present

in

'He-was

reading
a book').

reading'
porche
reading
a book'

subject,
is

verb
the

of

occurAdjuncts

allows

a sentence.
without

construction
a book

both

Adjunct

verbs.

sentence
the

the

subject.

predicate

and a

and the

is

predicate

the

reading

case

be the

will

'He was reading

wena

nouns

the

In

commonest

a sentence

from

can be deleted

the
two

one or

and the

subject,

of

in

of

this

as no

Bengali

in

occur

sentence.

noun,
the

of

followed,

as an optional

'Moina
b.

nouns

object

Sentences

sentence

either

and complements

adjuncts
is

declarative

consists

of

sentence.

Simple

of

When two

verb.

basic

the

structures

A simple
type

in

occurrence

and determiner

any particle

without
occurs

and the

sentence

That
affec(e. g.

yesterday,

is

16

(11a)

composed of a noun and a finite

is

(11b)

(e. g. boi

adverb,
always

precede

and after
in

occur

(12)

(11b)
and

as well

the

NP.

Attributive

in

NP

VP

ii.

VP

(NP)

(Adv)

iii.

NP

(Adj)

1,

can be illustrated

a.

mou aste
N
Adv
Mou slowly
'Mou is

fThat

and

adjective

occur

before

The PS rules

slowly

meeTa
N
girl-the
girl

boi
Nv
book

aste

reading

book
sundor
Adj
beautiful

is

the

with

generating

wearing

following-examples:

porche
reading

slowly'
posak
Nv
dress
a beautiful

the

adjectives

Pron

(11)

oi
Det
that

Sentences

(12).

i.

b.

Adverbs

the head noun..

are given

a-subject

be constructed

cannot

with

It

The determiners

an NP.

Subject

without

of discourse.

determiners.

(Det)Rule

a book')

context

the noun in
the

sentences

whereas,

of the verb.

object

can be extended

as with

a NP before

structures

that

reading

in

except

(11a)

like

'is

Porche

in Bengali

the

here

be mentioned

should

verb

second noun as the

shows the

verb,

poreche
wearing
dress'

17
1.2.3

Complements
When a complement

lying

'being'

plus
surface
future
are

adjective

adverb
the

normally

complement

and is

sentence

a.

adjective
which

is

he
'he

optional

sikkhok

a) teacher'

mouTusi

Complement
*0

sundori

Moutusi

pretty

'Moutusi
Adverbial

(is)

pretty'

Complement

se

skule

he

school-in-the

'He (is)

in

the

school'

that

tense
case

of

a NP

in

the

case

of

an

are

given

complements
for

tense)

the

and adverbial

and marked

or

in

examples

teacher
(is

present

omitted

in

past
the

The following

positive

Adjective

ce

(whatever

Noun Complement
tini

for

under-

complement

present

marked

positive,

is

verb

complement.

noun,

For

NP plus

obligatorily

sentences

all

as negative.
the

is

sentences

all

and for

tense

sentences,
or

for

structure

marked

The verb

verb.

the

a sentence,
is

sentence

a simple

of

structure

in

occurs

in

present

to

a simple
tense.

show

1EL

ache

se skule

is

he school-in-the
'He is
The PS rules
in

in

the

schoolf

the

generating

are

structures

complement

given

(15).
S

NP

Comp

(V

Comp

Pres

Be

v Be

Past

Fut

Be

NP

--p

Adj
Adv

Such

structures

complement
As

clauses.

in

the
be

clauses

can

This

process

may be

(16)

Noun Complement

such

bhdrolok,

be

the

simple
if

of

source

the

relative

the

sentences,
tense

present
in

observed

who

gentleman,

of

deleted

and

following

verb
positive.

examples:

sikkhok],

tini

amader

protibesi

teacher

he

our

neighbour

Ljini

gentleman
'The

case

can

who is

a teacher,

is

our

neighbourl

Complement

Adjective
mohua, [ je

sundorij,

Mohua

who pretty

'Mohua,

who is

pretty,

se skuler
she school-of
is

a student

chattri
student
of

the

school'

in

19

(18)

Complement

Adverbial

girl-the
'The

the

(17),
and

(16)

the

show that
does not

matter.

Predicate

verbs
I

cheleTa

'sick'

psustho

'the

predicate

that

Normally
occur
pa3t

in

the
in

verb
'being'

positive

the

or future

simple
tense.

the

examples
clause

the

head NP.

Verb:
I
complements,

take

as in

(19).

was

sick'

as the

occurs

head noun cheleTa

here

was

relative

here

chilo

sick
boy

'The

the

Predicate

Osustho

boy-the

in

either

modifies

still

after

shown in

The above

of

also

occur

be mentioned

are. used

sentences.

the

initial

is

that

should

structure

to

in

occur

clauses

The clause

my friend'

complements

point

matrix

Complement

the

head nouns

no verbs

internal

the

is

garden,

and the

sentence

embedded or in

to

the

One interesting

in

she my friend

embedded relative

brackets.
that

in

the

examples,

the

them in

who is

girl,

in

position

amar bandhobi

se

who garden-in-the

the

In all

bagane ].

Lje

meeta,

boy'

predicate

'was'.

form

the

of

sentences
present

as the

and functions

chilo

the

tense

The examples

of

adjective

It
verb

complement

should

be mentioned

occurs

in

'being'
but

the

they

below

verbs

(19).
do not

do occur

in

the

show complements

20
to

predicate

(20)

verbs.
lok I k6khono
aeani
0
learned
man never

a.

'A learned
b.

proud

hz n

na

becomes

not

becomes

man never

robindronather

bDlaka

Rabindranath's

Balak

proud'

boiTal
book-the

hoeche

paT

Qnarser

Honours-in

text

became
'Rabindranath's
Honours
C.

'Balakal

has

sikkhok

somitir

become

a text

in

class'-

saidur

rahomanj

Saidur

Rdhman tqachers

association-of

Rahman was the

'Saidur

sabhapoti

president

chilen

president
the

of

was

Teachers

Association'
In

the

'text

Honours

in

tpresident
ment
the
is

of
their

to

the

as the
of

the

in. negative

that
is

not

any verb.

possible

z)narser

Honours

'in

modifier
in

verb

verbs

(20a),

is

the

construct

'text

paTTho

also

are

a negative.

shown at

of

sobhapoti

in

Honours

a genitive

ttext'.

should

verbs

are

comple-

tassociation's'

as modifier
paTTho

it

which

somitir

class'
of

sentence's
to

used

as the

occur

(20c),

In

(20b),

-onarser

presence

predicate

and-is

word
In

and occurs

association'

sentence.

genitive

class',

teachers

respective

'president'..

it

class'

the

the

end of

lproud,
ahoakari,
-Dnarser paTTho
V
and sikkhDk
szbhaoti
somitir

examples,

above

word,

Regarding
be mentioned
always

here

present

sentence

the

and

without

21

The place

of the Verb in

The verb
sentence,

though

following

examples

(21)

a.

b.

In, (21a),
medial

(22)

a.

book

reading-was

'The

boy was reading

boi

porchilo

a,

1.2.2).

The
for

the

but

is

a book'

cheleTa.
boy-the

reading-was

porchilo

boi

cheleTa

reading-was

book

boy-the

is

the verb

end of the

at the

(21b),

in

where the
That

position.

occurs,
is

(cf.

end of

possibilities

various

boy-the

as usual,

placed

before

(21c).

after
the

in
je

girl-the

who dancing-was

nacchilo
dancing-was

has been moved

is,

the verb

the

object
the

in

in

porchilo

in

(21b).

If

becomes

sentence

(22, ) illustrate

the

embedded sentences.

meeTa,

girl,

sentence,

subject

object,

The sentences

of verbs

tThe
.1

show the

the

at

elsewhere

porchilo

ungrammatical
occurrence

can occur

boi

to sentence-final

the verb

placed

cheleTa

position

'reading?

normally

verb.

book
c. *

it

the

of

position

is

Sentence

the

nacchilo,

who was dancing,

meeTa,
girl-the

je

se kDleJer

chattri

she college-of

student

is

a college

se

kolejer

who she college-of

student'

chattri
Audent

22
b.

bunchilo,

meeTa,

je

girl-the

who sweater

soeTar

e k.; lejer

knitting-was

she

college-of

chattri
student.
'The

was knitting

girlwho

is

a sweater,

a college

student'
41

b. *

bunchilo

soeTar

meeTa

je

knitting-was

sweater

girl-the

who she

kvlejer

se

college-of

chattri
student
In

(22a),

'who was dancing'

initial

the

to

a objectless

embedded

quite
in

1Who was knitting

(21c).

This

to

the

initial

position

sentence

or

than

[Je

and shifting

indicates
is

in

is

ungrammatical,

fact

to

verb

sentence

a sweater'
is

the
(22b)

embedded

position

clause

of

acceptable.

for

verb

sentence

shifting

the

[Je

as
that

much easier

a sentence

or

in

clause

an object.

1 . 2.4.1

transitive

(23)

certain

and Intransitive

Transitive
Bengali

cf.

is

sentence-initial

any

shifting

the

and the

object

previously

mentioned

with

direct

bunchilo]

verb

(22a)

in

position

shown with

the

occurs

no object

nacchilo]

soeTar

in

verbs.

(though
cases).

sentences
A transitive

this

allow

Verbs
both

verb

can be deleted

transitive

requires

with

and inan object

some verbs

in

NP.

23

(23)

a.

lokTa

cheleTake

bokche

man-the

boy-the

rebuking

'The man is
b.

lokTa

caka

ghorachchilo

man-the

wheel

whirling

'The

c.,

anita

rumike

kamrechilo

anita

Rumi

bit-,

'is

verbs
(23b)

and kamrechilo

ment of the
in

the

1981:
(24)

rebuking'
'bit'

the

are
(23a),
(23c)

of the

occurrence

following

direct

a.

following

objects
'is

ghorachchilo

transitive

'wheel'
of the
whirling'

The environ-

respectively.
verbs

(Brown
Miller,
and
way

NP

1980:

can be shown
51; Bowers,

NP rule

structure

of

(23a)

sentence

can, bb shown

tree-diagram:

b.

vp

NP
III
NF
lokTa
'the
The following

verbs:

caka

80-81):

The phrase
the

(23c)

boy (23a),

'the

cheleTa

'Rumil

bokche

wheel'

Rumil

bit

In the above examples,


rumi

child'

the

man was whirling

'Anita

(23b)'and

the

rebuking

examples

vt

cheletake

man
illustrate

to the

child

the

use

bokche
rebuking'
of

intransitiVe,

in

24
(25)

a.

cheleTa

douraclfche

boy-the

running

'The
b.

such

of

girl-the

crying

uTheche

sun

risen-has

and the

finite
the

verbs,

shown in
(25)

the

is

a sentence

d.

The frame

is

girl

surjo

NP to

object

running'

Yadche

'The
In

is

meeTa

'The
C.

boy

sun has
above

in

NP

-#

in

(23d)

the
of

following

which

does

verb

occur-s

As with

predicate.
intransitive

verbs

any

head

of

noun,

transitive
be

can also

way:

corresponds

to

the

NP

tree-diagram

VP
v

'the

require

structure

as the

chel

not

The simple

meaning.

subject,

verb

the

examples,

environment

the

risent

its

express
the

crying'

ta
boy

i'
dourachche
is

running'

in

(25e).

25
Finite

1.2-4.2

and Non-finite

Besides
tion

in

finite

the

and non-finite

can be constructed
a finite
used

a.

in

verbs

occurrence

Finite

Verb

mou sz)kale

eseche

Mou morning-in

come-has

mens.

Trene

Moina

train-in

'Moina

Moina

_gienf
going
sleep

will

in

c. *

d.

(26c):

train-in

moena Trene
Moina
'Moina

is

reading

incomplete

moena Trene
Moina

train-in
will

verbs

or with
cannot

examples

and non-finite

in

ghumobe

verbs.

the

train'
porche

f
reading

sitting

without

gie
nf
going
ghumbobe
f
sleep-will
in

the

on a chair'

any finite

(cf-4.2.1)

sleep

sleep-will

bose
nf
sitting

chair-on

'Moina

illustrated

alone

the morning. '

mzena ceare

remain

sentences

Verbs

Non-finite

Sentences

verb

The following

finite

of

Bengali

Non-finite

sentences.

'Mou has come in

(26)

Bengali.

verb.

the

distinc-

can be made between

a finite

with

and a non-finite
in

and intransitive

distinction

either

independently

illustrate
(26)

transitive

a further

verbs,

Verbs

train'

verb,

as

be

26

Verbless

1.2-4.3

Sentences

Some very
(25)

(cf.

(27)

a.

have

common structures

as in

no verb,

1.2.3).

se

bhalo

mee

good

girl

mou
She
Mou
'She/Mou (is
b.

jini

sikkhok

tini

biddan.

bekti

who

teacher

he

learnea

man

'Who (is
ce

pinTu

namkora

khEe loar

Pintoo

famous

player

(is

amar

a)

paser
side-of

bhasat. otter

'The

eDinbora

gentleman

Edinburgh

University's

oddhapok
teacher

Linguistics

thesimple
dopula
Bengali
the

is

(27)
tense,

of

sentences
the

to

next

(is
me

teacher

a)

contained

a verb,

it

but

present

tense

in

the

(1972)
detail

of

University'

Edinburgh

Ferguson

optional.

copula

absence

at

in

present

player'
bissobiddaloer

gentleman

examples

famous

man'

bhoddrolok

Linguistics-of

the

learned

a)

ee kjon

my

If

(is

teacher

a)

'Pintoo
d.

a) good girl'

has

would

be in

form

discussed

but

has

not

in

the

surface

of

the

the

explained

copula.

Even where

no verb

occurs

structure

27
can be assumed to be present

it

of a sentence,
structure,

but

structure.

One relevant

tense

has optional

of the

forms

or future

past

One point

the present

tense

rence
in
(28)

in

a.

co

d.

form

bhai

hae na

brother

is

that

of verb

not

(ache)

lokTar

boi

man-of-the

hand-in

book

(has
man

a)

book

lokTar

hate

boi

man-of-the

hand-in

book

man does

ami

bhalo

well

'I

(am)

not

have

(achi)
am
well'
(achen)

tini

gh2re

he

room-in-the
in

the

is
roomf

has

in

his

hand'

nei
is
book

not
in

his

though
occur-

always

my brother'

not

(is)

shown

is

hate

'He

are

my brother'

. se amar

'The

here,

the

(hoe)

brother

(is)

'The

forms

never

negation.

he my

b.

the present

has optional

copula

this

surface

only

to occur,

be mentioned

se amar bhai

'He is

is

it

The missing

sentences,

with

'He

that

fail

of the

forms

he my

forms.
should

positive

sentences

that

copula

tense

(28).

in

is

point

the

in

realisation

the deep

in

hand'

occurs

2EL

can be made on the

A further

statement

structure

of the negative
(28a)

in

illustrated

in

the verb

after

a sentence

of the

the nature
regular

(28b).
and

of a negative

structure

be formulated

(29)

'is

on the

complement

as a negative

not'.

it

na,

occurs

Apart

may take

on
the

from

the forms

The following

PS rule

of negative

elements

occurrences

the

depending

a sentence.

element

are

which

constituent,

may vary

in

complements

nze or nei

a sentence

Though na 'not'

constituent

use of a negative

of either

in

elements

and the

occurrence

can
in

sentences.
S

NP

--*

Comp

Neg

Be

COMP ---- NP
Adj
Adv
A morphophonemic
different
is

(29')

b.
co

after

(30)

of
in

shows

verbs

a.

V
V
V

Be
Be
Be

Pres
Pres

variable

Neg

[hoe]

Crial

Neg

[hz

[na]

Neg

patterns

--4
--->
of

illustrated

in

selina

amar bandhobi

hzena

Selina

my

which

a sentence.

of

This

Rules

three

in

elements

occurrence

(20.

Pres

the

handle

to

needed

negative

Morphophonemic
a.

(2)

rule

types

illustrated

is

are

friend

is

not

e]

[ache] [na]

negative

(30)

-*
----
--o.

h.; )ena

Adj

n.) e/
nei

constituents

NP

Adv

29
is

'Selina

my friendf

not

bhalo

nze

Selina

good

is

'Selina

is

cheleTa

ghDre

boy-the

room-in-the

b.

selina

ce

'The

boy

good'

not

is

nei

that

The examples
a Ibeingt

verb

occurrence

in

of

privileges

of

can occur
pronoun

in

occurs

only

in

the

and its

obligatory
tense

present

have

ha nd,

other
or

any

pronoun

The following

a.

b.

eTa hochche

ce kTa jama

it

is

'It

is

a shirt'

o
he/she
'He/she

hochche
is
is

shirt

amar bondhu
my

my friend'

friend

is

(*hochche)
is

diffe-

noun

or

tis,

and never

examples

(*hochche)

same

'has/have,

hochche

this.

(31)

the

Among the

after

(28

forms

and ache

or

of

forms

when different
do not

noun

present
optionally

honorific)

subject

in

show the

a sentence.

On the

position.

sentence-final

in

sentence-final

a sentence.
after

tense.

they

sentences,

in

either

Ibeingt

i-s that

h-ae (Inn:

'being'

forms

non-

(28)

sentences

occurrence

can be made on the

sentences

point

in

roomt

verb
in

positive

negative

occur

the

of

given

The interesting

'being'

rent

are

in

not

statement

and occurrence

occurrence

is
in

not

The following

a, b).

not

illustrate

in

30
amar bondhu

ce

friend

my

is

'My friend

32

a.

In

the

he

is

has

book

'The

a book,

man has

in

hon and ache

in

pattern

usual

occur

after

a Bengali
that

all

whereas

also

be mentioned

of

(31)

(32)

sentence
here

cannot
the

after

occur

the

show the

The contrast

between

sentences
show the
are

like

optionally

show the

SOV pattern

the

elsewhere,

and never

in

literary
(31)

and

SVO sentence

sentences.
It

in

verbs

occur
noun

of

Bengali.

common in

that

subject

(31)

they

When the

they

in

verbs

(32),

sentence.

subject,

sentence.

after

When the

positions

a Bengali

the

optional

either

positions.

sentence-final
of

show the

'has/have'

and ache

'is'

hochche

of

(32)

and

sentence-final

occur

types

must

fis'

has

di. stribution
(31)

subject.

Both

verbs

the

examples,

or

in

(ache)

man-of-the

subject

pattern,

is

eekTa

the

is

(h: )n)

ache

hon

(32)

-is

boi

of

in

doctor

lokTar

occurrences

usage

my brother'

shown after

verbs

(*hochche)

brother

my

the

above

eakjon

Daktar

a doctort

han amar bhai

above

show the

is

tini

'He is
b.

hochche

should

(32),

the

i. e.

they

sentence-final

positions.

Another
is

present'in

the

fact

supporting

deep structure

the
is

view

that

it

that

the

appears

copula
in

31
questions

and answers,

(33)

tumi

kes mon acho?

you

how

a.

(33).

as in

are

'How are you? '


/

a.

ami

bhalo

achi

well

am

'I
Note

(34)

the

that

1.2.5

am well'

Adjective

a.

b.

taratari

haTche

boy-the

fast

walking

'The boy is

fast'

white

pigeon-the

flying

in

amader

protibesi

clever

man-the

our

neighbour

clever

(is)
man

of adverb
the

is

our

attributive

no verb

occur

is

before

adjectives

sky'

neighbour''

(34a),
iyl
shown

before
and
noun

usually

the

(Adj+V)

calak

the verb; whereas

(34c),
and

is

lokTa

after

adjectives

(Adj+V)

urche

sky-'--i.n flying

pigeon

white

(Adv+V)

akase

paeraTa

The occurrence

with

walking

sada

'The

placed

SOV pattern.

the

and Adverb

cheleTa

'The
co

have

sentences

copula

the

verb.

used in
the

noun.

are

where it

is

(34b)

shown

(34c).
Both

shown in

is

Attributive
in

(34b)

sentence-

32
initial

position.

The occurrence

tively.

(See also

(34d).

in
(34)

Adjectives

d.

'The girl

occur

in

may be used either

1.2.5.1
(35)

.
b.

or

Non-verbal

fool

is

kopal

mondo

boy-of-the

destiny

bad

tomar
your

'Our

quite

prettyf

girl-friend
girl-friend

amader
our

is

pretty

bandhobi

'Your

cf.

sundori

quite
girl

sentences.

unlucky'

bes

meeTa

adjectives

fool'

a congenital

is

can

Sentences

cheleTar

boy

hand,

other

non7verbal

congenital

'The

e.

On the

boy-the
boy

no adverbs

usually

boka

girl-the

d.

that

askebare

'The

bad'

look

verbal

in

not

cheleTa

'The
ce

here

in

Adjectives
'
a.

bad

sentences.

verbless

shown

mondo n:)e

does not

be mentioned

should

is

adjective

1.2-3).

look-to

girl-the

It

of predicative

dekhte

meeTa

be used predica-

may also

bes

sundori

q.uite

pretty

is

quite

0ker
mathematics-of

mathematics

teacher

pretty'

sikkhak

ottonto

teacher

very

is

very

bzdragi
ill-tempered

ill-tempered'

(35).

33
Adverbs

can occur

modifiers

of adjectives

However,

such adverbs

the verbless

(36) a. *

in

the verbless
(35a)

(35d).
and

without

adjectives

as shown in
cannot

occur

Cf-(36)

sentences.

sentences

as

in

se t aratari,

b. *

c. *

he fast

cheleTa

aste

boy-the

slowly

cheleTa

m kebars

"boy-the

completely

1.2.6

Determiners

-Quantifiers,

and Particles
1*

Quantiiers
(37)

a.

tinion

chele

maThe

bol

khelche

three

boy

field-in

ball

playing

'Three

boys

are

ei

cheleTa

aj

bal

khelbe

this

boy-the'to-day

ball

play

playing

with

the

Determiner
(37)

b.

'This

co

boy will

play

cheleTa

boi

boy-the

book reading

'The boy is

ball

to-day?

porche

reading

a book'

will

ball

in

the

field'

34
d.

English:

A man came

Bengali:

es kTa/ee kj on
(person)
one

'A (one)
Quantifiers

and determiners

noun either

in

sentence.
suffixed
Bengali

has a quantifier.

article

tthel

1.2.7

Number

is

position

having

the particle

Number and Person.

given

to show the

form

of the particles

has an indefinite

singular

to the

definite

in

Bengali

concord

show grammatical
The following

examples

forms

and plural

Nouns
bon --

bonra

manus -boi
bagh

---

'sister
(-gulo)

manusra

boigulo
baghgulo

(*

-ra)
'tiger

sistersi
tman. 'book
-

with
are

of nouns and

Number

a.

are

article,

pronouns.

1.2-7.1

the

-Ta.

concord

Nouns and pronouns


verbs

the

the

in

or elsewhere

Corresponding

and Person

in

used before

are occasionally

Where English

to nouns.

man came

man camet

sentence-initial

Determiners

manus esechilo

men'
-

tigers'

bookst

35
b.

Pronouns
ami --

tara

se --

amar --ra

is

not

ordinarily

used

tel

'oil',

(baligulo.
plural
are

are

and maTi
them.

or

with

used

count

with

used

inanimate

nouns

(maTigulo)s,

such

nouns

they

'sand'

plural

and when mass nouns

as count

a plural

The marking

the

allow

No

'water',

as pani

as bali

*, etc.

ordinarily

nouns

such

and is

nouns.

However,

plurality.

that

shows

human nouns

any nouns

for

tearth'

maTi

are

any animate

to show its

suffixes
added

for

added

sometimes
),

only

marker

for

they'
-

'my - ours'

amader

used

etc.

is

marker

we'

'he/she

as a plural

markers

plural

tI

amra

of

markers
like

bali

suffixes

with

1.2.7.2

Person
The grammatical

variations

in

second

common) and two

category
(honorific,

person

for

variations

of

third

person

has

three

nonhonorific
person

(honorific

and
and

common):

(38)

a.

b.

First

Person

Singular

Plural

ami

amra

we'

Second Person
tumi

tomra

(neutral)lyou

tui

tora

(non-honorific)fyou

- you'
- you'

36
apnara

(honorific)fyou

se

tara

(neutral)lhe/she

tini

tara

(honorific)lhe/she

apni
Third

co

Person

The honorific,
third

(39)

based

are

are

shown

a.

tumi

asbe

you

come-will

b.

c.

full

come-will

and individual

criteria.

the

endings.

verbal

and

examples:

come'

will

(honorific)

apni

asben

you

come-will
come'

will

as opposed

as subject,
the

reflect

endings

second

(non-honorific)

you

nouns

for

come'

asbi

'You

they'

(common)

tui

'You

verb

following

they'

common forms

change

person

the

in

, you will

With

on social

in

forms

The differet
These

and

non-honorific

person

youl

to

between

contrast

the

pronouns,
honorific,

common,

but

does

and non-honorific.
There
not

affect

the

ogy,

the

feminine

by the

addition

morphemes

four

are
choice

genders

of

is

of

(40a. ii);

feminine
but

noun,

inflection.

verb

gender

of

In

verbal

or

noun

from

distinguished
suffixes

gender

(40a. i)
personal

or
forms

the

morpholmasculine

separate
are

not

37
for
marked

gender,

as shown in

and neuter

genders,

no suffices

is

common gender
after

adding

thuman't
(40)

a.
i.

In the

human',

and feminine

a
genders

them (e. g. manus

morphemes with

manus 'male

case of common

Occasionally

are used.

used to mark masculine

separate

Purus

(40).

mee manus 'female

Masculine

Feminine

bagh

baghini

'tiger

mes thor

mes thrani

'sweeper-

human').

tigress'
woman
sweeper'

purus

mohila

'male

chele

mee

'boy

Common

C.

d. i.

manus

Imant

hati

'elephant'

Neuter
cear

'chair'

kolom

'pen'

boi

I book

bagh/baghini

ghumuchche

tiger/tigress

sleeping

'The
ii.

tiger/tigress

is

sleeping'

baghgulo/baghinigulo

ghumuchche

tigers

sleeping

'The

tigresses
tigers/tigresses

are

sleepingf

female'
girl'

3a
cheleTa/meeTa

ghumuchche

chelegulo/meegulo
boy-the/girl-the

sleeping

boys/girls
'The boy/girl

is

boys/girls

are

Focusing

1.2.8

Focusing
after
the

sleeping'

of
the

signalling
new information

the

operation

the

first

(41)

a.

either

these

is

a sentence

by an intonation
the

main

Focusing

a movement

of

of

part

of

the

can be performed

by the

use

of

Example

rule.

possible
to

stress,
(41)

give

speaker's
in
or

by

illustrates

processes:

mohua kopale

Tip

dieche

Mohua forehead-on

finger-mark

given-has

'Mohua

has

finger-mark

given
Tip

mohua 1pale

b.

is

which

two ways:

in

in

element

constituent

interest.

communicative
Bengali

any

on her

forehead'

dieche

forehead-on
mohua kopale

ce

Tip

dieche

finger-mark
The shifting
meaning

of

of
the

focus

from

sentences

in

to

one word
(41):

another

changed

the

39
finger-mark

Only Mohua has given

a.

on her forehead

(and nobody else);


Mohua has

b.

(and

in

(and

is

again
(42)

to

here
a.

to

relevant

(see Chapter

constructions

on her

forehead

on her

forehead

else).

nothing

Focusing

finger-mark

only

given

only

place);

no other

Mohua has

ce

finger-mark

given

show the

eTa mohua je

cleft

and pseudo-cleft

formation

cleft

(41)

Example

7).

kopale

it

Mohua who forehead-on

'It

is

Mohua who ha's given

in

is

taken

up

Bengali.

Tip

dieche

finger-mark

given-has

finger-mark

on her

forehead'
b.

ja

mohua kppale

dieche

what

Mohua forehead-on

given-has

eTa Tip
it

finger-mark

'It

is

finger-mark

that

Mohua has

on her

given

forehead'
co

eTa Ibpal
it

forehead

fit

is

on the

J.ekhane

mohua Tip

dieche

where

Mohua finger-mark

given-has

forehead

that

Mohua has

given

finger-mark'

In

(42),

head'

occur

Note the
regular

mohua 'Mohual,

Tip

as the focused

occurrence
relative

in

marker

I-Pinger-markf
nouns in

(42c)
like

of

cleft

3ekhane

(42a)

and kzpal

'fore-

constructions.
'where'

(42b).
and

without

40
The Present

1.3

Study

Theoretical

Background
is

Relativization
as a modifier

embedded
formational

various

here

the

different

(1968),

Langendoen

process

the

They follow
in a complex

for

view
(1968),

Back
that
in

its

the

structure.
relative

relative

accepted

in

Bengali

involves

Bengali

sentences

in

a noun

phrase.

the

present

either
clearly

in

(1973),

When a relative

(1967),
who believe

for

embedding

has

view

in

as relativization
embedding.

embedding
clause

is

for

source

The first

partial

show the

sentence.

and conjunction

and conjunction

work,

structure

Ross

shows

clause.

deep. or

are embedded

a complex

embedding

analysis

a noun phrase.

(1965),

and Schachter

clause

is

the underlying

both

Lees

Thompson (1968,

like

by Lakoff

This.

to

clauses

relative

that

shows

the

relativization

a conjunction

(1972)

non-restrictive

been

is

clause

restrictive

the

believe

Aissen

deep

that

maintained

a relative

given

and Rosebaum

Jacobs

embedded into

is

Linguists

clause
is

According

and others,

principle

(1968)

a relative

A third

(1969)

structure.

Drubig

1971),

is

regarding

views

clause

a sentence

whereby

investigated

description

Chomsky (1965),

(1964),

Smith

been

three-different

a relative

of

(1963),

has

trans-

recent

approaches.

are

structure

In

and a short

standpoints,

There
deep

a noun

phrase.

relativization

studies,

from

of

in

is

a sentence

whereby

a process

of

The
a sentence

constituted

in

41
a complex
in

the

matrix

a.

in

the

boy-the

book reading

porche]

friend

EcheleTa

amar bon4hu]

boi

porche

book

reading

boy-the

my

cheleTa,

[j'-e boi

porche],

se amar bondhu

boy-the

who book

reading

he my

boy who is
lie

either

boy is

bondhu]'Who
'The boy is

reading

phrase

my friend'

(see 2.1.11).

reading

antecedent

second

sentence

Process

occurs

by a comma in

of the relative

boi

other

amar
porche]

of embedding

before
surface

clause

the

[je
where

(43e),

4mbedded in (cheleTa
This

amar

hand,

other

can
is

porche]'who

sentence(cheleTa

shown in

is

a book'

reading

Ee boi

On the

a bookf.

separated

embedding

is

my friend'

he book

or the

the

is

porche

is

shows that

my friend'.

is

when the

first

friend

se boi

my friend,

embedded in

of embedding

and is

friend

the

(43d)
is

a book

amar bondhu]p

who is

boy,

friend

reading

who my

other.

a book'

the
shows

amar bondhu

porche]

boy-the

possibility

clause

my friendl

my

shows that

shows that

'The boy is

book reading

bondhu]'The

a book'

reading

friend

my

boy-the

'The

reading

boy-the

boy-the

boy-the

embed the

amar bondhu]

boi

cheleTa,

e.

[cheleTa

cheleTa

'The

in

embedded

[cheleTa

cheleTa

d.

embedding

example:

boi

co

is

The way a sentence

[cheleTa

b.

the

shows

clause

following

'The boy is

(43)

relative

sentence.

an NP is-shown

(43)

the

sentence,

in

the

relative

structure,
the noun

it

42
1.3.2

Transformational

Derivation

derivation

The transformational
claused

has

A short

description
from

below

been

also

recent
Three

relative
of

transformatiomiderivations

studies

on relativization.

in

briefly

The Matching

to this

According

embedded
surface

realization

of

The following
the
(44)

a.

b.
Sentence

NP of

of

Analysis,

Promotion

Analysis.

These

section.

in

the

is

studying

relativization.

coreferentiality

condition

NPs that
the

embedded

matrix

the

of

that

has

the

relative

shows

the

surface

within.

occurs

show the

and

matrix

sentence

sentence

pronoun
to

in

occur

antecedent

given

Analy-

the Matching

application

of

Analysis:

That

s[That
(46a)

the
shows
and

two

relative

example

Matching

the

as the

the

following

The NP in

sentences.

and the

clause

Matching

given

literature

present

has proposed

analysis,

realization

the

application

between

established

is

Analysis

has simple

which

the

relative

analyses

Conjunction

(1973)

Schachter

is

the

These-are

discussed

sis,

in

available

Clauses

perspectives.

transformational

and Deep Structure

Analysis
are

of

are

linguistics.

of

different

from

studied

different

clauses

of Relative,

is

the

girl

is

the

girl

is

presumed

process

who borrowed

she

girl

to derive

of relativization

my book

borrowed
from

my bookL]

sentences

after

applying

(44b),
the

43
Matching

Analysis.

(44b)

is

the embedded sentence


in

girl)

the

indicates

clearly

the

modify
said

clause.

is

relative

the

is

construction
derived

after

third

that

pronoun

(1974: 6),

Vergnaud

Analysis

in Matching

that

the

Following

Analysis

clause

clause

noun for

the repeated

deleting

The Matching

the relative

in

girl)

the NP (the

with

the relative

that

whereby

a process

coreferential

sentence.

matrix

the NP (the

shows that

term

it

is

can'be

deleted

in

(44):

sentence
(45)

the

girl

wh

'the

girl

borrowed

my

book

the

girl

for

the

the

NP (the

in

(the

term

The third

sentence.

In

constitute

the

strategy

in

the

tactic
je-se
semantic

this

clause.

The Matching

Analysis

is

not

because

Analysis

matrix

of

the

elements

interpretation.

the

the

is

Bengali
have

The NP-(the

head

of

noun
RP is

in

simple
favoured

girl)

the
to

deleted

its

formation

relativization

correlative

structure.
NP in

repeated

correlative

There

sentence.

description
-he'

not

its

of

explains

but

clause,

the

with

coreferential

repeated

is

to

applicable

Bengali,

in

'who

the

deleted

is

sentence

sentence.
the

sentence)

embedded

is

which

occurs-as

process,

the

embedded

matrix

relative

The Matching
relative

the

sentence

matrix

it

in

girl)

the
(wh),

pronoun

relative

the

though

an NP in

is

which

NP in

repeated

pronoun

no matching
relative

to

be related

English

sentences

in

the
that

occurs

the

synthough

clauses,
by a rule

of

like

boy

'The

44
I met is

that
of

the

latter

Bengali

in

retained

is

the

pronouns,

Similar
e. g.

of

slot

is

Analysis

also
The

Bengali

sentence

used

with

involving

given
for

some

'what-

la-ta

relative
tDkhon
-

jokhon

is

initially

sentence.

the

then',

the

of

occurs
pronoun

not

example

Matching

the

empty

twho-het,

occur
?if

jobe-tobe

non-application

(46)

patterns

embedded

sentence,

more usually

je-se

The following

'when-then'.

tive

like

elements

etc.

is

the

embedded

the

for

is

sentence.

matrix

structure

application

complex

antecedent

the

of

pronoun

relative

coreferential
that',

of

in

coreferential

part

kind

this

for

that

later

the

in

Even when the

the

in

in

occurs

the

of

shows

antecedent

or

structure

The

Bengali
for

the

sentence

retained

sentence,

matrix

reason

is

in

Bengali,

matrix

structure

my brother'.

suitable

not

In

pronoun

sentence.

the

is

on the

antecedent

coreferential

matrix

the

in

a Bengali

he correlative

cases.

depending

When the

I met he is

that
with

all

to

correspond

Analysis

'either

sentence,

the

boy

Matching

the

retained

in

'The

construction

that
to

kind

my brother?

to

show the

Bengali

rela-

clauses.
a.

je.

cheleTa

who boy-the

b.

se amar bondhu

playing

he my

'Who the

boy

is

cheleTa,

je

khelche,

boy-the

who playing

'The boy,
The relative

khelche,

pronoun

is

playing

who is
occurs

friend
my friend'

se amar bondhu
he my

playing,

is

before

the

friend
my friend'
postcedent

in

(46a),

45
and the

process

(47)

(46b),

sentence

matrix

a.

boy-the
[je

b.

playing

boy-the

my

khelchel

[se

playing

he

is

b.

boy-the

khelche]

amar bondhu

boy-the

playing

my

[je

clauses

Analysis
in

Bengali

is

my friend'

the Matching'Analysis

there

where the

is

playing,

to Bengali

However,

friend

he my

who playing
who is

friend

se amar bondhu

khelche]

totally

Matching

friend

[cheleTa

show that

clause

my friend]

my

boy,

Bengali

my friend'

is

boy-the

The above examples

in

friend

my

playing

boy-the

construction.

friend

amar bondhu]

cheleTa,

applicable

my

khelche]

boy-the

'The

bondhu]

amar bondhu]

is

playing

amar

EcheleTa

cheleTa

C.

(he)

playing

FThe boy
who is

friend

cheleTa
he boy-the

boy

IWho the

a.

(47):

in

playing

in
This

pronoun.

coreferential

khelche][se

the

retained

amar bondhu]

who boy-the

(48)

is

antecedent

khelche]

cheleTa

EcheleTa

in

NP occurs

[cheleTa

who boy-the
c.

the

more precisely

cheleTa

fje

the

the

with

can be observed

[cheleTa

for

pronoun
In

sentence.

matrix
the

coreferential

due to its

correlative

is

type

another

as illustrated

to this
in

type

(49).

not-

of relative

does not

correlative

applicable

is

occur.

of relative

The

46
(49)

[amar

a.

[ee kta

r-ekta

boi

my

book have

book mother

kine

dieche]

ache]

boi

ammu

amake
me

bought-has
b.

amar

es kta

boi

ache,

ja

ammu

amake kine

my

book

have

which

mother

me

bought

dieche
has
'I

have

NP (boi

The repeated

by the

sentence
clearly,

coreferential
Bengali

pronoun

it

to

examples

are

give

Analysis

for

one type

(50)

a.

the

show the
of

(49)

in

the

when no
in

sentence
A few
of

applicability

Bengali

which

be

show that

clause.

me'

embedded

should

matrix

relative

for

(49),

in

It

like

bought
the

'which'

ja

the

more

Matching

relative--clause.

bhoddroloker

sekTa

bari

gentleman-of

house

bhege

in

replaced

Analysis.

occurs

before

stands

i's

sentences

has

my mother

pronoun

Matching

that

here

which

'book')

relative
the

allows

mentioned

a book

chilo
had

ja

jAcre

which

storm-in

gee che

blown, *down has


'The
in
b.

gentleman

had a house

which

was blown

down

a storm'

monjular

abbar

ea kTa aTi

ache

ja

hire

Manzulals

father-of

has

which

diamond

die
with

toiri
made

ring

47
'Manzulals

father

has a ring

is

which

made, of

diamond I
C.

hasnat

saheb

Hasnat

Saheb died

itihas

praten

history

taught

'Mr

Hasnat

the

University'

Analysis
Matching
process

to

who

University-to

who used

to

history

teach

to

the

proposes

also

Promotion

and argues

analysis

is

better

Analysis.

Promotion

Analysis

is

a transformational

the

To put

promotion

of

matrix

show the

it

in

another

this

way,
from

the

in

sentence

the

matrix

analysis

allows
sentence
is

example
(example

Analysis

Promotion

than

an embedded

The following

sentence.
of

in

a dummy symbol

a constituent

process

an embedded

of

constituent

replaces

clause

the

has

this

sentence.

into

bissobiddaloe

that

where

relative

jini

AnalZsis

(1973)

Schachter

geschen,

has died

The Promotion

1.3.2.2

the

mara

given
from

Schachter).

(51). a.

These are

b.

shese

According
clause

that

are the

to this
occurs

as a constituent

the

of the

try

men's

[the times

times

analysis,
before

that

times

the antecedent
the

souls

try

men's

of the

embedded sentence

embedded sentence.

is

soul S]

relative
generated

The constituent

48
of the embedded sentence
is

clause

promoted

to the NP position

The following

NP that

in

occurs

deleted

of the relative

as the antecedent
position.

is

which

in

the relative

the matrix
to fill

clause

shows the

example

the

from

the

empty
of the

promotion

of the

embedded sentence

sentence

relative

clause.
(52)

a.

mouer

as kTa bhai

Mou's

'Mou has

brother

take

je

has

who her-to

who loves

a brother

bhalobase

ache

loves

her?

b.
VP

NP
I

V,

motier
mouer
Imouls

UP om

No-m---

ache
has

VP

NP

It

is

lying
of

is

NP ee kTa bhai

the

result

sentence

is

slot

empty
the

'a

a brother

her-to

(52a)

brotherl.
the

of

take

(52b).

shown in

structure

the

fill

that

assumed

ad kTa bhai

derived

is
(52a)
to

relativization

of

the

the

matrix

Nom, dominated
lower

likes'

from

shows

the

bhalobade

the

under-

promotion

sentence

to

by NP.

The

node

S, which
0

of

S1.
as
shown
The Bengali

Promotion
applying

Analysis.
the

Promotion

relative
There

clause
are

Analysis

three
for

can be derived
possible
Bengali

ways
relative

via

the

of
clauses.

49
First,

it

before

the postcedent;

is

used

noun

is

before

occurs

The above

(53)

a.

when the relative

applicable

the

embedded

sentence;

as the

antecedent

before

cheleTa

[je

cheleTa,
boy-the

(54)

*se

[J'e

cheleTa

he boy-the
'He the
Eje

(55)

mou,
Mou

(53)

(55)
and

is
what
show

noun has taken

the
like

(55),
and
antecedent
(54)

as the
in

are not

very

plausible

in

reading

(55).

reading
a book'

that

is

in

Bengali.

for

applying

the

a full
the

common

the proper

shows contrast

pronoun

acceptable

structure

whereas,

(54)

in

se 'he'

a bookl

porche

(53b),

in

coreferential

of

is

identical

sentence

case

reading

reading

the matrix

of

shows substitution

book

difference

in

place

porche

she book
is

a book'

reading

essentially

The only

its

reading

se boi

my friend,

as the antecedent

noun occurs

he book

my friend

friend

a book'

reading
porche

is

' friend

amar bondhu],

following:

se boi

amar bondhujboi

boy who is

who is

in relativization.

(53)

my friend,

who my

who my

'Mou,

friend

who is

boy,

clause.

porche]

'The boy is

amar bondhujv.

who my

the

any

book reading

boy-the

my friend'

if

embedded

boi

IThe boy is

'The

the

amar bondhu][cheleTa
friend

pronoun

and third,

in

my

occurs

coreferential

exemplified

are

possibilities

boy-the

b.

the

if

s'econd,

pronoun

occurs

(54).

before

Sentences
(54)

Moreover,
NP which
Promotion

with

is

not

Analysis

50
the
as

coreferential

of relative
mentioned
(54)

like

the Matching

Moreover,

if

the relative

se boi

sentence
that,

the

sentence

which

sentence

in

matrix

the antecedent

does not

be regarded
Though the
here,

is

seem very

correlative

following

example

Promotion

Analysis

is

givento

for

Bengali

is

empty slot

is

retained

in

the matrix

[cheleTa
a.
boy-the

*friend

another
of the

the retention
this

case,

and it

can

applicable
Analysis.

where the

clauses

sentence

The

of the

and the

embedded sentence

without

the. embedded sentence.

boy-the

This

analysis.

totally

EcheleTa
b9i
amar bondhu]
my

is

Bengali

relative

antecedent

(56)

embedded

show the possibility

the

from

the

antecedent

Promotion

in

promoting

the

not

retained

antecedent

there

for

is

the

the

to correlative

the

for

embedded sentence.

effective

can be compared with

it

before

'In

approach

(he)

follows

only

the antecedent.

applicable

cheleTa

shows the

it

allow

the

[je

my friend

which

in

retained

as not

applicable

sentences

before

pronoun

of relative

process

the

for

before

occurs

From this

by promoting

the problem

Promotion

of the matrix

However,

structure.

the

Analysis

antecedent

the antecedent

allows

sentence,

is

Analysis

surface

way to solve

Promotion
the

Sentences

clause

boy is

embedded sentence.

Promotion

the

porchellwho

the

of promoting

system
in

relative

the

already

with

pronoun

the deictic

then

a book',

reading

reverse

be handled

cannot

bondhu,
amar

is

(see P-44).

it

the head noun as in

the rule

with

which

Analysis

shows that

Analysis.

is

interpretation

correlative
in

can be handled

pronoun

porche]

book reading

51
[je'

b.

a2 bondhu]'
,F
my friend

[se

amar bondhu]

chele'Ta

who boy-the
[je

cheleTa

who boy-the-m'

friend

'Who the

is

my friend

Except
the

book

for

where

in

other

all

book

reading

[se

boi

porche]'

book

reading

he
(he)

is

a book'

reading

(where

cases

reading
before

antecedents

Promotion

Analysis

occur
works

from the matrix


aA cedent
,
in a diffecan also be described

sentence

embedded

he boy-the

of, the

The Promotion

perfectly.

porche]

boy who is my friend


is
I
relative
pronouns
occur

the

pronouns)

relative

to'the

['The

sentences

antecedents,
before

boy

boi

cheleTa

41.

way for

Bengali

antecedent

in

rent
-the
is

that

is

retaining-the

[amar

b.

in

the

the

rule

This

analysis

below

the

solves

in

the

to

show the

It

sentence.
in

either

the

structure
the

embedded

shows

matrix
of

problem

clause.

easy

the

formulation

or

the
of

A few

more

of

Analysis.
eEkjon bondhu
friend

ache]
have

my-

[amar

bondhu

amake bhalobase]

my

friend

me

'Camar ee kjon
my

of

then

antecedent,

embedded

depending,

sentencq

given

Promotion

(57)-a.

retention

The simple

sentence.

before

occurs

antecedent
are

the

allow

can be retained

clause.

examples

embedded

retained

embedded

relative

which

theantecedent

in'the

the

the

je 'who'

if

antecedent
that
,

sentences

loves
ache]

have

[amar

my

bondhu

amake bhalobase]

friend

me

-loves

52
ce

amar Eskjon

bondhu ache, je

my

friend

a,

'I
(58)

have

[Lou

a.

a friend

boi

Mou book
b

C.

reading

tion

who school-to

cedent

go to

bose

sitting

is.

sitting

where
matrix

subject

relative

is

who

my relative

antecedent

(57)

(58)

and

of

clause.

Promotion

(shown

occur in

do not

sentence
the

of

my relative'

main

verb

However*,

also

the

impose

and the

Analysis
is

underlined)

The sentences

sentence.

the

-my relative

achen

do not

of

amar attio]

lattio
amar

who is

attio]

my relative

jini

pronouns

The object
the

the

a book

amar

gentleman

application

schooll

reading

[bhoddrolok

sitting

the

examples,

either.

as the

is

gentleman

go to
is

school,

achen]

gentleman

go-will

who will

bose

bose

. jabe

achen]Fhzddrlok
is
gentleman

sitting

bh; )ddrlok

go-will

bkule

a book

reading

coreferential

of

Mou school-to

reading

in. the

different.

j abe]

Mou book

who will

go-will

skule

je

can be observed

sentences

Emou

porche

these

retained

jabe]

skule

mou boi

'The

that

Mou school-to

I&

C*

all

reading

Fbh;
)ddrolok
L_
gentleman

b.

In

porche]

book

[IMou,

a.

me'

[Mou

porche]

loves

who me

who loves

boi

'Mou is

(59)

have

amake bhalobase

matrix
any restric-

head

occurs

show

noun

as, the

sentences

like

are
ante(58)

53
(59)
and

become more acceptable

the

with

following

structures:
(5t)

moi;[je

jabel

skule

Mou who school-to


'Mou, who will

se boi

porche

she book reading

go-will

go to school.

is

a book'

reading

or.
je

my

who

'The gentleman,

is

tini
he,

relative

who is

a book'

reading

amar attio.

-Jini

gentleman

porche

go to school

'Who Mou will


bh;)ddrolok,

se boi

jabe,

mou skule

bose

achen

sitting

is

is

my relative,

sitting?

or.
bhzddrolok

je

'Who the
Sentences
sis

is

relative

Promotion

which

in

terms

in

the

sentences.
of

the

previous

given

in

(57-59)

These
Matching
section.

types

of

Analysis,

the

Promotion
the

structure.

one type

only
the

correlative

sentence
which

AnalyBengali
The

show that

clearly

to

does not include

sitting'

analysing

correlative

is'applicable

Analysis

clauses

matrix

are

which

in

achen

is

show that

acceptable
its

bose

my relative

(50

and

due to

clause

examples

tive

(58')

completely

not

is

gentleman

like

tini

amar"a"ttio,

of
in

the
relathe

can be analysed
has

been

described

54
Underlying

1.3.2.3

(1968,

Thompson
et

(1973)

al
the

for

on logical

to

(60)

a.

amar eskjon
a

my
'I
b.

Underlying
this

abstract

in

the

in

nature

Conjunction

acheje

sister

have who me

and is
is

me'

there

an

that

such

eks #ochche
X

is

bon

amar eks ache eboD eks amake

sister

my

given

loves

sekhane

Eekjon
.
a

structure.

Analysis.

eakTa eks ache jEe mon ta


is

deep

amake bhalobase

who loves

the

example

bon

have a sister

Structure

proposal,

The following

Structure

and Stockwell
transformation

of

source

less

structure.

Underlying

show the

to

conjunction

more or

type

as the

According

has
is

analysis

based

known

clause

clause

relative

a third

Analysis

(1968)

Bach

-1971),

proposed

Analysis.

Conjunction

This

have

relative

Conjunction

Structure

have and

me

bhalobase
loves
IThere

According
and

(60b)

logical

exists

(I

have an X) and (X loves

to

this

shows

formulation,
the

not

Matching

a sister)

me)

(60a)

conjunction

derived

is

source

from

(60a)

for

(60b)

with

its

structure.
Structure

The Underlying
been

(X is

an X such that

followed

in

and Promotion

the

present

Analyses

Conjunction
dissertation
are

more

Analysis
as the

easily

applied.

has

55
Moreover,

the

Bengali

the
matching
shows
tion

relative

of the relative

of the antecedent

From this

have a readier*(though

analyses
Bengali

Schachter's

perspective,

relative

The three

different

show that

individually

they

structure

of

Promotion

the
and

limited

Bengali

of

the

which

Structure

Bengali

can handle

Structure
Bengali

both

of

the
to

antecedent

relative
the

properly

the

analyses

relative

clauses

as they

relative

pronoun

and

the

clauses
relative

clauses

Conjunction

in

structure

relative

The Matching,

clauses.

matching

the

of

handle

cannot

to

correlative

perspective,

analyses

Underlying

the

only

promotion
not

to

application

Analysis

relative

application

can handle

but

clauses).

and Promotion

Underlying

the

Structure

Correlative

1.3-2.4

the

Matching

the

Analysis.

Conjunction

have

of relative

restricted)

than

clauses

(or in

sentence

types

certain

rule

and the promo-

pronoun

to the matrix

for

embedded sentences

formulation

clause

matrix

sentence,

Bengali.
need

pronoun

From this
an analysis
and

the

correla-

tive.

Bengali
structures
described

with
in

the relative

the

relative
or without
following

clause

clauses

show seven different

an antecedent
way:

(a)

which

the antecedent

(can be considered

as a deictic

(headless
head
noun
any

clause);

(b)

without

clause);

(c)

the head noun in

can be

the matrix

within
relative

relative

sentence;

head

56
noun in

the relative
(e)

sentence;

pronoun

referential
(g),

Except

all

of the relative

which

its

the

lacks

of Bengali

in the following
a.

outlined

my

se esechilo

friend

he came
came'

boy who is

my friend

came']

amar bondhu,

who my

friend

'Who is
.

my friend

je

friend

boy

came'
se cheleTa

esechilo

he boy-the

came

came who is
je

se esechilo,
he came
'He

se esechilo
he came

amar bondhu,

'The

e.

are

my friend'

cheleTa

who boy-the

came the

boy who is

se cheleTa

amar

bondhu,

he boy-the

my

friend

amar bondhu
my

friend

my friend?
je

esechilo

who came

The

can be handled
along

The sipven different


that

occurrence

element.

structures

my friend

je

sentence.

clauses

'Who the boy is

who my

d.

relative

the
no co-

show the

correlative

amar bondhu,

cheleTa

['The

co

the matrix

examples.

boy-the
who

b.

and the

clauses

occurring

(g)
and

clauses

correlative.

relative

je

in

and correlative

relative

mairix

head noun before

relative

of Bengali

the

sentence

clause)

occurring

pronoun

above structures

(f)

relative

other

after

the matrix

clause;

(true

clause

relative

occurring

head noun in

the relative

before

with

clause

with

(g)

structures
can be shown

57

f.

'He the

boy is

cheleTa,

amar bondhu,
I
friend
who my

g.

boy,

amar-eakTd-boi
my
'I

The above
relative

of

structures

a.

je

IThe

boy,

True

relative

the
b.

which

mother

bought

has

bought

my mother
range
arp

of

me'

structures

needed

relative

for

to

clauses;

of

handle
these

the
may

way.

X, je Y, se Z
cheleTa,

dieche

-rules

following

the

in

kine

which

Bengali

'eamel
ammu

have

and seven

he came

'Ja

show a wide

sentences

be formulated

(62)

a book

have

se esechilo

my friend,

ache,
book

clauses

complex

who is

(lit)

who came'

je

boy-the
'The

my friend

je

clause:

antecedent

occurs

before

se Z

XY,

the

deictic

amar bondhu,
boy

is

relative

se esechilo

my friend

came'
head

clause:
clause-(je

relative

+ NP)

se Z

c0jeY,

je

came'

(NP + S)

clause

relative

'Who.

se esechilo

who is. my friend,

cheleTa

the

amar bondhu,

amar

bondhu,

se esechilo

'Who is

my friend

came'

headless

relative

clause

noun

occurs

inside

58
d

je

Y, se XZ

je

amar bondhu,

'The

boy

head

noun

se Z,

(i)

(ii)

je

XY

X,

Je Y

boy who is

se esechilo,

cheleTa,

'He came the

boy who is

head

noun

in

Relative
in

occuring

after

occurring

the

after

a book

matrix

esechilo

my friend'

matrix

relative

boi

je

sentence:

occurring

clause

Y
ammu kine

acheja
which

my mother

construction:

the

X=

without

die"'che
bought
any

for

me'

correlative

sentence

NP

These
has

the

je/ja

have

my friend'

Ir

boy who came is

eekTa

bondhu

amar

sentence.

IThe

XzI

je

clause:

amar bondhu,

the

bondhu

my friend'

clause:

relative

se cheleTa

amar

sentence;

matrix

je

before

cheleTa

relative

se XZ,

'I

sentence

'He came the

matrix

amar

matrix

je

true

show it

the

se esechilo,

the

in

occurs

esechilo

my friend'

came who is

deictic

se cheleTa

examples

a structure

of
like

the

Bengali

NP[je

relative

+ clausLse

clause
+ matrix

S]

59

se the'

insertion
the

replaces
the

then

'who'

shows je

which

insertion

in the matrix

identical

of se 'he'

occurrence

A rule

sentence.

of the

before

that

a Bengali

must have a construction

like

je-se

semantic

the

'what-that',

without

which

The relative

and the

correlative

the mutual

in
co-member
as a

together
tives

imply

which

be
said
can

1981: 221).

correlative

structure

determined_by

in

of a complex

pronoun

and a correlative

the

elements
It

is

clauses

relative

making
from

clear

require

of the relative

pretation
element

without

that

occurs
Structure

Correlative
problem

with

pronoun

in

semantic
Bengali.

in

not
in

correct.

Bengali

show
used

The correla-

complex

sentence

identity

of function

analysing

the relative

the reference

can be

the
in

interpretation

of semantic

a rule

clause

sentences.

Bengali,

The

are regularly

in

Moreover,

the deep structure


relative

which

complex

needed to

or ja-ta

is

pronouns

to be more than

(Matthews,

'who-he'

relationship

a positive

is

relative

sentence

of two items

relation

the matrix

pronoun.

correlative

interprets

rule

clause,

automatically

correlative

interpretation

of semantic

and

'who'

the relative

elmse and occurs

the reference

handle

in

clause

When je

sentence.

noun phrase

the relative

follows

the relative

in

sentence

that
so
,

containing

marker

can contain

both

any recursion.
this

discussion

a separate

and its

clause
the matrix

Analysis

rule

is

interpretation

that
for

inter-

coreferential
The present

sentence.
capable

the

Bengali

of handling

of the

correlative

the

60
Surface

1.3.3

It
relative

is

clear

clauses

are

relative

entire

the

surface

is

description

short

relative

from

by the NP.

same NP.

(63)

b.

the

been

surface

has described

This

the noun and the relative

examples

has

with

This

the

where the relative

clause#

of a relative

the

The
described
A

perspectives.

of

the

a relative

standpoints.

clause

here

in

structure

of

clauses.
Chomsky (1965)

dominated

different

the

sequence.

clause
of

different

given

and by having

relative

description

a relative

linguists

by different

the

Bengali
a

of

by a correlative

of

from

that

embedding

phrase

noun

followed

of

realization

discussion

by the

the

embedding

Clauses

above

generated

can be presented

clause

the

The structural

phrase.

noun

from

clause

shows

also

of Relative

inside

sentence

modifying

It

Structure

description

clause

can be illustrated

in

sister
the

a tree-diagram.

oi

bariTa

ja

ami

kinechilam

that

house-the

which

bought

'the

house

ei

cheleTa

je

this

boy-the

who field-in

tthe

boy who is

that

I bought'

dourachche

maThe

running

structure

is

directly

shows the determiner,

as being

clause

surface

running
in

the field'

nodes of

following

61

NP

C.

oi
'the

ja

house

that

'this
Ross

show the

whereas,

the

to

given

a.

who is

differs

from

clause

as the

relative

clause

relative

the

show the
is

oi

is

aunt

of

formulation

repeated

here).

analysis,
the

by the
the

the

as

determiner
lower

NP,

higher

NP.

aunt

tree-diagfam
of

field'

formulation

by the

is

blause

The following

noun.

ja

Chomsky's

dominated

relative.

the

(1969)

dominated

above

barita

'the

is

in

running

and Peterts

The determiner

(example(63a)

(64)

boy

clause

and the

determiner

je

Lakoff

formulation,

this

maThe dourachche

cheleTa

(1967),

relative

and the. noun.

In

bought'

W-L

they

ri
Det

of

ami kinechilam

bartiTa

d.

the

S. -

Det

relative

of

the

is
clause

ami kinechilam

house that

I bought'

NP
Dert
bariTa

ja

'the

house

that

The third
relative

ami kinechilam

oi

clause

is

reading

I bought'

on the

made by Stockwell,

structure
Schachter

of

the
and Partee

62
(1973)

(1975).

and Partee

the noun and the relative

NP node.

From this

are dominated

is

the

clause.

dominated

of the determiner.

sisters,

The following-

4bove configuration

Det

of

NS

oi

'the

In the

Ross (1967),

under

Under

point.

antecedent
the

first

the

a.

precedes

following

that

Bengali

phrase

other

kinechilam

ami
I

bought?

relative

exact

One can be formulated


(1969)

from

phrase

a different

structure

rule,

S, where

the

This

clause.

stand-

'the'engali

be shown as NP
NP
---
relative

two

clause,

to show the

and Peter's

and the

clause*can

relative

house

clause.

Lakoff

hypothesis

structure

ja

are necessary

of the relative

structure

bariTa

case of the
rules

structure

phrase

(66)

are

clause

lp

(65)

in

same

topmost

the noun and the relative

to show the

given

by the

by the

same node and hence they

are niece

tree-diagram
relative

is

reading

by the

they

whereas,

formulation,

are dominated

clause

the determiner

whereas,

node,

to their

According

the

may be shown

way:

cheleTa,
'The boy,

boi

porche,

se amar bondhu

who is

reading

a book,

je

is

my friend'

63
b.

Relative

X -( NP -EYNP

Rule:

Formation

Clause

j NP -W

NP - ZI

NP

sS

123456
12

Co

je+3

05

Condition

:2

se+6

boi

cheleTa

Ob

==-->

cheleTa

_porche

NP

Allpy

amar
Z] 1

W
s NP56

23
d.

boi

cheleTa,

je

je+

0,

porche,

bondhu

se amar

345

se+

bondhu

shows the appropriate

(66b)

(66)

to be NP -- NP

clause

relative

phrase

S, as shown in

the Bengali
(66e).

NP

e
NP

chele, ta
'the

boy

necessary
(67)

S -- S1 and S2

relative

conjoined

illustrated

before

occurs
in

who is

reading

at

phrase

sentences,

for

rule

pronoun
that

porche

a second

for

The appropriate

boi

je
.

Haiever,

clause

for

structure

the

structure

namely

sentence

the antecedent
the

the following

end of the
way:

a book'

that

rule

the

is

rule

in

shows the

or the
sentence

relative
maAe

(67).

64
(68)

a.

je

cheleTa

se amar bondhu

esechilo,

'Who the boy cameis my friend'


b.

LcheleTa

C.

esechilol

boy-the

came

cheleTa

esechilo

'The

[cheleTa

boy

boy-the

d.

friend

my

ebo,5 se amar

came and he is

bQndhu

amar

bondhu

my friend'

NzIl'-----1
..........................................................
bo
s2
esechilo

cheleTa
boy

'The

ex-

came

and

chele-Ta

amar

the

is

boy

my friend'

ZINP
*NPYP
SW

-YrI

xpp

bondhu

123456

Ob
=i

je+2

cheleTa
X-LNP

se+O

Condition:

24

esechilo

56

cheleTa
NP -

-yI-[

amar
-Z

NP

bondhu

jjW
NP *S

125
g.
1

Rule
not
allow
(69)

(68e)

je

cheleTa

je

+ 2,3

is

also

have coreferential
the relative
a.

esechilo

s. e+0,56

bajae
plays

for

applicable
pronoun
clause

ami m kTa meeke


Ia

amar bondhu

se cheleTa

girl-to

at

in
the

such sentences
the

sentence

second conjoined

bhalobasi
love

matrix

which

je pikaDelite
who Piccadilly-in

do
and

sentence.
behala
violin

65
'I
b.

love-a

plays

girl-who

w kTa meeke bhalobasi

ami
Ia

love

girl-to

te

m kTa mee pikaDell-,


a
co

ami

violin

meeke bhalobasi

eakTa

bajae]

biala

Piccadilly-in

girl

plays

ebo 5 se pikaDelite

bajae

behala
love

'I

Piccadilly'

violin'in

a girl

who plays

in

violin

Piccadilly'

d.
2

ebo5
ami Ee kTa meeke'

Ee kTa mee p

bhalobasi

behala

baj-ae

a girl

plays

love

'I

a girl

and

in

violin

Piccadilly'

Replacement

1.3.4

A further
the

replacement-of
referential
been

shown

that

a relative

clearly

retained

in

the

clause

retained

in

is

case

relativization,

of

Analysis.

It

is

the

has

matrix

NP is

the

This
with

pronoun

and the

a co-

already
with

relativization.

Pronominalization

the

for

introduced

The relative

Bengali.

on the

sentence

Bengali
the

here

matrix

pronoun

relative

element

also

in

indicates
in

relativization

the

Matching

in

Matrix

the

may be stated
from

noun

pronoun

coreferential
process

point

pronoun

Noun from

the

of

is

coreferential
senience.

replaced

by the

In

the

relative

66
pronoun,

the NP is

and either
or it

pronoun

is

the NP to

used with

coreferential

show the

Pronominali-

in

following

These are illustrated

of the NP.

zation

by the

replaced

the

examples:
(70)

-je

cheleTa

Who

(71)

b.

[ cheleTa

boi

a.

cheleTa[

je

b.

porche,

se amar

is

reading

a book

boy

the

'The

boi

(cheleTa
4
se

porchel

bondhu
is

amar bondhu]

boi

porchel,

se amar

boy, who is

reading

a book, is

boi

[cheleTa

my friend'

porche][cheleTa

bondhu
my friend'

amar

bondhu]

my

friend

+ se
book

boy-the

bby-the

reading

+ he
(70)
in

shows
the

matrix

(chele

the

head

The head

noun
noun

as no surface

(71)

show the

from

the

the

after

has

that

cheleTa

'the

deletion
clause
of

Je in

boy[

in

identical

NP is

retained

(se
the

occurs

like[cheleTa
possible.
one of

of

or
the

(71)

from
relative

'he')

NP
in

with

'in

ondhu
like

identical

clause

of

shown

superficially

matrix

the

sentence.

matrix

Sentences

the

occurs

along

se amar

the

'he')

the

pronoun.

pronoun
occurred

structure

relative

insertion

relative

coreferential

my friendfjis

boy he is

identical

the

(se

pronoun

after-replacing

The second

clause

retaining

coreferential

sentence

'boy').

relative

the

the

that

(71),

'the
(70).

and

NP either
sentence

and

se in

and
the

67
matrix

In

sentence.

can be retained
matrix
(72)

either

NP

Si
NP
112

a.
bS2

e.

NP3:

se 'he'

delete

(chele
NP
one
1

head

has

(71)

moved to

give
t that
N,e
head

noun

in

such

cases

cheleTa

'the

In
available

Bengali
Dasgupta

the

main

emphasis

way:

in
in

retained

from

the

S1 or

by stating

that
the

its

sentence
to

clause.
the

separates

matrix

S2

the

place

relative

a comma intonation
boyl

from

either

Bengali

of

(1980).

sentence..

writing

has

(1976)
is

has

than

to

of

in

been

independently
Kabir

provided

incomplete

all

have

done

wo rk

was PrDnominalization.
rules

dissertation,

been
the

except
Kabir

this

relativization

so far

which

interest

of

on Bengali

relativization

to

following

Position

is

preparation

Nothing

on relativization,
his

the

Work

sources

consulted.

initial

pronoun
realization

Previous

1.3.5

the

surface

'boy')

be explained

could

and the-coreferential
the

the

in

or

'who'

Je

like

clause

NP
2

Sentences
noun

relative

NP chele

NP
1v

NP
3

Ce

identical

may be shown in

This

sentence.

the

in

either

the

case

on

(1976)

a partial
its

study

approach,

He gives
*

investigating

and

more,

practical

as

68
of the

aspects

Complement and Relative

relative

clauses

provides

any new insights

available
views

The purpose

the

of

Bengali

in

relativization

of

zation,

practical

aspects

in

transformational

into

but

account;

more

the

than

framework

Translation

1.3.7

In
the

English,
given

the

English

construction,
the

included

Any
in

the

describe

syntactic

and theoretical
have

on the

put

and
relativi-

of

rules

studies
is

to

is

study

language

Bengali

Sentences
of

and meaning

translation
a second

seemed far
translation

brackets).

into

Bengali

and a literal

of

was not

dissertation.

the

the

emphasis

translation

structure

use

on

been

taken

practical

theoretical.

of

priority

are

through

the

(1976)

different

writing

aspects

recent

writer

The study

not

present

from

In

standpoints.

semantic

this

writing

on

Study

of the

Design

study

constructions.

on complement

section

1.3.6

of

more

Neither

by Chattopadhyay

by her are therefore

expressed

His

on relativization.

Complement Constructions
time

putting

and incomplete.

scanty

Questions#

studies

Bengali

and Complements.

emphasis

at the

in

clauses

on Questions
is

(1980)

Dasgupta

language.

of

sentences
the

translation
from
has

English

Bengali
is

a normal
been-given

into
sentences
give.

When

English
(sometimes

CHAPTER TWO
Relativization

Relativization

2.1
-

and Noun Phrase

Process

Process

Relativization

2.1.1

is

Relativization
embedded

in

sentence

is

normally

in

have
other
(ae,

to

be the

or

to

the

embedded

clause

in

of

the

pronoun,

or

the

the

head

the

coreferential

noun

matrix
the

constitutes

which

the

as the

the

pronoun
in

69

one clause
or

Ja,

correlative

the

to

either

embedded

which
the

head

matrix

head

noun

is

left
is

sentence
the

contains

and the
the

and

When a sentence

clause

or

is

The sentence

sentence.

may be retained

Jini

as Je,

may be placed

relative

Pronoun,

so that

corresponding

sentence,

The

correlative

pronoun

pronouns,

the

The

marker.

relative

such

matrix

relative

embedded

by a pronoun.

replaced

the

it

phrase

noun

the

of

respectively).

clause

relative
right

front

is

i. e.

have

will

embedded

a coreferential

by a relative

pronoun,

and ta

tini

the

by some other

a relative

a noun

contains

standard

the

clauses

may be described

Bengali,

the

The relativizable

phrase

phrase

followed

normally

sentence

is

a sentence

In

contains

replaced

noun

noun

construction

form

structure

is

identical

identical

relative

moved to

later
and

sentence
second

of

whereby

phrase.

be relativized.

to

noun phrase

will

deep

the

a process

a nou

analysis

The embedded

modifies.

phrase

in

as a modifier

transformational

the

Accessibility

noun,

sentence

relative
whereas
with

may be substitute

70
for

the

coreferential
any coreferential

without

Derivation

2.1.2

clause

different

Bengali,

five

on the

turns

distinction

be
retained
can
clause

relative

is

pronoun,

in

antecedent.

relative

the
the

clause,

the

matrix

if

the

relative

matrix
relative

after

embedding

relative

clause

following

as a deictic

relative

When the
is

the

antecedent
from

separated

is

When the

clause

between

The
and before

clause

sentence

in

relativized

sentence

(cf-1,3).

exists

the
ways.

sentence.

show complete

the

it

in

structure.

in

different

of

of

the

relative

the

relative

When the

ante-

the

relative

clause,

relative

as a

pronoun
before

occurs
the

ante-

and

the

relative

clause

a comma intonation.

with

Moreover-,
relative
any

6)

can be taken

it
juncture

close

not

matrix

occurs

cedent

the

does
the

in

clause

in

retained
it

pronoun,

in

embedded

completely
cedent

(cf.

in

the

noun,

placement

complex

antecedents

The

common.

head

the

and the
in

be explained

can also

antecedent
the

of

relative
are

which
of

sentences

The distribution
sentences

of

markers,

and matrix

relative

possible

occurrence

and coreferential

relative
the

in

Clauses

Relative

seven

are

patterns

pronoun.

Bengali

of

There

or the head noun may occur

pronoun,

clause

antecedent

a relative

either
and the

with

pronoun
(cf-1,3,7)

coreferential

in

may occur
or
marker

without
is

the
(cf.

retained

2)
in

71
the matrix

sentence

(cf. 1,2,8)

without

is

clause

either

referential

the matrix

before

sentence,

The relativization
the relative

particular
relative

clause

position

in

the matrix

and Ja-ta
the

from

and the

NP is

(cf.

6).

In

deleted

from

the

matrix

pronoun

and is

This

retained

in

sentence

either

with

noun

is

relative
referential

the

in

case

indicates
the

the

or

clause)

pronoun

in

in

NP.

When the

relative

clause,

the

relative

NP +S
clause,

the

in

relative

and when the


the

structure

or

NP is

(Of-1,4).
may be

noun
the

in

matrix

a coreferential

sentence
(7)

the, matrix
is

becomes

Je+S,

the

the
in

retained
which

the

with

before

shows
is

the

no co-

sentence

retained

no head
in

or

where

construction
antecedent

pronoun,

(where

relatives

like

antecedent

matrix

identical

head

the

matrix

sentences

occurs

identical

structure

headless

the

clause

clause
or

for

a coreferential

that

a relative
of

the

relative

relative

either

retained

the

embedding,
clause

in

retained

for

twho-het

of Je-se

relative

process,

initial

The common type

Of complete

the

sentence

retained

either

except

another

clearly

process

in

case

deleted

a relative
sentence

the

the

in

pronoun

occurrence

NP is

shows in

or inside

the

In

pronoun

Bengali

sentence

'what-thatf.

identical

in

(cf,, 1-7).

(cf. 7).

it

within

before

co-

the matrix

retained

coreferential

involves

of relativization

in

absent

pronoun

and the

clause

process

and the

the antecedent

sentence,

is

the antecedent

or

When a relative

the relative

may remain

pronoun
but

with

any antecedent.

embedded in
occurs

normally

(cf-3,4,5,6,7)

in

the

turn,

72
does

show the

not

Note,
from

dropped

sentence
the

after
in

either

following

close
(1)

becomes

the

case

of
juncture

matrix

are

to

given

Je,

cheleTa

who

boy-the

my

friend

(is)

my friend

['The
a.

boy who is
amar bondhu
my friend
'He

b.

Je amar bondhu,
friend

boy

friend

he came
'He came the

my friend?
se esechilo
he came
(he)

came?

se cheleTa

esechilo

he boy-the

came

my friend'

Je-cheleTa
who boy-the
boy who (is)

'The boy who is

camel

he came

(is)
came who

se esechilo,

(he)
camel]

my friend

Je amar bondhu,
who my

he came

se esechilo

(is)
came who

'Who (is)

'The

Je,

who

who my

se esechilo

my friend

my friend

amar bondhu
my

matrix

an antecedent
shows

deictic.

friend

my friend'
came']

that

The

above

represents

as Je-).

amar bondhu,

the

the

clauses

Je -

boy

illustrate

the

after

pronoun

becomes

clause

relative

after

retained

of

is

antecedent

sentence,

coreferential

relative

Bengali

and is

The occurrence

and the

relative

clause.

when the

above,

the

deictic.

a relative

of

clause
in

pronoun

'Who the

(2)

relative

examples

features

structure

as mentioned

the

coreferential

true

73
se-cheleTa

amar bondhu,

he boy-the

my

fHe-the

boy-the

who my

who came'

-he came
(he)

my friend,

came?

amar eekTa

boi

ache,

Ja ammu

Ia

book

have

which

mother

bought

which

mother

bought

for

a book

have

and matrix

clauses

complete

and partial

Sentence

(1)

the

relative
the

becomes

deictic

between

them.

due to

the

be regarded
pronoun

relative

relative

non-deictic

deictic
presence

before

occurs

a comma intonation,

with

deictic

deictic

as a

relative
relative
of

any

clause;
clause).
close

of

Je,
This

juncture

'the

before

occurs

clause.

If
but

it
a

is

sepa-

be considered

will

Je-cheleTa
'Who,

'who
the
(i.

distinction
between

any

them,

posteedent

cheleTa

clause

juncture

a close

relative

(e. g.

NP

relative

between

it

clause

identical

exists

any

the

with

the

pronoun

juncture

NP and the

postcedent[cheleTa

presence

the

of

clauses.

the

the

of
process

relative

pronoun,

When a relative

and a close

postcedent

of

As the

relative

me'

clause

deletion

has

and the

the

relative

the

after

occurs

the

sentence.

matrix

of

dieche

distribution

embedding-of

and the

pronoun,

show the

embedding

NP in

kine

sentences,

shows partial

of

retention

(1-7)

examples

relative

rated

(lit)

se esechilo

friend

(is)
who

boy,

The above

will

my friend

Je amar bondhu,

'I

boyij

who came

cheleTa,

'The

from

friend

(is)

boy

Je esechilo

as a
the

boy:
e.

relative

boy':
non-

the
pronoun

74
and the posteedent

and the postcedent

pronoun

determining

whether
This

deictic.
(2)

for

except
relative

the matrix

or in

embedding.
and it

becomes deictic

also

relative

clause.
is

The postcedent.

the relative

embedding

these
relative
occurs
pronoun

the

clause
sentences,

after

the
it

relative
in

a close

before

the
to

a close

where the

a structure
and the

postcedent

coThe

clause.
is

juncture

close

and the postcedent.


in

shows complete
sentence.

clause

of

shows partial

also

as there

(1).

and the

clause

with

embedding

the matrix

of the

structure

the relative

the matrix

in

clause
before

only

(6)

sentence

postcedent

the

shows partial

relative

occurrence

pronoun

coreferential

the

with

relative

illustrates

precedes

of

of headless

occurrence

occurs

sentence

With

kind

due to the

becomes deictic

sentence

between

the

(1)

to

matrix

opposite

the

This
(5)

occurs

pronoun

referential

in

before

of the NP.

sentence

matrix

shows the

them.

the

3.4.1.

shows partial

postcedent

sentence

retained

pronoun

between

juncture

matrix

the

becomes deictic

clause

relative

relative

(4)

in
also

due to the

where the matrix

juncture,

in

occurs

before

pronoun

coreferential

(3)

sentence.

The postcedent

in

This

either

in

or non-

as an illustration

as no head noun occurs

relatives,
clause

of the postcedent.

can be taken

clause

deictic

identical

pattern

relative

important

has been elaborated

a structural
the absence

is

clause

the

is

or antecedent)

a relative

discussion

illustrates

between

and an intonation

and the

sentence.

(5).

The

Among

embedding

of the

The antecedent
coreferential
Though the matrix

75'

it

pronoun,

is not deictic,

in between the antecedent

as the relative

the relative

The relative

shows its

?who is my friend'

sentence cheleTa esechilo

of a Bengali

are illustrated

relative

However, this

embedding of the relative

the
hence
relative
sentence and
a subordinate

the matrix

(7) illustrates

'The boy came'.

the antecedent..

contains

like
clause
earlier

and

clause, je amar bondhu

clause

pronoun occurs in the matrix

where no coreferential

shows partial

pronoun

embedding within

kind of structure

which also

stands

between the antecedent

exists

clause.

clause

and the coreferential

intonation
a
comma
and

a different

and the coreferential

both the antecedent

sentence contains

clause

clause

sentence

in the matrix

can be regarded

the other

relative

except that

(6).
of

as

'clauses which

Of the examples which are given above, only


(5) do not show commonly used patterns.

sentence

(4) and

Though these

less
they
easily comprehended
grammatical,
are
sentences are
'
As sentences like (4) and
by speakers of the language.
(5) are not completely

acceptable

to all

language,

these types of sentences will

further.

All

structure

Je - NP or NP - S.

the sentences

the Je - NP structure,
exhibit

the NP -S

illustrated
The first

whereas,

the last

speakers of the
not be discussed
in
five

(1-7)

have the

sentences

show

two sentences

structure.

(4) and (5)


A test was conducted on the two sentences
in the U. K. Eight of
with ten native
speakers living
them firmly
the sentences as not readily
rejected
comprehensible.

76
Bengali'relative

The subordinate

of embedding.

types

does not

clause

relative

of relative

completely

can embed the

second sentence

(The words

construction.
to the

embedded in

in which

order

The sentence

which

known as the matrix


embedded under
be regarded
a brief

the

their

of relative

embedding.
this

latter

Most of the
kind

complete

the

relative

except
embedding

(6),

given
all

of the

embedding
in

other
relative

is
can

process

relative
regarding

show only
in

embedding

(cf. 6);

sentence

previously

is

Bengali.

show complete

(cf. 1,2#

of structure

1980:

consideration,

Bengali

clauses

are

sentence

clauses

matrix

however,

clause,

The examples
show that

in

clause

which

two standpoints

Some sentences

construction.

of the relative
types

from

the

sentence

sentence

relative

case of embedding,

can be explained

clauses

other

on the

refer

sentences

From this

clause.

of the

and the distribution

merely
in

of the matrix

can be made here

statement

In the

and the

either

a complex

(Brown and Miller,

constituents

as a relative

in

where the

the

all

or the

sentence

significance.

dominates

sentence

for

sentence,

are presented

to operate

the

either

and "second"

sentences

of other

constituents

is

sentence

"first"

sentences

Embedding can be taken

134).

second

and have no theoretical.

description

embedding

another

first

processes

constitutes

When a sentence

can embed the

sentence

that

clause

show complete

clauses.

or partially

the first

show different

clauses

other

partial
Bengali

show

3# 4,5,7).
in

sentences
clauses

(1-7)

clearly

do not

show

in

the matrix

77
In

sentences.
show partial
next

to

Only

the

main

of

(8)

a.

b.

c.

The process

of

embedding

my

esechilo

boy-the

came

boy

[ cheleTa

amar bondhu][cheleTa
friend

my
(is)

boy

clause
is

'Who the

boy-the

fully

my friend'

came

'The

boy

my

boy

(is)

boy who is
cheleTa

came'

friend

esechilo]

he boy-the

my friend
my friend

came

he the

amar bondhu][se

boy who is

my friend

boy

came?

I
camel

cheleTa
I
he
43,
who boy-the
my friend
.
(he)
Who the boy (is)
friend
my

['The

in

esechilol

amar bondhu]se[cheleTa

Je[cheleTa

[Je

relative

came'

who boy-the

e.

clause.

my friend'.

cheleTa

['The

main

friend

(is)

boy

boy-the

d.

the

boy-the

'The

clauses

as an illus-

of

cheleTa

'The

the

after

can be interpreted

amar bondhu

'The

Bengali

(8).

in

illustrated

clauses

as subordinate

or

clauses

perspective,

embedding

complete

sentence.

matrix

(6)

like

sentences

From this

before

relative

as subordinate

and stand

clauses.

either

Bengali

cases,,

can be regarded

may occur

tration

the

of

embeddings

clauses

relative
which

most

camel

esechilol
came
camel
]

the

78
f.

I Je cheleTa
who boy-the
'who
['The

g.

cheleTa,

[Je

boy-the

who my

h.

cheleTa,
boy-the

who came

boy,

(8)
of

clause

relative
of

embedding

embedding

complete

the

either
into

the

first

structure

the

of

identical

NP in
and

the

(8g-h)

deictic

relative

deictic

nature.

is

that

and

second

or

(8a-b)

Bengali

process

of

clauses

show embedding
'what-that'

shows

the

the

the

is

the

of
is

relative

of
clause

of

non-

here

The way the


insertion

between

nature

the

of

the

shows
second

can be mentioned

and the

source

inter-

shows

of

sentence

The difference

latter

relativization.

in

second

(8d)

deletion

former

point

show that

the

(8c)

sentence.
the

and

(8g-h)

juxtaposition.

and the

clause

(8e-f)

(8e-f)

sentence.

simple

One important

and Ja-ta

into

matrix

Partial

in

shown

Je and se and the

insertion

(8e-f)

of

structure

mediate

is

process

embedding

sentence.

(8g-h).

embedded

my friend'

the

matrix

sentence

came'

friend

(is)

(he)

can be embedded.

first
of

he my

clause
in

(he)

illustrate

the

relative

he came

se amar bondhu

who came,

in

esechilo

my friend,

esechilo],

shown to

is

my friend'

friend

[Je

'The

my friendt

amar bondhulse

(is)
who

boy,

my friend

(is)

(he)
came

boy who came is

'The

he

came

boy

the

amar bondhul

cheleTa

esechilo][se

on the

relative

Je-se
and in

'who-he'
the

'

79
matrix

To put

points.

can be

tion

insertion
only

approach

seen that

does not

account

satisfactorily

It

and the matrix

for

deleted

embeddings
(je

pronoun
insertion

the

It

se in

insertion

of

identical

NP is

already

of embeddings
referential

in

clause.

relative

examples

the matrix

pronouni,

coreferential

rule

it

provided

sentence.

the relative

in

clause

a, second T-

via

two simple

the relative

but

(se

which

for

(8)

relative

the

'he/she')
through

provides

an
for

the

or when the
sentence
the

to explain
of relative
and matrix

for

insertion

can be explained

This
in

or partial

easily,

the matrix
provides

clause.

of the relative

sentence,

and the distribution

pronouns

of the

matrix

can be explained

deleted

and in

or se

the

pronoun

transformational

additional

the

Je twhol

complete

insertion

coreferential

unexplained.

remains

in

pronoun

can be explained

'who')

of, the

in

shows either

Bengali,

embedding-

NPs, and one of the ]shared NPs

Identical

clause

in

and. in

of

and an

deletion

In relativization,

a relative

When a relative

both

for

can be explained

rule).

contain

sentences

the

of either

are inserted

sentence

(insertion

(ii)

the

only

clause

or Ja-ta

relativiza-

the relative-clause

explains

the relative

in

The way Je-se

the

in

and Ja-ta

stand-

of rules,

rule,

an embedding

NPs and the insertion

'he/she'

in

two types

already

sentence.

identical

Bengali

is

It

of Je-se

the matrix

is

(I)

two different

way,

through

explained

rule.

insertion

rule

in a different

it

are T-rules:

which

from

can be explained

sentence

of Je

through

different
and cosentences.

the
types

80
(8e)

shows that

the

shared

and is

deleted

in

clause

referential

but not

the relative

NP cheleTa

'the

the

NP is

shared

be said

that

deleted

boy'

which

relative

This

embedding rule.

in

are introduced

the problem

solves

NP in

shared

and the

coreferential

both

second

of

the

twho-he/shel

embedding

se amar bondhu

that

is

also

Je-se

or

Ja-ta

the

T-rule
where

6).
'The

In

that

boy,

matrix
also

the

relative

example,
who came,

the
by any

cleft

and

to form
This

T-rule
pronoun

From

relativization
and a
in

occurrences

jeheleTa,

NP

shared

a T-rule)

the

sentence.

Bengali

clause

is

in

or the

sentence.

explains

relative

and Ja 1whatt

matrix

(which

explain

second

(cf.

can be said

and in

clause

relative

Je-se,

to

T-rule

the

the NP

the relative

clause

in

pronoun

embedding

to

(cf. 7.2).
both

cannot

the

and not

positions

the relative

it

perspective,

inserted

where eTa 'it'

sentence

As

transformational

identical

of retaining

and the

requires

is

sentence-initial

and a pseudo-cleft

cleft

tion

T-rule

for

of the

T-rule

a separate

shared

it

both

retains

is

the

Je 'who'.

retained

a second

Je twhol

transformations

Pseudo-cleft

this

through

through

clause

clause

sentence

clause,

the retention

that

explains

both

the relative

As the relative
pronoun,

the matrix

pronoun

is

a co-

the deletion

contains

pronoun

can be explained

pronoun
rule

in

retained

and the relative

in

and the relative

the relative

NP.

which

for

explains

pronoun

clause

the relative

sentence

This

a coreferential

in

retained

the matrix

se 'he'.

pronoun

of the NP for

NP is

The applicaretention
shows

of
complete

Je esechilo,

my friend'

or

81

cheleTa,

Je amar bondhu,
the process

came],

-friend,
retention

of embedding

of the NP cheleTa

'the

sentence

but

fails

to explain

relative

(se

'he')

in

is

rule

insertion

the matrix

the matrix

types

and it

clause

relative
in

in

sentence

process

clauses)

correlative

the partial

through

second T-rule.

(partially

(first

This

of the

that

the

cor-

The second T-

can be said

se 'he'

embedded
is

T-rule)

embedded

Bengali

through

and the

insertion

can be illustrated

in

inserted
So both

and completely
in

are constituted

of embedding

(second-T-rule).

like

matrix

of the

sentence.

the problem

my

the

the

the insertion

matrix

who is

explains

before

boy'

sentence

clauses

of relative

relative

the

of handling

capable

'The boy,

se esechilo

the
rule

the following

manner.
cheleTa

amar bondhu

boy-the

my

'The
b.

my friend'

esechilo

boy-the

came

boy

[ cheleTa
boy-the

d.

(is)

boy

cheleTa

'The
c.

friend

[Je

came'
amar bondhU][cheleTa
friend

my

who boy-the
'Who the

boy-the

Amar, bondhu]

cheleTa

boy

my
(is)

friend

boy who is

my friend

se 'he'

inserted

came
V

se
he

esechilo
came

(he)

my friend

'The

is

esechilol

came'

in

came
]

the matrix

sentence

82
through
(ii)

Je

cheleTa

second

T-rule;

is

inserted

in

'whot

through

clause
e.

the

rJe
6

boy-the
boy,

Je

(ii)

se

relative

(first

embedding

amar bondhu][se

(is)
who

T-rule).

esechilol
he

friend

who my

'The

the

came
(he)

my friend,

came'

'who' is inserted
in the relative
I
(first
through
T-rule)
clause
embedding
'he'

through

sentence
(iii)Je

is

'who'
(cheleTa

Je

the

boy')

T-rule;
as the

follows

the

relative

(ge)

as the

NP

juncture;

is

non deictic
(cheleTa

relative

matrix

in-(9d)

a close

antecedent

the

second

with

'who'

the

in

deictic

'the

pronoun
(iv)

inserted

is

in

'the

boy')

pronoun

with

applies

to

precedes

a comma

intonation.
T-rule

The way the


se

'he'

in

the

clause

relative

ithe

relative

pronoun

tcorrelative

show the

And after

Je-insertion.

the

a.

(i.

pronoun

ELnd (10c)

Vf

and

matrix

(10b)
in

e.

matrix

shows

the

head

the

(11b)
before

amar bondhu,

who boy-the

my

noun
noun

clause
show the

se-insertion.

se esechilo
he came

and

sentence

sentence).

(11c)

and after

Je-cheleta

head

relative

and

friend

the

matrix
the

of

structure

clause

the

shows

'who'

Je

and in

(10a)

can be shown as follows.

insert

with
with

the

(10b)
before
structure

83
'Who the boy (is)
['The

boy who is

(he)

my friend
my friend

came'

came']

NP

b.

NP

fThe

bondhu

amar

cheleTa
boy

(is)

my

friend'

NP

NP
.'N
Jd<hel\eTa
'who
d.

s
amar
boy

the

NP

-S

12
SC:

a.

my friend'

Je Insertion:
SD:

(11)

(is)

bondhu

Je
Je

cheleTa,
boy-the
'The

Ob

=>

esechilo,

who came

boy,

who came,

is

se amar

bondhu

he myI

friend

my friend'

NP

b.

NP
cheleTa
'The

boy

s
Je esechiln
who came',

84
Je Insertion:

C.

SD:

NP

-S

12=
SC:
(12)

Je

a.

=>
Je

esechilo,

who came

+2
se-cheleTa

amar bondhu

he boy-the

my

'Who came (he)

the

boy

(is)

friend
(lit)

my friend',

my friend']

boy who came is

L'The

Ob

NP

b.

NP

amar bondhu

cheleTa
(is)

boy

'The

my friend'

NP

NP
se cheleTa
'He the
d.

NP-

SC:

structure

the
clauses.

Ob

=q

se +12

The T-rules

relative

my friend'

12

handling

(is)

boy

Insertion:
se
SD:

of

bondhu

amar

which

are

shown

and distribution

summary
of

(9-12)

structures

relative-correlative
A brief

in

can be given

relative-

clauses

are
in

capable
Bengali

here
in

on the

Bengali

85
includes

which

the

postcedent,

(13)

a.

the matrix
relative

Relative

the antecedent,

sentence,

and coreferential

markers.

can be partially

clauses

the

or completely

embedded.
b.

Both

(partially

types

relative

for

T-rule

the

embedded)of

(first

relative

T-rule)
and cor-

structures.

relative
The relative

may pr. ecede

clause

may be retained

The postcedent

in

clause-or

relative
e.

The antecedent

f.

Je and se

is

the

either

matrix

in

the

the

the matrix
occur

normally

and in

in

sentence.

matrix

retained

'who-he/she'
clause

relative

the

either

it.

or follow

sentence
d.

completely

show embedding

clauses

and a second

C.

and

sentence.
the

in

sentence

matrix

respectively.

g0

The relative
the

h.

i.

If

head
the

pronoun
noun

in

coreferential

the

postcedent.

The coreferential

the matrix

sentence

and the antecedent


i

A relative

clause

either

a relative

postcedent

the

can

occurs

precede

or

follow

clause.
in

the

matrix

pronoun

always

pronoun

can be dropped

preceding
does not
or a matrix

sentence,
before

occurs

only

the relative

clause

become deictic.
sentence

in

becomes

86
deictic

when the

relative

or

the

before

occurs

postcedent

pronoun

correlative

with

the
a close

juncture.
k.

A relative

clause

relative

basis

basis

on the

of

occurrence
examples

that

nouns,

in

study

who boy-the

coreferential

(1-7)

['The

boy

boy-who

criteria
markers

may be repeated
(1-7),

types

amar bondhu,
friend

of

here

where
relative

se esechilo

he came

is

my friend

came'

is

my friend

camel]

b.

Je

amar bondhu,

'Who is

ce

my friend

Je amar bondhu,
'Who is
['The

my friend

se esechilo
came'

se cheleTa
he the

boy came who is

esechilo
boy came'

my friend']

and the
The

sentences.

supplements

my

oelative

distributional

and matrix

relative

cheleTa

discussion,

above

on broad

are'given

'Who the

the

a comma intonation.

was made on different


Je.

(1

the

This

convenience.
discussion

head

of

the

of

can be examined

clauses

before

occurs

Head Nouns

of

On the

becomes

sentence

antecedent

with

clause

Occurrence

2.1.3

the

if

non-deictic

a matrix

or

(lit)

for

a short
clause.

87
d.

Je cheleTa

se esechilo,

'He came who the


'He came the
e.

'I

book

have

a book

these

All
head nouns
occurs
in

in

my friend

who is

kine

have

mother

bought-has

which

show the

coreferential

marker

in

(14c).

the

head

is

identical

to

that

the

clause

occurs

(14e)

is

the

to

identical

sentence

matrix
shows

relative

occurs

initial

relative

clause.

sentence

and before

(14c);
before

occurrence

clause

after

relative

the

the

only

the

after

the
the
of

relative

the

difference

is

sentence.
is

occurs

in

before
the

that
(14f)

clause.
noun

clause.

the
of

matrix

head

noun.

occurrence

difference

only

relative

any head

(14d),

(14a),

the

The head

after

sentence

mef
of

the

of

absence

In

The headin(149)
the

occurrence
sentences.

matrix

dieche

for

in

the

shows
the

noun

bought

mother

which

in

noun

came'
ammu

occurs

The head

se esechilo

ache, Ja

relative

(14b)

(14a).

(lit)

my friend']

positions

the

inside

who came'

my friend,

examples

different

(lit)

Je esechilo

Je amar bondhu,

boy,

my

marker

my friend'

boi
kTa
w
amar

g.

noun

boy who is

came who is

cheleTa,
tThe

my friend'

boy is

[? The boy
f.

is

amar bondhu,

se cheIeTa
'He the

boy

bondhu

amar

the

matrix

the

88

Occurrence

2.1.4

of Relative

The way the


(14)

in

occur

(15)

can be described

The relative

a.

clause

b.

matrix

Except

for

sentence

after

the

or

head

or

is

relative

the

the

after

clause

is

in

that

the

noun

is

always

the

matrix

occurrence
fixed*in

occurs

the
after

shows
absence

marker

the

Bengali

the

The

relative
When a

nouns.

the

noun,

complete
of

are

other.

complex
pronoun

embedding.

any head
In

marker.

the

can
It

head

sentence;
noun

in

occur

noun
this

case

three

struc-

be mentioned

should

correlative

matrix
the

in

in

When a relative

relative

sentence.
of

after

headless.

The correlative
tures

any head

noun

illustrated

in

head

the

may totally

follow

the

it

noun

in

a head

positions

after

it;

or'after

markers

embedding.

partial

the

two

relative

the head noun or

structure

or

before

occurs

possibility
before

in

occur

before

shows

either

of

the

in

marker

type

the

manner:

may occur
with

can precide

pronoun

The third

either

and each

relative

occurs

marker

relative

either

following

or after

and correlative

pronouns

clause,

the

coreferential

absent.

obligatory
relative

the

remain

the

markers

any head noun before

sentence

or

and correlative

may occur

before

The coreferential

it

Markers

in

marker

either

without

(14g),

relative

and Correlative

marker
the

and never

with

the

correlative
before

here
head
marker

it.

The

89
marker

correlative
it,

before

if

may also

In the

relative
contains

no coreferential

The Position

the

but

this

(14)

which
the

given

are

the

preceding
relative

the

is

Gapping

word
where

in

Bengali.

in

order
Forward

here

to

matrix

shows

Gapping

is

show Forward

examples
preceding

When the
it

sentence,

is

more

comprei. e.

more

comprehensible

whi-ch

in

shown

and Backward

SOV

be shown

can also

are

occurs

as Backward

the. SOV pattern,


This

Bengali.

the

of

and when it

Relativization

are

sentence

matrix

may be taken

The examples

Gapping.

be repeated

as it

Bengali

it

which

clause

times.

Relativization,

Forward

in

Backward

the

sentence,

matrix

occurrence

and the

before

sentence,

the

relative

three

in

sentence

The seven

clause

as Forward

matrix

normal

times

four

occurs

Relativization.
hensible

on the

show the

relative

clause

may be taken
after

(14)

Matrix

and the

The examples

sentences..

matrix

sentence

matrix

before

can be explained

in

Clause

a complex

of

clause

relative

embedded and the

sentence

matrix

Construction

Complex

the

be
reversed.
may

order

in

given

the

has

the

in

absent

the

structure

Relative

The common pattern


Bengali

or remains

marker.

of

in

Sentence

third

any head noun

without

the head noun occurs

clause.

2.1-5

occur

in

than
(14)

Relativization

may

90
Forward

a.

je

Relativization

cheleTa

who boy-tHe

my friend'

boy who came is

my friend']

boy

Relativization

Backward

b.

he my friend

came
came is

'Who the
['The

se amar bondhu

esechilo,

Je
bondhu,
se amar

Relative
to

whether

they

In

of

cation
the

head

noun

n8un

occur

contour
which

both

that

by side

side

relative
modification.

clause

has
-In

is

as it
The role

of

and the

clause.

The process

without
the

restrictive

break

meaning

or

of

the

determining

clauses,

the

is

head

of
the

modifihead

by intonation

So the

modifies.

a defining

and

clause
any

upon

modification

the

relative

non-

modifi-

dependent

clause

clause

relative

the

clauses

relative

relative

limits

it

or

the

the

respect

with

restrictively

noun

essential

inside

and thus
the

is

with

occurs

shows

cation

head

modification.

together

that

the

restrictive

noun

accompanying

displayed

can be classified

clauses
modify

restrictively.

Clause

Relative

Restrictive

(lit)

my friend']

boy who came is

[IThe

came

boy who came'

the

my friend

'He is

2.1.6

who boy-the

friend

he my

esechilo

cheleTa

head

noun

restrictive
role
relative

in

is

pronoun

91
occurs before
tive

clause

identifies

In another

the particular

to the head noun.

referred
clause

the head noun.

It

item which is

is assumed that

is shown to be restrictive

clause

in Bengali

relative

clause

contains

replaces

the identical

Je

embedding and. the

shows partial

the coreferential

the

Pronoun, which

The, following

noun phrase.

are given to illustrate

from a

NPI. The restrictive

the head noun, whereas,

sentence contains

matrix

a relative

by being derived

sentence embedded in the structure(


relative

sense, the restric-

restrictive.

relative

examples
in

clauses

Bengali.
a.

Je

amar bandhobi,

MeeTa

'Who the
CIThe
b.

Je

C.

Je boiTa
which
'Which

a famous

singer'

who is

my friend

is

a famous

singer']

L'The

In

(17a),

relative

elaka

cinto,

se curi

this

area

knew

he stolen-has

knew this

area

has

stolen'

who knew this

area

has

'Stolen']

ami porchi,

book-the

book

book
which

Je amar bandhobi
clause

koreche

ei

thief

the

singer

is

who thief-the

thief

she famous

my friend

corTa

['The

ga,*. ika

namk3ra

is

girl

girl

'Who the

friend

my

who girl-the

se

I reading
I

seTa

sDmproti

that

recently

kena
bought

am reading

was bought

recently'

I am reading

was bought

recently']

'who is

and meeTa 'the

girl'

my friend'
is

is

the

the head noun which

92
is

by the relative

modified

pronoun

relative

occur

break

by intonation

close

juncture

or it

pronoun.

The relative

head

which

noun

that

indicates
has

been

Paying

cation
the

of

clause

one
shows

that

head
head

the

an animate

2.1.7

the

or

From this

point

In

that
area

noun

it

which
inthe

against
of view,

from

merely
(17b)

is

also

Je ei

elaka

modifiThe meaning

thieves,

but

constituted

with

These
clause

of
the

(17c)

something.

modifies.

a
is

speaker

ive-clause

are-many

them

one of

one-object

passing.

restrictive

an inanimate

sentence

words,

one the

stolen

the

other

thief".

is

clause

the

the-restrictive

'the

has

from

relatives
in

there

well

relative
noun

as the

shows

the

examples

show

can be either

noun.

Relative

A non-restrictive
rent

sentence.

corTa

noun

Non-Restrictive

information

only

out

relative

but

pick

any

exists

be removed

The relat.
areal

indicates

the
knew
who

inanimate
that

head

and. the

friends

an object

of

there

of

it

restrictively.

the

that

Non-restrictive

to.

'Who knew this

cinto

the

without

The meaning

clauses

a property

interpreted

'

and specify

noun

cannot

several
in

to

attention

mention

head

clause

relative
objects

of

the

I have

typi6ally

may be said

modifies.

referred

restrictive
set

it

by side

side

between

The head noun and the

clause.

Clause

relative

clause

the head noun which


if

the relative

provides
it

clause

diffe-

modifies.
is

separated

93
from

the matrix

of the modified

meaning

clause

provides

as-intensive

cation

referenceof

Due to the
can never
matrix
.

as it

of this

structure

as it

be deleted

(Stockwell,,

is

clause
from

the

relative
162).

1977:

kind
the

of modifi.

two sentences.
in

meaning

the nonor the

alone

without

non-restrictive
of

is

clause.
the head noun

clause

the

matrix

of the

structure

aware of the reference

information

provided

by the

and the head noun can be

un"ecessary

the

the

on the head

provided

affects

extra

overall

the modi-

can stand

type

the hearer

If

in

this

the

by the

provided

occurs

between

the head noun,

of the head noun then

separated

term

affect

sentence.

relative

620)

does not

the modification

the

information

some extra

of the antecedent

clause

affect

relative'clause

relationship

The modification
restrictive

not

head noun that

et al '(1979:

Quirk

noun.

would

In a non-restrictive

sentence.
fying

it

sentence,

clause
This

to

become

may be shown

non-restrictive
in

the

following

way:

(18)

a.

lparTeks

bes

Partex

quite

mojbut)[parTeks
strong

Partex

theke

paThkaThi
jute

from

sticks

h:)e

toiri

made is
b

parTeks
iri

__30 ce

-'.hz e

parTeks,

theke

U.paxTieksLipaTkaThl-bes"`doJbi.
mt-j
ll-z
i

Ja paTkaThi

theke

toiri

hze,

ta

bes

mojbut
'Partex,
strong'

which

is

made of

jute

sticks,

is

quite

94
of the

The embedding
that

indicates

the

clause

relative

is

noun which

is

clause

relative

noun in
is

its

quite

meaning

(Ja paTkaThi

clause
Sticks')

is

It

separated

from

indicates

the

head

shows that

or the head

bes mojbut 'Partex


the

4dding

hze

when a

the non-restrictive

(parTeks

toiri

theke

as the

'Partext:

antecedent

after

the head

'Which

relative

is

made of jute-

inessential

modifi-

noun

from

the
is

clause

above discussion

that

and is

non-defining

the head noun by a comma intonation'


of

non-existence
and the

separates

head

the

latter

is

relative

noun-from
in

modifies.

The following

the

of

nature

(18),

understood

the

that

about

in

its

restrict

relative

non-restrictive

the

constitutes

the head noun.

for

cation

jute-sticks)

the head noun provides

after

sentence

and makes it

This

or reference
In

strong').

in 'nature

clause.

made from
does not

it

which

first

the head noun (parTeks

added after

relative,

the

information

extra

non identifying

of board

kind

second sentence

provides

non-restrictive

in

second sentence

the

relative
to

examples

juncture

clause

the

are

clauses

between

The comma intonation

clause.

apposition

non-restrictive

close

any

which

head

given
in

noun
below

and

shows

it
to

show

Bengali.

(1
is applied
'Comma intonation'
here to show the
the head noun and the
of pause between
existence
in surface
relative
pronoun
structure
of any nonrestrictive
relative
clause.

95
a.

robindronath,

Jini

prokkhato

kobi,

tini

nobel

Rabindranath

who

famous

poet

he

Nobel

puroskar

peechilen

Prize

received
who was a famous poet,

'Rabindranath,

received

the Nobel Prize'


amar bondhu,

b.

friend

my

bissobiddal.

Jini

gzlpolekhok,

tini

aJ

who

story-writer

he

to-day

)Je

University-to
'My friend,
to-day

talk

Both in

information

about

are

clauses

friend

extra

of the head nouns robindroIf

'friend'.

the matrix

the

relative
it

clauses,

of the head nouns,


in

provide

clauses

the modified

would

whose referents

sentences

'Rabindranath

modifying

the

clauses

modified

and bondhu

relative

meaning
(20).

the relative

about

'Rabindranathl

in

from

peechilen

(19b),
and

information

the

the relative

deliver

will

received

robindronath
the Nobel

bissobiddalDje
boktrita
bondhu
deben 'My
aJ
and amar
,
Universityl.
to-day
to
the
talk
In
deliver
a
will

Prize'

(19a)

Universityl

the

and bondhu

separated

puroskar

nobel

to

identified

are already

-deliver-will

a story-writer,

the meaning

not-affect

talk

the referent

'Rabindranathl

nath

deVen

who is

(19b),
and

(19a)

boktrita

clauses

extraneous

head nouns robindronath

'friend'
are

provide

If

respectively.
separated

of the head nouns will

not

from

the

the head nouns,

be affected

as shown

56
(20)

Jini

robindronath,

a.

puroskar

kobi,

prokkhato

tini

nobel

peechilen

'Rabindranath,

who was a famous poet,

received

the Nobel Prize'

'Rabindranath

Jini

IMy friend,

B.

'My friend

a story-writer,

to

University'

the

deliver

will

deben

boktrita

a talk

deliver

will

aJ

deben

aJ bissobiddal-aJe

bondhu

amar

'tini

who is

to-day

Prizel

Nobel

gDlpolekhok,

boktrita

bissobiddalDje

a talk

the

received

bondhu,
amar

b.

peechilen

puroskar

nobel

robindronath

a.

to

to-day

the

University'
These

examples

relative
they
'a

poet'

to

In

pronouns,

the

relative

pronouns

said

that

the

relative
pronoun

before

the

clause

of

head

the

to

kobi

gDlpolekhok

relatives,

antecedent.

So,

in

general

way to
one is

noun

without

move the

follow

postcedents

relatives

a restrictive
is

and

non-restrictive

the

follow

a restrictive

construction

restrictive

in

while

The simplest

into

nouns

same person.

non-restrictive

postnominally.

head

and prokhato

'my friend'

rela tives

restrictive

relative

the

the

the

to

apposition

bondhu
amar
and
refer

non-restrictive

'Rabindranathl

robindronath

modify.
famous

in

are

the

of

structure

which

clauses

?story-writer'

the

show the

occur

move the

relative

pause

and to

any
clause
head

can be

a non-restrictive

change
to

it

into
noun

a nonbefore

the

change

97
pronoun

relative

a comma intonation.

with

As has been stated


the relative

clauses
it

while

occurs

is

clause
structure
clause
The use
the

the

between

distinction

(21)

the
of

the

of

head

matrix
noun

The following
in

restrictive

in

signalling

two

exemplify

se esechilo

boy who is

my friend

came'3

Je'amar

bondhu,

boy,

boy

the

of

sentence
normally

examples
relative

head

clause's
head

se esechilo

my friend,

who is

As the

is

marker.

he came

friend

my

relative

clause.

sentences

came'

Movement
restrictive

restrictive

and non-restrictive

my friend

cheleTa,
'The

the

relative

is

'Who the

b.

in

surface

important

restrictive.

amar bondhu,

who boy-the

L'The

in

relative

Bengali.

in

Je cheleTa

a.

the

very

The following

clauses.
types

clause

is

postcedent,

non-restrictive

exists

and

postcedent

comma intonation

of

relative

intonation

no such

between

in

by a comma intonation

separated
while

the

relative

in non-restrictive

the antecedent

The antecedent

restrictive

before

occurs

marker

after

clauses.

relative

in

above,

noun

as the

noun

by the

is

in

show how the


clauses.

is

in

permissible

head

separated

relative

allowed

came'

noun

from

clause,
non-restrictive
head

occurs

noun

the

inside
rest

no movement
clauses.
can be moved

98
(22)

Je

a.

lokTa

boi

bikkri

book sell

who man-the

korto,

se more gEe che

used-to

he died

Who the man used to sell


['The

(22')

man who used to


bikkri

ce

boi

-e
lokTa
j

a.

cheleTa,

Je esechilo,

se amar

bondhu

boy-the,

who came,

he my

friend

boy,

Je lokTa,

se more

gm che

korto,

se more

gm che

bikkri

is

who came,

bondhu,
amar
se

(22a),

initial

the

in

occurs

in

The deictic
in restrictive

on the
is

clauses
head

(23)

in
a.

b.
A

it

that

the

'the

of the relative

(22b),

and final

deictic

use

becomes

dei. ctic

following

of

the

after

Je in
only
head

is

it

if
noun.

amar

bondhu,

se

who

girl-the

my

friend

she came

'The

girl

girl-the
'The

Je

amar bondhu,

who my
girl,

who is

friend
my friend,

possible

only

non-restrictive

meeTa

*meeTa, *

(22c).

of this

Je-

my friend

in
in

position

occurs
This

examples.

who is

man']
clause

The nature

clauses.

and never

noun

[lokTa

use of Je 'who/which?

relative

restriction

Je esechilo

clause

position

position

medial

my friend'

cheleTa,

The head noun of the relative

shown

books has died1j

sell

boi

'The

the

books has died'

b.

korto

has

esechilo

came'
se esechilo
she came
came'

before
may be

99
is

Je 'who'

Je 'who'

comma intonation
fact

is

is

it
noun

that

its

deictic

after

the

head

formulated

2.1.8

in

However,

-Headless

as shown

either

less

relatives

shown in
(24)

This

occurs

be shown,

must
sentences

as

can be

(23b)..

in

a deletion

relatives

through

a deletion

of head

subjects.

Head-

of indefinite

can be derived

in

can be

They. can be derived

sources.,

the headed relatives

nouns or through

the head

'who?

when Je

of headless

two different

from

Relatives

The derivation
shown from

girl'

the head noun it

a comma intonation

Bengali

has

pronoun.

precedes

follows

no non-restrictive

pause

any

without

when Je 'who'

role.
noun,

as it

the head noun with

as a relative

but when it

deictic,

loses

from

separated

and occurs

shows Plearly

(23a)

in

the head noun meeTa ?the

use before

whereas,

or deictic

determinative

definitive

Bengali

in

both

ways as

(24).
Je

lokTa

who man-the

porche,

se amar bondhu

book

reading

he my

man is

reading

a book

man who is

reading

'Who the
['The

boi

book

friend

is
is

my friend'
my friendlj
aI?

Je/

le 'who' is taken here as a deictic


relative
pronoun
F-s it shows its locational
(temporal)
characteristics
in the environment
where it occurs before any noun
with a close juncture.

100

Je

a.

boi

book reading

who
'Who is
(i)

b.

se amar bondhu

porche,

(ii)

he my

a book is

reading

eekJon

amar bondhu

someone

my friend

fSomeone

is

ea kJon

friend

my friend'

my friend'

esechilo

someone

came

ISomeone came'
(iii)

Je ea kJon

esechilo,

who someone
'Someone
(iv)

ea kJon,

Je

someone

who my

shows

deleted

derivation

in

(24a).

of

the

subject

the

sentence

whereas

the

or

after

embedded
headless

it.
in

(24b)

headless

for

se esechilo

friend

he came

my friend,

relative

Sentences
a different

relatives

(cf.

shows

a different

relatives

where

'someone')

and it

25).

(Je

(23b. I,

way to

through

kind
the
is

indefinite

'who')
.
23b-ii.

show the

either

manIJ

of
is

an

deleted
se

in

'he',
pronoun
before

) can also

derivation

'the

head

pronoun
the

retains

pronoun
like

came'

ClokTa
noun

head

a coreferential

clause

relative
the

and inserts

bondhu,

relatives
the

where

(m kJon

indefinite
matrix

who is

friend

my friend'

derivationofheadless

transformation

deletion
is

the

amar

bondhu

amar

he my

came

who came is

'Someone,
(24a)

*se

of

be

101

(25)

Je amar bondhu,

(25)
the

who my

friend

'Who is

my friend

shows the

pronouns

and a correlative

(26)

a.

bought

something
bought

gave

kichu

diechilam

something

gave-

kichu

ami kinechilam

something

ami kinechilam,

what

I bought

constructing

Iwhat9
discussion

gave

which

mouke

diechilam

that

Mou-to

gave

to

with

are deleted

the headless

Moul

relative

their
for

the regular

the' different

relatives

in

clause

indefinite

markerCta

and correlative
examines

gave

ta

of a headless

sentences

diechilam

Mou-to

bought

Isomethingl

following

further

ami mouke

bought

Ja

shows the derivation

pronoun[Ja

a headless

of
is

pronoun

Moul

to

something

from two independent


kichu

a relative

source

both

where

something'

Mou-to

'What

(26)

pronoun

kinechilam

tI

for

The construction

ami kichu.

d.

deleted

are

relative

(26).

ami mouke

C.

-) a headless

an indefinite

in

'I
b.

came'

marker.

from

illustrated

he came

derivationof..

indefinite

relative

se esechilo

Ithatq.
sources

Bengali.

heads
relative
The
of

102

The occurrence
common in

Bengali.

relative

clauses

noun in

surface

structure,

or postcedent

trated

by the distinction
Je-lokTa

a.

is

relatives

Headless

cedent

(27)

of headless

amader
our

who man-the

(27a)

between

very

have no anteas illus-

(27b).
and

barite

esechilo,

se amader

house-to

came

he our

protibesi
neighbour
man came to

our

house

is

our

neighbourl

to
came
who
man

our

house

is

our

neighbourl]

lWho the
['The

21

Je

b.

who

amader

barite

our

house-to

esechilo,

se amader
he our

came

protibesi
neighbour
'Who came to
In

(27a),

tthe

mant

dropping
tration
the
the

Je

twhol

in

a restrictive
the

of
of

above

clause.
clause
clauses
of

the

in

(28).

follows

its

antecedent

lokTa
the

After

we have

an illus-

It

is

clear

is

dropped

postcedent
a headless

from
from

relative

can be shown when a relative


in

a headless

from

postcedent

clause.

becomes

it

antecedent

and becomes

its

clause.
the

if

that

The same effect

neighbourl

i. n (27b),

relative

clause

our

relative

postcedent

examples,

r. estrictive

Preceding

occurs

a headless

is

house

our

the

non-restrictive

relative

relative

after
clause.

relative
the
This

dropping
is

shown

103
(28)

a.

lokTa,

Je

man-the

who our

amader

barite

esechilo,

se amader

house-to

came

he our

protibesi
neighbour
'The
b.

house-to

who our

house,

our

amad*er barite

Je

9,

who came to

man,

is

our

neighbourl

esechilo,

se amader

came

he our

protibesi
neighbour
'Who came to
The headed
man')

is

after

dropping

The above
is

the

(with

into

a headless

noun

the

of

the

clause
complex

one major

headless

relative

relative

clauses-is

that

both

relative

there

are

headed
matrix
in

clauses
that

and correlative
no constructions

clause
a turn
m,

it

a Postcedent)

the

dropping

dropping

the

head
of

in

the

relative

clauses,

either

sentence

can occur

initially

headless

former

in
the

relatives.
sentences

pronoun.

containing
headed

containing

require

involving

head

pronouns

correlative

and sentences
the

relative

clause.

relative

between

difference

tthe

when a relative

after

and

construction

However,

of

relative

the

headless

show some restrictions

Like
or

the

Besides

clause.

structures.

the

clause

relatives

of

relative
in

relative

(lokTa

antecedent

show that
or

neighbourl

becomes

from

an antecedent

headless

their

(27,28)

relative

distribution

and

(28b)

antecedent

examples

headed

nouns,

(28a)

in
shown

its

with

clause

relative

is-our

house

our

the
That

insertion
is

a headless

to

say

104

eekTa boi

[amar

been

has not
*amar
bought

Ja
and

inserted,

is

me'

but

only

the

of

pattern

usual

the

either

first

in
as shown

the

relative

with

'Who (is)

C9

is

came?

se esechilo

my friend

(he)

came?

came']

Je amar bondhu

he came

d.

Je,

(is)
who

se esechilo,

'He

(he)

who my

(is)
came who

amar bondhu se,

friend

my friend'

Je

esechilo

my

friend

'He (is)

he

who came

my friend

Ja ammu
bought

who came'

the

is

that

matrix

correlative

who he came

friend

'My friend
['Who

and

se esechilo

my friend

bondhu
amar
my

or

ta"Ithat'

common in

-relative

he came

friend

Bengali.

ache,

very

clause

my mother

mother

following.

who my

b.

not

&. headless.

Je amar bondhu,

(29)

are

ta

Thus

with

ta

what-my

relative

clause

in

structure
amar

this

Ja.

what

sentence

sentence

correlative

relative
have

the

have a book

the

which

'I

that

have

like

sentences

allows

as the

'I

dieche

amake kine

the

mej,

in

following:

as the

'what'

However,

for

dieche

'I

dieche

show headless.

this

to

correspond

a grammatical

not

like

Sentences

So,

bought

Ja ammu kine

ache,

that

Ja ammu kine

ache,

my mother

which

it

in Bengali

clause

relative

for

me'.

Bengali.
where
sentence

pronouns,

105
e.

se amar bondhu,

Je

he my

who came

(is)

'He
The above

in

the

(30)

a.

Bengali,

The initial

clause

in

be either

the relative

following

the

must

the

d,

the

the

b) or the

(29a,

c, d, e) or
clause

the

headless

headless,

relative

clause

end of the matrix

sentence

occurs

to the

matrix

matrix

sentence

the

end of the

relative

clause

(29d).

Like

the

headed

relative

first

or

in

the

a headless

Headless
both

relative

the relative

twhat')
'he',

relative

and the
ta

fthat')

b,

c,

the

the headless

either

can

e) or
When se

sentence,

clause,

sentence

second

clause

(29d).

before

must occur

(29b).

(29b).

(29a,

initially

either

may

(29a,

relative

end of

as the. initial

se can occur

relative

p).

headless

at

clause,
occur

clause

initially

either

end of

relative

e.

can be explained

which

the headless

(29c,

sentence

Je can occur

at

construc-

manner:

When Je occurs

d.

for

possibilities

in

at

C.

who came'

a few

relatives

matrix
b.

my friend

examples*show

headless

ting

friend

esechilo

the

embed the

other

clause.

clauses

are

constructed

pronoun

(je

and Jini

correlative
and neither

marker

with
'who?,

Ja

(se, and,, tini

of them can be deleted.

106
The relative
less

as the posteedent

specific

after

relative

came'

(headless

pronouns
Ja

except
It

twhat').

relative

pronoun

relative
less
the

clauses

relative
headed

relative

pronoun

relative

with

'what,

that'

relatives
I

Je
needs
as

tumi

ta tumi

cao,

wantl

The following

you want').
occurrence
relative
(31Y a.

of different

Je

khelche,

the

inanimate
in

in
(e. g.

it

in

headless
Je boiTa

book that

pabe 'you
are

head-

The inanimate

occur

get-the

examples

'who',

occurrence

after

ta tumi

Jini

inserted

cannot

will

given

pronouns

se bhari

dusTu

he very

naughty

playing

Je

porche,

boi

'Who is
a.

that

a postcedent.

relative

'Who is

who book

(32)

esechilo

in

to

you
get

that

show the

headless

clauses.

who playing

b.

1whol,

Je

here

a postcedent

cao,

than

relative

restrictive

pabe 'you will

tumi

*Je
-),

has

clause
Je

(e. g.

Je

can be freely

as it

'who

specific

the

all

be mentioned

'what'

occur

Je lokTa

clause

allow

inanimate

Ja

are

).
man who) came?

relatives

should

does not

less

relative)-is

?who the man (the

the

relatives

(e. g. Je esechilo

pronouns

the restrictive

Headless

headless

in

pronouns

(he)

reading

reading

(is)

very

se amar

bondhu

he my

friend

(he)
book
a

(is)

naughty'

my friend'

Jini

dhumpan

korchen,

tini.

EekJon bikkhato

who

smoking

doing

he

lekhok

famous writer

107
'Who is
b.

smoking

Jini

maThe

who

field-in

'Who is

Ja

a.

in

the

tini

amader

he

our
(he)

field

Dril

sikkhok

Drill
(is)

teacher

our

instructor'

tumi

cao,

IYou will
pabe

what

get-will

tumi

pabe

that

you

get-will

na,
not

ami

buJhine

undertand-not
don't

ta

get what you want'

Ja

II

a famous writer'

running

what you want

b.

(is)

dourachchen,

running

physical

(33)

(he)

ta

km mon kore

pete

cao

that

how

get-to

want

doing

how you

understand

want

don't

you

what

expect'

(34)

a.

Jara

khelche,

tara

bhari.

dusTu

who-pl

playing

they

very

naughty

b.

J21ra

dhumpan Rorchen,

who-pl

smoking

'Who are
It
of

structures
the

headed

headless

relatives

nouns.
'what';

this

Ja tumi

caicho,

except
the

also
occurs
ta

from

constraints

only
tumi

for

after

very

tara

bikkhato

they

famous

(they)

clear

relatives,

Note

doing

smoking

becomes

(are)

(they)

Who are playing

(are)
the

writers
writers'
that

the

those

of

examples

are

identical

the

absence

to
of

the

occurrence

an antecedent

pabe. tThe. book,

lekhok

famous

above

on the

naughtyl

which

(e. g.
you

head
of

Ja

boiTa,
want,

108

that')

get

will

the book that

get

above show the

given

clause

relative

in

embedded

the

clauses

32b)

which

in headed

occur

relative
the

allow

(31a,

objects

allow

are

and the

also

or wihtout

as an indefinite

any object

after

object.

relative

clauses,

Consider

(35).

noun

and the

the

modifies

can be modified
clauses

blue

The-expensive

the

clauses,

clause

relative

a head

relative

(35)

pabe 'You

relative

same way as they

Ja does not

ordinary

Occasionally,

of the

Relatives

'Stacked
In

ta tumi

and non-restrictive

(31b,

with

as Ja occurs

the

with

The-examples

relative

Je and Jini.

32a) with

2.1.9

in

clause

caicho,

you wantt).

The headless

clauses).

tumi

(restrictive

clauses

relative

the relative

occurrence

pronouns

correlative

it,

in

(e. g. *Ja boiTa

postcedent
will

but never

are

woollen

clause
head

which

is

noun.

by several
to

said

jacket

be stacked.

was bought

by John from Jenners.


The head
clauses

noun
in

paraphrased

(35)

the
in

Jacket
deep
the

in

(35)

is

structure
following

modified

of
way:

a.

The jacket

is

expensive

b.

The jacket

is

woollen

ce

The jacket

is

blue

the

by three

sentence

which

different
may be

109
The way the

stacked

following

by the

is

relative

formed

its

example with

can be illustrated

tree-diagram.
I

(36)

a.

was 07spensive. blue

The jacket

which

was bought

by John from

and woollen

Jenners.

NP

b.
NP
I
jacket
-11
NP
I
is
jecket

Xis

Det

is

expensive

blu6,

11 en
WO-0

The-jacket

In

(36a),

and is

is

jacket

modified

further

continue

relative

clause.

by three

-Stacked
clauses

relative
for
given
(36)

English,

the head noun of the relative

to modify

the

relatives
where the

process

may

same head noun of the

are also

common in

same structural

be
observed.
may

to show the formation

c.

and this

clauses

clause,

process

The following
of stacked

Bengali
as shown

examples

relatives

in

bhvddromohil,

Jini

sundori,

bidusi,

sikkhita,

woman

who

pretty

wise

learned

labonnomoyi

hisebe

charming

reckoning-known

poricita,

are

Bengali.

tini

amader

she

our

110

bibhage

Jogdan

korechen

department-to

joined

has

'The woman, who is VeVtLt*4h)6 a pretty,


learned
d.

our department'

Je majamoe

b; )ro,

nil

cokher

odhikari,

who attractive

large

blue

eye-of

possessing

m.:)ena,
Moina

has joined

and charming,

wise,

amar bandhobi

se

girl-friend

she my

blue

who has attractive

'Moina,

is

eyes,

my girl-

friend'

In

(36c),

'learned'

fhas attractive

modifies

'has

large

clause,

the

the

and the

clauses

'wise',

sikkhita
(36d),

In

modify

the

same head noun in

third

nil

clause

eyes',

which

eyes',

head noun in

bidusi

by the first

modified

also

the head noun and is

mvena

as the head noun of the relative

occurs

odhikari

is

'charming'.

and labonnomoji

is

which

'pretty',

by sundori

modified

'Moinal

'woman'

bhoddromohila

cokher
the

is

clause

which

odhikari

majamze cokher
second clause
boro

cokher

also
'has

odhikari

the

modifies

blue

which

by the first

modified

already

clause

eyes'.

same

The way

same head noun may be shown by

paraphrase.
(37)

a.

['bh; )ddromohila
woman
Cbhoddromohila
woman

sundori][bh:
pretty

)ddromohila
woman

bidusi]
wise

sikkhit[bhD-ddromohila

labonnomoji

learned

charming

woman

ill

hisebe

poricital
known

reckoning
b.

bhoddromohila,

LJini

woman

charming
a.

eye-of

possessing

blue

[Je
moena,,
Moina

The above

clauses
adjectives

(39) a.

(39b)

[nil

clauses
basis

adjectives
and the
This

(37)

of
are

relative

with
the

eye-of

one clause
(38)
and

clauses

can be shown in

are

dami

sundor

ar

sari-the

beautiful

and expehsive

beautiful

their

the

and expensive'

it

can be

relative

reduced

(39).

sariTa

'The sar is

the

are

show the

examples,

from

in

modifying

adjectives

derived

consti-

head nouns

the

above

possessing

are

relatives

examples,

like

odhikaril

cokher

blue

large

by more than

Examples

(39a).

[barol

the

modified

On the
the

possessing

majamoe]

relative

head nouns.

eye-of

In all

deep structures.
of

odhikarij

show how stacked

Bengali.
are

cokher

who attractive

examples

shown which

said

possessing

eye-of

large

'
b.

that

odhikarij

cokher

okhikari]

Moina

stacking

known

cokher

mzena nil

in

reckoning

L m-Dena bDro
Moina

tuted

poricita]

attractive

learned

wise

hisebe

C mzena majamze
Moina

pretty

who

[labonnomoji

(38)

sundoril[bidusi[sikkhita]

to

112
.0

b.

le
b.

sariTa,

Ja

sundor

ar

sari-the

which

beautiful

and. expensive

'The

which

is

sariTa.

Ja

sundor

ar

sari-the

which

beautiful

and

se

sari

she beautiful
'She

addition

of

following
many as'six
(40)

book-the

to

the

by the
The

even more.

head noun is

by as

modified

bzro,

dami,

sundor,

notun

which

red

large

expensive

beautiful

new

seTa mouer
Mou-of

that

is

is

from

clear

large,

red,

head noun and which

clauses

in

modify

the

cation

of

follow

one after

the

sentence

the

may have

The relative
So the

another.

hand clauses
of

next

is

a
attached

one or more relative

it.

to

that

when it

as stacked

next

and stacking

discussion

above

head noun one after


right

beautiful,

expensive,

to Moul

can be taken

clause

the

or

clauses

belongs
bound
new and

relative

may be extended

clauses.

book which

It

sari'

and expensive

lal,

and bound
'The

bought

Ja

b!adhano,

ar

sari

shows the

relative

boitas

expensive

and expensive

or four

example

dami

kinechilo

of any sentence

three

and expensive'

sari

a beautiful

bought

The construction

beautiful

...

dami

ar

sundor

dami

to

relative

the

clauses
modifi-

head noun

clauses

takes

113
place

in

the

given

to

show the

sequential

structure;

clauses

and their

(41)

a.

a.

damPotto

selinar
Selina's

long

happy conjugal

poritripto

koreche

satisfied

has

'The long

happy conjugal

satisfied

to all'

in

relative

Jibon

sobaike

life

all-to

life

of Selina

chilo

selinar

Jibon,

Ja

Selina's

conjugal

life

which

was

dirgho

ar

long

and

sukhi,

ta

sabaike

poritripto

koreche

happy

that

all-to

satisfied

has

life

conjugal
has

Selina,

of

to

satisfied

which

selinar

Jibon

chilo

dirgho

Selina's

conjugal

life

was

long

of

Selina

was long

life

was long

ar

sukhi

and happy

Dresig

Tebiler

opore

baro

inci

dressing

tablets

on

twelve

inches

and happy'
dirgho
long

lal

cine

kagocer

pakhaTa

bes

dami

red

Chinese

paper-of

fan-the

quite

expensive

the

twelve

inches

dressing

table

long
is

and

all'

dampotto

conjugal

has

dampotto

'The

b.

are

no relatives

by stacked

are followed

sukhi

'The

.10

examples

paraphrases.

happy,

b.

with

dirgho

'The

-19

of clauses

stacking
these

surface

The following

order.

red
quite

Chinese

paper

fan

on

expensive'

Dresi5

Tebiler

oporer

pakhaTa,

dressing

table

on-the

fan-the

Ja

baro

inci

which

twelve

inches

114
dirgho

lal

kagocer,

ta

bes

dami

long

red Chiiiese

paper-of

that

quite

expensive

'The fan
twelve

b.

pakha

baro

inci

dirgho,

Jar

fan

which

twelve

inches

long

,
which -of

rz

lal,

Ja

cine

kagoc

colour

red

which

Chinese

paper-of

Dresi5

Tebiler

dressing

table's

fan
in

are

is

of
in

(41a)

stacked

on the

Both

clauses
process

allows

clauses

to

(42)

to

modify

inches
is

in

generate
the

clauses

the

Ja chilolbondorer

house-the

which

was port-of

which

paperp

is

show different

(41a,

the

of
the

Stacking

structure

noun

(41a)

b').

stacked

head

nouns

(Jibon

non-human

an infinite

bariTa,

made

Chinese

(41b),

and
are

same head

ja

which

paraphrases

(41b)).

in

toiri,

length,

(41),

in

(41a)

in

die

table'

given

show the

in

made of

dressing

'fan'

show recursion

is

clauses

relative

and pakha

on

relative
to

given

ack,: k

ten

are

stacked

opore

which

which

clauses.

the

is

which

colour,

examples
of

is

paper,

Ja

structures

relative

is

which

and made of Chinese

long

inches

which

and

table,

on the dressing

expensive'

red

(41')

(is)

quite

'the

The two

cine

of

and the
number

of

'life'

relative
recursive
relative

(cf-42).

kache][sakor

pare]

near

near

culvert-of

115
Lnarkol
coconut

gacher

nice3[Dhibir

oporel[baro

tree-of

under

on

[girJar
church-of

dike][Jomidar

barir

left

side

house-of

EekaDemir

sompotti

Fine-Arts

Academy's

property

way,

the
left

2.1.10

coconut

tree,

on the

to the

church,

near

is

Embedding

there

relativization

embedding,

completely
in

embedded

(43)

ta

es khon

that

now

culvert,
the

Landlord's

high

house,

Academyt

where
in

the

the

embedding

relative

clauses,

Partial
complete

The following

embeddings

in

Bengali

porchen

gentleman

book

reading

gentleman

is

reading

is

relative

a book'

bh; )ddrolok

bhasat-ptter

oddhapok

gentleman

Linguistics-in

teacher

not

embedding
embedding

examples

Embedding
boi

and also

sentence

sentence.

Bengali

In

another.

subordinated

main

subordination

syntactic

into

bhzddrolok

'The
b.

near

by the

Arts

regular

relatives.

and partial

Complete
a.

near

mound, near
the

of

inserted
both

is

restrictive

non-restrictive

complete

way-of

kache],

port,

Fine

a process
is

one sentence

which

occurs

of the

dharel

Embedding

partial

the

was near

which

now the property

is

in

zemindar

silpo-kola

under

high

ba

'The house,

in

mound-of

rastar

show
clauses.

116
'The
C9

d.

gentleman

is

a teacher

in

Linguistics'

bhzddrolokLbhDdd-rolok

bhasat3tter

oddhapok]

gentleman

Linguistics-in

teacher

gentleman

boi

porchen

book

reading

bhzddrolo

Jini.
01

gentleman

who

bhasatatter

oddhapok],, tini

boi

Linguistics-in

teacher

book

he

porchen
reading
'The
is
e. -

who is

gentleman,

reading

a teacher

in

Linguistics,

a bookt
boi

bhoddrolok[Jini

tini

porchen],

bhasatvtter

oddhapok
'The

in

teacher
(44)

bh; ddrolok
'The

b.

boi

porchen
is

is

is

oddhapok

a teacher

bhjddrolok[bhasat-ptter

ZjJe

bhoddrolok

reading

in

Linguisticst

oddhapok]boi

Linguistics-in

who gentleman
porchen

a book'

reading

bhasatztter

gentleman

gentleman
d.

a book,

Linguistics,

gentleman

bh; ddrolok
'The

ce

reading

Embedding

Partial
a.

who is

gentleman,

bhasatDtter
Linguistics-in

teacher

book

porchen
reading

oddhapok]tini
teacher

he

boi
book

'

117
fWho the

who is

gentleman

H[Je,

Linguistics

in

is

a teacher

in

porche4j,

tini

bhasatDtter

he

Linguistics-in

Linguistics

is

a book']

reading
e.

a teacher

a book'

reading
[The

is

gentleman

boi

bh; ddrolok

book

who gentleman

reading

oddhapok
teacher
the

Who

[fThe
in
The complete
shown

the

and

the

of
d)

deletion

reading

a book

is

a teacher

eMbeddings

b)

the

of

d,

second

do not

sentence
shows
and in

the

second

in

the

identical

head

the

a coreferential

the

first

sentence

of

partial.
is

the

head

in

the

noun

is

the

head

second

into
the

deleted

after

matrix

where

'he').

moved to

one

other

the

the

(tini

second

the

from

sentence
is

the

Sentences

embedding

pronoun

sentence
and the

into

into

noun

deleted

first

e).

embedding,

embedded

are

(43d)

first.

the

are

embedding

d,

sentence

partially

embedding

(44e)

first

sentences

sentences

(44c,

and

show complete

shows

simple

and the

only

(44e)

for

e)

b)

sentence

bhoddrolok''gentleman'

noun

(44a,

and

the

of

The simple

sentences.

(43a,

of

sentence.

the

who is

and partial

being

sentence

a teacher

embedding

(44c,

like

is

shown in-(43c,

is

(43e)

a book

Linguistics?

in

the

shows

gentleman

above

illustrated
process

reading

Linguistics'

in

in

is

gentleman

* (44d)
the

second,

place
for

of
a

lis

coreferential

pronoun.
The way sentences

are

explained

through

process.

can occur

initially,

structure

or right-embedding,

embedding,
equally

Kuno (1974:
the

in Bengali

possible

comprehensibility

relati-ve

necessarily

does not

of clauses,
the

following

(45)(Je

cheleTa

fliho
[fThe
(45),

is

left-

are

According

also

reduces

a SOV language,

and right-embedding

in

2.1.10.2.

se amar

bondhu

came

he my

friend

my friendl

boy who came is

my friend']

is

'He is

bondhu

esechilq,

boy

left-embedded
my friend'.

deictic

Je cheleTa

clause

relative

in

the

This

matrix

sort

of

esechilo
sentence
embedding

clause.

Centre-Embedding

cheleTa, lje
boy-the

esechilol,

who came

se amar bondhu
he my

to

does not

comprehensibility.

came is

the

the

who came'

(46)

types

Consider

examples.

who boy-the

only

This

which

centre-

Left-Embedding

2.1.10.1

In

reduce

can be

SOV languages

in

-like

but where centre-embedding,

it

clauses.

sentences..

to Bengali,

apply

three

and all

NP

a complex

left-embedding,

118) centre-embedding
of

in

Kuno (1974)

Following

can be either

embedding

The
relativized
-

or finally

medially

of sentences.

that

said

syntactic

be

embedded can also

friend

'The

boy

se amar
is

found

119

'The boy,
The above

example
in

possible

in

embedded
is

boy

the

the
used

amar

is. found

shows
(46)

centre-

is

centre-

bondhu
only

'The
in

non-

clauses.

durgh; )Tonae

gztokal

mara

gm che

se lokTa,

accident-in

yesterday

died

has

he man-the

yesterday

in

bikkri

a5ur

has
man

sell

grapes'

clear
possible

to

from
in

died

the

sell

In

grapes'

durghaTonae

yesterday

in

above

Bengali

clause.

relative

korto]

sold

'The

sentence
died

cheleTa

Centre-embedding

who grapes

also

came? in

equally

Right-Embedding

LJe

is

sentence

matrix

(46)

Bengali.
'who

Je esechilo

relative

2.1.10.3

It

in

clauses

my friend'.

restrictive

(47)

relative

is

centre-embedding

shows'that

neatly.

embedding

my friend'

who came, is

is

that

example

where

the

(47),

Je anur

gztokal

mara

who used

to

is

right-embedding

matrix

right-embedded

accident'.

accident

sentence

bikkri

korto

in

matrix

the

gee che lokTa

'The

precedes
'Who

man has

120
Noun Phrase

2.2

2.2.1

The Position

of

Relative

clauses

a complex

of

to

an important

deals

1979b)
the

with

clauses.

Their

definition

of

the

following

important

to

function

'oYthe
.

show actual
differ-with

relativized.

noun

phrase

relativization.

Keenan

Noun Phrase

Acoessibility-Hierarchy

of

clause.

definition

of

the

and Gomrie's

by relative

is

based

on semantic

They

(1977:

63-64)

essentially

relative

plays

phrases

noun

in

positions

can be easily

modification
study

different

and how they

clauses

the
in

role

(1977,1979a,

is

NP positions

standpoint

in

occur

relative

which

From this

NP

the

It

sentence.

distributions
respect

Accessibility

restrictive

give

relative

clause:
to be an RC
"We consider
any syntactic
object
(perhaps
if it
specifies
a set of objects
a
in two steps:
set)
a larger
one-member
set
the
domain
called
specified,
of relativiis
to some subset
and then restricted
zation,
the restricting
sentence,
of which a certain
is
true.
The domain of-Felativisentence,
is
in
by
expressed
surface
zation
structure
the Head NP, and the restricting
by
sentence
dlause,
the ericting
which maylook
more or
less like
depending
a surface
sentence
on the
language.
"
Distinguishing
propose
explained

(48)

the

different

three
in

Hierarchy
the

book that

following

Robin

RC-forming
Constraints
example:

likes

strategies,

they

(1977: 67)-. '. This

can be

The relative

clause

head noun of the relative


Restricting
in

their

it

depend on the place

strategies
restricting

If

the restricting

clause

Strategy,

the Postnominal

the Restricting

occurrence

of the

If

head noun it
the

itself

clause

before

occurs

in

forming
-

Postnominal,

Strategy.

whereas,

the Restricting

Strategyp

the

the

the

clause

clause

after

occurs

is

Relative

the Prenominal

exemplifies

relative

of

likes

and may be Prenominal,

clause

Internal.

is

deep structures.

book is

where the

Robin

clauset.

clause--, Robin likes

sentence

noun it

(48)9

shown in

is

or

the head
the

exemplifies
Internal

case of

the head

contains

noun.
-A

on the

depending

(i.

strategies
forming

strategies
Keenan

a.

clause

pre-

the
is

head

postnominal

clauses

found

are

strategy.

and postnominal

relative

forming

in

strategies

clause

examples

various
in

Postnominal

Relative

Clause

lokTa,

Je

tas

man-the

who cards

a relative

and internal)

of

Bengali,

though

are

common than

three

clauses

ways

The three

more

the

Colloquial

clauses

relative

of

nouns

In

show the

will

in

restrictive.

prenominal,

relative

The following

(49)

the

of

and postnominal

internal

Bengali,

e.

relative

prenominal
the

positions

and whether

clause

can be formed

clause

relative

are

common.

different

as mentioned

by

and Comrie.

'The man, who is

Strategy

khelche,

se amader protibesi

playing

he our

playing

cards,

is

neighbour
our neighbourl

122
b.

Prenominal

Relative

khelche,

se lokTa

amader

protibesi

playing

he man-the

our

neighbour

tas

who cards
'Who is
['The

playing

playing

Relative

duTo putul

two

which

doll

man is

our

neighbourv

is

our

neighbour?

cards

Clause

ami Je

Strategy

the

cards

man who is

Internal

c.

Clause

(lit)
]

Strategy

kinechilam,

ta

mouke

bought

that

Mou-to

diechi
given-have
have

'I

The kead
.
clause

I'The

two

noun

lokTa

(49a)

in

two

given
dolls

dolls
I

which

'the

man'

Mou which

bought

I have

before

occurs

the

and shows

to

Postnominal

I bought?

(lit)

to

Moul]

given

the

relative

occurrence

of

relative

clause

Je tas

khelche

'who

is

playing

cards'.

The relative

clause

Je tas

khelche

'who

is

playing

cards'

the

occurs

the

showing
internal
occurs

the

before

clause
the

inside

of

the

in

(49c).

tthe

two

(49c)

by ami Je duTo 'I


kinechilam

lbought'

sentence.

It

strategy

which

domi. nates

the

shows that

should

two'

which

relative

clause.

the

noun

head

Je duTo

bought'
the

in

is

are non-null
here

'doll'

putul

(49c).
clause

clause
followed
elements
that

In

putul

internal

internal

and it

be mentioned

(49b)

in

man'

clause-ami

dolls

which

'the

the

of

relative

sentence

matrix

lokTa

noun
use

prenominal

relative

kinechilam

head

is

The NP
shown

preceded

by
in

the

as the relative

123
pronoun

may occur

becomes difficult
of forming

different

Clause

the

after
This

is

the relative

shows the

the relative

(AH)

(1977: 66)
state

positions

for

Hierarchy

interprets

allows
This

right.
Hierarchy

(50)

a.

(49b).

occurs

pronoun

The Internal

antecedent
a deictic

usually
relative

occurs
clause.

of the head noun inside

occurrence

dependency

relative

relativization

of

may be discussed

Constraints.

in

The three

of

and

Hierarchy
the

NP

The Accessibility
clause.

all

Keenan

Acqessbility

relationship

languages.
the

hierarchy

the

proposed

different

by them

stated

coreferential

a Universal

have

the

to

which

the

in

the

Hierarchy

To establish
Comrie

(49a),

clause.

Accessibility

2.2.2

here when the ante-

when the antecedent

clause

pronoun

perspec-

(49) to outline
.
that the Postnominal

clause

defined

where the

defined

strategy

defined

after

the relative

following
Strategy

is

sentence

matrix

is

the relative

Strategy

Prenominal

given

can be said

Strategy

before

occurs

cedent

are

it

strategies,

Relative

in

which

in

it

strategies

From this

Bengali.

in

clauses

examples

the head noun,

or after

to show different

sometimes

relative

the

tive,

before

either

formation
from

positions
relation
Universal

to

a set

strategy,
left
of

Conditions

are:

A language

must have a primary

relative

clause

to

124
forming

a language
b.

If

This

strategy.
must

language

any

relativization

indicated

relativizing

the

to

to

relativize

is

to

apply

to

any

able

higher

Clause

segment

a coninuous

the

primary

lower

position,

capable

positions

also.

indicates

that

Formation

Strategy
the

of

that

a subject.

is

it

above)

strategy

relativization
Relative

be able

strategy

(as

then

indicates

strategy

is

of
This
any
applicable

Accessibility

Hierarchy.
A primary

C.

relativization
to

applicable
Hierarchy

one point

may cease

strategy

that

the

Accessibility

of

to

when applied

is

any lower

point.
In

the

case

satisfied.

of

Bengali,

All

noun

the

first

phrases

in

(50a)

condition
subject

is
can be

position

relativized.
The second

or

to

apply
the
to

lower

all

direct

Hierarchy
relativize

the

of
and

object
Constraint
all

The third
as all

strategy

positions

positions

can apply
Object

the

directly

if

any

to

object

given
of

and indirect

strategy,

subject.

are

that

states

NP, Oblique

Genitive

Comparison,
to

forming

clause

relative

constrairt

All

then
the

object

it

can also

positions
to

applicable

of
Bengali

Positions.
constraint
of

the

can be ignored
Hierarchy

Constraint

for

Bengali
are

easily

125
to it

accessible

is

and there

no cut

for

point

off

any NP

position.
Hierarchy

The Accessibility
(1977)

and Comrie

NP in

the

hierarchy,

that

are

shown in

are

taken

as the

is

DO >

10 >

used

to

in

items
SU:

oCOMP:

basis

following

constituent
constitute

is

leftmost

points

for

to

relati-

The NP positions
NPs

and rightmost
a primary
the

present.

this

easier

right.

the

OBL

GEN >

show the

strategy

of

Accessibility

OCOMP

relatively

more

accessible

a sentence,
DO:

Subject;

Object;

its

to

can be

Hierarchy:

Accessibility
SU

off

cut

According
position

to

between

and these

as follows:

is

Hierarchy

the

left

the

The way they

any language.

On the

Bengali.

any NP position

than

NP positions,

six

in

directly

relativized

vize

shows

by Keenan

outlined

OBL:
Object

of

the

Major

relative

Oblique

Object;

10:

Case

NP;

Indirect
GEN:

Genitive;

of-Comparison3

above

examples
orders

Direct

of

Accessibility

can be stated
the

clause.

head

nouns

Hierarchy
after
in

showing

a sentence

(51),
the
which

126
2.2.2.1
(52)

Subject
a.

Relativization

bhzdromohohila,

Jini

gan

gaichen,

tini

naritte

woman

who

song

singing

she

women-lib-

bissasi
in

believe

'The

who is

woman,

believes

singing,

in

women's

liberation'
b.

amar bondhu,

Jini

sahittik,

tini

k-oleJer

my friend

who

writer

he

College-in

a writer,

is

oddhapok
teacher
who is

'My friend,

Object

Relativization

2.2.2.2

Direct

(53)-a.

mzena mach r"adche,


fish

Moina
'Moina
b.

cooking

is

cooking

mvena boi

porche,

Moina

book

teacherl

a college

reading

Ja

mou khete

bhalobase

which

Mou eat-to

likes

fish

Mou likes

which

to

Ja

mou sDkale

which

Mou morning-in-the

eat'

kineche
bought-has
IMoina
the
The strategy
(53a)

and

is

reading

a book

which

Mou has

bought

in

morning'
of

(53b).

the

relativizing
mach

'fish'

direct

and boi

object
'book'

is
occur

shown

in

as direct

127,
in

objects
nouns
the

in

the

the

relative

above

sentences,

matrix

Object

Indirect

2.2.2.3

The indirect
direct
direct

object

Bengali

object

in

literary

given

are

to

show the

are

head
in

replaced

marker

Ja

usually

occurs

before

it

may be placed

relative

'which'.

Relativization

object

in

they

whereas

the

for

clauses

as the

retained

and are

examples

though

relativization

the

of

the

after

The following

style.

the

examples
indirect

object.

(54)

a.

meeTa,

Jake ami boi

girl-the

whom I

diechilam,

se amar

book gave

she my

szhopaThi
class-mate
to whom I gave the

'The girl

book is

my class-

mate'
b.

lokTa,

Jake

man-the

whom Moina

'The

man to

moena Taka

dese,

se gorib

bee bosaji

money gives

he poor

businessman

whom Mona gives

money is

a poor

businessman?
The relativizing
above
'the
which

examples.
man'
are

occur
replaced

of

the

indirect

The head
as the
in

nouns

indirect
the

relative

object

is

meeTa

'the

objects
clause

in

shown

in

girl'

and lokTa

(54a)
with

and
Jake

the

(54b)
'whom'.

128

2.2.2.4

Oblique

Object

Relativization
(1977: 66) define

Keenan and Comrie


cases as those

The following

main predicate'.
Bengali

?express

which

noun phrases

examples

major
arguments

of the

may be given

from

of the main predicate

where arguments

oblique

are expressed

by noun phrases.
(55)

a.

mou Je

almarir

moddhe boi.

Mou that

almirah-of

in

ta

rekhechilo,

book put

that

bhep - gee che


has

broken

in which

'The almirah
In

(55a),

'almirah'

almarir

headnoun
case

which

main predicate

in

in

the

relative

pronoun

should

be mentioned

NPs can also


of oblique
items

which

pronouns.

turn

is

Ithatl
here

This

that

place

(55)

NP

floor-on

to

[meJhete
floor-on-the

oblique

an argument

of the

'almirah'

occurs

by the
matrix

inanimate
sentence.

the locative

It

and comitative

show the relativization

of the

examples

of. locative

i. jmeJhe

the

here

The following

Locative

show the

may be relativized

are used in

books has broken'

almarir

replaced

the relativization
b.

used to

expressed

in

be introduced

NPs..

is

sentence.

head
the
noun which
as
ta

Mou put

with
inanimate

are

shown to

and comitative

other

lexical

relative
illustrate
NPs.

ami bosechilamldhulote
I

sat

dust-with

129
bhorti
covered
LmeJhe jJekhane

ii.

floor

floor

bhorti3

dust-with

sat

which

sat

was covered

with

so5ge

ami

posTophise

giechilam,

se

post

went

he

where

covered
dust'

NP

Comitative

Co

where

'The

dhulote

ami bosechilam)ta

lokTa,

Jar

man-the

whom with

office

amar bondhu
my

friend

'The

man, with

whom I went

to

post

relativized

is

shown in

is

office,

my

friend'

The way a locative

NP is

the head NP meJhe 'floor'


(not

marker
the

pattern,
the

Like

clause.

the

matrix

(55c)

the

marker

relative

shows the
examples
without

ta

shows the

where the head noun lokTa


Jar

show that
the
It

regular
should

'where'-(exemplified

'whom'.
use in

coreferential

the Locative
relative

twherel

relative

in

sentence

'which/thatl-is

(55b))

Comitative

used in

NP relativi-

?the

man' is

Like

(55b),

the

matrix

replaced
(55c)

with

also
These

sentence.

NPs can be relativized

markers

be mentioned
in

Jekhane

the head noun.

after

Sentence
zation

the usual

where

with,. a non-relative

marker)

marker

correlative

sentence

replaced.

relative

a regular-

relative

is

(55b)

here

in

Bengali.

that

and Jzkhon

though
'when'

Jekhane
are not

130
true

relative

'where'

be interpreted

can also

place'

and Jakhon

'which

+ time?.

when the

'when'

tthen'
its

of functioning

capable

structure
Ithen'

the
shows

fthat

+ time'.

khon

independent

they
tokhon

the

pattern

same was as

JDkhon

'when'.

as ta +

khon

Bengali

as an

word.

NP-R-elativization

Genitiv-e

(56)

m;)ena,

Jar

Moina

whose sari

purono

bandhobi

old

sari

ami dhar

korechilam,

se

did

she my

borrow

amar

friend

'Moina,
b.

in

used in

is

nouns,

use. against

is

khon

shows that

pronouns.

be analyzed

'time'

2.2.2.5
a.

inanimate

structural

Ja +

words

as relative

shows the deictic

Je 'which/that'

pronoun

can also

correlative

tokhon

of these

some other

with

'which

can be interpreted-as

relative

added as a prefix.

Jekhane

relatives.

as Je + khane

The structure

inanimate

of these

patterns

use of Bengali

show the deictic

words

are

The structural

words.

I borrowed,

whose sari

is

my old

mou,

Jar

putul

ami niechilam.,

se-

Mou,

whose

doll

she my

took

friendt

amar

sDhopaThi
class-mate
fMou,

whose

In the above examples

doll

took,

is

my class-mate'

maena and mou are

shown as the head

131
nouns in

the

are deleted

matrix
in

the relative

the

genitive

the

coreferentiality

of the deleted.

Object

of

moena, Jar

a. '

twhoset

Jar

cee

whose than

Moina

identical

nouns

and were replaced

clauses

marker

Relativization

2.2.2.6

(57)

relative

the

whereas

sentences,

with

and se tshel

show

noun phrases.

Comparison

of

kzlejer

mou lomba,

se

Mou tall

she college-of

oddhapika
teacher
than

'Moina,
the
b.

whom Mou is

taller,

is

a teacher

of

college'

bariTa,

Jar

cee

gachTa

choTo, -ta

house-the

which

than

tree-the

short

house,

'The

than

which

the

tree

is

amader

that

ours
is

shorter,

ours'
The object

of

whom IMoul

is

with
the

which
head

sentence

2.2.3

comparison

noun

by Jar

Relative

'tree'

phrases

(57b)

in

compared;

gach

(57a)

in

is

Clause

are

Hierarchy

Constraints

is

bariTa

'the

with
house',

mpena and bariTa

replaced
'of

Forming

Strategy

(1977:

'Moinal,

mpena

and Jar

Keenan and Comrie


for

it

compared.

which

'whose'

is

in

the

are

relative

whichl.

67-95)

(HCs) and later

state

three

describe

the

rules

132
Primary

Relativization

Relative
their

with
in

their

language
that

here
their

following

table

system

forming

Clause

strategy

forming

languages

selective

which

is
is

a sister

languages,

cognate

in. many respects.

Bengali-. to

After
the

show its

and relatiVizable

positions.

StrategyjRelativizable

positions

Sub 10 DO Obl

1.

Prenom,

2.

Postnom,

3.

Internal,

The relative

the

with
2.2-3.1
(59)

a.

+ Case

forming

which

following

Gen OCOMP

++++++

+ Case

clause

positions

zable

+-Case

included

be mentioned

should
are

not

by Keenan and Comrie,

outlined

can be made for

clause

Relative

It

differ

and morphology

the

Hindi,

and Hindi

Bengali

though

They show the

Bengali

included.

of Bengaliis

following

(58)

however,

discussion;

of

positions.

relativizable

syntax

relative

Strategies

Forming

clause

(PRC).

Consraint

++++

++++-+

strategies

are

+.

shown

in

with
(58)

their

relativi-

can be elaborated

examples.

frenom,

+ Case

Subject

Position:

11
szkalbeelae
morning-in-the

Je

esechilo,

who came

se

meeTa

she girl-the

cole
left-has

gm che.

133
'Who came in
I'The
b.

Direct

Jake

you

whom saw
saw the

Object

ami Jake

boi

whom book

'The

to

girl

Oblique

se

meeTa

is

girl

whom you

girl

morning

girl

has lefttl

she girl-the

Indirect

d.

dekhechile,

tumi

UThe

the

has ieftt

Position:

Object

'Whom you

ce

the morning

in
came
who

girl

she the

saw is

amar

bandhobi

my

friend

my friend'
my friendt]

Position:
diechilam,

se

meeTa

amar

gave

she girl-the

my

whom I

gave

the

book

bandhobi
friend

my friend'

is

Case NP Position:

mou. Jekhane

aaTi

rekheche,

Mou where

ring

put-has

se
that

baksoTa

dekhte

box-the

look-to

sundor
beautiful
has
Mou
Where
put
.?
beautiful'
I'The

the

ring,

that

box looks

(lit)*

box that

Mou has put

the

ring

in

looks

beautiful']
e.

Genitive
ami
I

korechilam,

Jar

boi

dhar

whose

book

borrowed

bandhobi
friend

NP Position:
se

mou amar

she Mou my

134
'Whose
I'Mou
f.

book

whose

is

I borrowed

book

my friend']

Comparison

Position:

mou lomba,

se

whom than

Mou tall

she girl-the

'The

whom Mou is

Object

of

Jar

cee

girl

(lit)

she Mou is. my friendf

I borrowed

meeTa

bon

Anitats

sister

is

than

taller

anitar

Anita's

sister'

2.2'. 3.2

Postnom, + Case

(60)

Subject

a.

Position:

lae
sokalbEe

the

morning-in

b.

girl-the

who came

bol
kTa
es
meeTa
a

she gone-has
has left'

morning

Position:

Object

girl-the

se Cole gee che

esechilo,

who came in-the

'The girl
Direct

Je

meeTa,

Ja

kineche,

ball

bought-has

dekhte

which

look-to

which

looks

sundor
beautiful
'The
Ce

girl

Indirect
ami
I

has

bought

Object

a ball

Position:

meeTa,

Jake

girl-the

whom book

'The_girl

whom I

beautiful'

boi

gave

diechilam,

se amar bandhobi

gave

she my

the. book

is

my friend'

friend

135
d.

Oblique

Case NP Position:

ami

bakso,

Jar

bhetore

aDTi

rekhechilam,

seTa

box

which

in

ring

put

that

notun
new
'The
e.

box

which

malik,
owner

shop's

the

ring

is

new'

Ja`r

rzmnae

ea kTa

dokan

ache,

whose

Ramna-in

shop

has

tini

bes

bhzddro

he

quite

gentle

'The

shop's

owner,

whose

shop

in

the

Ramna,

is

gentlef

quite

of Comparison

Object
meeTa,

Jar

girl-the

whom than

'The

I put

NP Position:

Genitive
dokaner

f.

in

cee

Position:
mou lzmba,

se

Mou tall

she Anita's

whom Mou is

girl

taller

than

bon

anitar

is

sister

Anita's

sister'

2.2.3-3-

Internal,

(67)

Subject

a.

+ Case
Position:

ciriakhanae

Je

horinTa

ache,

ta

sundorbon

zoo-in

which

deer-the

is

that

Sunderban

theke

ana

from

brought

136
is

'The deer which

zoo was brought

the

in

from

Sunderban'
b.

ce

Direct

Position:

Object

moena Je

boiTa

notun,

ta

porchilo

Moina

book-the

new

that

reading-was

that

'Moina

was reading

Indirect

Object

the

book

was new'

which

Position:

boi
kTa
ae
mzena
Moina

book

mou Jake

diechilo,

se

Mou whom-to

gave

she her

tar

bandhobi
friend
'Moina
[lMou,

d.

a book

gave
to

whom Moina

to

Mou who was her


a book,

gave

friend'
friend']

was her

Oblique

NP Position:

mou Je

bakser

moddhe aoTi

rekheche

ta

dekhte

Mou which

box-of

in

put-has

that

look-to

ring

sundor
beautiful
box

'The

that

Mou has

put

her

in

ring

looks

beautiful'
e.

Object
Je

of

meeTar

who girl's
'The
sistert

girl

Comparison

Position:

cee

mou lZmba.,

se

than

Mou tall

she Anita's

whom Mou is

taller

anitar

than

is

bon
sister
Anita's

137
The above
the

relative

show that

any

i. e.

Comrie,

applying

or

the

minor

which

either

NPs may occur


From

the

in

Bengali

of

head

following:

ami

saw a deer',
after
pronoun

which

pronouns

relative

the

may occur

shows

or

after

the

of

the

I
either

and the

internal

the

either

before

head

the

verb
or

internal.
internal

the
nouns.

.
of head

nouns

position

after

the

becomes

like

the

saw)

'I

or

(I

a deer
'deer'

and the

after

the

internal

clause

NP Iforin

before

that

occurrence

dekhechilam

internal

and before

in

am defining

occurs

Ee kTa horin

where
subject

(61)

correlative

without

nouns

in

clauses,

relative

nouns

before

circumstance

above

head

relative

the

wi-th

may

noun

the

sentence

of

illustrated

is

head

with

along

matrix

The occurrence

correlative.
clause

the

patternin

along

sentence

matrix

some difficulty

is

as the

clause

It

propo sed by them.

there

Bengali,

relative

the

in

in

model

the

be in

pronoun
or

the

that

and

and internal.

positions

here

can occur

by Keenan

postnominal,

be mentioned

should

either

strategies

These

Bengali

NPs in
outlined

relativizable

(1977).

and Comrie

relativizable

prenominal,

the

all

allows

in

three

the

of

the

show

and relativizable

strategies

by Keenan

underlined

clearly

It

forming

clause

positions

in

examples

to

illustrated

are

which

horin

occurs
relative
(cf-49c).

138
2.2.4

Recent

Studies

Later

Hindi.

on the relative-clause

formation

first

pronoun.
clause

which

to the

case,

both

use the

same postposition.

here

differs

with

forming
sentences

(the

a.

and to

are

for

examples

though

in

to

it

other

Hindi

are

the

the

It

same
it

noun,

respects.

To

relative

clause

and Comrie,
rule

from

an

relative

has

the

show the

cite

of

main verb.

after

by Keenan

here

given

right

may form

illustrate

described

strategy

Bengali

Hindi

The relative

to the

Postpositions

from

comparison

the NPs and the

of the

but

same process;

considerably

the
make

that

restricting
by a

(1979a: 338)

right'

clauses

introduced

to the left'or

to the

Hindi,
as

structure

of the

In this

occurs

by the

clauses

left
is

in

strategy

relative

clause

be mentioned

should

(62)

placed

commenting

forms

Keenan and Comrie

main verb.

example

Hindi

Hindi

either

may occur

clause
the

place,

and the restricting

restricting

gave further

Hierarchy,

NP
is
the
head
where

relative

(1979a)

of the Accessiblity

In the

clause

Comrie

and

Keenan and Comrie

exemplification
in particular

by Keenan

for

Keenan

similar

Bengali

and

and Comrie).

Bengali
mithun

sei

churiTa

Mithun

that

knife

lokTa

murgi

man-the

chicken

'Mithun

saW the

the

chicken'

dtLkhechilo,

Ja

die

oi

saw

which

with

that

keTechilo
killed
knife

with

which

the

man killed

139
b.

Hindi
ram ne us

caakuu

ko dekhaa

Jis

se

us

Ram SU that

knife

DO saw

which

Inst

that

aadmi

ne murgi

ko maaraa

man

-SU chicken

DO killed

knife

'Ram saw the

thaa

with

man killed

the

which

the

chicken'
The main

the

follow

(Mithun,

nouns

the

in

NP occurs

replaced

by a relative

sentence

follows

the

The examples

for

the

(the

contrast

the

NP
rel

338)

(where

is

Hindi

Hindi,
head

This

is

matrix

type

found

also

where

noun

and the

clause.

and Hindi
for

the

shown

also

for

position

strategy

example

have

strategy

restricting

Bengali

no Postpositions,

chicken).

(1979a:

pronoun)

forming

clause

relative

Bengali

knife,

forming

clause

relative

head

in

and Comrie

Keenan
another

that

is

difference

in

of
Bengali.

are

given

here

to

is

taken

from

Keenan

show

and Comrie).

(63)

a.

Bengali
lokTa

Je

churi

die

murgi

keTechilo

man-the

which

knife

with

chicken

killed

ta/seTa

mithun

dekhechilo

that

Mithun

saw

'Mithun

saw the

the

chicken'

knife

with

which

the

man killed

140
b.

Hindi
aadmii

ne Jis

man

SU which

caakuu

se

margi

ko maaraa

knife

Inst

chicken

DO killed

us

caakuu

ko ram ne dekhaa

that

knife

DO Ram SU saw
knife

'Ram saw the

with

man killed

the

which

thaa,

the

chicken'

is

'that'
in
the

is

which

the

as in

ta/seTa
'knife'

churi

Instead

'that?,

Bengali,

that

for

Hindi.

ta/seTa
in

is

element
in

retained

may be used

tknifel

of

head

using
noun

Hindi,

but

1979b)

Noun

this

common.

not

Keenan

approach
they

2.2.5

of

Hierarchy

made the

Maxwell's

Maxwell

following

strategies

more

the

Givon's
is

(1979)

strategies
account

a sort

based on surface

traditional

difference

is

explicit.

Proposal

GivOn (1975).

and extended
(1975).

rules

on the

The only

has also

of Relativization

of strategies

based

is

theory.

grammatical

have

(1977,1979a,

and Comrie's

Accessibility

Phrase

that

is

element,

coreferential

churi

and Hindi

as a coreferential

used

Bengali,

Bengali

between

The similarities

proposed

and NP Accessibility,

In his

approach,

proposed
of relative

of functional

structure

new formulations

properties

he has modified
by Givon

originally
clause

forming

classification
of a language

and is
and is

141
not

different

entirely

proposed
tional

strategies

Anaphoric

Pronoun
(Rel-S),

Strategy

Givon

Npre

his

criteria,
clause.

However,

proposed

by Maxwell
(1979: 359)

Maxwell's
Comriets

Internal

between

Maxwell's

the

(for

deletion

on surface

WO-S),
of

combination

and Giv6n's

included

has

former

Case)

way the

formulations

diagram,

following

Pronoun

and Prenom
in

to

the

restricting

Keenan

Strategy.
that

strategies

and Comriels.
Keenan

with

The only
the

properties,

transformational

devices
(for

classiwhile
like

Pro-S),
(for

and transformation
may be stated

and

difference

latter's

structure

differ

in

the

Rel-S).

The

following

(1979: 364).

Maxwell

6
Keenan

Inter

Bengali

GivOn's
Bengali

in

the

& Comrie

Givon-Maxwell

Transformational

NR-S

Base-generated

+ Case

case-coding

following

strategy

manner:

'

positional

of

synonymous

is

(NR-S).

Strategy

pronominalization

movement

Gap Strategy,

formulations

identical

distribu-

Relative

appear

the

NR-R is

(+

based

is

fication

not

some of
are

(WO-S),

Postnom

His

following

Non-Reduction

the

does

on the

(Pro-S),

Strategy

uses

and Comriels.

Strategy

and the

also

Keenan

based

are

Word Order

order:

Though

from

may be stated

for

142

6
Relative
Strategy

Benaali

to

Positions

SU 10 DO OBL

GEN OCOMP

Rel-S

2.

NR-S

to

approach

relative

Keenan

like

is,

forming

clause

and Comriels,

readily

applicable

Bengali.

Maxwell's
In

Relativizable

1.

This
strategies

Clause-Forming

Keenan

and Comrie

(1979)

criticism

latest

their

(1979b)

(1979b:

form'

call

'strong
a

have

been

stated

a.

A language

the

of

Accessibility.

they

give

what

they

Two positions

AH constraint.

discussion

their

in

651),

to

responded

Hierarchy

their

of

discussion

have

which

my be repeated

here:

(66)

can relativize

all

higher

Hierarchy

on the Accessibility

any position

if

positions
can

be relativized.
b.

A language

can relativize
but

Accessibility
Their

relativizing

restricting
clause

clause
precedes

the

not

any

are

and the

NP (1979b:

NP it

will

lower

positions

based

strategies

head

X on the

position

on both

656):

if

be regarded

than

the
a restricting
as an

X.

143
instance
it

of

be taken

will

and it
if

it

a Word Order

very

their

Pro-S

analysis

internal

Pronoun

Strategy

(Pro-S).

and Comrie's
from

only

strategy
is

a Relative

Pronoun

NP

strategy,

NP.

Maxwell's.

head

based

on

Strategy
Maxwellfs
strategy.

-Case

Maxwell's

Rel-S

phrase

accessibility

and

strategies.
This

hierarchy

by Keenan

is

Island

which

(1977)

relativization,

several

Cole

and Island

it

al

et

languages

movement

not

its
employed

apply

involved.
Constraints"

kind

any
will
the

determined

accessibility

not

is

explained

'"Noun

Constraint

or

by Cole

deletion

et

to

any

to
for

possibilities

Phrase

to

applicable

be applicable

by whether

However,

deletion

of

Island
the

on

and Perlmutter

constraint

involves
it

different

(1967)

by Ross

and show that

are
is

shows

approach'is

noun phrase

island

otherwise

rules,

relativization

with

that

if

language.

and

have discussed

proposed

state

which

movement

Maxwell's

deal

Constraints

(1972),

and Comrie

Works

Cole et-al
constraints

noun

undeveloped.

still

Other

2.2.6

Bengali.

to

the

explains

study

proposed

application
as it

postnominal
of

differ

strategies

the

as an instance

Keenan

to

close

follows

it

of

(WO-S),

Strategy

and a Personal

WO-S is
So,

head

the

contains

(R.6l.
-S),

as an instance

be regarded

will

if

strategy#

prenominal

or

Accessibility
al

have

not

144
been

included

in

the

are

discussed

elsewhere

(cf.

6-4.6.3

6.4.6.4

Sentential

Subject
It

account

not

study

on Bahasa

which

that

113)
the

shows

has

(1981: 306)
the
(67)

of

difficulty
has

the

proposed

Direct

Subject>

Object

are

does

are,

not

does

be found

in

to

Yeoh's

e. g.

all

and Comrie.
like

relativiDik

Dyirbal

revised

(1980:
show

NP Accessibility.

following

(1977)

Malaysia),

of

allow

languages
the

applying

Comrie

language

by Keenan

ergative

and

Cinque
version

of

NP Accessibility:

Adverbial>

It

papers

language

Noun Phrase

structures

(national

outlined

that
shown

by Keenan

complex,

Malaysia

positions

NP and

the

that

here

proposed

Relavant

the

dissertation.
Complex

of

rules

rules

described).

the

all

as similar

present

be mentioned

languages.

natural

zable

are

Hierarchy
for

the

in
where

should

Accessibility

discussion

present

should

of

Object>

Indirect

Object>

NP> Temporal

Oblique

Object>

Genitive>

Comparison.

be mentioned

accessible

Predicate

to

here

relativization

that

all

these

in

Bengali.

Positions

(67)

CHAPTER THREE

Elements

Introductory

3.0

A relative

with

clause

is

before

or after

occurs

initially

noun,

adjectives

and

of

construction

Bengali
with

contrast

structural

In

languages.
made of

the

the

clauses

in

pronoun

on the

has

more

dimension
human,

and plural,

shows

and unrelated
a detailed

section,

a major

and

antecedents,
role

in

discussion
postcedents

constitution

of

Bengali.

Pronouns

There

are three

human Je 'who',

with

Je 'what,

which'

that,

vary

many related

play

either

Bengali

regular

pronouns,

which

The relative

The relative-correlative

very

following

relative

determiners
and

Relative

is

nouns

coreferential

singular

and inanimate.

along

other

wh-element

and these

posteedent

sentence.

and non-honorific,

with

so on.

and the

matrix

pronoun

animate

the

determiners,

noun

in-the

honorific

relative

head

the

or

an initial

with

constituted

nonhuman,

3.1

like

one relative

than

antecedent

elements

head

the

besides

is

the

some other

can be constituted

clause

pronoun,

relative

of

Pronouns

Relative

of

its

relative
honorific

for[

pronouns
Jini,

+ anima'tel

145

for
nouns,

in

Bengali,

the

[+ human] nouns,
and Ja 'what,

146
that,

for

which'

[-animate3

They agree

nouns.

verb

in number and the human Je 'who'

with

its

honorific

person

and two distinctions

person

combines

japni

(non-honorific)],

The following

Second
and neutral

(neutral),

'you'

person

second

person.

non-honorific

show the

examples

Je

'who'

tui

honorific

with

combines

(neutral)].

and se Ihet
pronouns

reletive

'you'

that

C.

Je

human and neutral

:
I:

'who'

Jini

a.

third

(honorific),

the'

for

Bengali.

(i )

(2)

tumi

and third

[tini

and neutral

3.1.1

honorific,

with

(honorific),

tyoul

used in

for

distinction

The personal

distinctions

show three

Bengali

in

pronouns

counterpart

makes the
'who'.

Jini

the

with

human and honorific

Je

twhat,

that,

whicht

Ja

'what,

thato

which'

'who'

[-human
+animate
:

-animate

human and neutral

Je cheleTa

amader

barite

who boy-the

our

house-to

esechilo,
came

se amar
he my

bondhu
friend
'Who the
['The

b.

boy

came to

our

house

is

my friend'

boy who came to

our

house

is

my friend']

amader barite
our

house-to

Je

cheleTa

who boy-the

esechilo,

se amar

came

he my

are

147
bondhu
f riend
came to

our

house

is

my friend?

boy who came to

our

house

is

my friend'3

'Who the
I'The
The above

that

in

()

in

the

clauses

relative

a.

the

as in

(2').

cheleTa,

Je

boy-the

who my

b.

boy,

mou,

Je

Mou

who Rubik's

shown in

is

clauses

the

after

occurs

Je

'who'
(2)

head

reading

bought-has

nouns

se amar

a Rubik's

cube,

the

in

is

and

my friend'

relative

human relative

(2'a)

pronoun

(2'b).

as an inanimate

relative

head
inanimate
it
if
noun
occurs
after
any
pronoun
-nestraiative However,
Jelwhichl
never occurs
clause.
relative
,,

a.

in

the

in

a non-

clause.

relative

restrictive

bondhu
friend

she my

non-restrictive

where

a book'

reading

cube

be used

Je can also

he book

kineche,

in

non-restric-

porche

is

head

the

se boi

kiub

bought

in

and

(Remember

precedes

noun

my friend,

rubiks,

of

The occurrence

friend

who is

who has

'Mou,

head

amar bondhu,

'The

pronoun

after

Je can be used

initial

clauses.

relative

relative

Je in

of

occurrence

restrictive

clauses

such

noun).
tive

show the

examples

position

medial

boy

Je

boiTa

tumi

cao,

seTa/ta

tumi

pabe

which

book-the

you

want

that

you

get-will

'You will

get

the

book that

you want'

148
b.

Je

Dhaka baPadeser

which

Dacca

jonne

prosiddho

for

raJdhani,

Bangladesh-of

capital

ta,.,

=sliner

that

Muslin's

' famous
is

Dacca

'Which

the

capital

is

Bangladesh

of

famous for Muslin'


is
Dacca which is the capital
['The
of Bangladesh
Muslin']
famous ffr
The examples
occurs
as Je 'which'
are
grammatical
'the
book'
the inanimate
and Dhaka
before
nouns boiTa
The following

tDaccal.
the
in

occurrence
the

'which'

Je

of

Je tumi

restriction

inanimate

on
head

nouns

clauses.

ta tumi

cao,

Je baladesher

*Dhaka,

b.

the

after

relative

non-restrictive

*boiTa,
a. -

show the

examples

pabe
Jonne

ta mosliner

raJdhani,

bikkhato
J.

1#

of

The ungrammaticality
be
used
can

in

only

not

clauses,
restrictive
sentences

a.

have
in

it

Je

that

'which'

clauses.

the

is

bhat
rice

'Who is

not

of

form

occurrence

khachchen,

tini

amar bondhu

eating

he

my

eating

rice

is

1\

friend

my friendl

Je,

it

relative
noun

following

the

by any head

followed

of

in

by a head

Compare

clause.

it

honorific

be followed

cannot

relative

who

is

same privilege

that

Jini

relative

'who'

Jini

the

where

shows

human and honorific

Though
does

(3b)

and

restrictive

'who':

Jini

3.1.2

(3a)

nouns.

in

149
b.

amader

barite

Jini.

esechen,

tini

amar bondhu

our

house-to

who

come-has

he

my

'Who has
In

the

above

Jini

in

'who'.

is

my friend'

occur

after

(4)

and medial

head

However,

the

who

came

he

my

friend

gentleman,
Jini

is

with

(ii)

in

restrictive
structure.

tini

my friend'

bhoddrolok

my friend'I

amar

bondhu

(L)
tini

esechilen,
came is

gentleman

as a headless

it

after

Jini

relative

head nouns in non-restrictive

relative

with

clauses.

shows

a restrictive

can be seen that

relative

clause,

(4e)

relative,.
in

bondhu

my friendf]

as a non-restrictive

correct

headless

amar

my friend'

who came is

gentleman

examples

is

who came,

esechilen,

no noun can occur

examples.

gentleman

unacceptable

From these

cannot

bondhu

['The

it

noun

amar

'Who the

though

can be

tini

*Jini

is

Jini

esechilen,

tWho came is

(4d)

head

relative

Jini

0,
.

e.

following

occurrence

headless

clauses
the

relative

bhoddrolok,

Me
d.

noun.

the

the
in

positions
relative

Compare

C.

illustrate

non-restrictive

by the

be deleted.

nouns

The examples

initial
In

followed

no head

examples

Jini

clauses.

that

house

our

pronoun
of

come to

friend

Jini

relative.

only

occurs

relatives,
It

never

and

occurs

the head noun retained

in

in

surface

150
3.1.3

Ja 'what/thatl:
Ja

The examples

'what/that'
(5)

in

Ja

a.

inanimate
an inanimate

is

show its

tumi

what you

b.

cao,

ta

tumi

pabe

want

that

you

get-will

books

story-of
'You

will

relative

clauses.

you want']

Ja

tumi

caicho,

ta

pabe

what

you

asking

that

get-will

the

get

pronoun.

(lit)

that'

get

get that

boigulo,

g; )lper

in

occurrence

'What you want will


L'You will

relative

books

story

that

you

are

asking

for'

Ja

can occur

'what/that'

(5a)

or

the

in

not

in

the

non-restrictive

Je

3.1.4

a.

nouns

the

headless

relative

relative

restrictive

any head

allow

in

either

as it

boiTa

tumi

which

book-the

you want

hortinTa

which

deer-the

'I
In

the

get

Je

above

saw the
examples

not

human
t inanimate

cao,

ta

tumi

that

you get-will

fWhich book you want you will

b.

does

but

it.

after

Je

will

(5b)

clauses

clauses

'what/that/whichl:

['You

relatives

the

book that

sundor,
beautiful

deer

which

Je occurs

is

get

pabe

that'

you want']
seTa

ami

de"khechilam

that

saw

beautiful'

as an inanimate

relative

151
pronoun
animate

followed
relative

pronoun

Bengali

a.

relative

can

pronouns

Je

pronoun

'who'

.,

and-non-restrictive

restrictive

'who'

becomes

it

becomes

an inanimate

an inanimate

relative

clauses

relative

clauses.

a head

without

which'

restrictive

head

non-restrictive

any head

in

headless

relative

relative

clauses

occurs

'who'

occurs

relatives

and

relatives.

pronoun
in

It

it

restrictive

Jini

in

either

noun

non-restrictive

pronoun

relative

head

in

only
in

animate
pronoun.

pronoun.

noun

and never

relative

can occur

headless

relative

any

relative

an inanimate

noun

The inanimate

after

or

an animate

before

occurs

The honorific

before

occurs

When it

with

d.

in'both

nouns

with

a*

relative

clauses.

When Je
head

and as an

can be summed up thus:

human relative

occur

relative
b.

noun.

of the different

clauses

The neutral

(6a)

in

(6b).

in

The occurrence
in

head

by inanimate

Ja

'what/that/

non-restrictive
but

clauses.

never

in

or
the

in

152
3.2

Double

Relatives
Bengali

regular

also
though

plurality,

mark

plural

markers

the

sentence,
like

the

single

from

the

four

possesses

double

plurality

can also
are

which

When double

pronouns.

Bengali

in

are

also

of

varieties

be shown with

to

the

relatives,

regular

relative
in

by correlatives

followed

Double

relative.

which

introduced

are

relatives

relatives

added

relatives,

obtainable

relatives,

are

in

shown

(8).
'who-who'

a.

Je-Je

b.

Jini-Jini

C.

Je-Je

d.

'what-what'
Ja-Ja
Singular

(8)

e.

Plural
Jara

'who-pll

Ja`ra

'who-PlI

'which'

Je

(no

Ja

(what'

Ja

( 11

the
Only

inflections.

Ja

marking

of

plural

suffix

if

it

plurality

'what/that'

The following

invariable.

+ animate
"= human
animate

(What-pl)

Je

illustrates

double

human and honorific

(which-pl):

'which-which'

'who'

Jini

human and neutral

(who-pl):

'who-who'

'whcfl

Je

(8e)

(who-pl):

and Je

examples

Je

Je

lok

esechilo,

'Which'

show the

who who man came


Ildho the people
['The

people

se se cole

use

gm che

he he gone have

came have gone'

have
came
who

gone]

if

by regular

relatives.

a.

possible)

are
of

the

'

153
b.

Je
which

. C.

'You

a.

boi

which

book

se
that

boi

pabe

book

get-will

Je

that

things

klelbe,

Je

boys

who who play-will

you

get-will

want'

se se ekhane

to

who want

that

that

want

Chelera,

1-YoLuboys,
b. '.

want

that

those

get

will

se

things

what

what

cao,

those'
get
will
want
those']
get
will
want
you
ta
Jinis
pabe
cao, ta

'Which books you


I'The
books which
Ja
tumi Ja
you

(10)

Je

eso

he he here

come

vVerel
come",,

play,

bh: )ddrolok,

Jini

Jini

esechilen,

tini

tini

boi

gentlemen

who

who

came

he

he

book

peechen
got

ce

(11)

a.

gentlemen,

tumi

boigulo,

Ja

Ja

cao,

ta

ta

nite

paro

you

books

what

what

want

that

that

take

can

'The

books,

Je

Je

ese6hilo,

se

se-cole

gEe che

who

who

came

he

he

have

'Those
b.

*Je
which
'Which

co

books,

'The

Jini
who

who came,

you

which

who came have

got

you

want,

gone

can take

gone'

Je

cao,

ta

ta

pabe

which

want

that

that

get-will

you
Jini
who

want,
aste
come-to

them'

get

you will

those?

can,,

tini

tini

aste

want

he

he

come-to

paren
can

154
'Who want
['Those
d.

come can do so'

to

come can do sot]

to

who want

tumi

Ja

Ja

caicho,

ta

ta

pabe

you

what

what

asking

that

that

get-will

'You

will

(things)

those

get

that

you

asking

are

for'

(9)

in

The examples

as double

can occur

and headless

tive

'who-pl',
clause

occurrence

all

relatives

in

inanimate
'what-pl'

in

relative

animate
Ja Ja

'what-plt.

allows

noun

and

the

relative
double

The double

distribution

as the

In

types

(9-11),

plural
Colloquial

the

relative

is

of

clauses

single

double

relative

pronouns,

Bengali,

the

of the double

relatives

is

which
double

(10).

shown in

ungrammatical

the

is

shown in

double

the

relative

(11).

It

inanimate

pronouns

in

illustrated

relative

an

relatives

have

pronouns

are

with

double

the

pronouns

The

Je Je with

of

clause

the

Ja Ja

relative

relative

Jini

and inanimate

except

relative

(9a),

shown in

illustrates

relatives

'which-pl'.

different

is

The occurrence

headless
all

The

b) illustrate

(10c)

of Jini

exception

by a head noun.

clause

(10a,

non restric-

relative

(9b)

in

relatives

restrictive

The occurrence

head nouns.
head

the

the

Je Je fwhich-pl'

relative

inanimate

in

(9c).

a non-restrictive

double

the

of human Je Je 'who-pl'
Je Je 'which-pl'

in

in

occur

regular

restrictive,

be followed

cannot

three

with

relatives,
cannot

which
as it

show that

the
the
in

Je Je
same
three
(2-5)-

can be replaced

more acceptable
pronouns

by

in
being

rare.

155
The following
the
(12)

plural

b.

show the

Jara

esechilo,

tars.

cole

gee 9,Le

who-pl

came

they

gone

have

'Those

who came have

tomra

Ja

cao,

ta

pabe

you-pl

what

want

that

get-will

occurrence

of

skuler

gone'

you want'
Clause'

getthat
Relative
chele,

Jara

khelche,

tara

puroskar

boys

who

playing

they

prize

school-of

d.

to

Clause

Relative

'You will
Non-restrictive
ce

given

relatives.

Headless
a.

are

examples

tThe

students

will

get

of

the

school,

who are

pabe
get-will

playing,

prizes'

bhvddrolok,

Jara

bose

achen,

tara

skuler

gentlemen

who

sitting

are

they

school-of

sikkh: )k
teachers
'The
the
e.

gentlemen,

-who

are

sitting,

are

teachers

school'

amar boigulo,

my

books

'My books,
them'

Ja

tumi

caicho,

ta

pabe

which

you

asking

that

get-will

which

you are asking

for,

will

get

of

156
Restrictive
f.

Clause

Relative

Je

chelegulo

who boys
'Who the
['The
g.

boys

boys

(12a)

headless

the

the

are

our

neighbours'

who are. playing

are

our

neighbours']

which

books

reading

those

mine

not

Je

Jinis

cao,

ta

you

what

thing

want

that

'You

will

get

and

Ja.

The plural.

being
is

'boys'

(12h)

with

Ja

are

'what'.

12a)

of

plural

clauses,

as in,
boys',

(12f,

ungrammatical.

Plurality

is

shows

each

signalled

in

occur
such

sequences

bhzddrolokgulo
and

(12g)

head

nouns

and not

Je

as

invariable

g),

plural

'books'

with

'what',

formation,

the

(12f)

in

in

(12c)

do not

*Jara

by the

for'

relatives

and Ja

has

pronouns

acceptable

asking

'who-plf

J'ara

used

are

a non-restrictive

relative

Je being

minel

invariable.

(12e)

and boigulo

more

you

in

shows

indicated

pronouns,

like

?who pl"

'who-pl

chelegulo

that

'who-pll
is

pronoun.

relative

plurality

Jara

before,

not

get-will

occurrence

Jara

are

pabe

things

with

as mentioned

gentlemen',

the

show the

plural

relative

I am reading

which

tumi

clause

chelegulo

are

n3e

honorific

that

neighbour

amar

restrictive

pl

our

segulo

pronoun

as *Jara

they

porchi,

plural

form

playing
playing

constructions

relative

protibesi

ami

Ja,

though

amader

boigulo

(12b)

and

tara

Je

'The, books
h.

khelche,

'whoshow

by the

case.

twhichl
by the

Sentences
rather
form\-bf

than
the

157
noun or determiner
(13)

Je

sz)b lok

men sitting

who all
'All
It

should

present
inflection

bose

the

any awmplications,
(cf.

ache,

tara

amar

poricito

are

they

my

known

men who are

be mentioned

12h).

(13).

as in

or by a quantifier,

here

sitting
that
as they

are
the

known

to

correlatives

always

have

met
do not
a plural

158
s

3.3

Correlatives
All

in
the

and they

they

matched
is

are

taken

'what/that'

inanimate

its

with

as a deictic

shortly),

its

if

it

that

the

If

I will
it

Je

discuss

modifies

relative

and

is

an inanimate

modifies
of

it

'that'.

ta

be human if

correlatives

The corresponding

inanimate,

(a view

will

correlative

are

on honorific

vary

correlative

pronoun

and inanimate

human noun,

is

'who'

all

human correlatives,

their

as they

identical

As Ja

rank.

neutral

not

their

for

Je and Jini

and have

pronouns

identical

not

are

be interchanged.

may not

human relative
though

relative

have

Bengali

in

pronouns

The correlatives

correlatives.

Constructions

Relative

Bengali

pronouns

an
noun.
are

below.
shown

Pronouns

Relative
a

Correlatives

Singular
Je

'who':
'Whot:

Jini

: Relative

neutral

and

honorific

human
and

se

human

Ja

'what?:

animate

ta

'that'

Je

'that?:

+animate
7human

se

?that'

'he,
tini

shel
'he,

Plural
Jara

'who':

neutral

JZra,

lwhol:

honorific

Je

?what':

Je

'what':

-animate
+animate
"=human

and human
and human
ta

'that'

se

'that'

tara
tara

'they
'they

shet

159
Correlative

constructions

sentences.

Certain

relative

sentences.

Bengali

are

correlatives

such

complex

used

are

markers

correlative
A few

in

regular

are

in

non-

shown

in

(15).

a.
b.

Jekhane

C.

Jodi

Examples
6) a.

in

(many)
much

'as

J; )to

'where':

liff:

tumi

books
many
as
'As
b.

C*

'then'

cao,

you want

many books

(16).

in

are given

boi

'there?

sekhane

tobe

sentences

Jo to

as':

you wdnt

tato

tumi

so many you
will

get

boi

ache,

sekhane

pensilTa

where

book

is

there

pencil-the

the

'You

will

get

Jodi

tumi

aso,

if

you

come then

you

pencil

tobe

come then

next

ami

Jabo

go-will

I will

go'

to

pabe
get-will

them'

Jekhane

'If

(many)'
much

'so

tito

(lit)
pabe

the

get-will
book'

160
3.4

Restrictions
There

relative

Je has

different

the

may be interpreted

as a relative

following

the

from

To put

it

another

as a deictic

pronoun,
This

and as a complementizer.

pronoun

relative

it

In

of

as an invariable

analysed

standpoints.

syntactic

Je may be analysed

way,

been

so far

occurrence

position.

sentence-initial

However,

pronoun.

three

in

in

study

on the

some restrictions

are

Je, 'who/what/that'
present

of Je

on the Occurrence

discussed

is

section.

3.4.1

Je 'who'

(17)

Je

a.

as a Relative

who

Jabe,

se miSTi

Pabe

rpom-to

go-will

he sweet

get-will

to

cheleTa,

Je #

boy-the

who

'The
In
verb
Je

(17a)

Je

'who'

pause

However,

respect

instance,
not

Je

qualify

the

se amar

bondhu

book

reading

he my

friend

as a relative

does

to

a following

not

before

as a relative

a book,

reading

is

my friend'

by an inanimate
noun.

function

the

above

noun.
noun

On the

example
a

noun.

as a relative

an inanimate

and a

exists

inanimate

inanimate

pronoun.

In

noun

There

pronoun.

Je and the

'who'

sweets'

porche,

any head

between

get

Marker

boi

followed

without

Je occurs

room will

who is
is

'who'

occurs

noticeable

with

boy,

and occurs

and a Deictic

gh-are

'Who goes
b.

Pronoun

pronoun

In

(18),

but

it

other

for
does

hand,

if

161
Je

'who?

pronoun,

occurs

after

as in

(17b).

separated

from

potential

pause

(17b)

shows

the

in

Bengali

clauses

(17b),

like

sentences

Je can be taken

b.

Je + boi

you

what

book

'You

will

get

Je does
its

the

Je

and boi

'book'.

non-restrictive
before

occurs

noun

relative

between

them.

occurs

after

'who'

between

exists

the
In

many

the

head

then

them,

cao,

ta

pabe

want

that

get-will

the

book

that

you

want'
ta

ami

anek

Moina

which

movie

saw

that

many

agei

dekhechilam

before

saw
movie

Moina

which

saw,

saw a long

cheleTa

Je +

boi

porche,

seTa upponnas

boy-the

which

book

reading

that

book

Je occurs
explanation

not

the

boy

is

as a deictic
would

quality.

Note

also

by human nouns.

is

relative

be that

in

(19a,

the

ago'

a novel'

pronoun.
above

pronoun
b)

time

novel

reading

as a human relative

occur

followed

which

the

pronoun.

dekhechilo,.

relative

and is

'who'

is

and a

sinema

(18a-c),

plausible

'who'

Je

m:)ena

'The
In

that

a relative

Je +

'The
ce

is

occurs

as a relative

tumi

reason

head

comma intonation

and the

(1

the

where

always

Je
of

and a pause

pronoun

relative

noun

construction
where

is

by a comma intonation

noun
between

exists

it

noun

The main

head

the

head

the

examples

and has

where

Je is

lost
human

162
Je + robindronath

nobel

puros., kar

peechilen,

tini

Nobel

Prize

received

he

Rabindranath

who

gDlpolekhok

amar prio
favourite

my

story-writer
received

the

Nobel

Prize

is

my

who received

the

Nobel

Prize

is

my

11-ThoRabindranath
favourite

story-writer'

(IRabindranath
favourite

story-writerf]

the

deictic

our

neighbourl

man who is

reading

a book

is

our

neighbourl]

occur

generally
the

shows

a close

with

'who'

occurs

the

(20)

a.

b.

in

following

'who'

can be regarded

as it

is

followed
them

between
that

though

non-restrictive
of

as it

by human nouns
(shown

by +).

proper

names

in
the

after

It

(18a)

clauses,

relative

robindronath

occurs

the

as a

restrictive
relative

pronoun

juncture.

There

in

here

occurrence
clause

relative.

Je

exists

be mentioned

should

neighbour

is

juncture

and a close

our

a book

pronoun

relative

reading-he

protibesi

reading

examples,

above

se amader

man is

'Who the
['The

porche,

book

man-the

who

In

boi

Je + lokTa

b.

are

two

syntactic

environments

pronoun.

as a relative

This

where

Je

may be explained

way:

Je 'who'

becomes a relative

in

a relative

If

Je occurs

construction
after

pronoun,
without

if

it

occurs

a head noun.

the head noun and a comma

163
intonation

Je and the following

between
a relative
Examples

of

(20a)

be found

in

(23).

(21)

are

brother

'Who is

my brother

hasche,

who smiling
IWho is

s'e tomar

bondhu

he your

friend

is

can

friendl

your

dusTu

she very

naughty

is

very

naughty'

+ Inanimate

Noun

Je #

ghDre

Jabe,

se boi

pabe

who

rpom-to

go-will

he book

get-will

TT,,

O_r4LO

ho goes
A string

to

the

such

before
pronoun

constituents,
pronoun,

room will

22a).

then
as in

Je will
(22b).

If
If

a -book'

khabe

depending

Je and bhat.
(see

get

as Je bhat

interpreted

differently

relative

(20b)

Examples'of

se bhari

smiling

Je + Pause

ce

two

always

Pronoun

who my

Je

relative

is

Je + Any Verb

b.

occurring

(21).

in

given

Je amar bhai,

is

it

noun,

pause

pronoun.

Je + Any other

a.

them and a slight

between

exists

'who

on the

there

is

type

eat
of

a pause,

no pause. exists
be regarded

will

rice?

juncture
Je is

between'the

as a deictic

164
(22)

Je #

a.

who rice
-IVp,Oy",
',,Who will
b.

tumi
you
'The

the

is

bhat

khabe,

ta

aekhon

which

rice

eat-will

that

now

you

eat

rice

the

which

(22a)

(23)

them

(22b),

cheleTa,
boy-the

who tall

(23),

antecedent

is

(cheleTa)

phrases
deictic
is

eating'

like
noun

(as

far

as the

cooked'

separated

(22a),

whereas,

no antecedent

Iricel.

no

juncture

and a close

whereas

in

not

is

and bhat

bhat
in

occurs

(22b).

from

structure

is

+ Je
se amar

bondhu

he my

friend
my friend'

is

as a relative
with

Je bhat

khachche

phrases

like

the

'Who is

Je-bhat

be
shown with
may

pronoun

as it

follows

a'pause.

between

The difference

yet

'which?

tall,

occurs

is

cook

not

(22b)

different

lzmba,

who is

'who'

Je

Je

in

hoeni

radha

is

Iricel

bhat

between

Je

boy,

22b)

pronoun

+ Pause

Antecedent

and

that

is

(22a)

is,

That

'The

the

in

will

by a paus( in

between

antecedent

(22a).

In

exists

noticeable

school'

now at

Je +

relative

pause

such

is

rice

eat

skule

he now school-at

eat-will

between
The difference
structure
is concerned)
relative,
from

se m khon

khabe,

bhat

the

relativized
eating

khachche
following

noun
rice'

twhich

and
rice

tree-diagrams.

(he)

165
(24)

b.

a.

VP'

IJP

NP
I
Pr on

1---

In

NN
1
Pron
1
Je

bhat

khachche

'which

rice

eating'

(24a),

occurs
In

(24b),

Je

(25)

is

'who'

Consider

pause.

as a deictic.

same NP as the

the
Je

Nv

II

Je occurs

in

VP

the

who room-to

'Who will

khachche

'who

rice

eating'

'rice'.

object'bhat

from

its

by a slight

object

(25).

in

b.

...

and it

pronoun

modified

examples

Jabe

gh: )re

bhat

relative

sepaTated

also

Je

Je-gh: )re

go-will

Jabe

which-room-to

go to the

room'

'In

which

will

go,

...

go-will

(you)
room

(25)
VP

NP
I
N
I
Pron

NP

lll-

Nv

VP

NN
Pron
Deic
le
Jabe

ghore
If

the

relative

is

pronoun
(25a),

noun

by a pause

will

be 'Who goes to the

not

deictic.

shows close

On the
juncture

then

other
with

ghore

separated
the

meaning

the

of

the

inanimate
noun

and the relative

room',
hand,
the

from

Jabe

if

the relative

immediate

inanimate

phrase

pronoun

is

pronoun
noun then

166
the meaning

of the noun phrase

The meaning

of the

from

that

expresses
?in which

room',

the deictic
other

then

if

but

pronoun

as a deictic
sequencesv

pronoun

deictic
a
as
and

b.

ce

which

room-to

tomar

Je-boi

your

that

Je

d.
.

Je does not
relative
it

occur

pronoun.
has to be

Compare the

shown as a relative

book

CRel

-REL,

+Deic

-Rel,

+Deic[Pron+Rel

Pr+N+N+Vj

has
Pr+NJ

Deic[RelPr+Pron+Nj

+Rel,

brother
khelche

Je-meeTa

-Rel,

+Deic[RelPr+N+V]

Jabe]

+Rel,

+Pause,

go-will

ERelPr+Pause

playing

Je [ghore
who room-to

f.

to any

pronoun.

ache

bhai

who girl-the
e.

room as opposed

book

tomar

who your

[Je-ghare]

pronoun.
boi

Je-ghz)re

(26)

noun phrase

by

by two nouns,

where Je is

different

marked definitely

epxression

relative

following

is

as a deictic

followed

is

or simply

go'

as that

In that

room.

Je is

(25b)

as the latter

will

'room'

ghzr
pronoun

relative

as a relative

regarded

(you)
room

which

possible

Moreover,

(25a),
one

(25b).

different

quite

second noun phrase

of thefirst
'in

is

Je lbhat

khachchel

+Rel,

who rice

eating

CRelPr

When Je qualifies

VI

+N+

+Pause,

as a relative

-Deic

-Deic

+ Pause +N+
pronoun

the

V]

167
sequence

lexical

of

possibilities
lexical

which
items

relative

(19)

in

'in

in

a noun

(25c)
room'

as there

is

items.

(19c)

predicts

sequences

'who will

go to

lexical

which

followed

by a NP with

examples

in

which

(27)-show

Je

(27)

the

lokTa

who man-the

['The
b.

and is

in

following

is

if

pronoun

ghvre
and

in

juncture.

close

deictic

of

korche,
doing

immediately
The

Je

pratibesi

he our

neighbour

shopping

is

our

neighbourl]

boy

twhol.

se amader

man who is

my

bondhu,

se tomar

sohopaThi

friend

he your

class-mate

is

my friend

is

your

class-mate'

boy who is

my friend

is

your

class

boi

porche,

book

reading

se amader
he our

mate']

protibesi
neighbour

man is

reading

a book

is

our

neighbourl

man who is

reading

a book

is

our

neighbour'l

examples
a close
it.

two

deictic

neighbourl

114ho the

the

the

our

lokTa

Je-

an object,

is

who man-the

In all

Je #

shopping

who boy-the

['The

it

shopping

amar

Je

like

as a

the

man is

'Who the

09

between

eliminate

occurrence

Je cheleTa

['The

like

as a subject,

a deictic

baJar

'Who the

sequences

no pause

and will

becomes

'who'

Je

'who'

(25b).

as shown in

sequences

room'

(25a)

as shown in

a verb

the

of

Je

for

eliminate

will

three

The sequence
test

a. reliable

are

has

phrase

(20).

shown. in

are

pronoun.

ghDre

Jabe

items

the

juncture

relative

pronoun

relationship

Je 1who' is
with

the

item

deictic

168
The examples
of

relative

(28)

and the

pronoun

non-restrictive

twho the

whol
sDhoPaThi

boy-the
who

reading

he my.

class-mate

boy

is

reading

is

my class

boy who is

reading

is

my class-mate']

cheleTa,

Je

boy-the

who reading

It

boy,

is

porche,

who is

matel

se amar

sZhopaThi

he my

class-mate
is

reading,

marker.
detailed

discussion
made in

a brief

a.

above

my class-matet

Consider

5 in

is

required

the

following

this

clauses

here

and

complementizers
so that

on Je as a comple-

examples,.

je

ei

boiTa

that

this

book-the

Je

a deictic

dissertation,

ami Jantam
knew

or

that

as a complementizer.

complement

Chapter

discussion

pronoun

be analysed
9f

summary

mentizer.

the

as a relative

Je may also

been

from

clear

can function

'who'

(29)

boy,

Je as a Complementizer

3.4.2

only

'the

se amar

'The

and

boy'

porche,

EfThe

has

restrictive

Je-cheleTa

'Who the

sequences

Non-restrictive

who

-boy-the

the

see

Restrictive

Je

cheleTa,

d.

in

antecedent

...

who-boy-the
b.

us to

allow

clauses.

relative
Je-cheleTa

a.

(28)

in

colbe
sell-will

na
not

169
'I

knew that

ami

cai

Je

tumi

Jao

want

that

you

go

'I

want

'Moina

e.

the

all

the

taken

came

he

the

Je

Jonne

se dhar

koreche,

ta

that

that

for

he loan

took

that

niJer

Jonne n2e

his

own

for

examples

is

who came was a writerf

Je,

not
the

loan

(29a-e),
are

incorporate

Je

he has

1whatf

shown without
relative

clause.

as a complementizer.

In

all

is

shown

clauses.

the

conjunction
in

was not

relative

shown as a complementizer

as a subordinating

1979.: 6).

gentleman

tar

relative

occurs

who

knew

(29d-e)

of

gentleman

himself'

schoolf

that

knew that

for

to

tini

'I

knew that

gone

esechilen,

writer

mentizer.

'that'

Mou has

gone-has

Jini

(29a-c)

Je

Mou school-to

bhoddrolok,

lekhok

'I

gesche

Je

w kton

ami Jantam

sell'

mou skule

knew that

knew

while

Je

ami Jantam

d.

won't

got

knew that

Moina

In

to

you

mz)ena Janto

C.

book

this

Bresnan's

before
examples

clauses,
(29d-e),

In

head

the
Je

and hence
sense

as a comple-

noun

Ithatf
it

may be

(Bresnan,

170
It
has

three

the

sentence.

Chapter

This

the

We can end the

5.

(30)

example

syntactic

a relative

where

and a complementizer

in

the

Je

our

house-to

who came

lzmba,

se Je 3

ee to

calak

ta

Jantam

na

tall

he that

so

clever

that

knew

not

did

house

not

the

that

tall

a deictic

le

lokTa

bes

who man-the

quite

man who came to

our

was so clever'

The underlined
a deictic

know that

oi

in

same sentence.

barite

esechilo,.
1

of

the

with

pronoun,

used

are

'that'

extensively

discussion

present

Je

pattern

be clarified

will

that

examples

on the

depending
claim

above

amader

'I

is

from

clear

functions

following
pronoun

is

Jej
marker,

'who'

is

a relative

and Je 3 Ithatt

pronoun,
is

Je

a complementizer.

1whol

171
3.5'

Relative

is

clause
the
the

It
the

a relative

not

in

Bengali.

possible

is

the

to

to

delete

in

a complex

the

both

retain

the

Je

boy-the

who my

*cheleTa,.

c.

boy

*cheleTa,
boy-the
'The

c.

boy,

*cheleTa,

(is)
Je

'The boy (is)

pronoun

examples

a complex

This

structure.

he came.
(he)

my

friend

he came
(he)

amar bondhu,

came'

camef
esechilo

-a

friend

came

my friend,

amar bondhu,

show that

and

se esechilo

my friend,

came'

esechilo

friend

my friend

due to

Bengali

se esechilo

my

relative

construction.

bondhu,

who is

of

examples.

friend

my friend

allow

sentence.

relative

amar

who my

boy-the

The above

matrix

in

elements

amar bondhu,

(is)
who

boy-the
'The

the

following

cheleTa,

'The boy,
b.

the

it

the

a relative-correlative*structure

in
be
shown
may

a.

ambiguous

in

a relative

deletion

becomes

possible
pronoun

and the
If

matrix

sentence

does

sentence.

correlative

correlative
in

Neither

the

of
not

that

the

from

pronoun

pronoun

relative

from

deleted

also

prefers

the

of

reention

shows

This

of

correlative

is

Deletion

The deletion

retention

pronoun
the

Pronoun

came
came'

deletion

either

of

the

relative

172
pronoun,

correlative

relative

pronouns

relative

in

(31c)

in

(31d)..

pronoun
does

it

do not

matrix

the

relative
to

belong

a.

the

barandae

he boy-the

corridor-on

house-to

came

'(He)

the boy is

pronoun

if

the

the

darie
standing

standing

if
the

correlative
of

the
sentence

however,

Bengali,

but

are

(32).

in

given

and its

of

matrix

sentences,
of

it

However,
subject

of

pattern
are

relative

clause,

as the

These

colloquial

esechilo

relative

only

se cheleTa

the

The deletion

possible

barite

if

pronouns

sentence.

sentence.

Examples

correlative

deletion

.1

correlative

the'relative

occur

clause.

any

literary.

strictly

is

The

the

the

matrix

not

allows

pronoun

correlative
precedea

the

from

the

sentences.

and

of
of

does

pronoun
clause,

element

in

and cor-

show that

subject

element

relative

(31)

deletion

the

allow

not

relative

like

as the

occurs

relative

'32)

and both

relative

(31b)t

in

deleted

Sentences

coreferential
the

is

both

unacceptable

yield

pronoun

pronoun

or

rponoun,

on the

ache,

Je

is

who our

corridor

amader

who

came to our housel


0

cheleTa

barandae

Carie

boy-the

corridor-on

standing

barite

is

Je amader
who our

esechilo

house-to

came

'The

is

our

ache,

boy
house'

standing

on the

corridor

who came to

173
- b.

se

meeTa

she girl-the

prosadhon

korche,

Je

toilet

doing

who Rafiq's

rophiker

bandhobi
girl-friend
(She)

the

is

girl

who is

dressing

Rafiq's

girlfriend'

b.

Rafiqls

dressing

who is

meeTa

prosadhon

korche,

Je

girl-the

toilet

doing

who Rafiqls

['The

is

girl

girl-friend']
rophiker

bandhobi
friend

girl'The

these

All

the

deleted
be.,
can

of

structures

the

There
the

but

is

clauses

relative
are

but

correlative

relative

the

precedes
correlatives

in

its

be cited

a separate

illustrated

another
does

correlative
it

correlative
is

Bengali

sentences,

However,

correlative
cannot

the

girl-friend'

only

clause.
in

present

can be deleted

the

in

deep

the

structures.

surface

ture.

the

show that

Rafiqls

who is

show that

from

sentence

matrix

(32a-b)

where

dressing

(32a-b')

examples

pronouns
if

is

girl

does

surface

element
in

of
like,
(33).

of

not

occur

not

as a rule
type

kind

show any

in

relative
the

its

deletion
This

structure.
of

coreferential
construction
English

Bengali

construction-in

relative

surface
of
kind

struc-

the
of

pronoun
without
clause.

sentence
deletion
any
This

174
(33)

a.

b.

amar eekTa putul

ache

Ia

doll

have

'I

have a dollt

amake ammu

ee kTa putul

me

mother

'My mother

doll

has

bought

amar m kTa putul

ce

doll

Ia

kine-dieche
bought

a doll

has

for

met

ache,

Ja

ammu

amake kine

have

which

mother

me

bought

dieche
have
I
'I have

(Ja
in
like

clause

the relative

for

the

matrix

(33)

object

precedes

sentence

in

Bengali

NP is
the

(cf.

relative

clause.

relative

of any coreferential
Chapter
a relative

without

relativized

bought

One 61g).

'doll')

pronoun
pronoun

can be

clause

matrix

met

Sentences

any coreferential
and the

for

NP (putul

identical

an inanimate

show that

clearly

has

mother

of the

?which? ) and the absence

constructed
the

which

deletion
the
shows

(33c)
in

a doll

pronoun

sentence

if

175
3.6

Antecedent

and Postcedent

An embedded
contain

either

The process
important
the

and the

restrictive

normally

the

However,

in

pronoun
follows

the

in

nouns

the

(34)

head

in

Bengali

following

a.

Je

thus

are

noun

two

lokTa

English,

before

the

relative

clause

restrictive
the

relative

_whereas,
may be taken
as the

sentential

environments

clauses,

and

relative

when it
postof

the

may be seen

which

bes

buddhiman,

se-esechilo

quite

intelligent

he came

man who is

lokTa,

Je

man-the

who quite

'The

pronoun

i. e.

antecedent,

it

is

antecedent.

before

occurs

it.

examples.

I'The

(24a),

the

may

noun

clause,

occurs

the

as the

'Who the man is

In

in

follow

head

In

non-restrictive

relative

who man-the

b.

relative

follows

pronoun

relative

There

of

or

the

of

non-restrictive.

pronoun

relative

can be taken

It

cedent.

the

clause
The modified

pronoun

an antecedent

in

When the

clause.

head

Bengali,

the

types

pronoun

relative

pronoun

follows

two

marks

relative

and following

preceding

of
as it

relative

the

precede

a relative

a postcedent.

or

an antecedent

may either

noun

forming

sentence

man,

lokTa
Je 'who'

quite

intelligent

came'

quite

intelligent

came'

bes

who is

'the
as it

buddhiman,

se esechilo

intelligent

he came

quite

man' is
occurs

intelligent,

came'

the posicedent
after

the

of the

relative

relative

marker, in

176
the

restrictive

'the
in

manf
the

relative
as the

occurs

the

tive

relative

the

restrictive

the

of

the

in

a postcedent

(35)

a.

who

pronoun

examples

are

converts

clause
Chapter
cedent
relative

(35)

of

c.

Two,

came

he quite
quite

postcedent

show the

after

absence

clever

clever'
calak
clever

the

latter

form

2.1.8).

the

restrictive

a headless

into

To make it

may also

the

clause

as shown in

(35c).

matrix

headed
sentence

bes

calak

he man-the

quite

clever

quite

man who came is

quite

relative
(see

relative

se lokTa

'Who came the man is


I'The

occurs

clevert

the

who came

the

clever'

quite

se bes

verb

in

calak

quite

esechilo,

esechilo,

in

occurs

clauses.

he quite

be moved to

Je

to

given

se bes

came

section

the

if

relative

esechilo,

'Who came is
The deletion

examples

non-restric-

may be dropped

relative

man who came is

Je

the

in

normally

podnedent

'Who the man came is

b.

The above

occurs

postcedent

who man-the

UThe

pronoun

relative

clause.

restrictive

Je lokTa

the

lokTa

clause.

relative

The following

it.

and the

clause

after

antecedent

of

normally

antecedent

However,
sentence

whereas

relative

non-restrictive

show that

clause#

(34b),

in

clever'
clever']

the
from

postthe

177
One interesting

change can be noticed

head noun from


is 'that

the

the relative

head noun occurs


deletion
clause

Je

man-the

who quite

Z,

bes

man, who is
bes

je

'Who is
Three

cedent
to

the

the

matrix

before

the

non-restrictive

the

relative

clever'

he came

clever,

clause)

he came

clever

came'

in

the

construction

can. be observed

where

dropped

postcedent*are
sentence

from

following

in

(36)

When the

posteedent

relative

clause,

came'

se. esechilo

clever

variations

the

se esechilo

quite

be stated
a.

No

pronoun.
in

as the

sentence

calak,

calak,

quite

sentences
or

sentence

(i. e. unacceptable

missing

lokTa,

who quite

relative

matrix

allowed

becomes unacceptable

'The
e. -

matrix

(35e).

as shown in
d.

the

shifting

the

coreferential
is

the head noun is

because

(35)

the

after

of the antecedent
as it

to

clause

becomes a deictic

latter

after

the

or

relative

of

the

either
the

the
ante-

antecedent

moved

These

clause.

way:
is
the

dropped

latter

fr-om a restrictive

becomes

a headless

relative;
b.

When the
clause

to

deictic
co

postcedent

When the

the

matrix

matrix

is

moved from
sentence,

it

the

relative

becomes

sentence;

antecedent

is

deleted

from

the

non-

may

178
restrictive
a headless

honorific
noun

relative

in

only

into

The occurrence

of

inserted

shown
(37)

in

a.

the

with

following

i. e.

antecedent

who

yesterday

lekcar

bhasatztter

namkzra

oddhapok

Linguistics-of

famous

teacher

a lecture

teacher

in

in

the

gPtokal

gentleman

yesterday
bhasatotter

gave

he

Linguistics-of

isa

famous

gentleman

yesterday

is

gave

a famous

who

Linguistics-of

klase

yesterday

class-in

in

teacher

gentleman

lekcar
lecture

oddhapok

famous
in

in

tter

diechilen
gave

teacher
the

class

Linguistics'

a lecture

bhasat,;

gztokal

lecture

a lecture

Jini

leckcar

namkora

bh; )ddrolok,

is

(lit)

teacher

who gave

he

yesterday

class-in

tini,

gentleman

class

klase

diechilen,

[tThe

is

tini

gave

Linguistics'

bhoddrolok

yesterday

relatives.

diechilent

lecture

'Who the

can be

and postcedent

class-in

who

no postcedent

Jini

non-restrictive

klase

gvtokal

*Jini

the

examples.

Jini

famous

C*

or

becomes

that

can have

clause,

headless
Jini

is

note

'who'

relative

tWho gave

b.

Jini

pronoun

a restrictive

to

point

latter

(Cf. 2.1.8)

clause.

relative

One interesting

the

clause,

relative

in

the

class
]

Linguistics'
oddhapok,

tini

teacher

he

179
'The gentleman,
delivered
(37c)

shows the

(37a)
and

after
not

'gentleman'

- cannot

a.

occur

b.

It

is

in

Bengali

non-relative

boi

he

gentleman

book reading
is

amader barite

you

gentleman

our

clear

on the

(37b)

is

bhoddrolok
relative

pronouns

cannot

a book'

reading

bhzddrolok

these

of any postcedent

porchen

*apni

from

(cf-38).

bhzddrolok

'You gentleman

in

relative

any honorific

after

*tini

'He gentleman

class'

However,

as nouns here

by any nouns.

be followed

absence

pronoun.

Even the honorific

pronoun-.

(38)

the

in Bengali,

acceptable

the

the honorific

before

relative

Linguisticst

in

of an antecedent

occurrence

illustrates

the honorific

in

yesterday

construction

non-restrictive
pronoun

a talk

correct

a teacher

who is

house-to

come

come to our house'

please

that

examples

occurrence

asben

of

there

is

any

noun

the

honorific

a constraint
an honorific

after

pronoun:

(39)

No nouns can be used after


pronoun
the

Jini

relative

twhot.

If

clause

will

any noun occurs


be regarded

relative
after

Jini

as ungrammatical

and unacceptable.
Moreover,
honorific,

nouns

like

as opposed

bh-addrolok
to

the

tgentleman'

non-honorific

are
noun

themselves
lok

Imant.

iso

So, it

can be said

to each other

occur

next

(40),

in which

is

the

follows

is

cannot

juncture.

a close

with

bhzddrolok

Je 'who',

pronoun

items

as two honorific

Bengali

in

ungrammatical

'who gentleman'

bhzddrolok

*Jini

Houever

non-honorific

relative

grammatical.
a

(40)
.

klase

lekcar

diechilen,

tini

who gentleman

class-in

lecture

gave

he

bhasatztter

namkzra

oddhapok

Linguistics-of

famous

teacher

bh; )ddrolok

Je

'Who the

in

teacher

famous

[? The gentleman

Note

that

even

noun

diechilen

'gave'
'he'

and tini
So,
after

the

in

Je

a lecture

in

'who'

verbal

(ordinary

class

is

in

the

class

is

can

and

verbal

co-occur

on the

of

occurrence

pronoun

an

sequences:
diechilo

pattern
pattern

relative

with

correlative

(ordinary'pronominal

constraint

the

the

linguistics']

non-honorific

honorific

in

Linguisticst

who gave

teacher

famous

a lecture

gave

gentleman

'he/she').

se
honorific

can be extended

in

'gave. ')

pronoun
the

following

way:

-(39)'Any

honorific

Je 'who',

pronoun
items

noun can occur

is

restricted-in

When the
'which/that'

as the

is

foll

inanimate

after

occurrence

the

non-honorific

of two honorific

Bengali.
deictic

relative

owed by any inanimate

pronoun

noun,

the

Je

181
postcedent

any postcedent

without

meaning at
(41)

the

a.

Je-boi

you

what book want that

'You will
a.

*tumi

b.

Je

Je

C.

*Je

which

c.
If

the

postcedents

seTae

ciro

tumi

flower

has.

that-in

climb

you

ache,

seTae

czro

boi

ache,

book has

is

always

specific

removed,

are

assumed

cannot
that

Thus,

objects.

tumi

has

flowers'

tumi

tumi

sekhane

Jao

you

there

go

has books'

shop which

ache,

as they

ungrammatical
It

boi

you wantl

ache,

'You go to the
*Je

Jao

sekhane
the

above

be fully

sentences

deictic

relatives

sentences

(38c

refer
39c)

a.

b.

tumi

Je-boi

cao,

'You will

get

tumi

cao,

boi

the
ta

ta

are

pabe

book that

you want'

pabe

'You want a book (and)

you will

get

are,
(41a',

interpreted

ungrammatical.

(42)

examples.

get-will

which

shop-in

following

pabe

tree

Je-dokane

any

phul

on the

phul

carry

as

ta. pabe

cao,

climb

the

the book that

get

tree-on

IYou
b.

cao,

gache

which

ta

tumi

clause,

do not

sentences

may be shown in

This

all.

a headless

for

be dropped

cannot

it'

to

b',

182

(43)

e.

*tumi

Je

a.

tumi

Je-boi

Qr cao,

ta

pabe

cao,

ta

pabe

'You will
b.

c.

*tumi

Je

you

what

*tumi

Je

you

2r

(42a),

want

(42b),

without

a head

using

When the
the
the

1whichl

the

clause
in

antecedent

following
presence

examples
of

'what/that/whichl.

get-will

the

that

and

to,

(42a),

only

books

shows

even

you

want'

specifically,

referred

any

both

Je

1whichl

Y,

some specific
(43b)

random.

at

syntactic

and

and
occur

can never

incompleteness

after

X,

and any
one or

at

in

whereas

both
head

moving

the

the

inanimate

in
to

noun

(43c).

does

1whol,

not
after

postcedent

postcedent

relative

book

Je and Jini.

Like
-pronoun

not

noun

sentence

Ja

that
book

is
In

and meaning

matrix

pabe

The inanimate

levels.

structure

boi

unacceptability

exemplify

semantic

se

mentioned

book

requested,

are

(43c)

of

is

be taken.

could

books

the

lbook'

no specific

books

get-will

the

get

you want'

pabe

that

JT cao,

what

boi

ta

cao,

want

fYou will
In

the book that

get

does

not

becomes
the
are

have

the

it,
occur

headless.

postcedent

to

same sequential

order

as do Je and Jini

non-restrictive
given

relative

Ja

after

'what/that',

However,

Ja allows

relative
show the

and the

The

clause.

absence

antecedent

'who',

and

after

Ja

183
(44) a.

ta sepabe
she
what Moina wants that,, get-will
Ja

m!Dena cae

tWhat Moina wants will


b..

Ja

bakser

which

box-of

g: )honagulo,
ornaments
'The

ornaments

that'

get

7boddhe. ache,
inside

are
the

inside

which

are

(44a)

after

box

ta

m0enar

that

Moinals
to

belong

Moinal
No postcedents
pronoun

in

occur
'which/what',

Ja

the

inanimate
is

whereas'there

relative
in

an antecedent

(44b).
The way the
in

a.

The antecedent

the

occurs

posteedent

occur

postcedents

Antecedents
in

headed

i.

If

occurs

the
in

relhtive

the

is

a headless

relative*

be deleted

can never

deleted

from

the

clause,

the

latter

(movement

relative

NP implies

a deep

of
that

structure

by transformations);

is

rearranged

If

the posteedent

sentence,

restrictive

and

pronoun.

relative

posteedent

restrictive

pronoun

clauses.

postcedent

becomes

relative

the

and postcedents

restrictive

ii.

a non-restrictive

the relative

after

clause

in

before

clause

relative

b.

the

and

can be summed up thus:

Bengali

(45)

antecedents

relative
a deictic

is

moved from
clause
matrix

to

the
the

sentence

matrix
is

184
derived;
iii.

If

and

relative

restrictive
is

relative
ce

Typically,

If

the

e.

If

the

then

the

in

occurs

pronoun

honorific

the

clause,

a headless

occurs

non-

'(Je

non-honorific

pronoun

non-restrictive

honorific

'who'-

can be used.

postcedent

relative.

the

after

Jini

is

an honorific

then

1whof)

from

pronoun

relative
relative

the

deleted

derived.

no postcedent

honorific
d.

is

the antecedent

(Jini

'who')

relative

antecedent

can

clause,

occur

before

it.

f.

The posteedent
deictic

inanimate

No postcedents
pronoun

h.

Ja

pronoun
occur

after

be deleted
Je

after

the

'which/that/what'.

the

inanimate

before

the

relative

'what/that/whicht.

The antecedents
relative

can never

pronoun

can
Ja

occur

'what/that/whichl.

inanimate

185
3.7

Determiners*
Determiners

and non-restrictive
in

used
the

posteedents.

the

relative

the

are
Rel

RRC:

(46)
b.
are

a.

restrictive

clauses

and precede

the

given
Pron

NRRC: Det

in

kono chele
boy

who any

the

(47a)

is

any

boy

'Any

boy who does

clause.

relative

(1969).

According

have a definite

role

indefinite

in

role

in

Pron

sentences.

kore,

sort

se buddhiman
he intelligent

of work is

intelligent'

kire,

se bhalo

nve

work

does

he good

not

this

sort

of

clause,

work

(47b)

relative,
to her paper

the non-restrictive

the restrictive

relatives.

is

not

good'

a non-

The determiners

in non-restrictive

more specific

(47).

in

kaj

relative

a restrictive

restrictive

by Smith

who this

a non-

The

clause.

work does

Je e

chele,

In

and exemplified

kaj

kono

follow

determiner

the

+ Rel

'Any boy who does this


b.

and

determiners

following

this

determiners

+ Posteedent

+A ntecedent

exemplified

Je

+ Det

the

antecedents

relative
(46)

in

restrictive

posteedent.

however,

and the

antecedent

patterns

various

the

before

occur

clause,

relative

precedes

(47)

In
pronoun

restrictive

These

clauses

both

All

clauses.

relative

relative

in

used

normally

are

seem to be
as pointed

the

out

determiners

relatives
This

and
is

186
because

the

'pronoun

relative

owing

non-restrictives.
determiners,

the

categories

of

determiners,

(any,

specific

names)

proper

Bengali

Smith

following

way:

(48)

Determiners

which

Determiners

Specified
both

in

not

the

in

(SD)

in

the

non-restrictive.

as Unique
in

only

as

same restrictions

determiners

(U).

restrictive

Non-specific.

my be called

restrictive

non-

applicable,

may be taken

determiners

It

and non-restrictive

impose

occur

of

totally

the

here. *

and unique

are used only

which
clauses

relative

is

explains

clauses

relative

the)

restrictive

do not

clauses

on determiners.

cw

in

English

of

relative

(a,

of
three

adopt

description

specified

determiners

possibilities

we will

Smith's

in

antecedent

distinguishes

249)

which

that

all),

clauses

relative

(1969:

Smith

be mentioned

should

different

the

to

the

after

occurs

those

are

which

and non-restrictive

occur

relative

clauses.

Determiners

Non-Specified

3.7.1

determiners

Non-specific
fall'

can precede

clause.
in

the

(49) a.

However,
restrictive

Je

the
they

head

cannot

relatives

kono chele

who any

boy

noun

like
in

kono

'any'

a restrictive

precede
as shown

the
in

relative
(49).

and

sob

relative
pronouns

187
b.

Je

kono boi
any book

which
Je

C.

szb

chele
boys

who all
d.

Je

Je chele

f.

*kono

Je boi

g.

*sob

Je chele

h.

*sob

Je boi

...
...
...

...
determiners

non-specific
relatives#

always

occur

preceding

only

in

the

head

nonnoun,

as

(50).

a.

b.

Co

d.

kono chele
any

boy

szb

chele

all

boys

kono

boi

any

book

sDb boi
all

It

books

all

*kono

restrictive

(50)

...

e.

Howeverv

in

boi

sib

which

...

should

non-specific
relative

...

books

be noticed

that

determiners
clauses

if

no relative
in

particles

markers

restrictive
are

inserted

occur

with

or non-restrictive
with

the head

188

(cf.
51).
nouns
(51)

a.

*Je

kono

cheleTa
boy-the

who any
b.

*Je

szb

cheleTa
boy-the

who all
c.

d.

*kono

cheleTa

any

boy-the

*s. )b cheleTa
all

However,
in
(52)

...

boy-the

plural

suffixes

Je

s!zb chelera

can be added to

(52):
a.

boys

who all
b.

ce

szb

chelera/giilo

all

boys

Je

kono

chelera
boys

who any
d.

e.

kono

chelera

any

boys

Je szb
who all

f.

chelegulo
boys

Je

kono

boigulo

which

any

books

the head nouns,

as

189
sob boigulo

g.

all

books

The following

determiners

specific

(53)

Je

in

kono

who any

full

the

chele

kaJ

kore,

boy

this

work

kono

sondeho

nei

that-in

any

doubt

not

is
of

sort

szb mee,
all

t
no doubt
is

work

girls

occurrence

of

non-

sentences:

tate

'There

b.

illustrate

examples

se buddhiman
he intelligent

does

that

boy who dies

any

this

intelligentt

Jara

kaJ

who

this

work does.

k-3re,

tara

naritte

they

womankca-in

bissasi
believe
'All

the

girls

who do this

of

work

believe

the

head

nouns

sort

in womi nkood'
---z.
In

all

the

the

matrix

examples

Specified
and non-restrictive
are

eek

replace

in

sentences.

Specified

3.7.2

correlatives

'one/a',

human nouns-only)and

Determiners
determiners
relative
EekTa
oi

'one/at,
'the'.

occur

both

Specified

clauses.
es kJon
In

in

lone/a

restrictive

restrictive
determiners
(person)(for
relatiT.

190
clauses

(person)

lone/a

eakJon

tthel

and oi

must precede

the head noun (cf. 54).


(54)

*m kJon Je

a.

who boy

a
b.

chele

Je

m kJon

chele
boy

who a
Co

d.

Je

m kTa boi

which

oi

Je

the

who boy-the

oi

Je

the

which

*Je

f.

book
cheleTa

boiTa
book-the

cheleTa

oi

...

who the boy-the


*Je

g0

boiTa

oi

book-the

the

which
from

these

determiners

have

the

determiners

in

It

is

clear

allow

any

does

allow

particle
the

same applies
particle
occurs

the
with

relative

before

it

(e. g.

with
oi

with

the

relative

non-restrictive

can be inserted

nouns,

boiTa

head

the
..

'the

specified

non-specific
The only

determiners

head

marker

the

clauses.

non-specific
the

that
as the

same restrictions

relative

in

(54a-g)

examples

restrictive
that

is

difference

...

do not
oi

whereas,
head

noun

The

noun.

clauses

where

when oi

book',

'the'

oi

the-

'the'

cheleTa

191
boy').

'the

However,

before

occurs

the head nouns,

it

with

following

examples.

(55)

eekJon

chele,

Je

one/a

boy

who came

b.

Ja

EekTa

boi,

book which

any particle
the

se amar bondhu

esechilo,

'A boy who came is

allow

may be shown in

This

the head noun.

or se kTa tone/a

does not

insertion

a.

Ia/oneI

when w kJon

he my

friend

my friend'

tumi

porcho,

ta

you

reading

that

sarotcondrer

Saratchandrals

'One of the books you are reading

by Sarat-

is

chandral
determiners

The specific

in

former

the

is

the

a school

other-hand,

will

yield

(56)

a.

the

and the

determiner

in

usually

Je khelche,

mee eekTa,
playing

they

may be used

it

though

than

relatives

'restrictive

occur

the

the

In

postcedent

always
of

(56a),

like

the

'A girl

restrictive

sentence

who is

relatives,

follows

before

it

because

antecedent

chattri

student'.

non-

relatives

antecedent

se skuler

movement

in

naturally

restrictive

precede

after

the

the

on

specific

postcedent

sentences.

ungrammatical
aBkJon

mee,

Je

girl

who playing,

'A girl

who is

khelche,

playing

*Je mee eakTa khelche,


Co

more

Je eekTa

lok

who a

man came

esechilo,

se

chattri

skuler

she school-of
is

a student

se skuler

of

chattri

se amar bondhu

he my

friend

student
the

school'

192
'A man who came is
kTa

eakJon/m

'one/a'

clause

3.7.3

Unique

not

determiner

in
names

(2)

determiners

the

(57)

unique

a.

the

illustrated

relative

clause.

for

can be used

in

determiner

Jini

Rabindranath

who

puroskar

peechilen

Prize

received

m-oena, Je

Unique

reference.
non-restrictive

examples

show the

use

prokkhato

kobi,

tini-nobel

famous

poet

he

who is

a famous poet,

of

clause.

relative

misTi

Nobel

received

who sweet

amar bandhobi

mee,

se

girl

she my

girl-friend

IMoina,

who is

raJsahi,

Ja

pzddar

Rajshahi

which

Padma's bank-on

m kTa sundor
a

names do

Proper

Prize'

Moina

C*

in

Z symbol

with

non-restrictive

'Rabindranath,

b.

only

robindronath,

Nobel

unique

The following

clauses.

relative

relative

relative

(56c).

in

is

any determiner

require

non-restrictive

Determiners

Unique
proper

the

in

occurs

(56a. ) and restrictive

in

for

my friend'

beautiful

a sweet

s.)hor
town

girl,

is

tire

my girl-friendi

:)bosthito,
situated

-ta
that

the

193
fRaishahi,
Padma, is
In

the

the
in

above

Unique
(57a),

'who'

honorifict

(57a-c),
(0)

be honorific
(inanimate

following

of the

('58)

Smith
a.

Je

shows

the

?who'

of

occurs

(57c).

(i.

The

'who-

Jini

e.

'who-neutral'

and Ja

Moina

after

'which-inanimate'

noun)).

shows that
of

use

non-restrictive

different

of

determiners

Bengali

in

and order

restrictiveness

comparison

presented

in

proper

clauses

relative

proposed

'which'

too),

The occurrence

the

Jini

and Ja

rank

bank of

non-restrictive

distributed

to

on the

shown where

Rabindranath,

Rajshahi

Bengali

the

is

(57b)

are

after
could

after

town'

in

according

(which

a beautiful

determiners

pronouns

relatives

situated

examples

Je

relative

is

which

determiners
they

do not
(1969).

Smith

those

with

match
The

and differences

similarities

against

in

of English

as

by Smith:
(English)

Bengali
deter-

Non-specific
occur

miners
restrictive

only

a.
in

relative

clauses.

Non-Specific

deter-

miners

in

occur

both

restrictive

and-non-

restrictive

relative

clauses
b.

Specified
occur
tive
relative

in

determiners
both

restric-

and non-restrictive
clauses

b.

Specified
occur
tive
relative

in

determiners
both

restric-

and non-restrictive
clauses

94
Unique

determiners

c.

in non-

occur

restrictive

Unique

determiners
in

occur

relative

non-

restrictive

clauses.

relative

clauses.
d.

When non-specific
determiners

occur

restrictive

and non-

restrictive

relative
no particles

clauses,

inserted

are
head

e.

in

the

with

nouns.

Specified
like

oi

allow

determiners
'the/that'

the

insertion

of particle

the

with

head nouns in

both

restrictive

and non-

restrictive

relative

clauses.
That

is,

except

the

determiners

specific

determiners,

unique
which

occur

non-restrictive

or

determiners

except

restrictive

and non-restrictive

Bengali

relative

made between

the

clauses
non-specific

exclusively
relative

restrictive

unique

determiners
relative

do not

there

allow

and specified

are

no
in

either

clauses.
can occur
clauses,
a distinction
determiners.

All

the
both

in

and
to

be

CHAPTER FOUR

Relativization

4.0

from

that

and determiners
clauses,

relative

point

view

of

of

constituents

way they

Types

the

elements.
introduced

inside

rent

with

concerned

infinitives
and
cedent
relative

clause

can occur

as the

elements

in

from

resulting

discussion
gation
na 'not'

also

in

the

includes

relativized

can occur

different

the

finally

possibilities
in

the

following

clause

and will

of negating
discussion.

be

post-

show how a

will

and infinitive
discuss

of these

the diffe-

elements.

The.

and interro-

The negative

any sentence

diffe-

participles

or the

the use of negatives

195

are

also

gerunds,

participial

sentences.

clause

clause

We shall

study

insertion

in

of

produce

antecedent

gerundive,

the relative

of

and gerundive

they

whether

This

clause.

the

and participials

clauses.
of

allows

relative

clauses

the question

of a relative

types

participial

the relative

from

incorporation

the

infinitives

of relative

structures

in

relative

of

The other

role

of

antecedents

be examined

allow*this

infinitive,

When gerunds,

elements

construction

clauses.

an important
are

the

can also

other

of

can play

which

the

the

of

posteedents,

in

occur

clauses

types

different

a consideration

correlatives,

pronouns,

relative

briefly

and Clause

Introductory
Apart

rence

Sentence

and Different

in

a sentence

element

Bengali.
are

The

shown-

196
Negatives

4.1

In
is

and Interrogation
Bengali,

add the-negative

to

particle

negative

or

medial

show the

a.

co

gilpo

boy-the

story

write

boy did
gZlpo

boy-the

story

write

boy did

to

given

negative

not

stories'

write

boy-the

not

story

write

the

sentence

(Negative)

not

g-alop

interrogative

are

and

affirmative,

na

cheleTa

a verb

simple

(Affirmative)

likhto?

(1b),

either'in

and sentence-final

in

na

not

any

stories'

cheleTa

a negative

after

write
likhto

'Did

cheleTa

'The

in

examples

medial

likhto

'The
b.

na, in

but

to

medially

both

difference

the

interrogative'sentences.

and

'it

of

a sentence

predicate,

na may occur

element

The following

occurrence

negating

the

sentence-final'position

showing

positions

in

be added

may also

sentences.

complex

way of

normal

particle

The negative

sentence.

In

the

(Interrogative)

boy write

stories?

na occurs

at

and it

the

before

occurs

'

end of

the

a verb

in

sentence
an

sentence.
When negation

is

in

the

relative

at

the

end of

occurs

in

may occur

either
in

sentence

or

negative

element

both

introduced

the

in

a relative

clause
the

relative

or

clause.
clause,

sentence,
the

in

matrix

When a
it

negates

197
the

meaning

has alr. eady


may remain

the

only

of

been

mentioned
in

absent

when a negative

presence

of

usually
two

negative

'not'

namely
occcur

either

the

a being

not

form

eat

use

(2)

a.

verb,

of

ni

rice'

the

is

provide

can
The

the

the
occurs

take

se bhat

further.

that

latter

is

when a contrast

khaeni

particles

a sentence.

na and nze

compare

are

a sentence,

na may also

and se bhat

the

made in

tense

khae

the

did

na

not

eat

rice'.
of

exemplification

elements:

negative

Je

end of

the

There

these

of

whereas

1.2-3).

sentences

of

of

and past:

present

The following
this

(cf.

verb

morphol6gical.

does

the

Both
the

at

occurrence

after

occurs

betweeen

or

medially

in

particle

verb.

any

may occur

Inott.

and nze

in

difference

without

Bengali

a sen tence

as no negative

necessary

which

in

1.2.5.3).

in

occurs

It

versa.

verb

(cf.

tense

present

a sentence

and vice

'being'

the

particle

particles

na

with

in

occurs

former

is

clause

that

the

However,

a verb

relative

cheleTa

who boy-the
Jabe

na

go-will

not

s-okale

se w khon

eseche,

morning-in-the

come-has

he now

boy has

come in

the

morning

will

not

go

boy who has

come in

the

morning

will

not

go

boi

porche

na,

se amar

bondhu

book

reading

not'he

'Who the
now'
L'The
now? ]
b.

Je

cheleTa

who boy-the

my

friend

198

'Who the boy is


['The

boy who is

Je

co

of

the

the

clause.
(2c)

and negates

here

is

the

end of

occurs
within

itself

is

not. a good

dancer']

the

occurrence

noe

shows

the

lbeingt

pattern

that

both

they

verb

to

occurs

in

has

come in

with

initial

szkale

the

morning

negation
analysis

is

only
the

meaning
stands

clause

the

at

the

end-of
the

of

relative

be c larified

should

it,

in

will

complement

that
the

the

(2c)

sentence

context

occurs

Jabe

with
It
in

'No the

However,

scope, of

of

discourse

of

be treated
the

shows

verb.

main

na also

se eakhon

not

The occurrence

go now'.

outside

nDe incorporates

the

eseche,

na only

and negative.

after

to

occur

particles

but

in

sentence

matrix

noun.

here

will

the

the

and na occurs

Position

at

show some difference.

(lbeingt)

it

na occurs

negative

negate

verb

shown

relative,

that

the

of

is

and negates*the

end of

One point

noe after

initial

Je.. cheleTa

(2a)

and the

the

at

be mentioned

na,

clause.

in

of

verb

also

the

negation

adding

and negates

clause,

both

of

na occurs

(2b)

it.

the

after

not

dancing

though

that

dance-artist

who is

clause.

nDe occurs

noe

dancer'

sentence

in

she good

nrittosilpi

a good

end of

matrix

bhalo

se

not

sentence

matrix

clause

discourse

my friend']

is

the

at

the

sentence

a book is

dancing

regular

relative

should

reading

is

girl

girl

as an affirmative

the

not

dancing

occurs

only

my friend'

who girl-the

(2a-b-),

end of

a book is

nachche,

I'The

which

reading

meeTa

'Who the

In

not

a
e. g.
boy who

sentences

here

as the

the

present

study.

199
Both the negative
in restrictive

or non-restrictive

na functions

not

a question

but

relatives,

as a negative

but

particle

Compare the following

marker.

na and n: )e can occur

elements

sentences

sometimes
question

as-a

wher-e na occurs

as

marker.

a.

se cheleTa

na

esechilo,

Je

he boy-the

not

came

who story

'Is

not

Je gzlpo

write

one who used

likhto,

se cheleTa

na esechilo?

write

he boy-the

not-came

who story

to

'

stories?

write
b.

boy who came the

the

likhto?

gDlpo

I Is not the boy who writes

the

stories

one who

'
came?
c.

- Je

cheleTa

who'boy-the
'Did
d.

not

meeTa,

e.

is

element
two

na,

se esechilo?

story

write

not

he came

the

boy who used

Je

khelche,

not

the

girl

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who your

'Is
It-

likhto

quite

not
clear

the

It

girl

from

can be used

purposes.

tomar

the

'she not

who is

above

either

stories

tomar

bon?

your

sister
your

se na

sister
who is

write

playing

bon,

I
in a clause

may occur

to

se na

who playing

girl-the
'Is

gvlpo

come? "

sister?

khelche?

she not, playing


your

sister

examples-that
or

in

a-negative

a sentence

as a negative

'

playing?

to

serve

particle

200
or

as a question

in

either
after
it

a verb
in

the

b,

e).

is

used

sentence#

(3d)

in

the

pattern

in

tense

present

is

emphasis

is

that

type

of

coming

of

the

end of

interrogative

any question

mark

is

constituents

that

occur

before

In

a 'being'

Je

g: )lpo

who story
'Who the
L'The

boy

likhto
write
boy

na,
not

verb

*Moreover,
More
(3a),

in

that

One

occasionally

the

ne,gative
between
without

-on the

given

negative

whereas

(3b).

in

element.

Consider
a.

the

and a sentence
is

there

'is'

The difference

stress
the

is

with

sentence.

more

hze

verb

stories

here

the

though

different.

of

sentence

that

that

the-boy

may occur

in

occurs

1.2.5-3).

quite

on writing

sentence

the

is

be mentioned

may also

at

(3b)

(cf.

a verb

'of a: negative

occasionally

occur

and

given

an interrogative
element

not

on the

given

emphasis

point

(3a)

of

meaning

does

the

marker

before

the. sentence.

of

Bengali

of

as a question

may be said

structure

may occur
sentence

matrix

no verb

structure,

surface

deep

the

in

the

occurrence

where

' It

it

preferably,

on the

na.

after

colloquial

this

and when it
matrix

sentence

present

the

in

An exception

no verb

the

or

When

sentence.

sentence

clause

can be seen in

matrix

an interrogative

a relativized

relative
DO

particle

is

the

occurs

(3a,

in

a clause

na negates

in

marker

se cheleTa

esechilo

he boy-the

came

did

not

write

stories

came'

who did

not

write

stories

came']

201
b.

Je

g.)lpo

likhto

who story

write

'Did
There

no extra

is

constituted

negate

the

stress

falls

to

mark

elements

came

not

write

On the
in
This

is

in

which
also

and the

element
hand,

other

(4b)

(4a)

in

a negative

'

stories?

turn

na to

a heavy
becomes

an

in

a. common pattern

questions.

The phrase
in

he boy-the

with

only

sentence.

esechilo?

on se cheleTa

stress

on se cheleTa

se cheleTa

who did

clause.

relative

interrogative
Bengali

not

the boycome

exists

sentence

na,

structure

a sentence

for

rule

may be shown

in

inserting
the

negative
tree-

following

diagram.

(4)

NP
-1
Iy

Je

cheleTa

esechilo

'Adj
N
I
Pron
II
se- bhalo

not

who

boy-the

came

he

ron

'No,

the

boy who came is

not

a good

good
dancer'

I
I

nrittosilpi

noe

dancer

not

202
Infinitive,

-4.2

Gerundive

and Participial

The infinitive,

in

Bengali.

A brief

forms

participial

In
is

of

adding

the

looks

suffix

at

the

with

sometimes
the

root.

formation

'to'
are

construction

to

the

marked

statement

on the

already

the

a.

Verbal

b.
ce

to

the

a morphophonemi.
examples

Bengali

discussion
of

occurrence
clauses,

infinitives

and

c change
given

are
This

roots.

verbal

are

to

infinitive.

mentioned,

Le
'to'
-:

is

Bengali,

in

the

a general

The following

That

morphologically

infinitives,

by

verbs

roat.

verbal

and in'relative

involves

parti-

The following

of

verb,

withnon-finite

sentences

been

the

of

simple

by adding

of

and

involving

apposition

constructed

-te

As has
constructed

gerundive

form

and participles.

in

infinitives
closes

is

infinitives
gerunds

as are

following

clauses.

infinitive

the

a three-way

and gerunds,

say

the

Construction

ciples

that

clause

relative

made in

of infinitive,

the relative

Bengali,

part

the

in

is

discussion

in

Infinitive

4.2.1

which

be introduced

on the occurrence

section

and participial

gerundive

can also

constructions

Constructions

the

in
to

form

of

show the

infinitives.

root

Ja 'go'

Verbal

root

kha

leatt

Verbal

root

cai

'want'

+ -te

'to'

Jete

khete

+. -te"'to,
+ -te

'to

'-tot,

caite

go'
'to
'to

eat'
want'

203

Verbal

d.

root

naoa ?bathe'

'to'

+ -te

'to

: naite

bathe I
e.

Verbal

root

ni

'take'

+ -te

'to'

: nite

'to

take'

f.

Verbal

root

di

'give'

+ -te

ItdI

: dite

'to

give'

g.

Verbal

root

har

'lose'

h.

Verbal

root

Jit

'win'

is

When an infinitive
verb

other
at

(non-finite)

the

end of

The following
relativized
a.

the

ce

e.

(Bengali

se barite

Jete 1c ae2

he home-to

go-to

to

it,

after
be.ing

finite

show infinitives

wants

like

does

'He likes

to

se m khon

bichane

sute 1

Jabe

he now

bed-in

lie-to

go-will

eat

rice'

'He will

go now to

lie

se naite.

khete,

deri

korche

eat-to

late

doing

he bath-to
'He is

late

in

taking

down in

a bath

win'

or

any

a SOV language).

to go home'

eat-to

lose'

preferably

dite
se amake ee kTa boi
ca22
1
he me
book give-to
a
wants
'He wants to give me a bopkl
k-zre
se bhat, khete,
22chondo
2
he rice

d.

the

tto
?to

sentences.

'He wants
b.

occurs

are given

examples

Jitte

a sentence,

always

sentence

: harte

+ -te-'-Itol

in

used

'>tot

+ -te

bed'

and eating'

in

non-

20 4'
The aboye

show the

examples

in non-relativized
infinitive

are shown underlined


this

occur;

Infinitives

infinitives
a.

with

is

with

are given

and without

mou baJate

Jane

Mou play-to

knows

to

as 1 and 2.

or without
show, the

objects.

bts-i
mou

baJate

Jane

Mou flute

play-to

knows

how to

'Mou knows
b.

mohua poRte

pare

Mohua read-to

can

'Mohua
A
b.

mohua

the

flute'

can read'
boi

, Mohua book
'Mohua
C.

play

poRte

pare

read-to

can

can read

se akte

pare

he draw-to

can

'He knows

how to

books'

draw'

se chobi

'akte

pare

he picture

draw-to

can

infinitives

and non-

'Mou knows how to play'


A

the

a common structure

may qccur

The followingexamples

of

The infinitive

sentences.

verbs

two infinitives

distribution

'He knows how to draw pictures'

(6e)

In
in

Bengali.

objects.

occurrence

of

205
The (at

bt

whereas

the

objects

before

c) sentences
(6,6,

It
(see 4.2-3)
meaning,

not

to participial
the

pial

of infinitival

conversion

infinitival

into

constructions

a.

Jete
okhane
se

pDchondo kDre na

he there

like

go-to

'He does not


a.

se okhane

Jaoa

he there

going

'He does
b.

and particion the


participial

not

does not

to go-there'

Pochondo
like

like

kvre

na

does

not

there'

going

se bhat

khete

pzchondo

kzre

he rice

eat-to

like

does

'He likes

C*

like

to

eat

ricef

se bhat

khaoa

pvchondo

kzre

he rice

eating

like

does

'He likes

eating

se ekTu

pzre

sute

Jabe

he little

after

lie-to

go-will

'He will

go to

rice'

bed shortly

to

same

examples

Constructions.
(8)

at

can be converted

as the restrictions

as well

occur

participial

have the

The following
between

parallelism

constructions

though

constructions

constructions.

illustrate

that

constructions

infinitival

all

verbs

of

(7).

to note

and infinitive

objects,

occurrence

The finite

in

important

shown without

show the

infinitives.

sentences

is

are

'c) sentences

the

the end of the

(7)

in

lie

down'

206
A
c

*se

ekTu

he little
'He will
d.

soaa

Jabe

after

lying

go-will

go to bed shortly
dite

he me

give-to

*se

book

a
to

fHe wants
[tHe

book

wants

of

giving

to

give

In the above examples

for

lying

downt

cae
wants

me a book'

give

amake m kTa boi

he me

ability'in

for

se amake w kTa boi

'He wants
d.

pare

deoa

cae

giving

wants

me a bookt
me a bookt]

(86)

(8a)
and
of

some environments

show the non-accept-

substituting

participials

infinitives.
Infinitives

relative

clause

that

shown for

are
a.

b.

can easily

without

affecting,

simple
Jini

grame

gentleman

who

village-in

w khon

boi

porchen

now

book

reading

'The

gentleman,

who does

village,

is

cheleTa,

Je mach khete

khelche'
playing

reading

who fish

(8).
Jete
go-to

like

the
sequences
(9):

Consider
can

tini

na,

wants

not

he

to

go to

the

pachondo

kire

na,

se bvl

like

does. not

he ball

not

a book

eat-to

in

the word order

sentences-in

bhjddrolok,

boy-the

be introduced

now'

2G7
'The

boy,

who does

mou, Je
Mou

to

fish,

eat

is

ball'

playing
ce

like

not

ba'si

baJate,

pare,

who flute

play-to

can

se amar sohopaThi
she my

IMPu, who knows how to play

flute,

clads-friend
is

my class-

friend'
d.

mou,

Je

Mou

who play-to

fMou,
In

the

in

(9b,

show that

infinitives

with

or

class-friend
is

play,

occurrence
d)

of

do not

my class-friend'
an object

show the

in

can be introduced
o bjects

like

the

is

shown

occurrence

Sentences.

infinitives.

without

sjhopaThi

she my

how to

(9a,

the

before

se amar

can

the

whereas,

an objec't

clause

pare,

who knows

examples,

above
c),

baJate

like
the

of

(9a-d)

relative

non-relativized

sentences.

4.2.2

Gerundive
A gerund

gerund
it

may or

takes

suffix
following
in

Bengali.

can be taken

may not

an object,
that

Construction

the

shows-gerund
examples

take

are

as a verbal
in

an object

latter

follows.

formation
given

to

is

noun.

The

a sentence.
it.

-bar

The most
1-ing'.

common
The

formation

show gerundive
.1.

When

208
(10)

Verbal

a.

por

+ bar

: porbar

b.

bhab

+ bar

: bhabbar,

tthinking'

ce

dara

+ bar

: darabar

'standing'

d.

Ja

+ bar

: Jabar

e.

kha

+ bar

: khabar

'eating'

f.

kor

+ bar

: korbar

'doing'

g.

sun

+ bar

: sunbar

'listening'

The suffix
It

+ Suffix

root

can be taken

-bar

Bengali

written

form

pattern

and are

not

knother
,
in (11).

gerund

a.

p; )ra

b.

bhaba

C.

kora

d.

cora

Occasionally
addition
'studying'.
gerundive

form

of

c; )ron

tclimb

are

e. g.

in

English
are

Sanskrit

used

-jag.
in

grammatical
Bengali.

colloquial
style

is

illustrated

studying'
thinkingt

doingt
-

climbing'

in

dhumpan

Bengali

without

'smoking',

examples
in

to

gerunds

written

formed

The following
constructions

tthink
'do

a suffix;

the

?study

koron

gerunds

used

in

bhabon

the
the

generally

poron

that

following

used

tgoing'

as equivalent

here

be mentioned

should

?reading'

a sentence.

show the

the

p: )rasuna
occurrence

of

209
(12)

a.

ami tomar

porbar

aggroho

dekhechi

reading

eagerness

seen-have

you

'I
b.

have

seen your

sinema

hDle

dhumpan nisiddho

this

cinema

hall-in

smoking

prohibited

in

is

korte

paro

you

cooking

arrangement

do

can

'You

can make the


the

two possibilities

of relative

as clause

or

However,

have

objects,

or

pronoun

which

examples

constituents

may precede
to

given

as the

show the

in

inside

the

ways with

including

the

them.

occurrence

antecedents

the

before

position

or follow

clause.

gerunds

When gerunds

occur

a simple

a relative

inside

can occur

different

in

in

relative

function

sinema

holer

moddhe dhumpan,

cinema

hall's

inside

smoking

ta

szbar

mana ucit

that

all's

obey proper

as

the'relative
relative

clause,

or without
relative

The following
of

gerunds

sentences.

relativized
a.

can occur

when they

other

are

they

a fixed

may be interpreted

in

introducing

they

cooking'

gerunds

of

constituents.

they

antecedents,

they

Either

clauses

of

be introduced

may also

clauses.

for

arrangement

occurrence

There

clause.

theatre'

aoJon

they

clauses

this

radhbar

sentence,

relative

prohibited

tumi

Besides

are

reading'

ei

tSmoking
ce

in

eagerness

Ja

nisiddho,

which

prohibited

in

210
'Smoking,
should
[tAl-I
is

is

which

be obeyed

properly
should

properly

that

rule

smoking

amar Pvrasuna,

Ja

ami niomito

korchine,

ta

which

doing-not

that

studying

difficulties

me

'My studying,

Je

phelte

pare

put-in

can
doing

--

regularly,

friend

dhumpan charte
quit-to

who smoking

roJ

du paekeT

everyday

two packet

put

smokes two packets


Je

amar t)ondhu,
friend

like

to

hzle

wants

not

he

smoking,

stop

day'
,

sigareT

hall-in

who cinema

se

every

cigarettes

sinema

. na,

smokes

cigarette

of

cae

khae

sigareT

who does not

tMy friend,

my

regularly

I am not

which

bondhu,
amar
my

auditorium']

difficulties'

me in

b.

the

inside

amake bipode

theatre,

by all

obey
the

the

prohibited

my

a.

inside

prohibited

dhumpan

cigarette'smoking

nisiddho

ei

nirdes

mane

na,

se Ee khon

khelte

prohibited

this

order

obeys

not

he now

play-to

like

to

gza che
gone-has
who does not

'My friend,

as

"smoking

is

gone to

play

prohibited"

in

the

obey

cinema

the
hall,

order
has

now'

bhoddrolok,

Jini

radhbar

aoJon

korechilen,

gentleman

who

cooking

arrangement

did

211
tini

amar bondhu

he

my

Me

gentleman,

is
The gerunds

the

shown as the

are

'smoking'

The gerund

noun in

relative

'studying'

clauses
It

standpoints.

the

case

possessive

and

(13b),
before

occur

bhzddrolok,
gentleman

can be viewed

can be treated

is

shown in

from

-as a

and may be followed

This

a postposition.
a. -

(13a)

in

antecedents

and pDrasuna

in

syntactic

verbal

cooking,

clauses.

relative

different

for

who made arrangements

my friend'

dhumpan

where

friend

by

(15).

Jini

porbar

Jonne

esechilen,

tini

who

reading

for

came

he

amar bondhu
my
'The
b.

friend
gentleman,
Je

cheleTa,
boy-the

who

who came for

reading,

is

my friend'

dekhbar

Jonne

eseche,

se amar

seeing

for

come-has

he my

s; hopaThi

class-friend
'The

boy, who has come for

seeing,

is

my class-

friend'

2he
(15a)

postposition
(151)and

Jonne

If or I occurs

af ter

the 'gerund

in

212

In

functions

after

in

the

in

'smoking'

'a

The most

to

form

the

The following
forms

in

cigarette'

examples

are

can be taken

as

is

by it.

after

to-show

the

Bengali.

Verbal

Word + Suffix

Participials

z9kon

+ ito

Dkito

'drawn'

b.

pzton

+ ito

potito

'fallen'

C.

dOnDo

+ ito

donDito

d.

bh,.)e

+ ito

bhito

soon

+ ito

: safto

f.

prohar

+ ito

: prohrito

g.

lekha

+ ito

: likhito

h.

bohiskar

+ ito

: bohiskrito

i.

gzThon

+ ito

: goThito

'made'

J.

pzThon

+ ito

: PoThito

'read'

k.

gona

+ ito

: gonito

1.

hasso

+ mze : hassomoe

a.

e.

the

occurs

The participleg

any nouns
given

to

added

The noun which

modified

without

phrase

which

-ito.
is

participle

English

in

used

common suffix

participles'is

be constructed

cannot

A word

as

a verb

construction

participial

smoking

functions

a verb

construction

gerundive

as an adjective.

participle.
verb

the

whereas

a noun,

like

Construction

Participial

4.2.3

'Punished'
'afraid'
flying'
Ibeatent
'written'
'driven'

'counted'
'laughing'

it

in

participial

Bengali.

213

The common suffix

The verbal

roots

and -mze.

It

the

word,

establish
words.

In

adding

the

a.

Bengali.

rule

in

the

rule

most

for

(e. g.

suffix

in

participles

syllable

to

-mDe.

is

added

the

ito
-.

of

addition

to

due

sounds

to

difficult

not

base

of

the

is

deleted

+ ito

-on)

is

participles

after

: o5kito).

illustrate

the

intro-

sentences.

relativized

tomar

;.9hito

chobi,

Ja

prodorsonite

-sobar

your

drawn

painting

which

exhibition-in

all's

peeche,

ta

ami dekhechi

received

that

proso Usa
commendation
'I

have

seen your

['I

have

in

the

seen-have

by all'

exhibition

which

have

commendation

received

have

which

been drawn
in

the

by all']

exhibition

Jomi,

habiber

potit

Habib's

uncultivated

ami kinte

cai

want

buy-to
want

paintings

pa.intings

seen the

by you and have

'I

drawn

commendation

received

b.

sounds

(minus

given

is

it

the

zkon

all

examples.

suffix

the

retain

second

are

examples

of

not

However,

the

the

when a suffix

changing

cases,

above

the

after

that
does

word

the

form

shown with

slightly

can be said

The following
duction

is

changed

in

shown to

is

(161)

original

sandhi

illustrated

which

One example

-ito.

to

is

formation

Participle.

to

buy Habib's

land

Ja

sabhare

ache,

which

Savar-in

is

uncultivated

land

in

ta
that

Savarl

214
(18)

a.

bhzddrolok,

Jini

bichane

sajito,

tini

amader

gentleman

who

bed-in

lying

he

our

""ttio
a
relative
'The

who is

gentleman,

lying

down in

bed,

is

our

relative'
b.

hasnat,

Je

Hasnat

who beaten

amader

poricito,

our

known

'Hasnat

In

(17),

of

the

the

the

the participial
.
(18b) illustrates
a noun

previously

occurs
(17a)

as a true

does not

modify

okito

here

that

letter'

clause,

related

-lekha

hoeechilo

be taken

as the

he

who

regular

to

the

In

relative

in

the

in

(18)

clause

as the

cannot
participle

'written

letter'

be mentioned

likhito-ciThi

as a reduced
clause

relative
like

relative

2.1.9).

Je ciThi
The NP can

was written'.

a relative
(cf.

parti-

(18a)

like

should

like

relative

head noun of

the

relative

ciThi
It

which

antecedents

as shown

Examples

likhito

man'

by a noun.

preceded

paintingt.

a regular

beaten

examples

construction

ITIe letter

a stacked

the

participial

noun like

occur

the

patternofthe

(17b).

and

the

saved

noun follows

is

can be regarded

or more participles
constitute

saed

constructions

participle

'written

man-of-the

clause.

after

'drawn

chobi

se

the

participle

the

baciechilo,

shown before

Ilyingt

the

be taken

or

relative

lokTake

us

where

sajito

in

to

are

clause,

before

where

known

is

participles

relative

ciples

prohrito

clause.
clause

they

When two
can

CHAPTER FIVE

Complement

Constructions

Complementizers

and Complement

The structure
this

which

from

chapter
complement

constructions;

clauses

and Infinitive

Clauses

(b)

distribution

oi

occurrence
It

complementizers.

Bengali:

as a relative

3-4-1)

on the
is

complementizers

the

construction

present
of

more common than


in

Bengali.

215

Je in
of

the

the

functions

discussion,
clause

Gerundive

discussed
way in

relative

as a deictic

pronoun,

the

has already

Je has three

that

In

a complementizer.

(a)
with

the

is

clauses

show contrast
the

besides

(cf.

Je,, as it

complement

two perspectives:

mentioned

given

of

clauses
and

complement

is

Bengali:

Introductory

5.0

in

in

the
Gerundive
been
in

marker

and as

more emphasis
complementizer

and Infinitive

216
Types

Different

5.1

Complement
-sentence
a.

are

lokTa

lzmba

that

man-the

tall

knew

ami Jantam
knew
knew the

(1a),

sentence,

sentences

Je

embedded
different
way.
sentence

se esechilo

who

man-the

tall

he came

man who was tall

came'

man-the

that

tall

that

lokTa,

j. 2

man-the

who tall

'the

lvmba,

se eseheilo
he came

man, who was tall,

whereas
(1b).
also

can

in
in

(1a),

in

Complement
show

the

the

(1a)
in

'that'
it

use
only

Bengali
which

occurs
functions

like

of

the

ta

?that'

medial
can

be

may be
initially
as

in

position

the
the

embedded
relative
in

occurs

of

of

any

from*two

in
the

(1b).

explained
stated

as

the

occurrence

positions

in

embedded

correlative

The

sentence.

and

the

precedes

sentences

complement

ini-ial

'that'

medial

However,

sentence

Je

is

came'

Je

complementizer
it

knew

I knew'

man was tall

the

standpoints
If

1-; mba,

ami Jantam

correlative
'that'

lokTa

ta

sentence.

matrix

a-

lzmba,

in

sentence

man was tall'

L2

'The
In

(1).

lokTa

'That
b.

the

knew that

a matrix

as in

Je

'I
b.

by complementizers,

ami Jantam

in

embedded

sentences

marked

'I
41

Je

of

the

following

complement

a complementizer

as

it

does

217

(1a),

clause

order

occurs

as a deictic

the

clause

with

be a relative

must

there

clause

the

pauqe

the

mentizer
before

in

jimba,

a.

se esechilo

'I

These

the

Je

as a Deictic

occurs

(1a),
the

man',

postcedent

between

the

that

(cf.

it

though

the

Relative
in

and

complemay occur

any

clause
pause

no potential

lzmba,

se amar bondhu

who

tall

he my

'Who-the

friend

man is

tall

is

my friend'

man who is

tall

is

my friend']

ja

man who was


may be stated

Pronoun

them.

man-the

if

ami Jantam

2.1.2).

Je - lokTa

('The

e. g.

as

on pauses

sentence

knew that

initially

as

pronoun

depending

points

man

and Je.

way:

Za 'who'
If

omitted

the

Je can be either

here

in

clause

following

'the

pronoun,

like

(cf-32d).

came'
the

is

relative

lokTa

1; Ymba, Je

clause

as a relative

be mentioned

should
'that'

Je
the

je-lokTa
tall

It

Je.

'who'

man',

(25. ) can be taken

in

Je lzmba,

or relative

'that

lokTa

tall'

after

lokTa

sequence

complementizer
after

falls

Je lokTa

Je lzmba

between

pause

and Je

?the

as a complement

man, who is

'the

as a relative

we have

we have

can be analysed

Je lzmba

potential

if

lokTa

no potential

exists

lokTa,

(1a),

as Je shows

lokTa

postcedent

pronoun.

(1b)

in

tall'

e. g. 'with
Je-1whol

(1a)

in

pronoun

the

order

head noun,

be a complementizer.

relative
with

the

with

Je must

juncture

close

-e. g.

is

juncture

show any close

not

preceding
exists

218
Je 'who'

b.

If

Je occurs

with

Relative

as a non-deictic
the

after

in

antecedent
between

pause in

a potential

Pronoun
any clause

the

antecedent

and Je. '


lokTa,

Je

lzmba,

who tall

man-the

he my

'The man, who is


ce

_Jg

If

se amar bondhu

'that'

tall,

is

as a Clause

Je occurs

my friend'

Complementizer

after-the

head noun in

complement

pause exists

between

and no potential

clause

friend

the head noun and Je.


.

lokTa

Je

lzmba

man-the

that

tall

'That

the

man is

in

relative

The correlatives

the

structure

of

Jini-tini

'who-he',

in
(2)

the

shows

and-in
include

in

Je

'that'

in

clause-initial
in

initially
before
medially

the
in

the
the

always
between

complement

embedded

vary

the

sentence

sentence

(1a)

sentence,

the

with
Je -

but

'who-he',

se

the

correlative

(e.
same
g.

relative

:La 'that').

(both

in

in

Bengali

clauses
of

position.
the

matrix

and when it,


the

deictic

occurrence

indicate-that

sentence

clause-medial

an embedded

I know?

The examples

clause.

an embedded

know

(e. g.

and complement

or

'what-that')

Ja-ta

difference

Jani

that

tall

pronouns

relative

non-deictic)
Je in

Ahat

ami

clauses

sentene. e. is

complement

ta

which
of

it

occurs

When it

occurs

sentence

occurs

occurs

matrix'sentence

occurs

219
the

after
of

the

embedded

rules

Je lokTa

lomba

sentence

that

that

the

the

a sentence

is

of

a language

(Bresnan,

'that

the

occurs

in

sentence

Moreover,

in

man is
ami

man was tall'.

the-embedded
,
following

sentence

complementizers
structure

phrase

(1b).

tall'

jantam

The phrase
(1)

determined

is
je

position

the

lokTa

by the,

1.970: '
embedded
lomba

tI-knew

diagram

structure

can be represented

319).

in

of

the-

way:

NP
-t

C.0 m

NP

/Particle

I
Adj

1/11

Je

The verb-phrase
or

noun

plus

verb

lok

Ta

lzmba

'that

man

the

tall'

node

can also

depending

be extended
on the

structure

either
of

as a verb
the

sentence.

220
Different

5.2

Types

Complementizer

of

Of the three

have a different

following

the

of two items

and

Ithatt.

from

and ts-ing'.

are used in

The three'are:

These are

the

shown in

examples:

a.
b.

For Susan to give


Susan's

Bengali

their

with

was a big
three

allow

also

sentences

surprise

surprise
-

compleThe. three

differences.

structural

surprise

was a big

me a present

me a present

giviaE

complement

mentizers

was a big

Susan gave me a present

That

o*
.

are:

complementizers

(5)

two consist

distribution

'for-tot

tthat'.

English

in

sentence

complement

that

complementizers

Ihatl:

Clause

a.

Je

b.

Jonne/pokkhe

Complementizer
Infinitive

'for-to':

e/D/te

Complementizer
ce

is

Je. 1thatt

occurs

Gerundive
a noun.
occurs
mentizers

-te:

infinitive

Complementizer
Usually,

after
Je

the
'that'

noun
is

as the

in

verb

Poss"(er)

as the

complementizer

is

phrase.
the

added
-

most

to

the

Among these
common,

the

of
is

form.

ling'

te

part

tfor-tol

e/o/te

Complementizer,
the

Complementizer

as a linking

used

commonly

Infinitive
in

Gerundive

Jonne/pokkhe

complement.
the

(er)

Poss

regarded
the

te

as

clause

acts

as a

functions

as

verbal

form

three

comple-

and Poss

(er)

that

-te

221
'Poss-ing'

occurs

'for-to'.

e/: )/te,

Complementizer,

as regards

is

the

are

a.

f orm,

to

closely

to

a noun

the

English

use

'for-to'
'for'

Bengali

the

can

occur
examples

complementizers.

sahana Je

amader__uVohar diechilo*tate

Sahana that

us

prese nt

in

occurs

The following

a pronoun.
of

te

complementizer*_.

e/D/te

'to'

with

(er)

Poss

I to I in

with

comparable

Pokkhe/Jonne

or

show the

as contra6ted

closely

-, e/D/te

Infinitive

the

function.

sentence,

before
given

a bound

When pokkhe/Jonne

complement

Jonne/pokkhe

element-in

grammatical

very

-ing.

either

last

nevertheless

its

corresponds
Poss.

the
is

It

-English.

than

more frequently

amra
that-in

gave

we

hoeechilam

;)bak

became

surprise

Sahana gave us a pre. sent

'That

was a surprise

to

us,
b.

sahana

bolechilo

Je

Sdhana

said

that

'Sahana
(7)

that

said

se asbe
she

come-will

she will

come'

tomar

pokkhe

upohar

deoate

jodi

osubidha

your

for

present

giving-to-

if

inconvenience

hze

tahole

khali

hatei

eso

has

then

empty

hand-in

come

'If

there

present,

is

any

inconvenience

come without

it'

for

you

to

give

222
(8)

a.

mouer

bol

Mou's

ball

tMou's

b.

khaelae
playing

tomar

boi

your

book reading

occurs

verb.

When e/D/te

is

When Poss-te
in

occurs

marker

or

occ. urs

the

(8),

in

examples

occurrence

of

.'
us'

a pronoun

and e/o/te

pattern

of'a

that

while

it,

noun

(cf.

word,

When

position.

possessive

--the

the

Pronoun,

and -te

element

in

is

after

any

the

pronouns
occurs

and the

main

4.2.1).
it

The second

(ling')

infinitive

or

structure

construction,

clause-medial

used

after

the-verbal

verb,

meaning s:

The following

sentence.

became

e/z/te.
of

-e

precedes

object

verb.

here

nouns,

with

surprise

to-a

the

with

be mentioned

should

we

as a complementizer,

occurs

a range

with

zbak

hoeechilam

a complementing

Complmentizer

morpheme

or

added

in

used

with

amra

inflectional

either

occurs

Infinitive

the

te

occurs

ling,

is

clause-initial

(er)

Poss

the book surprised

a noun

the

due to

became

surprised'ust

porae

after

pokkhe

hoeechilam

surprise

we

ball

playing

'Youvreading

changes

amra bissito

free

'with/in/at/to/byl.
poss essive
take
with

verb

examples
and gerundive

marker

-er

-er.

In

-zr--br
the
occurs
are

It

verb
at

given

the

and the
the
to

Complementizers

end'of
show the
in

Bengali.

a.

mvenata pokkhe

Moina's

this

for

s-3bai Janto
all

knew

kaJ

kzra

work do-to

3subidha,

ta

inconvenience

that

223
'For

Moina

boi

Nailals

book presenting

tomar
your
,
IYour

The occurrence
following
a. -

b.

upohare

boi

upohare

book

presenting

of Je Ithatf

bissito

all

hoeechilo
became

surprise

book

us'

allt

surprised

the

shown in

is

complementizer

examples.
mou Janto

Je

Mou knew that

sky

'Mou knew that

is

mou Janto

Je

roJi

Janto

it

Mou knew

that

blue

that

true

true

is

that

the

sky

khachche,

ta

Thik

eating

that

true

true

that.

se miththebadi,
she liar

knew that
Je

Thik

she rice

Je

Janto
mou

ta

se, bhat

Rosy knew that


'Rosy

nil,

akas

'Mou knew that

d.

became

surprise

we

sabai

the

presenting

hoeechilam

of the book surprised

presenting

Mou knew that

C*

amra bissito

naelar

I.Nailals
C.

was an inconvenience

work

(lit)

knew all'

b.

do this

to

is

not

today
it

sotti

nDe

that

true

not

she is

h6b

true

rice'

eating

ta

be-will

rain

was not

she is

that

briSTi

aJ

'Mou knew that

true

blue'

is

that

it

a liar'

ta

Thik

nze

that

true

not

will

rain

today'
e.

sahana

Janto

Je

Sahana

knew that

se

bhalobaste

she love-to

pare

na,

can

not

this

224

kz)tha sotti

nze

true

not

word

'Sahana knew that

it

true

was not

that

she cannot

love'
The examples
complement

given
clauses.

(one

clauses

complement

clause)'are

of

embedding
as a further
worth

ding

example

embedded
on the

of

construction
mentizer

(11)

as in

rosi

Je

Rosy

that

['We

b.

boka,

double

shown

fool

in

the

the

knew that

Rosy

Jantam

we knew'
a fool']

se Je

calak,

ta.

amra

Jantam

he that

clever

that

we

knew

'We knew that

he is

clever'

depen-

Bengali.

as a comple-

clause

we knew

is

can be

10)
in

is

complement

occurs

amra

a fool

(cf.

here

it

clauses

sentence

sentence,

that

sentence

However,

embedded

'that'

ta

another

be explained

(11).

Rosy is

'That

(32)...

two

The double

complement

When Je

complement

in

matrix

not

a conjoined

are

(10).

the

in

be seen
a.

of

clauses

in

the

or

structure

Occurrences

also

(cf-11)

will
in

given

that

here

mentioning

single

is

the

the

of

show that

sentence).

clauses

complement

(10)

clause

in

the

end of

embedding

in

complement
embedded

the

at

occurs

show double

The sentences

complement

(which

(10)

in

types

may

225
ce

m;)ena Je

t-omar bon,

ta

amra Jantam na

Moina that

your

that

we - knew

'We did
Je

'that'

and never
the

'that

such

as:

not know that

is

world

prithibi
thinking

that

the

moto

Je may occur

the

be mentioned
same sentence,

(12)

gol

that

this

is

Moina

like

an orange'.
pronoun

previously
types

of

shown-in

also

Je

Je-mou

knew that

who-Mou

maena Janto

the

hoeechilo

boi
book

moto

sentence
Je

after

and as a clause
(1).

in

the

of

in

surprised

both

before

lebur

'Mou got

as a relative

here

as part

bissito

round

sentence

immediately

an orange'

kore

as described

complementizer,
also

is

world

complement

occurs

like

round

not

sistert

Je prithibi-k3mla

...

cinta

lebur

the

your

may be taken

like:

mou e kztha
kzmla

it

sentence,

sentence
the

'that'

As Je

it.

after

Moina is

before

placed

commonly

complement

complement
gol

is

sister

It

Je can

should
in

occur

(12).

porche,
reading

se

skuler

she school-of

chattri
student

'Moina

knew that

school

student'

I'Moina
school
In

(12a),

the

first

knew that

who Mou is

reading

a book is

Mou who is

reading

a book is

studentI3
Je occurs

as a complementizer

in

the

226
complement
book',

which

occurs

as a clause

(12a)
It

itself

with
side

as in

(12a).

either

(Je

postcedent

When Je

the

deictic

pause:

mzena Janto

chattri

IMoina

school
Je Je

student'.
'who-pll

Sentences
constructions,

like

relative

deictic

the

No such

are

pause

as shown

not
in

the--two

is

When Je Je
antecedent,

Je

(Je

boi

is

porche,
is

unlike

perceivable

(12b).

certain

from

a slight

se skiler

reading

as a plural

+ Je:

before

separated

with

after

'The

the

after

clause

who-Mou

occurs

or

clause..

former

it

the

as a complementizer

Je-mou

knew that

when it

or

relative

Je I

before

esechilen

between

occurs
pronoun,

(12a)

the

postcedent

'that'

or

Jini

to

clause.

relative

men-came')

Jini

juncture

relative

complement

of

the

close

shows

Je Je).
any

came')

any

Bengali
morpheme,

either

'who-pl

esqchilo

before

either

always

may occur

(bhvddrolok,

who-pl

gentlement

it

y to

Je lok

antecedent

occurs

inside

it

that

in

occurs

by

side

3.2)

as a plural

or-initiall

'that'

be confused

When Je Je occurs

initially,

occurs

shown

in

a book'.

when they'occur
(cf.

'that'

clause

Je

cannot

(who-pl)

who'

above

Mou i-s reading

'who'

already

Je je-1who

may occur
When it

is

It

plurality.

mark

Je

reading
Je

complementizer

Bengali

in

relatives

occasionally

that

is

clause.

the

of
'that

pronoun

relative

double

relative

porche
here

'who-Mou

porche

complementizer

be mentigned

should

boi

a deictic

is

as Je Je mou boi

and de-ictic

the

Je-mou

sentence

a book,
in

morpheme.
English

is

between

227
(12)

Moina

b.

knew that
the
3-omp 'gel

belongs
fthatf

The first
.

is

latter

the

double

c.

(12a)

latter

'that',

ami Jantan
knew

a complementizer,

does

the

relatives,
Je

is

be mentioned

Je Je in

of

on the

whereas,

here
not

that

the

show the

as shown

Je

Je

Je

that

who who came

they

the

clause

(12c)

esechilo,

se

se

cole

he

he

gone

have
knew that

of

occurrence

may occur-after
in

the

though

gee che

'I

table

pronoun.

should

complementizer
(12)

(12b)

in

is.

Mou.

a relative
It

sequence

to

book that
clause

.
have
who came
gone'

228

Noun Phrase

5.3

and Verb Phrase

The verb
the
is

the

end of
embedded

in

sentence

following

the

phrase,

However,

phrase

complement.

occurs

in

the

verb

phrase

in

the

matrix

following

(13)

phrase

Bengali

in

complement

verb

Complements

the
it

the

occurs

may be taken
subject

This

as a verb
that

phrase

noun

is

at

When a sentence

verb.,

identical

to

a noun

may be shown

in

the

complement

sentence.

usually

example:

a.

mouTusi

bhaloba8to

boi

hte
p(,

Moutusi

liked

book

reading

liked

'Moutusi

a book'

reading

b.
NP

VP

NP

bhalobasuo
'liked'
VP

NP

mouTusi

I
mouTusi
Imoutusi

Imoutusi

boi
book
In

(13b),

complement
matrix

the

embedded

sentence

the

is

where

sentence

immediately

noun

(Moutusi)

dominated
A noun

by an NP, which
.

is

shown

identical

and the

by the

phrase

occurs

verb

the

the

phrase

phrase

noun

of

the

complement

is

phrase.

complement
in

as a verb
to

verb

porte
reading'

is

following

immediately.
phrase

dominated
structure

diagram:

229
(14)

In

NP

a.

(14a),

preceded

the

b.

girl-the

that

did

eating

know that

not

The complementizers

same way the

a.

V.

'I

knew that

knew

independent
other

Bengali.

In
into

as the

knew

not

is
in

placed

rice'

eating
the

noun

rule.

In

from

phrase
the

the

as in

(15a,

b).

come'

Or se asbe
he come-will

been

come'

previously

to

of

another
complement

this

when there

mentioned,

either

according

terms

deletiong

he will

sentences,

embed the

that

he come-will

knew he will

As has

na

se asbe

that

knew

'I

embedded

by lexical

Jantam

Jantam

can be deleted

ami Jantam Je

ami

ami

girl

are

complementizer

sentences

'complement

the

ta

by a transformational

sentences

complement

taken

khachche,

rice

plus

(cf-14b).

sentence.

bhat

meeTa

'I

two

ComPlementizer

the NP complement
-Je

by an NP and is

dominated

immediately

by a complementizer.

constitute
(14)

S is

the

process

processo

sentence,
sentence.

the

of

the

sentences
of

can

Je

'that'

in

embedding

when a sentence
embedded

are

is

sentence

is

normally

occurs

230
in

initially

noun phrase

Jonne/pokkhe
ing'

complementizers

inside

occur

sentences,

whereas

(er)
Poss
and

'for-to'

te

--e/z/

complement

the

'Poss-

te
-

noun phrase

comple-

Note,.
however, that Je 'that'
may also occur inside
ment.
that
he
17-knew
Je
Jantam
vameIj-->
se esechilo,
(ami
the noun phrase complement sentences:,, [ ami Jantam. se Je
esechilo
-came1j.

From this

be regarded

a..

the
that

as a sentence

in

given

was not

(16c,

untrue

noun phrase
is

that

complement

embedded in

the deep structure

if

pore

giechilo

tate

he that

fell

down

that-in

Consider

amader kharap
bad

us

legechilo
felt
'We felt
IfThat
b.

he fell

down'

he fell

us to

down caused

ami

Jantam

Je

se asbe

knew

that

he come-wili

'I
c.

bad that

knew that

he will
for

Tree-diagram

feel

bad']

come'

(16a)

S
NP
I

VP
NP
I

se

poregiechilo

'he fell

down

amader

us

may

a noun phrase.

d).

se Je

he

of any noun phrase

a tree-diagram.

through
shown

is

complement

knew it

approach,

be clear

Thi. s will

examples

nDe 'I

ta miththe

VP
'11
Adj

II
kharap

legechilo

bad

felt'

the

231
d.

Tree-diagram

(16b)

for

s
NP

VP

-NP

Jantam

ja-

se

knew

that

he come-will'

ami

In

(16a),

subject

complement
from

clear

Both

of Je 'that'

occurs

immediately

surface

structure

before

the

and object

complementation,
and'a

the

(17)

a.

phrase

which

may also

are

is

examples

they

knew

that

you

come-will

knew that

you

won't

tumi

asbe

both

into

be extended.

Je

in

case of object

expanded

Janto

which

discusses

of object

following

sentence.

In the

tara

'They

b.

33 and-71)

the verb

following

the

show

complementizer

complement

complementation.

noun phrase,

like

Je 'that'

is

way to

easiest
is

the
It

embedded sentence,

as the

occurs

the

that

Rosenbaum (1967:
subject

that

object

VP node.

complementizer

indicates

S,
which
-

by the

asble

show that

examples

dominated

the above examples

the occurrence
way: -Je

is

sentence

(16b),

and in

complementation
are shown.

complementation

the verb
Sentences

complementation:

na
not

come?

mita

bhalo

korei

Janto

Je

phouJia

asbe

na

Mita

well

doing

knew

that

Fouzia

come-will

not

IMita

knew well

that

Fouzia

won't

come'

232
Subject
transitive

and intransitive

is

for

applied
in

takes

is

verb

into

enlarged

phrase

between

the

verbs.

The following

mentation

(18)

Daktar

Je

osud

doctor

that

medicine

not

know that

a.

did

'I
the
b.

Daktar

or

the

phrase

and

to

show comple-

and intransitive

diechen,

ta

given-has
the

verbs.

ami Jantam

na

I know

not

that

has

physician

prescribed

medicine'
Je

esechen

ta

ami

Jantam

na

doctor

that

come-has

That

know

not

'I

not

did

is

'doctor'
occurs

know that

the

the

subject

as the

(18a)

in
in

object

has

physician

(18a).

comet

(18b)
and

and osud

No object

occurs

(18b).
It

complementation
The following

complementation

difference

Daktar

?medicine'
in

with

noun

and intransitive

given

transitive

in

a noun

no basic

are

the

by an S,

transitive

examples

an S

of

both

into
is

of

complementation

Bengali

that

strings,

complement

expansion

dominated

are

there

However,

phrase.

the

indicates

two main

a verb

When subject

verbs,

NP and VP, which

both

for

possible

verbs.

transitive

and the

phrase

is

complementation

is

to

also

possible

with

transitive

examples

are

with

transitive

given

construct

verb

and intransitive
to

show the

and iniransitive

phrase
verbs.

verb

phrase

verbs.

233
(19)

VPComplementation

a.

Transitive

with

Verb

ami mouke

ei

boiTate

molaT dite

sahaJJo

this

book-to

cover

help

Mou-to

giving

korechilam
did
tI
b.

Mou to cover

ami mzenake boi


I
'I

(20)

helped

told

to

Moina

VP Complementation
a.

ami

'I
b.

po,,te

book

Moina-to

told

book,

read

Intransitive

Jantam

Je

lokTa

knew

that

man-the

the

book'

olechilam

read-to

with

knew that

this

kadchilo
weeping

man was weeping'


se ahoto

hoeeche
got

ami

sunechilam

Je

heard

that

he wounds

he got

wounded'

11 heard

that

Verb

234
5.4

Condition

on the occurrence
(1979)

Bresnan

in her

content

function

(p. 9).

regarded

as embedded and complementizers

such

types

of

As the

tizers

occur

in

sentences.

(21)

is

a..

also

the

*se Je
he that

*se

Je

he that

'that

unembedded.
another

(22)

a.

think

did

szpno

dekhechilo

dream

saw

will

(21)

yield

show that

bhai
brother

they

(21a-c)

these

korechilo

that

they

All

cinta

Je

*tara

in

complemen-

he dreamtf

'that
c.

any

he thoughtf

'that
b.

in

can appear

this

sentences,

into

Bengali.

with

case

are-always

are inserted

If

The examples

statement,

and syntactic

sentences

sentence.

any unembedded

comple-

to her

no complementizers

(non-complex)

ungrammatical
this

complement

sentences,

an unembedded

regards

According

have semantic

complementizers

ComplementiZers

thesis

as tClause-particlest.

mentizers
the

of the

They

sentence,

(are)

are

strings
will

brothers'
ungrammatical

be grammatical

as shown

in

after

(22).

se Je

cinta

korechilo,

he that

think

did

ta
that

sotti.
true

as they
embedding

are
into

235
'That
LlIt
b.

was true

that

he thought']

se Je

sDRno dekhechilo,

ta

sotti

he that

dream

that

true-

'It
Co

he thought-was-truel

saw
that

was true

he. dreamt'

..

tara

Je

bhai

ta,

cehara

deklei

they

that,

brother

that

appeara4ce

seeing

boJha

Jae

understand

goes

'That

they

appearance

are

brothers

is

understood

I(

by their

236
Relative

5.5

and Complement Clauses

Both relative
in

the

same way inside

they
embedded,

that

It

is

quite

relative

clausest

function

as they

(Langacker,
Illustrate

clauses

can function

The following

144).

between

the differences

The

sentence.

of the

are the modifiers

1972:

as correlatives.

do not

hand,

other

clauses

occur

the

in

structure

to relative

complement

or an object
on the

their

are

'The correlatives

constituents

the

that

clear

as a subject

either

tfirough

similar

are

the inanimate

Though both

the'sentence.

constructions

complement

except

in

function

are embedded

clauses

sentence.

another

can be distinguished

and grammatical
in

and complement

have identical

noun phrase
will

examples

and complement

relative

clauses.
(23)

a.

mohua,

Je

Mohua

who sari
who is

'Mohua,
b.

ce

poreche,

se

skuler

chattri

wearing

she

school-of

student

wearing

a sari,

is

a school

s.obai

Jane

all

know

Je
mohua

SoDgitsilpi,

ta

Mohua that

singer

that

Mohua is

studentl

'All

know that

tate

kono

sDndeho

nei

Je

mohua so5gitsilpi

that-in

any

doubt

not

that

Mohua

in

no doubt'

'That
(There

The relative
clause

sari

Je sari

Mohua is
is

clause

a singer

no doubt

is

poreche

that

a singer,

is

Mohua is

singer

a singer']

shown in

(23a),

where the

'Who is

wearing'a

sari?

relative

modifies

the

237
head noun mohua 'Mohual.
23c)
and

are

shown in

subject

tthat

Mohua is

Je sogitsilpi
sentence

(23b)

in

The complement

following

tree-diagrams.

(24)

Relative

a.

a singer'

(23c).
and

mohua

position.

as complement

occurs

The difference

the

between

can be observed

clause

and complement

relative

sentences

and object

(23b)

in

the

in

Clause

NP
s

NP
I

N
I
mohua je sari
'Mohua

who is

poreche
a sari'

wearing

Clause

Complement

NP -

VP

L
Je-

monua soTg-lts-jl]33.
Mohua is

'That

can also

that

said

difference
is

perceived

relative
the

relative

between

differences

The structural
clauses

a singer,

be handled

the

two

have

is

that

in

pronoun

from

pronoun

identica,

antecedent
it.

In

and the

and

a different

complement
It

way.

can be

The only

structures.

a. comma intonation

relativeclausest

the

after

in

relative

which

a deictic
postcedent

separates
relative
occur

the
clause,

side

by side

238
and Je

'who'

is

not

(cf-5.1).

comma intonation
Je tthat'.
something

is

like

relative

between

the girl

(meeTa Je

in

as an antecedent

clause,

the human correlative

occurs

in

and the

inanimate

occurs

in. the

occurs
In the

sentence.

cal

a complement

with

the relative

before

pronoun

relative
precedes

always

it

'that'
Je
case of
any

inanimate

be shown in
(25)

a.

noun

meeTa,
girl-the
'The

girl,

Je

sentence,

complement

becomes identipronoun

will

antecedent
be separated
In the

human antecedents.

the relative

never
in

the
clause,

occurs

sentence-initial

following

the

the

relative

it

clause,
like

intonation
comma
a

deictic
a
of
case

the

relative

case of a human

correlative

but

the
matrix

When an inanimate

different.

becomes quite
occurs

clause,

ways:

of any non-human

occurrence

the

clause,

the

in

complement

case of the

nouns in a relative
like

the

before

mark the

two different

in

clauses

correlative

stands

The correlatives

came').

the

and

antecedent

clause

of a complement

when a human noun occurs

noun that

like

clause

the

head noun + Je + ...

this:

and complement

relative

in

perceived

The structure

'that

esechilo

the

(e. g. Je-cheleTa
eseche 'Who the boy has
the
In case of a complement sentence,
no
A

a complementizer
come')

from

separated

deictic

relative
but

clause,

in

the

as a complementizer

before

This

position.

examples.
boi

porche,

se amar bandhobi

who book

reading

she my friend

is
who

reading

a book,

is

my friend'

may

239
0

b.

Je

meeTa

that

girl-the
'I

In

(25a),

know that

Je 'who'
from

separated

(26)

book-the

what

'He will

get
Je
that

the

pronoun,

relative
identity

than

occurs
hand,

and

the human

against
Je ?that'

as a

occurs

becomes different

both

se cae,

ta

pabe

he wants

that

get-will

book

in

se cm6.,

ta

ami Jani

he wants

that

of
the

the

the

(26a),

(26b)

in

je
b)

'that'

are

in

identical,

non-identical.

are

(27)

Je-

boiTa

tumi

cao,

ta

pabe

which

book-the

you

want

that

get-will

a comma,
boiTa

occurs

a different

has

which

with

between

'what'

Ja

complementizer.

correlatives

clause

inanimate

is

clause

relative

relative

(26a,

know

book'

the

Moreover,
in

he wants'

that

sentences
a.

is

which

a comma intonation

with

other

a book'

reading

as a relative

comma exists

'that'.

pronoun

Though

is

girl

he wants

from

separated

Je
and

book'

know

antecedent

no such

whereas,

the

know that

'I

which

that

correlative

Ja

boiTa

is

reading

the

and the

boiTa

(26a),

book

On the

book-the

In

Jani

(25a).

from

b.

ami

se 'she'

pronoun.

a.

ta

the antecedent

complementizer
-(25b)

porche

occurs

the human correlative


relative

boi

'the

as the
lexical

(26b).
the

matrix

240
'You
b.

*Je

(27a)

shows

where

Je

'that'

get

boiTa

tumi

the

'which'

the

complementizer

Je

'that'

the

of

the

tizer

in

correlatives

identical
in

the

you

want'

pabe
a deictic

relative

not

initially

occur

ungrammatica-lity
relative

relative,

clauses
sentences.

in

the

and the

and the

any
All

'who'

Je
with

Je

(27b).

of

pronoun

prongun

clause

However,

postcedent.

can be handled

initial
matrix

that

ta

of

does

show that

occurrence

book

cao,

precedes

and hence

examples

the

construction

complementizer

sentence,
these

will

and
help

of

complemen-

structure

of

the

5.6

Complementizer

Insertion

The simplest
into

a complex

(28)

Complementizer

Rule

way to
is

sentence

insertion

show complementizer

the

folowing:

Placement

x+s+Y
NP
Je +2

1
In

complement

complement

of

as NP -

it

sentence.

if

it

sentence

or

embedded

clauses
the

one for

occurs
must

occurs

a sentence,

either

in

the

than
In

the

the

ment

relative

same way,

clause

noun

sentence

is

by side

with

are

matrix

shown

in

clause
the

NP.

and the

necessary

to

in

the

the

following

noun

in

two
in

in

ways
a
the

two
NP and

relativized

clause

can be inserted-

a separate

matrix

introduce

complement

the

of

When a relative

structural

the

the

clause,

a relative

or

case,

independently

clause

occurs
modification
a relative

clause.

All

examples.

'

these

other

(cf-31).

sentence

when a complementizer
phrase,

this

S.

complementizer

sentence

clause

In

one for

occur

complement

in

with

before

oemplementizer

can be placed

can be used

Rule

a sentence.

structure

Comp

The complementizer
Either

any

show the

will

sentence

S in

any

comple-

gerundive

sentence.

complement

phrase

any noun

insertion

the

allow

will

phrase

before

can be placed

mentizers

and the

infinitive

same way the

the

(28)

NP

in

a compleof

clause

the
side

possibilities

242
(29)

a.

bhz)ddrolok,

aJ

sokale

today

morning-in-the

Jini

gentleman

tini

esechen,

he

who come-has

amar bondhu
friend

my

'The gentleman

who has come this

is

morning

my

friend'
b.

bhoddrolok,

Jini

boi

porchen,

tini

amader

gentleman

who

book

reading

he

our

who is

reading

protibesi
neighbour
'The

gentleman

a book

is

our

neighbour?

(30)

a.

ai

s;)kale

bhoddrolok,

Jini

esechilen,

today

morning-in

gentleman

who

came

tini

Je

amader

protisbesi

ta

ami, Jantam

na

he

that

our

neighbour

that

not

'I

did

morning
b.

our

who came this

gentleman

neighbourl
Jlni

boi

porchen,

tini

amader

woman

who

book

reading

she

our

protibesi

ta

Je

ami

Jantam

ta

Thik

neighbour

that

that

knew

that

true

was true

reading
a.

is

the

bhoddromohilat

tIt

(31)

know that

not

knew

I knew

that

a book

is

our

that

the

woman who was

neighbourt

bhoddrolok

Je

amader

protibesi,

ta

ami

Jantam

gentleman

that

our

neighbour

that

knew

243
na
not
'I

did

the

know that

not

was our

gentleman

neighbourl
b.

cheleTa

Je

skuler

chattro,

ta

ami Jani

boy-the

that

school-of

student

that

know

a student

of

the

school'

sentences

are

'I

The way the


shown in

(32)

a.

boy

the

know that

is

independent

is

embedded

(32).

gm lo

cheleTa

doure

cole

boy-the

running

went away

'The boy went away running'


b.

cheleTa

skuler

chattro

boy-the

school-of

student

'The
ce

boy is

a student

of

the

school'

mou Jane
Mou knows
'Mou knows'

d.

cheleTa,,

Je

boy-the

who running

chattro,

ta

mou Jane

student

that

Mou knows

'Mou knows
a student
cheleTa

'the

boy?

doure

that
of

is

the

the

the

cole

lo, " se Je

_gEe
went away

boy who went

skuier

he that

school-of

away running

schooll

antecedent

of-sentence

(32d).

is

244
se 'he'
cedent

as the

occurs

'the

cheleTa

(32c)

embedded into
(32)

The above

s-tudent

(cf.

both

when both
-

are
It

in

the

matrix

in

the

above

before

the

the

is

to

identical
to

relative

knew
knew that

the man is

as well
to

given

sitting'

knew

man-the

away go-will

Jabe

go away?

jJe
Jantam
lokTa
ami

'I

clause

required

is

man-the

is

embedded

complementizer.

cole

knew

is

and the

lokTa

which

ache

sitting

man will

'that?

is

Jantam

knew the

sentence.

example

ami

'I

intro-

a sentence

Je

sentence

relative

bose

man-the

in

insert

clause

to

possible

clause

embed the

stated

matrix

The following
of

been

clauses

One embedded

sentence.
process

has
it

relative

ami Jantam lokTa

'I

that

possible

equally

embedding

C*

is

complementizer.

show the

in

[cheleTa
16)
gas
Com Cl
boy-the
away

went

which

shows

embedded

have been

way:
cole

and complement

relative

complementizer

b.

2.1.11),

(32b)
and

Jane]
cheleTake
Mat S
Mou boy-of-the
knows

embedding

of

process

previously

a.

following

chattro][mou

school-of

(33)

in

cheleTa'LcheleTa
Rel Cl
boy-the
boy-the
running
skuler

as the

Both

doure

e.

duce

(32a)

boy'.
the

of the ante-

element

coreferential

bose

who sitting

knew the man who is

sitting

ache], se cole
is
will
(Relative

Jabe

he away go-will
go away'
Clause)

244
se 'he'
cedent

as the

occurs

'the

cheleTa

(32c)

embedded into
(32)

(cf.

previously
both

both
when

It
complementizer
in

the

matrix

in

the

above

a.

went

[cheleTa
lol
gEe
Com Cl
boy-the
away

that

before

to

insert

embed the

relative

relative

knew

bose

man-the

knew that

the

man is

given

sitting'
Jabe

knew

man-the

away go-will
go away'

jJe
lokTa
Jantam
ami

tI

to

is

man-the

as well

complementizer.

ami

knew

clause

required

and the

cole

is

embedded

ache

sitting

man will

is

example

lokTa

knew the

'that'

is

Jartam

'I

intro-

sentence.

which

sentence

clause

to

a sentence

Je

clause

The following
of

in
matrix

One embedded
to

stated

possible

identical

relative

sentence.
process

is

it

clauses

possible
the

been

has

which

the

ami Jantam lokTa

II

ce

in

equally

embedding

b.

running

and complement

embedded
is

cole

shows

complementizer.

the
show

(33)

2-1-11),

relative
are

have been

way:

doure

embedding

of

process

ante-

Jane]
cheleTake
chattro][mou
Mat S
knows
Mou
boy-of-the
student

school-of

the
as

the following

in

skuler

The above

(32b)
and

(32a)

Both

cheleTa'LcheleTa
Rel Cl
boy-the
boy-the

e.

duce

coreferential

boy'.

of the

element

bose

who sitting

is
the
knew
man who

sitting

ache], se cole
is
will
(Relative

Jabe

he away go-will
go awayt
Clause)

245
d.

ami

Jantam

Je

lokTa,

knew

that

man-the

cole

[Je

bose

who sitting

ache],

se

is

he

Jabe

away go-will
'I

knew that

the

man who is

sitting

(Complementizer

(33c)

is

shown as a relative
whereas,

complementizer,
(33d)

before

the

the

antecedent

clause

and the

+ Relative

without

complementizer

will

go away'
Clause)

inserting
is

inserted

embedded sentence.

any
in

46
5.7

Reduced

Complementation

following

as the

regarded

examples

reduced

(34)

is

subject

are

kaekJon

not

have

any

Complement.

show the

structure

The
of

the

b.

studying
in

study

the

school'

cai

Pzre

sinemae

Jete

want

later

cinema-in

go-to

'I

want

to

ami

that

The phrases

the

entitle

is

predicted

which

is

omitted

them

shown in

the

(34)
to

become

above

the

without

is

will

in

a subject
as reduced

intermediate

examples

any

reduced

them

and'qualify
of

occur,

there

that

The paraphrase

complements.

latert

movie
in

underlined

are

It

complements.
phrase

go for

which

subjects

are

porte

__
want school-in

'A few want to

which

does

Reduced

skule

cae

a few

the

reduced

complements.

a.

overt

to

given

mention
that

The complement

complementation.
overt

(1975)

and Heny

Akmajian

structures

clarify

this

point:

(34)

In

c.

(34c,

reduced

kzekJon

kpekJon

cae

a few

want a few

skule
, school-in

porte
studying

ami cai

ami pzre

sinemae

Jete

later

cinema-in

go-to

items

that

d),

want

the

complement

sentences

occur

as subjects

have coreferential

in

the
use like

the

relative

subject

of

function
(e. g.

like
matrix

reduced
the

subject
in

sentence
both

in

can be said

that

the

complement
cation

of

sentence

occurs

clause

and in

subject

is

is

traceable

rule.

in

clause),

relative

main

which

transformational

that

Bengali.
sentence

complement

occurs

subject
It

clause
the

in

structures

missing

The covert
has
the

the

higher

i. e.

through

sentence

the

embedded
in

same

the
the

same
clause.

reduced
appli-

CHAPTER SIX

Deletion

6.0

in

Rules

and Movement

Bengali

Relative

Clauses

Introductory
In

rules

involve

which

sentence

following

the

deletion
are

constituents

transformational

a few

section,

and re-ordering
explained

of
the

within

clause

or

framework

of

relativization.
When a relative

is-constituted

clause

be
deleted
can
mmeconStituents
th e
deleting
In,,
of
case
structure.
all

relative

clause,

relative

pronoun,

It

has

cannot

is

not

(cf.

In

the

this

Besides

the

discussion
constituents

to

ment?

(re-ordering

cases

where

too

relative

pronoun

of

Bengali

in

pronouns

discussed

deletion

of

discussion.

coreferential

is

the

that

present

elsewhere
identical
is

nouns. and adverbs

deletion

a few

movements

identical

of

movement

a relative
or

in

shown

Gapping.

show the
in

of

Bengali,

sentence

construction

the

objects
of

the

deletion

as this

except
the

relative

chapter,

heading

clauses,

relative

the

verbs#

constituents

the

here

considered

in
that

surface

constituents

constituents

mentioned

Moreover,

the

any

considered

from

be deleted

2-1-4).

under

are

been

already

'(cf-3-5).

other

from

in

rules

is

a transformational

rule

24a

is

in

the

major
The term

construction.

permutation)

included

are

different

of

in

constituents

applied
applicable

here

'moveto
to

those
show

249
the

movement

of

relative

construction.

moves

one constituent

another

in

part

can be either
not

involve

the

change

show the

any

moving

Scrambling

movements
sentence,

which

in

the

initial
of
rent
the

rule

movement

from

constituents

with

of

in

constituent

end of

sentence

which

is

given

possibilities

of

The topic

place
clause

after

after

focusing

emphasis.

the

In

end

dif f e-

focusing,

a relative
on the

patternofthe
In

to

extraposing

sentence.

constitute

the
The

and shows

clauses
the

included

occurrence.
moves

extraposition

which

the

of

word
the

of

moves

a relative

change

which

when it

the

which

words

features

to

positions

construction.

different

original

in

the

its

relative

constituents

a relative
of

included

rule

is

structures

other

may

of

clause,

the

move to

shows
or

relative

of

constituents

phrases,

the

clause

different

does
it

involve

rules

Scrambling.

or

sentence

constituents

Topicalization,

Various

in

their

constituent

the

in

in

occurs

to

categories

movement

these

movement

described

are

of

All

clauses.

relative

or

words

Scrambling,

phrases

the

shows

in

occur

or

words

one part

a sentence.

are

and Focus.

Extraposition

it

rather

different

types

present-discussion

of

in

different

of

sentence-meaning,

inserting

places

from

applied,

The movement-rule

on certain

of

certain
Four

the

in

emphasis

time

backward.

or

change

at

in

another
is

rule

The movement

a sentence.

condition

in

words

phrase

or

to

one part

When a movement

forward

of

from

constituents

major

clause

describing

clause

or

the

different

250
movement
latter
duced

of
to

both

rules,

incorporate

which

(1967)

Ross

framework

the

gation

being

Stillings
Though

in

clause,

of

first

generative

in-Ross
Maling

Kuno

earlier

formulation

Hankamer

Gapping

has included

deletion

of other

items

Hence,

the deletion

of any grammatical

item

with

more emphasis

was emphasised,

being

given

investi(1971),

(1973,1979)9,
(1979).
the

rules,

(1971)

Gappingi

further

and Neijt-Kappen
of

Gapping

Jackendoff

verbs

of

intro-

are

consider

grammar,

(1970),

(1972),

(1976)

(1975),

to

identical

deletion

the

sentences,

a relative

was the

reported
(1971),

Koutsoudas

complex

them.

exemplify

within

and

simple

later

Jackendoff

than
is

verbs.

allowed

to verbs.

in

251
6.1

Gapping

6.1.1

Gapping

deletion
the

of

repeated
is

only

identical

identical

stands

the

clause
here

that

clauser

are

is

joined

clauses

relative

sentence.

or objects

is

matrix

together,

and the

third

The deletion

shown in

the

or

which

the

been

From

disregarded
in

this

the
of
point

three

two of which

adverb
second

(apart,

two

as the

verbs,
clauses

of

simple

constitute

stands

of repeated

to

verb,

occur

Bengali,

clause

relative

or

has

two conjoined

The

be applied

first

se-ntence

relative

an embedded

sentence

to

applied

the

clause,

can

NPs).

be

Bengali.

The repeated
the

the

as the

conjoined

elements
the

in

to

sentence

coreferential

Gapping
when

sentences

matrix

and in

the

from

course,
view,

as no identical
clause

relative

be two

The-matrix

clause.

Gapping

Gapping

from

either

objectisdeleted

relative

clause

must

Deletion

in

in

taken

clause

sentence.

and a matrix

is

in

adverb

should

as a single

For

there

shown
It

latter

as a subordinate
sentence.

is

is. applied

a relative

of

or

be emphasised

should

study.

the

the

of

can be gapped.

when Gapping
of

sense

noun,

object

may be taken

thematrix

clauses

It

or

the

object

present

structure

either

relative

verb,

adverb

in

clause

relative

applied

constituents

structure

extended

in

here

conjoined.

verb,

the

clause,

in

the
which

mentioned

or

is

of

relative

of

Gapping

clause

that

Bengali

in

adverbs
which

252
two

constitute

relative

As mentioned
two

to

sentences

verbs,

object
is

sentence

show gapping

valid

for

only

When a relative

coordinated

sentence,
sentences

more

to

relative

clauses,

due to

in

the

following
a.

in

is

valid

elements
the

coordinated

to

for

especially

boy-the

rice

eating

English
it

relative
does

not

may be shown

in

rice'

cheleTa

ma5 so khachche

boy-the

meat
is

eating
eating

cheleTa

bhat

boy-the

rice

a.

meat'

ma5so khachche

and meat
eating

Bengali

clauses

kha6hche

boy

the

of

for
though

eating

three

constitute

structure

the

structure.

This

is

in

relative-correlative

bhat

boy

coordinated

introduced

correct

cheleTa

'The boy is
(2)

its

of

examples.

'The

ce

also

kind

conjoin

identical

of

identical

essential,

construction.

'The
b.

This

necessary

structure

coordinate

correlative

is

to

necessary

clause

show the

This

is

deletion

gapping

is

clause.

statement

or

clause

it

relative

This

is

a relative

structure.

or

it

and adverbs.

nouns

formulating

without

above,

by side.

side

clauses

rice

a.

The boy-is

eating

rice

b.

The boy is

eating

meat.

eating

and meat'

have
the

any

253
C.

The boy

a.

cheleTa,

Je

boy-the

who rice

is

bhat

namkora

khee loar

famous

player

'The boy,

rice

eating

and

meat.

ma5so khachche,

and meat

se eekJon

eating

he a

who is

eating

rice

and meat,

is

a famous

who is

eating

rice

and meat,

is

a famous

player'
The boy,

b.

player
Two simple
the

identical

ture
the

of

identical

elements

necessary

to

without

three

of

the

in

the

of

case

adverbs

from

clauset

it

may contain
occurs

it

permits

In

the

two

case

relative

verbs,

the

of

the

two

coordinated
permits

occurrence

pronouns,

clauses

it

is

and a

identical

hereisthat

object

nouns

constituting

one or

and it

identical

are

antecedents

in

gapping

identical

be mentioned

structure
either

of

construction.

can also
identical

that

deleting

deleting

gap

struc-

for

fact

relative

clause

point

gapping

for

for

sentences

a coordinated

one antecedent

pronoun.

any

relative

A second

the

to

deletion

structures

sentences

introducing

(1)
the

the

and

establish

two

in

illustrates

sentences

clearly

conjoin

from

(2)

Bengali.

The coordinated

verb.

combination

conjoined

coordinated

identical

elements

in

verb

English

elements

are

sentences

together

one in

and

a relative
When

antecedents.
structure,
only
of

one relative

two

the

both

antecedents,

first

and the

254
in

other
taken

of

pronoun

remains

becomes

plural

illustrated

(4)

a.

in
in

and the

singular
case

the

following
bhat

mzena Je
Moina

two

of

who rice

(or

two
in

occurs

more)

the

the

structure,

a coordinated

can be

antecedents

comprising

antecedents

When one antecedent

NPs.

sentences

and the

sentence,

second

as compound

identical
two

the

first

coreferential
pronoun

coreferential

These

antecedents.

non-

are

examples.
ar

ma5so khachche,

and meat

eating

se amar
she my

premika
girl-friend
tMoina

who rice

is

and meat

is

eating

my girl-

friend'
who is

C'Moina,

eating

rice

is

and meat,

my girl

friend']
b.

mvena,

Je

taratari

Moina

who quickly

bhat

ar

rice

and meat

rice

and meat

ma5so radche,

se

cooking

she

amar-premika
my

girl-friend

'Moina,

who quickly

is

cooking,

is

quickly,

is

my girl-friend'
[fMoina,

who is

cooking

rice

dekhche

ar

and meat

my girl-friendf]

C*

m:)ena,

Je

Moina

who book looking

premika
girl-fribnd

boi

gochache,

and arranging

se

amar

she my

255
'Moina,

who is

them, 'is
d.

books

at

and arranging

my girl-friend?
bhat

m;)ena,

Je

Moina

who rice

khachche

ar.

eating

and Mou who

sundor

sari

kineche

two

beautiful

sari

bought-have

who is

eating

bought

bread,

have

maena,

Je

Moina

who quickly

tarkar

taratari

cooking

vegetable

beautiful
ar

rice

and Mou

hom

they

ruTi,

tara

bread

they

who is

eating

saris'

bhat

tara

rWdche,

and Mou,

rice

two

Je

mou,

duTo

'Moina,

e.

looking

Je

mou,

taratari

who quickly

ikonzmiks

koleJer

Home Economics

College-of

chattri
student
'Moina,
(is

who is

Je

ar

who book

reading

and Mou

In

the

adverbs

bissobiddaloer

chattri

they

University-of

student

above

who is

the

objects

(4d-f)

a book

reading

(books)

examples,

and noun

non-identical

mou,

tara

arranging

who

students

of

College'
porche

IMoina,

and Mou,
are

boi

mDena,
Moina

quickly

(quickly)

vegetable

cooking)

Home Economics
f.

rice

cooking

is

are

students

gapping

of

antecedents

gochache,

who arranging

and Mou,
of

the

identical

shown with
of

Je

the

identical
relative

who is
University'

verbs,
(4a-c)
clauses.

and

256
mzena 'Moinal
and the
its
is

occurs

coreferential

identical

(4d-f)

as non-identical

where mpena 'Moinal


of the

clauses.

The coreferential

plurality

in

structure

tthey'

tara
the

against

in

antecedents

and mou 'Moul

respective

pronoun

(4a-c)

in

show singularity

of non-identical

antecedents

its

antecedent

se 'she'

pronoun

The occurrence

structure.
shown in

as the

occur

relative
shows

two non-identical

antecedents.
Before
Gapping

works

a.

Bengali.

in

deletion
where

(5)

elaborating

of identical

Compare the following


is

verbs

examples

shown.

bh-oddrolok,

Jini

doi

kheechilen

ar

gentleman

who

curd

ate

and rice

kheechilen

tini

mouer

mama

he

Mouls

uncle

ate

'The

gentleman,

Mou's
p
a.

we can show the way

any rules,

who ate

curd

and

rice,

is

uncle'

bhDddrolok,

Jini

gentleman

who

kheechilenjar
I
Y ate
curd

kheechilen,

tini

mouer

mama

ate

he

Mou's

uncle

Me

(ate)

bhat

gentleman

doi

who curd

and ate

bhat
and rice

rice,

is

Mou's

uncle'
['The

gentleman#

]
uncle?

who ate

curd

and rice,

is

Mouls

257
mou, Je

a.

Mou

doi

who curd

kheechilo

ar

ate

and bread

ruTi

kheechilo,

se

ate

she

amar bondhu
friend

my

'Mou, who ate


0
a.

mou,

Je

Mou

who curd

curd*and

doi

(ate)

bread,

ar

ruTiLkheechilol

kheechilo

is

and bread

ate

my friendt
se

Z ate

she

amar bondhu
friend

my
'Mou,

the

or

When the
verb

is

the

case

verb

is

(6)
are

is

the

it

when the

more
(5 & 6),

the

first

first

the

the

that

Gapping

the

second

is

ways:

either

and the

second
than

comprehensible

sequence

It

when the

may be dropped.

and the

retained

examples

common.

or

is

verb

Bengali

dropped

more readily

my friend'

two

are
verb

is

verb
is

uncommon,

There

is
for

shown

identical

Though

dropped.

examples

deleted.

second

retained,

not

are

identical

first

actually

either

are

verbs

first

and bread,

curd

possibilities

-Two
identical

who ate

of

which
quite

second
in

constituents
are

given

clear

from

in
the

(5)
above

can be applied

by deleting

identical

verb

in

Gapping

depends

a conjoined

structure.

Forward
features

of the

and Backward
clauses

more common than

Forward

deleted

first

from

the

in

a sentence.

Gapping-in
sentence

Backward

Bengali

and it

on certain

is

Gapping

as the verb
retained

in

is
is

the

258
second
word

in

order

Compare

the

Gapping

Backward

sentence.

SOV pattern

i. e.

Bengali,

following

retains

sentences

of
both

where

the

original

the

sentence.

patterns

are

tested.
Forward

a.

Gapping:

SOV -

m:)ena,

Je

bhat

Moina

who rice

SO

doi

khachche

ar

eating

and curd

khachche,

se

eating

she

amar bandhobi
friend.

my

'Moina,
is
b. -

who is

eating

(is
and

rice

eating)

curd,

my friend?
Je

m;)ena,

bhat

khachche

doi

ar

9,
.

se amar

bandhobi
'Moina,
(8)

Backward
a.

who is

Gapping:

eating

rice

and

curd,

is

my friend'

SO - SOV

mzena,

Je

bhat

Moina

who rice

khachche

ar

doi

khachche,

se

eating

and

curd

eating

she

amar bandhobi
my

friend

IMoina,
is

b.

who is

eating

rce

and

(is

eating)

curd,

my friend'

m;)ena,

Je

bhat

0 ar doi

khachche,

se amar

bandhobi
'Moina,
LlMoina,

who rice
who is

and is
eating

curd,

is

my friend'

and curd,

is

my friend']

eating

rice

259
(T&

In the above examples


deleted

in Forward

8),

Gapping,

second identical
it

whereas

Backward Gapping

and_the

mpena tMoinal

the antecedent

is

the

first

is

identical
in

the

is

in

retained
is

verb

both

verb

dropped.
(7 &

sentences

8).

(1972:

Maling
and Forward

(8)
and

(7)

rule.
deleted

Gapping

is

statement
(Scrambling

former

be conflated

show that

except

of the

constituents

chapter)-,

should

from

either

is

there

ground'
Forward

and Backward

sov

Forward

which

So are not

retained
structural
However,

Backward

turn

gapping

the

second clause,

it

sentence

does not

create

verb

on the

As shown in

structure

to Bengali
the

gives

opposite

SO - SOV and
Maling's

accept

it

is

assumed that

first

clause

helps

to maintain

patternof
is

its

rule.

a SOV language,

when the identical


it

the

Gapping

from

of the

from

rule.

and we cannot

one single

of this

part

becomes SO to SOV.

identical

this

the way of accepting

gives

deleted

form

in

other

Scrambling

proposal

Gapping

is

the

her

the

However,

one constituent

as a single

being

in

later

Gapping

Bengali
when the verb

clause

in

regarding

proposal

in

one hindrance

SO,
to
SOV
whereas,
of
structure,

without

shifts

Gapping

being

verb

intact.

the

Backward

sentences,

Gapping

We can disregard

position.

the

remain

as Scrambling

(8),
and

for

sentences
for

both

as a single

or second

be discussed

will

that

the first

only

valid

that

(7)

105) proposes

the

deleted

any inappropriateness.

and is
the

language.

from

the
If

second
any

260
hearer
the

claims
from

verb

insert

ed easily

verb,

so that

stand

the

on the
This

any

inappropriateness

the

second
the

in
it

of

intuition

of

a.

a native
in

the

lokTa,

Je

kola

man-the

who banana

se amader

protibesi

he our

neighbour

'The

man, who ate

can be

items
the

of

deleted

a hearer

to

under-

This

proposal

is

made

speaker

of

sentence.

being

absence

for

much easier

the

may be illustrated

before

clause

second

the

some lexical

clause,

becomes

meaning

due to

following

Bengali.

examples.

kheechilo

ar

ate

and rice

bhat

kheechilo,
ate

and

(ate)

rice,

is

kheechilo

ar

bhat

J5, se

ate

and rice

banana

our

neighbourl
b.

lokTa,

Je

kola

man-the

who banana

amader

protibesi

our

neighbour

'The

man,

who ate

banana

and rice,

is

he

our

neigh-

bourl
ce

lokTa,

Je

kzla

man-the

who banana

se amader

protibesi

he our

neighbour

'The

who ate

man,

neighbourl

kheechilo

ar

ate

and its

banana

and rice

tar

with

soge

bhat,

with

rice

it,

is

our

261
d.

Je

man-the

who banana

amader

protibesi

our

neighbour

'The

the

items

as certain

are

verb

a gapping

process

tar

phrase
where
the

deleted

second
the

function

dual

phrases
sentence
Even

tar

to

give

with

phrases

like

is

discussion.
of

(9d)

the

It

will

in

can

like

'He ate
in
occur

maliso
(9d)

the

from

the

to

when

second

X and also

in

the

sentence:

'He ate

'also?

in

or

1971:

in

examples

rice

the

Jackendoff
later

V.

conjoined

of

be
reduced
can

the

sentencep

the

the

of

place

not. violate

insertion
(see

the

Usually,

in

of

sentence

the

kheechilo

did

be illustrated

verbs

occur

may also

(9c),

a conjoined

remains

Gapping

in

seems clear

identical

it'

violation

autonomy

a verb.

shown

soDge

since

allowed

like

Examples

is

example

(9c)

of

of

rule,

second

second

fills

phrase

verb

tar

the

the

be

cannot

a gapping

In

to

some kind

this

However,

rule

equivalent

ar

like

our

the

of

and are

This

meaning

identical

meat'.

gapping

any

the

place

added

'with

soage

kheechilo

bhat
se

is

verbs

of

understood.

absence

the

though

sentence,

it'

the
of

like

in

deleted)

and gives
in

sentence

is

gapped.

verb

is

they

grammatical,

introduced

'with

is

verb

he

rice,

and also

application

as normally

soage

the

are

simple

(which

identical

also

the

as involving

taken

se

and rice

banana

sentences

above

bhato,

ar

ate

man, who ate

neighbourf
Though

kheechilo

kila

lokTa,

its
26).

this

that
Bengali,

though
the

262
reduction

of

makes better
language
(in

is

If

the

is
and

retained

spoken

pattern
between

deleted

either

the

written
of

pattern
the
which

first

the

to

the

This

assumption

speaker.

It

is

the
the

spoken
from

the

between

informal

speech

it

the

second

in

a diffecan be

verb

prefers

the

of

and retaining

it

in

opposite

the

deletion

formal

the

only

sentence

The informal

in

from

versus

language.

language

the

pattern

the

shows

patterns,

of

SOV

sentence

and written

the

SO -

first

exists

or

type

sentence,

spoken

As there

first

to

(6a)

first

language.

the

made

isalso

patterns

the

sentence,

is

be supported

can also

from

verb

sentence

register

deleted

the

of

becomes

Bengali

sentence)

than

commoner
from

usual

second

pattern

sentence

speakers

sentence

This

versus

in

the
be
may

identical

verb

the

in

verb

of

second

is

conjoined

closer

and formal

Bengali.

rence

the

difference

existing

the

type

SOV - SO (66).

than

written,

(5a)

higher

or

the

sentence).

gapping

of

first

for

as a native
the

After

which

rather
the

lower

or

structure

(5a),

the

of

reduction

that

sentences.

in

the

second

be mentioned

the

verb

my own intuition

from

(in

comprehensibility

than

the

first

the

second

pattern

from

verb

sentence,
of

the

language.

6.1.2

Different

.
conjoined

Coordinate

The examples
sentences,

which

and ar

Conjunctions

are given
land'

occurs

in

Bengali

previously

are

of

as a conjunction

263
between
he two sentences.
,
a sentence
Three
_which
'nor'.

are

is

when two clauses

applied

by corresponding

connected

coordinating.

conjunctions.

can be applied

conjunctions

in

to Bengali,

ba,
kimba
'or'
and n3e
ebon land',
Dthoba,
I
The following
sentences are conjoined
with three

are o, ar,

coordinating
introduced
(10)

Gapping

a.

conjunctions
in

Je

Moina

who harmonium

bq,

attio

playing

they

relative

'Moina,

who is

playing

playing

ar

-achche

a sitar,

mou,

and Mou

playing

tara

a harmonium
are

m-Dena, Je harmonium

Je

setar

who sitar

and Mou,

who

relatives'

ar

mou,

Je setar

baJachche,

attio

'Moina,

who harmonium

sitar,

and Mou, who is

playing

are relatives'

I'Moina

who is

sitar
b.

harmonium

baJachche.

tara

is

clause

sentences.

moena,

is
a.

the

and a relative

playing

a harmonium

and Mou, who a

are relatives']

mou,

Je

ghuri

orachche

ba maena,

Mou

that

kite

flying

or

orachche,

ta

ekTu

flying

that

moment ago

Je

belun

that

balloon

Moina

age dokan
shop

theke

kena

from

bought.

hoeeche
has
that

'Th. e. kite
Moina
a while

(is

flying),
ago'

Mou is
have

flying
been

or

the

bought

balloon
from

the

that
shop

264
b.

ba moena Je belun

mou Je ghuri

kena

ekTu

age dokan

teke

'The

kite

Mou or

flying,

that

hoeeche
balloon

the

the

from

bought

been

have

ta

orachche,

that

Moina

shop

a while

is

ago'
('The
have
C.

Mou is

kite

that

been

bought

flying

from

the

shop

hze

mou,

Je

basi

baJabe,

either

Mou

who flute

play-will

tara

baJabe, p

they

play-will

music

Mou who will

'Either

the

play

will

so5git

a while

Moina

or

chattri

college-of

student

is

ago']

n2e m:)ena,

the

Moina,

balloon

koleSer

play

sitar,

the

or

flute

Je setar
who sitar

or Moina

a student

of

the

who

Music

College'
C.

hoe

mou,

tara

sogit

'Either

who

the

English,
coordinate
examples.

is

(1971:

Jackendoff

it

works

or

perfectly

sentences.

of

This

maena,

Moina

the

Je setar

the

a student

of

22)

also
but

who

Music

play

will

Though

conjunction.

coordinate

flute

who

sitar,

n2e

baJabe,

chattri

a student.

Mou,

['Either

0,

kzleJer

Mou who
is

sitar,

Je basi

shown

or

the

Music

but

proposes
not

as a conjunction
is

in

the

College'
flute

does

play

will

the

work
in

Moina,
Collegell

as a
neatly

Bengali

following

in

265
(11)

a.

amader

bandhobi

moena,

Je

our

friend

Moina

who yesterday

gztokal

dekhechilo

kintu

tar

choTo

went

but

her

younger

thieTar

gZ)tokal

same

Moina,

are

UOur

friend

Moina,

the

theatre,

the

students

the
to

who went

her

both

of

younger

who went

to

same University'

the

cinema
Mou went

sister

them-are

of

cinema

Mou,

younger-sister

theatre,

while

to

who went

her

the

yesterday

who

they

student

but

Mou

went

University-of

yesterday

sister

Je

eeki

chattri

friend

-bon

mou,

tara

bissobiddalzer

'Our

cinema

dekhechilo,

theatre

yesterday

sinema.

the

of

students

to

same University13
b.

bondhobi

amader
tar

choTo

tara

ea ki

'Our

friend

bon mou,

bissobiddalDer
Moina

the

na

'not'

ba

'or',

is
nze

the, Ter

kintu

dekhechilo,

chattri

who cinema

Moina,
while

yesterday
theatre

There

sinema

to

the

while
theatre

her

younger

are

students

same University'

[? Our friend

the

Je gotokal

Je gztokal

Mou who went

sister
of

moena,

is

are

younger

students

one interesting

introduced
'nor'

her

who went

'but'.

the

of

the

feature

'not'

to

same University']
in

in
na

cinema
Mou went

sister

as a conjunction

or kintu

to

Bengali

when

of

land'

lieu
is

ar

always

used

266

Three

points

of

'not'

na

meaning
identical
that
more
after

(12)

to
in

of

be made explicit

a kind
is

(cf-4-1).

meaning

the

first,

the

sentence

examples

relative

are

boi

porohen

na

pottrika

gentleman

who

book

reading

not

paper

porcheno

tini

amader

oddhapok

reading

he

our

teacher

['The
the

who is

gentleman,

is

a paper,

who is

gentleman,
is

paper

bh; )ddr. olok,


amader

neither

our

our
Jini

given

reading

a book

nor

neither

a book

nor

teacher'
reading

teacher']
boi

na pottrika

porchen,

tini

oddhapok

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who mirror-in

kauke

dekhche,

se

body

else

looking

she my

'The

girl,,

who is

nor

and

construction.

Jini

reading

b.

of

the

second

bhzddrolok,

'The

a,

the

na gives

the

deleting

The following
na in

introducing

a.

the

understand

speakers

easily

than

much easier

introduction

that

are

deleting

that

as a word.

the

regarding

structure

doubt,

of

independently

or

a sentence

a conjoined

verb

the

in

item

as a negative

is

aenae

looking

at

niJer
own

mukh dekhche

na

onno

face

nor

some

looking

amar bandhobi

looking
somebody

friend
neither
else

at
in

her

the

own face

mirror,

is

my friendt
['The

girl,

who is

looking

neither

at

her

own face

267
nor at

somebody else

meeTa,

Je aenae

le

Je aenae

meeTa,

Ross (1970:

is

negation
is

with

in

does not
only

as it

results
are in
following
a.

the

one of the

identical

na onnokauke

though

is

possible.

gapping

but

impossible,

does not

it

scope of the negative

is

a'

verbs

if

negation

if

kind

of

there

is

Forward

gapping

unsatisfactory

gives

show clearly

there

This

a conjoined
Lengalit
arise in

backward

whether

all

the nouns

Compare the

elements.

examples.
mvena,

Je

Moina

who rice

bhat

tara

amar bondhu

they

my

'Moina,
eat
b.

niJer

structure.

absolutely

not

mukh dekhche

250) has shown. that

deleting

introduced

problem

na onnokauke

se amar bandhobi

Z,

problem

my friendf]

se amar bandhobi

dekhche,
b.

9,

mukh

niJer

is

the mirror,

in

khae

ni

ar

eat

not

and Mou

who did
are

not

eat

m;)ena,

porche

Moina

who book

reading

fMoina,
reading)

Dim khae

who egg eat

na,
not

rice

and Mou,

who did

khzborer

kagoc

my friendst

Je boi

reading

Je

nit
not

friend

an egg,

porche

mou,

na

ar

not

and news

paper

se amar bandhobi
she my

who is

friend

reading

a newspaperv

neither
is

a book

my friend'

nor

(is

not

268
(14)

Gapping

Backward
a.

Y ar

Je bhat

m;)ena,
Moina

Je

mou,

and Mou

who rice

Dim khae

who egg eat

ni,

tara

not

they

amar bandhobi
friend

my

(did
who

'Moina,

b.

Je

mzena,
Moina

not

an egg,

eat

not

who

eat)

book

who did

my friends'

are

boi

and Mou,

rice

kh, borer

ar

and news

kagoc

porche

na,

paper

reading

not

se amar bandhobi
she my

friend

'Moina,

who book

and is

not

a newpaper

reading

is

my friendt
who is

LlMoina,

is

paper,
Forward
a.

a book

neither

bhat.

khae

ni

ar

Moina

rice

eat

not

and Mou

who

tara

amar

bandhobi

they

my

friend
who did

not

eat

rice

mou,

Je

Dim

9,

who egg

and Mou,

who an egg,

my friendst
boi

m;)ena,

Je

Moina

who book

se

a news-

my friend'3

mz)ena,. Je

are

nor

Gapping

'Moina,

b.

reading

bandhobi
amar

she my

friend

khoborer

porche

na

ar

reading

not

and news

kagoc
paper

Y,

269
'Moina,

who is

(15)

not
if

ar

is

between

difference
are
This

replaced

indeclinables,

freedom

ar

landt

and ba 'or?

ar

tand?

can also

independent

that

indicates

than

occurrence

of

is

The

while

both

as an adverb.

occur

have

indeclinables

the

results

(16).

that,

are

a greater

indeclinables.

adverbial

porche

na

ba khzborer

kagoc,

se

book
reading
who

not

or news

paper

she

boi,

Je
mzena,
Moina

better

yields

as shown in

'or?

by ba

they

speakers,

all

(15)

either.

unacceptable

land?

to

be acceptable

may not

totally

my friend'

is

a newspaper,
Though

not

a book nor

neither

reading

bandhobi
amar
My

friend

'Moina,
is

who is

interesting

a.

a book nor

neither

a newspaperv

my friend'
Besides

following

reading

the

way of

preceding

gapping

in

there

examples,
Bengali.

is

Consider

another

the

examples.
meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who morning-in-the

ar

szkale

Dim khae,

'The
(eats)

girl,

se mouer
she Mou-of

and egg eats

who eats

egg in

the

khae,

ruTi
bread

eats

khae

butter

bandhobi
friend

bread,
morning,

makhon

(eats)
is

butter,

a friend

and
of

Moul

eats

270
b.

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who morning-in-the

Dim khae,

se mouer

egg eats

she Mou-of

Me

girl

Co

a.

b.

of

butter

girl-the

who morning-in-the

bread

egg eats
girl,

bandhobi

she

Mou-of

friend

is

a friend

meeTa,

Je

soge

girl-the

who with

nebe,

se skule

take-will

she

bread,
of

girl,

who will

will

go to

school'

Je sobge

or

egg in

Tiphin

the

Mout

boi

nebe

ar

book

take-will

and tiffin

Jabe

school-to

'The

butter

makhon
butter

mouer

morning,

meeTa,

Z,

se

who eats

the

Mout
ruTi

or

and

and egg in

sakale

Dim khae,

butter

ar

friend

Je

zthoba

makhon

bandhobi

meeTa,

'The

(18)

a friend

0,

bread

bread,

who eats
is

morning

ru. Ti

sokale

go-will

take

boi

books

X), ar

and lunch

Tiphin

nebe,

with

her

se skule

Jabe

a.

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who pen
se

has

kolom kineche

mouer

she Mou-of

'The girl,
a friend

bought-has

pensil

and pencil

kineche
bought-

bandhobi
friend

who has bought


of Mout

ar

a pen and a pencil,

is

271
b.

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who pen

mouer

bandhobi

Mou-of

friend

'The

co

is

a pen and a pencil,

duii

kineche,

se

girl-the

who pen

pencil

both

bought-has

she

mouer.

bandhobi

Mou-of

friend
who has

girl,

a friend

of

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who pen

kolom

mouer

bandhobi

Mou-of

friend
who has

girl,
of

different
are

ar

It

sentence

or

disjunction

the

last

(if

or

verb

sentence).

in

clause

is

pen and pencil,

pensil

bought

kineche,

se

bought-lias

she

is

a pen and a pencilp

Moul

shown.

a conjoined

both

and pencil

gapping

three

20-22).

bought

Mout

(17a),

ways

she

pensil

examples

(cf.

bought-has

Moul

that

relative

pencil

Je kolom

sentences

element

se

meeTa,

(17-19),

in

bought

kineche,

of

a friend

of

and

pensil

a friend

'The

In

Zo

who has

girl,

'The

d.

kilom

more

rules
is

quite

identical
could
three

The various

formation

and

conjoining
from

clear
verbs

patterns
these

may occur

be made with
identical

verbs

conjunctions

and gapping

interact

in

a negative
occur

in

are

shown

in

various

272
(20)

a.

mach kinechilo

mou baJar

theke

dudh

kinechilo

ar

Mou market

from

milk

bought

and fish

and

(bought)

IMou bought

milk

fish

from

bought
the

market'
b.

'Mou bought
C.

baJar

mou,
Mou

who market

se

has
(21)

a.

theke

dudh

from

milk

who bought

fed

her

market?

ar

mach kinechilo

and fish
at

from

the

badhakopi

rRdchilo

ar

Moina

cooking

and cabbage

'Moina

was cooking

market,

night'

mzena phulkopi
cauliflower

bought

and -fish

fed-has

milk

friends

the

khaieche

friends-of

phe night-at
IMou,

from

bondhuder

rate

mach kinechilo

ar

and fish

milk

Je

dudh

theke

mou baJar

cauliflower

and

tadchilo
cooking

(was

cooking)

cabbaget
b.

C.

moena phulkopi
IMoina

was cooking

mzena,

Je

Moina

phulkopi

bandhobi

Mou-of

friend

is

cauliflower
Z

who cauliflower

mouer

'Moina,

badhakopi

ar

who was cooking

a friend

of Moul

ar
and

radchilo
and

cabbage'

badhakopi

r^adchilo,

cabbage

cooking

cauliflower

se
she

and cabbage,

273
(22)

saon

a.

bandhobir

tar

Saon his

b.

._.

ThoTe

cumu kheechilo

lip-on

kissed
kissed

(her)

lips'

and

and kissed

cheek

gale

ar

kissed

girl-friend's

bandhobir

tar

saon

his

kheechilo,

cumu

cheek-on

girl-friend's

ISaon

gale

Th7oTe cumu

ar

kheechilo
tSaon

Ce

his

kissed

santosisTo

manus saon,

calm-quiet

man
ar

cheek-on

and lips-on

(both

after

exploring
gapping.

Another
are

-constituents
Or,

rules.

There

gapping.
clauses
initially
inserted
all

the

in

ways

(b)
(18c)

before
examples

the

relative

two

finally

(16c)

or

(16-18)

his

after
gapping

pronoun

above

clauses
that

way by the
get

possibilities

(16c,

= relative
the

clauses

either

of minet

is

that

of
they

is

formed

conjoined
structure

phrase

by

reduced

adding

and

examples

are
the

girl-

extra

may be included
Secondly,

17c).
(18c)

friend

a friend

in

Possibility

sentences,
or

is

shown

relative

are

bondhu
se amar

man Saon, who kissed

is

generated

conjoined

girl-friendts

he my

and inanimate

insertion
the

after

who his

cheek and lips,

as an animate

complementizer)

bandhobir

kissed

tThe calm and quiet

Je

tar

TICoTe cumu kheechilo,

gale

friendts

Je

Saon

and lipst

cheek

girl-friendts

the

Je may be
In

antecedents.

shown without

any

pj

274
relative

(b)

in

clauses

and with

relative

clauses

in

(c)

sentences.

6.1.3

Movement
Bengali

of

is

formulating

applied

verbs

gapping

the

following

when

The possible

Gapping.

after

sentences

ways
the

and moving

examples.

SOV:

SO -

mzena, Je bhat

Moina who rice

ar

mou, Je

and Mou

tara

bissobiddalzer

chattri

they

University-of

student

'Moina,

who is
of the

students
SOV -

SO:

m.iena,

Je

Moina

who rice

bhat

tara

bissobiddal:

they

University-of

IMoinap

who is
of

students
SOV

of

patterns

after

shown in

are

Gapping

after

variable

sentences

constituents
(23)

shows

rule

a movement

Constituents

of

eating

rice

ma5so khachche,

who meat

eating

and Mou, who meat,

are

University'

khachche,

ar

eating

and Mou who meat

)er

mou,

Je ma5so

Yp

chattri
student

eating

rice

and Mou,

the

University'

bhat

khachche,

ar

eating

and meat

who meat,

are

OS:
-

m;)enap
Moina

Je

who rice

maso

mou,

Je,

Mou

who

275
tara

bissobiddalDer

chattri

they

University-of

student

'Moina,

who is

and Mou, who meat,

rice

are

of the University'

students
d.

eating

SO - SVO:

m:)ena,

Je

bhat

Moina

who rice

mou, Je

ar

and Mou

tara

bissobiddalaerl

chattri

they

University-of

student

who is

'Moina,

of the

students

eating

khachche

who eating

maso,
meat

and Mou, who meat,

rice

are

University'

SO - OVS:
moena,

Je

Moina

who rice

ar

maso

and meat

tara

bissobiddaloer

chattri

they

University-of

student

'Moina,

who is

students

f.

bhat

of

the

eating

khachche

mou,

Je,

eating

Mou

who

and Mou,

rice

who meat,

are

Universityf

SVO - SO:
Je

mzena,
Moina

khachche

who eating

bhat

ar

rice

and Mou

tara

bissobiddalzer

chattri

they

University-of

student

'Moina,
students

who is

eating

rice

of the Universityl

mou,

Je
who

maDso,
meat

and Mou, who meat,

are

276
OVS - SO:
khachche

wena,

rice

eating

Moina

tara

bissobiddal:

they

University-of

bhat

Moina

bissobiddalzer

they

University-of

is

The reason

is

verb
either

allows
the

subject

a clause

in

or

or

a clause

in

pattern

sentence

can occur
it

(SVO).

ar.

rice

and meat

eating

are

of

who

are

SO or

OS word

the

sentence
Bengali
after

When the

also

the
verb

is

(cf.

subject,
1.2.1).

sentence,

their

that

positions

of

this

indicates

object

of

indicates

change

supports

clearly

a sentence.

the

or

The occurrence

a sentence.

of

order..

which,

can

object

available

occurrence

clause

order,

are

order

flexible.

from

the

word
the

allows

deleted

either

Je

who meat,

constituents

free

a relatively

of

Mou

and Mou,

rice

relative

or

JY mou,

maDso

University?

Bengali

in

bhat

orders

the

that

and verb

When the

before

who meat,

chattri

the

of

due to

Bengali

verb

Mou,
and

student

'who is

The different

in

who

University'

tara

students

either

rice

eating

who eating

'Moina,

it

Mou

chattri

Je khachche

m:)ena,

object

meat

ma5so

ar

SVO - OS:

h.

in

Je,

D'

student

the

of

students

mou,

who'and

)er

who is

'Moina,

Je,

a verb

case.
that

in

The
the

(SOV and OVS) or

deleted

from

the

clause

277
or

the

the

sentence,

either

SO or

verb);

SVO - V--i

(minus

verb)'.

shown in
but

OS in

sentence
gapping

SO (minus

(23a-h)

do not

movement

when the
(cf.

It

23g).

identical

different

noun

occurs

0 riginal

the

sentences

written

and spoken

pattern

in

more acceptable

colloquial

that

are

illustrated

sentences

examples

.A
given

be
changed
can
different

ents

in

in

(23)

a sentence,

(24)(24)

that

by movement

patterns

a.

SO

SOV

b.

SOV

SO

sov

os

d.

SO

SVO

e.

so

ovs

f.

svo

so

than

the

after

from

their

difference

in

and

the

(23b)

are

other

(23).

basic

basis

of

the

SOV sentence

Bengali

rules.

any

that

them

can be made on the

statement

in

(23a)

Bengali.

in

of

initially

show the

pattern

meaning

constituents

and moving

positions,

are

sentence

be mentioned

also

constituents

that

constituents

on certain

should

in

in

SO (minus

V -.? OS

patterns

change

becomes

V -1

and OVS

gapping

object

SOV

way:

show any

of

Bengali

of

verb);

and emphasis

clause

especially

following

the

The different

show the

relative

pattern

sentence

when gapping

is

applied

and these

are

shown

exhibits
to

structure
eight

move constitu-

schematically

in

278
OVS

SO

SVO'

OS

Among these
Gapping
five

types

OVS

In

SO.

and it

SO occurs

structure.
against

both

order

though

Backward

Gapping.
It

should

only

for

endings.
movement
(25)

a.

the

a regular

not

SO.

a certain
Consider

So,

Forward

of

of

typically

verb

Bengali
with

the

following

cheleTa,

Je

am

boy-the

who mango eating

of

Gapping

their

examples

that
SO

no examples

can
or

OS

common than

more

that

OVS.

as

generates

is

a verb

in

structure,

can be said

here

the

SO or

Backward

a sentence

pattern
type

this

Gapping

though

has

always

either

it

OS, and

SOV, SVO, or

Moreover,

be mentioned

beginning

in

Gapping

verb,

a sentence-initial
at

OS.

and Backward

order,

is

receives

the

sentence

this

sentence

of

Forward

placed

by either

change

SO, SVO

sentence

times

OVS; and

structural

OS, SVO

the

Backward:

SVO and SO

followed

three

the

of

the

SO, SOV

two occurrences
generates

always

is

are

allowing

Gapping

the

Gapping

Forward

SOV, SO

SOV

Backward

SO structure
In

SO

Gapping,

into

a sentence

of

three

allowing

Forward

are

eight,

be

occasionally

However,

a clause.
and is

has

available

inflectional
illustrating

the

verbs.

skuler

chattro

school-of

student

khachche

ar

bhat

and rice

khachche,

se

eating

he

279

b.

'The

boy,

who is

rice,

is

a school

eating

boy-the

mango and

eating)

studentt

Je am

cheleTa,

(is

21

who mango

ar

bhat

khachche,

se skuler

and

rice

eating

he school-

chattro
of

student

'The

boy,

boy,

is

who is

eating

mango and rice,

is

student13

school
ce

rice,

eating

student

school
I'The

who mango and is

khachche

Je

eating

who boy-the

cheleTa

am

ar

bhat,

se skuler
he school-of

mango and rice

chattro

student
'The boy,
school
d.

who is

eating

is

mango and rice,

student'

khachche

am

eating

mango and rice

ar

bhat

Je

cheleTa,

se skuler

who boy-the

he school-of

chattro
student
'The
school

In the

examples

than

(25c),

the

sentence

Bengali

boy,

who is

eating

student'

which

as the

are

object

given

above,

occurs

after

more comprehensible.

prefers

is

mango and rice,

the

object

(25d)
the

This

to be next

is

verb

might

more common
which

indicate

to the verb,

makes
that

either

280
preceding
to

that

note

when the
it

a sentence,

There

it.

following

or

verb

the

one interesting

initially

occurs

changes

also

is

structure

clause.

(25a)

(25b)
and

shows

the

basic

Bengali

relative

clause

where

the

head

the

relative

of

written

it,

before

matrix

deictic

occurs

nature

before

the

as a deictic

bee-omes

noun

before

Bengali

of

pattern

head

'who'

Je

of

occurrence

the

as

clause

the

of

occurs

the

show the

'who'

as Je

noun

or

relative

Pattern

Je + NP can be taken

clause.
0

(25d)*

a clause

the

of

in

embedding

and

clauses,

relative

relative
relative

(25c)

whereas

sentence,
the

and its

clause

in

point

which

deictic

is

to

due

in

shown

the

the

as Je-NP.
4

If
English

one type

only

allows

Joan

drank

tea

and Robin

b.

Joan

drank

tea

and Robin

c.

*Joan

1a'
.

tea

and Robin

(26)

shows

verb

is

that'English
in

deleted
of

the

allows
the

second

sentence

The way Gapping


shown

of gapping

a.

structure

English,

with

that

we note

as illus-

pattern

(26).

in

trated
(26)

we compare Bengali

through

the

following

drank

coffee.
Gapping

coordinate

applied

coffee.
coffee

Forward

changes
is

drank

from

tree-diagram.

Bengali

the

and the

sentence
SVO to

in

where

So.
can be

281
(27)
ebo
I ana

3-,,,.
tara

//
NP

VP

protibesi
'they
are

VP

NP

mader
our

Aeighbours'

NP
II
0v

NP
I

IT.
V

s0

4
'Jr
m:)ena mach kheechilo
fish

'Moina

b.

mou maUso kheechilo

ate

Je

m:)ena,

Moina who

mach

Mou

and

amader protibesi

they

our

ate'

ebo mou, Je

fish

tara

'Moina,

Mou meat

and

kheechilo,

mavo

ate

who meat

neighbours
who fish

and Mou who ate

are our

meat,

neighbours'
['Moina,
our

6.1.4

can be done

types
the

Verb Phrases

there

of

easier

two

only

object
to

in

meat,

are

Clause

verb

phrases,

and non-restrictive

forward

gapping

(28d,
nouns

gap either

Relative

identical

restrictive

clauses

relative

non-identical

becomes

are
in

both

However,

clauses.

and Mou, who ate

neighbours']

Identical
If

fish

who ate

e,

f).

occur

the

first.

in

is

relative

possible

This

shows

verb

phrases,

or

the

gapping

second

in

both

that

if
it

28Z
identical

verb

in

This

is

shown in

(28)

a.

mzena,
Moina

clauses

relative

the following
Je boi
who book

18 & 19).

examples

examples.

porchilo

ebo

mou,

Je

reading-was

and

Mou

who book

porchilo

tara

bandhobi

reading-was

they

friend

'Moina,

who was reading

reading

a book,

a book

boi

and Mou,

who was

friends'

are

Je boi

porchilo

ebo.u mou,

*mDena, Je boi

porchilo

ebo mou, Je

*mjena,

b.

(cf.

Je boi

ff,

tara

bandhobi
C.

7, tara

bandhobi
d.

Je Y eboU mou,

miena,

Je boi

tara

porchilo,

bandhobi
mzena ebo

e.

Jara

mou,

boi

bandhobi

tara

porchilo,

who-pl
Je boi

*m3ena,

f.

0 eboU mou,

Je boi

tara

porchilo,

bandhobi
Je mzena 0 ebog

g0

The examples

Gapping-is

Backward
occur

in

which
like(28b,

modification

of

C, f)

show that

can gap the


c,
the

second

verb

from

The possibility
antecedent

of

bandhobi

Forward

neither
verb

However,

structures.

f).

tara

porchilo,

when identical

possible

coordinated

possibility
phrases

(28b,

like

Je mou boi

there

Phrases
is

one

identical

verb

is

slight

the

that
relative

nor

283
clause

allows

phrases

from

that

though

the

second

does

not

illustrated

in

(29)

mzena,

Je

Moina

who book

the

of

indicates

identical

verb

phrases

Gapping.

following

example.

porchilo

ebo

boi

verb

This

Backward

allow

identical

clause.

relative

deletion

gap the

to

sentences

above

Forward

it

allowed,

the

This

may be

--: tara.

mou, -Je-o

and Mou who-also

reading-was

is

they

bandhobi
friend
'Moina,

who was reading

reading

a book),

6.1.5

Like
possible

in

deleted

either

a coordinate
the

(30)

following

a.

object

first

or

takes

is

gapping

equally

The object

structure.

The way object-gapping


the

and also

Gapping

verb-gapping,

in

Mou (who was

friends'

are

Object

Identical

a book

the

second
in

place

may be

conjoined

Bengali

is

sentence.
shown

in

examples.

Je

rooson,

bhat

Raushan who rice

radche

ar

cooking

and Monjula

khachche,

tara

eDinbzra

eating

they

Edinburgh

'Raushan,

who is

eating

rice,

University'

are
(lit)

monJula,

bissobiddal.

cooking
studentsof

University-of
rice

Je

bhat

who rice
)er

chattri
student

and Manjula,
the Edinburgh

who is

284
b.

rzoson,

ce

bhat

Je

radche

khachche,

tara

'Raushan,

who is

students

rooson,

Je

?'

bissobiddalzer

who is

eating

rice,

khachche,

chattri
who is

and Manjula,

cooking

Edinburgh

the

of

students

are

who is

University?

Je bhat

manJula,

ar

radche

eDinbora

lRaushan,

of

chattri

Edinburgh

the

and Manjula,

rice

cooking

are

tara

bissobiddalaer

eDinbora

eating,

Je

manJula,

ar

University'
Forward

is

object-gapping

Backward

is

object-gapping

structure
case

of

Backward

non-identical

gapping,
gapping
will

Identical

6.1.6

verbs

ungrammatical

yield

Adverb

Gapping
joined

sentences.,

examples

(31)

a.

of

gapped

When the

are
are

in

SV,. and,

the

SV -

case

of

and in
otherwise

verbobjectit

Gapping
be applied

may also
The rules

to

in

adverbs

can be formulated

after

adverbs.

friend

the

becomes

necessary

necessary,

the

sentence,

structure
in

whereas,

sentences.

amader bandhobi
our

that

objects

non-identical

SOV -

the

object-gapping
here

(30c).

a conjoined

becomes

sentence

may be mentioned

It

SOV.

the

in

(30b)v

in
in

shown

occurs

Forward-object-gapping
of

illustrated

mjenat

Je

taratari

Moina

who quickly

bhat
rice

congiving

285
mou,

ar

radchilo

tara

radchilo,

bhasatztto

they

'Our

Moina,

friend

who was cooking

studying

Linguistics'
Moina

and vegetables
bandhobi

Je

torkari

d.

tzrkari

amader

bandhobi

are

the

and, object
is

this

of

shown

in

these

gapping
adverbs.

above
noun

is

tara

bhat

Jara

to

(31).

Forward

gapping

show that
verb

identical
can also

deletion

which

adverbs,
of
in

adverbs
verbs

bhat

porche

and their

applicable

of

porche

taratari

The same rule

gapping

mou,

porche

bhasatztto

also

and Backward

ar

ar mou, Je

bhasat-ztto

adverbs

examples.

(31b)

and the

mou,

tara

inserting

in

adverbs

radchilo,

rice

Linguisticstj

bhasatotto

bhat

are

cooking

taratari

tara

mDena ar

illustrated

examples

Je*

quickly

quickly,

studying

mzena, Je

rldchilo,

possibilities

shown in

verb

All

tzrkari

rice

who were

are

radchilo,

taratari

ar

and Mou,

mzena,

amader bandhobl

C.

A few

studying

vegetable

quickly,

amader

who was cooking

and Mou,

friend

vegetable

porche

Linguistics

cooking-was

['Our

tzrkari

taratari

and Mou who quickly

cooking-was

b.

Je

gaps
and

adverbs
(31c).

can be used

be deleted

is

with

the

in

286
6.2

Scrambling

6.2.1

Scrambling

Defined

Scrambling
constituents

of
it

concerned,
it

is

really

different

From this

in

Scrambling

in

is

depending

language

allows

sentence
easily
a verb
of

other

sentence
object
usually

moveable.
the

after

patterns
noun

the

pattern

of

is

not

the
position
the

on the

language

be applied

easily

the

structure

movement

allows

to

However,

an initial

subject

does
(see

also

not

example

show that
theme,

of

certain

but

object

normally
20).
the

any

individual

constituents

in

a simple

in

a sentence

in

verb

as well

verbs,
of

scrambling

and the

can become

us explain

how this

allow

scrambling

The Bengali

subject

no other

rule

is

a sentence

noun

and the

movement

possible.

clause.

of

preserved.

move nouns,

subject

constituents

Let
relative

the

where

change

can

to

able

Bengali

a sentence.

of

Bengali

as adjectives,
which

language,

pattern

pattern

is

Bengali.

of

pattern

spoken

as Bengali

literary

of

spoken

Scrambling

Scrambling

in

the

move different

which
as far

occasionally

perspective,

spoken

the

SOV sentence

original

rules

Though,

to

constituents

and the

of

a phenomenon

The speakers

language.

6.2.2

a set

a sentence.

be applied

can also

the

is

relates

to

is

or

287
(32)

a.

mou boiTa,

Ja

porchilo,

seTa gzlper

Mou book-the

which

reading-was

that

Mou was reading

'The book which


b.

boiTa,

Ja

book-the
'The

which

Mou was reading,

book'

gDlper

that

Mou reading-was

which

book,

was a story
seTa

mou porchilo,

story-of

story-of
was a story

book'
C*

boiTa

mou porchilo

Ja,

seTa

g3lper

book-the

Mou reading-was

which

that

story-of

TThe book,

which

Mou was reading,

vas

a story

book'

(33)

a. '

mou Je-

boi

Mou which-book
'The book which
b.

ce

reading-was

that

Mou was reading

story-of
was a story

boi

porchilo

mou,

seTa

golper

which

book

reading-was

Mou

that

story-of

'Which

book

Mou was reading

was a story

mou porchilo

Je-

boi,

seTa

gzlper

Mou reading-was

which

book

that

story-of

that

book

which

boi

porche,

book?

a.

seTa gDlper

Je-

'Mou was reading

(34)

porchilo,

Mou

was a story

(lit)

mou, Je

s.-)kale

who morning-in-the

bissibiddaloer
University-of

chattri
student

book'

book reading

se
she

book'

(lit)

28S
'Mou, who was reading

C.

d.

es

mou,

Je

boi

Mou,

who book

morning-in-the

student

mou,

s; )kale

Mou

morning-in-the

bissobiddaler

chattri

University-of

student

Je,

book

reading

who she

Mou

book

reading

who morning-in-the.

bissobiddalzer

chattri

University-of

student

mou,

szkale

Mou

morning-in-the
chattri

University-of

student

(34);

of
are

NP + Relative

scrambling

of

Relative

Clause

which,

deictic

relative

clauses

like

either

in

either

Relative

boi,

se

the

above

Clause

in

Relative

(33)).

do not

sentences

Pronoun

+head

(NP +

(32)

relative

Pronoun

the

and

examples

in

however,

she

(NP +S

clauses

constituents

N+V+

possible

in

whe

who book

relative

shown

se

Je

reading

bissobiddal-zer

se

szkale,

porche

is

allows

porche

Je

clauses

(33)

boi

porche

the

she

boi

and

is

morning,

se

mou,

Clause)

shows

reading

University-of

NP + Relative

that

s,kale,

chattri

structures

(32)

porche

bissobiddalzer

Two different

S in

the

of the Universityt

student
b.

a book in

+N+V
allow

the

in

(33).

+V+N

or

shown
noun

or

289
Pronoun

Relative

N+V+

shows NP +S

which
pronoun
deictic

structures

end of the relative

relative

does not

clause

possibilities

relative

of the relative

(Rel

clause

Rel Pron + Prep P but


for

Prep P+V+

Rel Pron +N

the relative

pronoun

clause

is

it

which

Je before

an inanimate

to be a deictic.

occurs

close

tional

It

(34d),

it

structure

and the meaning

any

occurs

elsewhere

inanimate

'book'
for

becomes easier

is

at

an inanimate

a listener

clause

noun

(whether

to

in
the

understand

the

relative

occurrence

of

constituent

of the

end of

the

when the

relative

before

the

the

the

pronoun

clause
When Je
before

clause

becomes

difficult

the

relative

of

modifies

after

clause

clause.

relative

meaning

on
pronoun

relative

especially

it

string

any preposi-

end of the

relative

34e),

of the

attaches

clause,

in

into

clause

last

to identify

noun

(34a)

the

to the

the

Rel Pron + N.

the

noun,

or close

V) either

that

shows that

any verb,

scrambling

allows

is

to the head noun (34b),

phrase

'who'

(34e)

of

+7 + Rel Pron or N+

the relative

allowing

not

(34),

constituents

Prep P+V+

not

the

In

Pron + Prep P+N+

Prep P, Prep P+N

Rel Pron +N+V+

The reason

the

The process

shown.

relative

(32c);

this.

allow

clause

inanimate

clause

scrambling

of

are

clauses

The relative
the

allows

at the

different

V+

+ head noun.

Mou or

(boi

book).

290
6.2.3

of Complex Sentences

Scrambling

The above
but

constituents,

illustrate

examples

there

are

simple

some complex

movement

of

as in

structures,

(35).

(35)

Jej

mouke2 es kTa 3 boi 4 diechilo


book gave
who Mou-to a

meeTa,
girl-the

amader
se
5
..
she our

protibesi
neighbour
IThe girl,
Examples

(35)

a..

of

who gave a book to Mou, is


for

scrambling

our-neighbour?

(35):

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who Mou-to

mouke

diechilo

ee kTa boi,

gave

se

book she

amader protibesi.
our

neighbour

'The girl,

who gave a book to Mou, is

our

neighbourf
b.

C.

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who a

aekTa

amader

protibesi

our

neighbour

meeTa,
girl-the
protibesi
neighbour

boi

mouke

diechilo,

se

book

Mou-to

gave

she

Je es kTa boi
who a

book

diechilo

mouke,

se amader

gave

Mou-to

she our

2911
/123.4
meeTa

(35b)

se amader

girl-the

she our

protibesi
neighbour
'The girl
(35c)

is our neighbourl

a. meeTa

12345

b. meeTa

13_,

c. meeTa

13452

se amader protibesi
_4 25

se amaddr protibesi
se amader protibesi

'The gir 1
The effect

of
(35a,

shown in
of

(35)-can

different
c),

which

b. Rel Pr
c.

Rel Pr

d. Rel Pr

follows

which
noun

movement

(35b)

object

the
or

shows

initial

or

between

them
the

in

verb

the

rule

obj

obj

(nh)

obj

(nh)

obj

(h)

obj

(nh)

obj

(h)

relative

the

pronoun
noun

that

(35d)c,

d).

(35d)b),

positions,

b,

occurs

When the

d).
in

clause-final

the

can be either

or

human and non-human

clause-final

of

(35d).

in

fact

the
objects

object
a human

The clause-final
a human noun

objects

occur

in

in
occurs
I
side by
occur

verb

position.

is

orders

The effect

presented

(h)

(nh)

(35)

word

rule.

obj

states

sentence

original

obj

a non-human

(35

that

(h)

rule

When the

the

of

scrambling

can be a norr human noun

(35d)d).

sidet

orders

be shown by the

can also
a. Rel Pr

The above

word

be moved due to

scrambling
(35d)

is our neighbour?

292
6.2.4

The following
change
(36)

in Relative

Change of Word Order

a.

of

order

word

Je

mou-to
/

gave

se amader

the

girl

mouke

se amader

ce

a book

gave

the

who gave

girl

to
/

se adader
she our

girl

neighbourl]

(meeta,

meeTa

who girl-the

a book

gave

['The

our

who is

our

(lit)

Mou-to

neighbourl

our

protibesi

ee kTa boi

fTo Mou,

Mou is

Je

gave

diechilo

to

diechilo

mouke

Je)

is

neighbour

a book

neighbourt
[? The girl

a book,

who gave

book

Mou,

book

protibesi

eekTa boi.

she our
'To

ea kTa boi

neighbour

who gave

Mou-to
Je)

girl

clause.

(lit)

neighbourl

b.

Je)

relative

she our
Mou,

show the

the

who girl-the

diechilo

('The

inside
(meeTa,

meeTa

to

given

are

occurs

which

mouke

'To

examples

Clause

a book

book

Mou is
Je

our

neighbourI3
(meeTa,

meeTa

who girl-the

protibesi
neighbour
gave

the

girl

who is

our

(lit)
who gave

a book

to

Mou is

our

neighbourl]

293
d.

mouke

Je

Mou-to
boi

'To

Mou,

the

girl

a book,

who gave

eekTa

gave

is

our

(lit)
Mou is

a book

to

mouke

diechilo

Ee kTa boi

Mou-to

gave

Je)

diechilo

neighbour

she our

LIThe

Je)

protibesi

se amader

neighbourl

e.

meeTa

who girl-the

book

(meeTa,

who gave

girl

/ se

book

our

neighbourf]

(meeTap
meeTa

Je

who girl-the

amader protibesi

she our

neighbour

'To Mou gave a book the

who is

girl

our neighbourl

(lit)
I'The
(37)

a.

who gave a, book to Mou is

girl

ee kTa boi

mouke

diechilo

Mou-to

gave

book

Je)/

se amader

Je

meeTa

(meeTa,

who girl-the

protibesi

she our
'A book

our neighbourIj

neighbour
to

gave

Mou the

girl

who is

our

neighbourl

Mou is

our

neighbour']

(lit)
L'The
b.

girl

m kTa boi
book

a
Je)

a book

to

diechilo

mouke

gave

Mou-to

who gave

se

amader

she our
'A book
['The

gave

girl

to

Je

(meeTa,
meeTa

who girl-the

protibesi
neighbour

Mou the

who gave

who is

girl

book
a

to

Mou is

our
our

neighbourl(lit)
neighbourf]

294
ce

book

a
se

Je)

mouke diechilo
Mou-to

gave

is

our

neighbourl

Mou is

our

neighbourf]

who girl-the

protibesi

amader

she our
'A book

(meeTa,
meeTa

/ Je

Ee kTa boi

neighbour
the

who to

girl

Mou gave

(lit)
[? The girl
d.

a book

who gave

eekTa

boi

mouke

a-

book

Mou-to

diechilo

se

/ Je

'A. book

amader

Mou,

to

(meeTa,
meeTa

Je)

who girl-the
protibesi

she our

gave

to

neighbour

the

girl

is

who gave,,

our

neighbourl(lit)
UThe
e.

girl

who gave

m kTa boi

se

gave

amader

f.

(meeTa,
meeTa

neighbourt]
Je)

/
mouke
Mou-to

who girl-the

girl

who gave

eekTa
a

book
amader

who to

Mou,

is

our

Je

a book

to

(meeTa,
meeTa

Mou is
Je)

who girl-the

our

the

gave

protibesi

girl
(lit)

who gave

to

Mou,

neighbour?

diechilo

neighbour

she our

neighbourl

our

(lit)

girl

'A book

the

gave

boi-

se

Mou is

neighbour

neighbour
['The

Je

to

protibesi

she our
'A book

diechilo

book

a book

is

our

/
mouke
Mou-to

295
['The

In

(35),

the indirect
in

object

(37).

a relative

of the

(35),

clause

relative
direct

object

38c,

d),

NP (37).

object

(36b,

occur
ling-'to:

the middle
give

V (36d),

IO-NP (37d),
applied
patterns

will
of

IO-V

V-NP (37e),

of the

a.

NP

10

b.

NP

DO

10

-DO
V

ce

NP

DO

10

d.

Io

NP

DO

e.

10

DO

NP

f.

10

DO

NP

the

of the
The initial

ways.

of the

NP (36),

or a

of the-clause

may be

a verb

(35b,

36d)

phrese,

or an indirect

sentence

shows

V-IO

(37f).

which

can undergo-scrLmbIO-V

DO-V (36b),

if

include

The constituents

clause

(37a),

be easy to observe
(35 - 37) in

b),

sequences:

IO-V

direct

of the

part

NP-DO (36a),

V-DO (36e),

part

scrambling.

following

DO-V (35c),

(35b),

(38)

the

part

and the

antecedent

NP (35a,

The middle

occurs

object

c; 37a,

object

numerous movements under


in

be the

The final

a direct

NP (35c).

in numerous

could

neighbourf]

clause

constituents

an indirect

a noun phrase

either
36a,

sentence

the

our

of a sentence

constituents

then

can be scrambled

-sentence
string

(34),

(36)

in

object

When the

clause

Mou is

of the relative

the antecedent

initially,

to

a book

who gave

girl

(37b),

(35a),

DO-IO

V-DO (36c),
NP-IO

(37e),

The way scrambling


we give

following

way:

the

10-

sentence

is

296
g.

10

NP

DO

h.

10

DO

NP

i.

DO

Io

NP

j.

DO

Io

NP

k.

DO

NP

Io

1.

DO

Io

NP

M*

DO

NP

Io

n.

DO

NP

Io

Though

typically

verbs

may also

constituents.

other

DO, 10,
their

or

in

SOV languages

6.2.5

Gapping

Gapping
test

both

applicable
where

do not

is

step

to

According

may be applied

before

procedures

Gapping

DO, NP can interchange

clearly

(1967),

interact.

in

V,

e. g.

Hankamer
have

the

disprove
(1979)

and
rules.

scrambling

and Scrambling

The next
Scrambling

sentence-finally:

examples

by Ross

statements

others

10,

position

a clause.

The preceding

that

sentence-final

occur

Moreover,

a NP.

positions

earlier

in

occur

whether

Bengali.
is

applied.

how Gapping

examine
to
or

the

Consider

the

(Ross

Scrambling.

after.

before

rule

or

after

f. ollowing

and
1970:

253)

We can

Scrambling
sentences

is

297
(39)

a.

mou, Je
Mou

bhat

who rice

bhalo

mee

nice

girl

'Mou,

who is

a nice

girl'

mou, Je
Mou

bhat

who is

i.

and egg eating

Dim khachche,

rice

and

(is

khachche

ar

eating

and egg

0,

she

bhat

ar

Mou who

eating

rice

and egg

eating

a nice

rice

Dim,

bhalo

se

she nice
is

and egg,

khachche

ar

Mou

eating

and egg who she nice

Gapping

mou, Je

bhat

who rice

'Mout

who is

Scrambling
bhat

ar

Dim Je,

Dim khachchet

eating

rice

is

mee
girl

a nice

girl

Gapping)
mou Jet

se

egg and rice

eating

Hou who

she nice

'Mou.

eating

who is

girl

she nice

and egg,

girl'

mee

bhalo

se

khachche

Dim ar

mee
girl

bhalo

se

and egg eating

(after

girl'

a nice

moup bhat

Backward

girl

Gapping):

khachche

rice

mee

she nice
is

is

egg,

bhalo

se

dnd egg,

rice

se

eating)

Dim

mou, Je

Mou

d.

eating

eating

'Moup who is
ii.

ar

(afte_r

Scrambling

b.

Scrambling)

khachche

eating

who rice

'Mou.

ce

(before.

Forward-Gapping

rice

and egg,

bhalo

is

mee
girl

a nice

girl'

298
It
Forward
aglish,

Gapping
Gapping

g and Backward

(39).

nbling.

In

Backward

Gapping,

Backward

Gapping

nbling.

Though

nbling

in

that

Bengali

Gapping

both

is

both

whether

and Backward

Forward
Forward

before

applied
the

Gapping

Scram-

after

after

Bengali

in

allows

before

before

applications
Backward
are

allowed

Bengali.

in

(before

mou, Je
Mou

indicates

Forward

Forward

r Scrambling

a.

applied

that

Scrambling.

only

is

can be applied

examples

with

can be applied

Now w; can examine

both
or

above

be applied

must

which

English,

Scrambling

the

interact

Scrambling

only

re Scrambling.
Lng,

Gapping

and Backward
Forward

from

clear

seems quite

Gapping):

bhat

who rice

khachche

ar

eating

and egg eating

Dim khachche,

se bhalo
she nice

Mee
girl

b.

'Mou,

who is

a nice

girl'

eating

rice

and

(is

eating)

mou, bhat

khachche

Je,

Mou

eating

who and egg eating

rice

ar

Dim khachche,

egg,

is

se bhalo
she nice

mee
girl
mou, Je
Mou
Mee
girl

khachche

who eating

khachche

bhat

ar

rice

and eating

Dim,

se bhalo

egg

she nice

299
Forward
d.

mou. Je
Mou

khachche

who eating

'Mou,

who is

Backward
e.

both

that

Forward

after
either

patterns

deletion

of

Bengali
do not

egg

she nice

girl

is

Dim khachchep

a nice

girl'

se bhalo

mee

she nice

girl

is

and egg,

and'(40)

result

a nice

can be applied

before

be grammatical

will

girl'

show that

clearly

sense

the

one of

that

and

in

sentences.

are

English

The reason

show as many variations

the

of

of

notion

Bengali

to

objects,
rules

words

or verbs.

Bengali,

patterns
through

which
the

is

that

in

Gapping

and

interesting

are

to

Gapping

as the

adverbs

applied

structural
in

the

movement

and Scrambling

when they

express

applied

identical

shows various
to

shows that

free

allow

The Gapping

difficult

mee

c)

Gapping

and the

se bhalo

and egg,

rice

can be easily

sentence

sentence

rice

Dim,

case.

and Scrambling

the

and

(39)

in

given

and egg eating

The investigation

in

rice

eating

and Backward

Scrambling,

ar

(of

rice

who is

are

bhat

bha-t ar

who

'Mou,

c)

eating

Gapping

mou, Je
Mou

Examples

(of

Gapping

one
is

translation

English

sentences

and Scrambling.

of

300
6.3

TODicalization

6.3.1

Topicalization

Defined

The term
the

starting

and

'Topicalization'

the

topic

point

to

in

is
movement

unmarked

topic

the

the

sentence

SOV word
direction
sentence.
(41)

a.

order
of

b.

the

in

from

a Bengali

the

cheleTa
00v
boy-the

shown in
boi

following

book reading-was
a book'

cheleTa
boy-the

boy was reading

of

In

a book'

the

sentence

that

and the

on
and no

then

then

the
case

the
word

order

The original

changes

topicalized
the

Bengali

object,

OVS.

sentence

boy was reading

in

sentence

certain

marked

sentence,

porchilo

boi
porchilo
0vs
book reading-was
'The

the

moves

respect,

of

usually

structure

SOV to

movement of
is

This

is

necessary.

the

end of

fronting

on the

marked

becomes

changes
of

'The

is

which

From this

sentences

simple

initially

moves to

subject

Topic

mark

a sentence

movement,

as the

When the

object

occurs

of

to

in

message

position.

a sentence.

SOV, and the

object

speaker's

a process

necessary.

movement of

of

is

in

subject

the

the

of

Linguistics

in

used

can be regarded

constituents

is

is

sentence-initial

topicalisation

the

'topic'

in

the
in

constituent
example

(cf.

1.2.5).

301
boi
cheleTa
0sv
book boy-the

ce

The usual
in

(41a),

'the

boy was reading

word

order

(SOV) of

where

the

topico

necessary
boi
to

is

'book'
final

the

(41c).
are

It

only

given

different

to

is

rules

for

(41 ) a.

(41b-c)
SD:

in

NP

the

is

topic

both

marked

the

the

sentence

and in

sentence
is

(41c)
and
in

subject
both

moved
in

position

(41b)

sentences

The transformational
in

the

following

way.

123

b.

SC:

231

SD:

NP NV
123

SC
Rule (41a)

at>

213

shows the fronting

as

becomes

subject

that

(41b)

No
is

of

medial

of

can be illustrated

cheleTa

constituents

movement

same object.

in

subject

and the

here

the

sentence

object

and in

mentioned

on the

marked

topic

shown

before

sentence.

the

of

as the

(41b)

show the

the

as the

movement

in

be

positions

topic

(41a)

as the

position
should

to

(41c)
and

marked

the

of

is

sentence

initially

occurs

initially

the

(41b)

a Bengali

shown as the

shown in

whereas
in

is

occurs
is

a book'

The topic

verb.

which

movement rule
the

subject

The object

boy'.

and 41c)

reading-was

'The

and the

object

porchilo

of the object

in the subject

302
and the

position
sentence.

The movement

SOV word

order

into

fronting

of

and the

the

movement

The movement
to

OSV.

is

has the

object

position.

the

before

either

is

in

place

Je

a.

marked
of

cheleTa

who boy-the
'Who the
PThe
b.

Je

the

cheleTa

['The

porche,

cheleTa

'the

boy'

antecedent
reading

of

a book'.

is
the

of

which

may

When an
clause,
of

constituent
has to

move

se amar bondhu
he my

friend

reading

a book is

my friend'

reading

a book is

my friend']

porche,

se amar bondhu

reading

book who the


boy who is

SOV

of

a relative

it

the

antecedent.

book who boy-the


'The

case

rule.

any other

SOV

than

order

order

or inside

book reading

is

word

topic,

from

other

SOV word

as a topic,

boi

boy is

boy'who

boi

and if

the

sentence

be shown in

may also

topic,
as
a
shown
clause

the

unmarked

topicalization

is

the

on any constituent

due to

initially

is

to

be changed

relative

the

as the

shows the

antecedent

(42)

position

which

occurs

original

subject

clauset

relative

it

This

the

changes

the

end of

illustrates

changes

that

result

retained.

not

also

topic

the

(41b)

subject

subject

Assigning

subject

the

to

subject

subject

Rule

in

the

of
the

of

the

of

OVS.

object

the

of

movement

boy is

reading

shown as the
relative

he my

friend

reading

is

a book is
topic

my friend']
(42a),

Je boi

clause

The word order

in

in

my friend,

relative

is

which

porche

'Who

clause

is

303
SOV, which
boi

object
where

is

retained
(42b)

'book'.

the

object

not

subject

sentence

is

Consider

the

(43)

in

the

According
the

to

(42b)

the

of

(41b)

and the

position

subject.

Chomsky

NP that

is

following

construction

medial

the

topicalizing

after

the

shows

occurs

before

occurs

in

(1965:

the

221),

immediately

topic

dominated

of

by S.

sentence:

corTa,

Jake

gramer

lokra

dhorechilo,

se

thief-the

whom-to

village-of

men

caught

he

at

durdhzrso
dangerous
whom the villagers

'The thief
In

(43),

dangerous'
examples

cor

'thief'

is

the

is

the

topic,

here

sentences
(44)

cheleTa,

Je

boy-the

who school-to

relative

korte

pachondo

kare

doing

like

does

'The

boy,

who did

topic

not

and comment in

clauses.
Jae

skule

fhe is

A few more

sentence.

to illustrate

incorporating

a.

and se-durdh: )rso

comment of the

are given

at was dangerousl

caught

go-did

go to

ni,

se-.-gunDami

not

he. hooliganism

the

school,

likes

hooliganism'
b.
gentleman

Jini

sahittik,

tini

aJ

who

writer

he

today

boktrita

deben

talk

give-will

-bissobiddaloJe
University-to

304'The

gentleman,

talk

to-day

book-the

in

inanimate

library-of

comment
This

(45)

is

a.

Library!

As already

stated,

or

roeeche,

seTa amader

is

that

table,

on the

topic
could

which

a sentence,

is

used

be either

our

belongs

to

to

the

mark

our

an animate

or

object.

and Comment
combines

object

in

with

the
the

enlarges
shown

with

the

in

a comment,

regarding

statement

initial

of

following

the

pulis
police

thief-the.

caught

caught

of

thief'

the

corTake

pulis

dhorechilo

thief-the

police

caught

'The

the

police

caught-'

can be
or

animate
sense,

topic

a sentence

previous

example.

dhorechilo

thief

this

statement

meaning

which

any

In

a discourse.

corTake

'The police
b.

is

University

further
as a

associated

that

book,

subject

inanimate

on

University's

A topic
taken

table's
laibrerir

Topic

6.3.2

opore

bissobiddalzer

'The

theme

Tebiler

which

deliver

will

a writer,

University'

the

to

Ja

boiTa,

ce

who is

and

statement.

is

an

305
['The

fthieff

cor

police

the topic

is

'the

dhorechilo

pulis

sentence

as it

catching

the

of the

in

object

of the passive

is
true

the

the

by the

show the
in

used

commonly

the

in

has

it

After
changes

from
This

In

case

shows
the

are

not

language.

the
the

from

verb,

original

its

fronting

occurrence

of
of

object

the

noun

occurs

object

As

topicalized
or

pronoun.

automatically

order

NP for

it

position.
is

object

subject

the

topicalized

former

word

OVS when the

the

is

a sentence

when the

order,

before

SOV to

of

of

a sentence

topicalization,

verb.
the

object

SOV word

either

occurs

dara

as the

occur

which
the

was
Bengali

do not

of

dhrito

thief

Colloquial

The

of Object

When the
moves backward

system

and

of the

dara

'The

patterns

not

language.

form

was)

caught'

Sanskrit

Topicalization

Bengali

'was

spoken

of the

Pulis

in

is

of Bengali,

pattern

cor

However,

be made here

should

the written

caught

hoeechilo

items

lexical

6.3.3

in

of

the action

Passivization

form

following:

police'.

dhrito
and

'by'

the written

of

the action

comment enlarges
Mention

and

comment of the

regarding

Colloquial

(45a)

the

is

(45b).

of

(thief-police-by

hoeechilo
caught

(45b),

the

in

like

is

language

meaning

sentence.

in

form

passive

the

structure

only

retained

caught'

(45b)

in

sentence

police

In

followed

strictly

of the

enlarges
thief.

thief']

the

caught

before

any

topicalization,
before

306
the

pronoun,
from

structural

SOV to OSV.

in a sentence
illustrated

ami

boi

bhalobasi

book

like

bhalobasi

ami

book

like

like

11
b.

book

that

osv

ami

boi

bhalobasi

book

like

like

book(s)'

boi

ami

bhalobasi

book

like

like

book(s)f
books

['It's

that

Two ways of topicalizing


main difference
the

object

is

of a Bengali
(46b).

(46b)

-These are

I like']

'I

common.

book(s)l

sov

'I

very

book(s)'

like

('Itfs
b.

not

ovs

boi

'I

changes

of movement of any constituent


but

possible,

sov

'I

a.

kind

sentence

(46).

in

(46)

This

is

of the

pattern

sentence,
is

less

like']

objects

between
placed

(46a)

before

are

(46b)
and

the verb

whereas,
acceptable

it

is
than

(46).

shown in

like

is

that,

in

the usual

away from
-(46a),

the

as this

The
(46a)
pattern
verb
order

in

307
is

of constituents
In the
are not

the

(47)

clauses

into

boiTa,

Ja

a.

'The
b..

the

flower-the

which

topicalization

topicalizing

objects,

introducing

hochche

want that-is

oi

gzlper
story-of

is

a story-book'

golap

gacher,

ta

tree-of

that

that

rose

bissobiddaloer

udbhidbidda

bibhager

bagane

University's

Botany

departmentfs

garden-in

Jae

paoa

goes

get
IThe

flower,

to

the

is

which
in

available

c*

ta

I want

phulTa,

the

sentences.

Ja

show the

after

ami cai,

that

book

given

are

from

arises

to the

regard

that

book-the

to

clauses

examples

clauses

relative

42v 43 and 44) to show the

in

No problem

With

Bengali.

following

relative

(except

of relative

so far,

given

of objects.

inclusion
for

common.

examples

introduced

topicalizing

rule

not

the

garden

Universityf

that

of

of

the

rose

tree,

Botany

is

department

(lit)

ghas,

Ja

goruTa

khachche,

ta

ba-Jar

theke

grass

which

cow-the

eating

that

market

from

kena

hoeeche

bought

has

'The

grass,

from

the

which

market'

the

cow is

eatingo

was bought

30EL
In

each

'the

book',

objects
from

the

of

the

their

that

in

their

(47a

ami Je

boiTa

book-the

which

'The book that


b..

gach

before

topicali-

show

bibhager

Botany

department's

9)lper
story-of

book'

bissobiddaloer

flower-the

udbhidbidda

is

a story

tree-of

University's

bagane

that

garden-in-the

rose

Botany

tree

Jae

paoa

is

Department

get

goes

to

the

the

in

available

University?

goruTa

Je-

ghas

khachche,

ta

baJar

theke

cow-the

which

grass

eating

that

market

from

bought

golap

moved

when the

(47b)

want that

rose

the

are

topicalization.

hochche

that

kena

The subjects

ta

cai,

phulTa

of

the

(47).

I want is

of

boiTa

that

is

except

gacher

garden
ce

& c)

golap

flower

for

here

oi

'The

and they

positions

original

as shown in

relativization,
(47') a.

be mentioned

sentences

all

zation,

(47a-c)v

in

topic:

tgrass. 1 are

and fronted

position

the

is

noun

and ghas

clause

should

occur

head

flower'

relative

original

One point
objects

tthe

phulTa

of

the

examples,

hoeeche
has

'The

grass,

from

the

of
'rose

the

which

the

cow is

eating,

was bought

market'
sentences

non-topicalized

tree'

and goru

'cowl

and the

are

ami

objects

III,

309
follow

their

subjects

where deictic

relativization,
the

and it

the

object

phul

relativization
fronting

the

6.3.4

in

clause

any

moving

from

constituent
terms

of

the

Scrambling

examples.

(48)

Je-

lokTa

who man-the

Clause

constituents
the

of

If

relative

clause

the
is

As the

clause.
its

to

no obstruction

antecedent,

can be moved easily

This

may be shown

in

in
the

ache,

se baJar

korte

Jabe

sitting

is

he shop

doing

go-will

sitting

lokTa,

Je

man-the

who sitting

difference

sentence.

bose

bose

'The man, who is


The only

the

position

clause

'Who the man is


b.

due to

on the

follows

rule.

show that

of a Relative

relative

a relative

the

of

the
or

(47b)

topicalizing

of

before

topicalizing

after

sentences

there

precedes

following

a.

topic

in

occur

like

a sentence

constituent

pronoun

relative

as the

a sentence.

in

initially

occurs

simple

depending

clause,

a relative

relative

for

two ways

are

pronouns

only

of Constituents

Topicalization
There

of

object

show

show any relativi-

Sentences

may occur
of

does not

can be relativized
'flower'.

(47c)
and

relative

(47b)

However,

objects.

zation,

(47a)

(47).

in

between

'

will

go. for

shopping'

ache,

se baJar

korte

Jabe

is

he shop

doing

go-will

sitting,
(48a)

will

go for

and *48b) is

shopping'
that

Je 'who'

310
-occurs

prenominally
(48b)

(as NP + S) in
the

without

topicalized,

as shown in

(49)

bose

ache Je

sitting

is

for

-The

bose

initial

the

korte

Jabe

he shop

doing

go-will

sitting

go

will

(48a),

but

colloquial

(48b)

of

verb
(50)

bose

ache

sitting

is

the
in

man,

man-the
who is

and medial

paser

ghzre

next

room-in

(48a)
not

one

qhow the
of

the

Jabe

who he shop

doing

go-will

will

go for

said

shopping'

(51 b) and- (52b)


with
,
position

and the

a relative

implication

embedding.
a.

(48b)

becomes

korte

of

final

the

se baJar

sitting,

unacceptibility

in

(50).

Je,

lokTa

like

The fronting

Bengali.

shown in

is

for

does

which

to.

it

occurs

for

rule

(48a)

than

which

the

after

moving

be fronted

also
fronting

the

occurs

after

The verb

can

antecedent,

which

topicalized

(49).

in

pattern

'The

sitting'

is

comprehensible

clause

se baJar

man, who) is,

'is

(48a)

position

shown for

Note

(49).

who man-the

ache

in

posteedent

more

of

shopping'

verb

after

meaning

to be

the verb

allows

lokTa,

(the
man

'Who the

and postnominally

the basic

changing

(48a)

Moreover,

clause.

(48a)

(as Je + NP) in

gelei
going

tumi
you

take

dekhte

him

see

pabe,
will

of

311
bhzddrolok,

Jini

Dhaka theke

esechen

gentleman

who

Dacca from

come-has

'You will

see the

gentleman

room who has come from


b.

*bhoddrolok,

Jini

paser

gentleman

who

next

dekhte

pabe,

see-will
'The
next

(52)

a.

ghore

gelei

tumi

take

room-in

going

you

him

theke

esechen

Dacca

from

come-has

who you

has

will

baccal(lit).

come from

bolechile,

Jini

boi_

you

said

who

book reading

who is

that

to, the

see going

tumi

'You said

to the next

Dacca'

Dhaka

gentleman,
room,

going

tomar
tini,. bondhu
your
he A friend

porchen,

reading

a book is

your

friend'
b.

*Jini,
who

tumi

bolechile

boi

porchen,

tini

tomar

you

said

book

reading

he

your

bondhu
friend
'Who,

you

is

said

reading

a book,

is

your

friend'

(lit)

The above
is

clause
the

clause

(53)

a.

problem
moved to

can be averted
the

as a single

beginning

if

the

of

a sentence

whole

relative
considering

constituent.

bh-zddrolok,

Jini

Dhaka theke

esechen,

paser

ghore

gentleman

who

Dacca from

come-has

next

room-in

312
gelei

tumi

take

dekhte

going

you

him

see-will
from
has
come
who

'The gentleman,

b.

pabe

will

see him going

to the next

Jini

boi

tumi

who

book-reading

Dacca,

you

(lit)

room'

bolechile

tini

tomar

you

said

he

your

a bookp

you

that

he is

porchen,

-bondhu
friend
IWho is

reading

friend'

(lit)

J'You

that

said

who is

said

a book

reading

is

your

your

friend']

This

kind

cleft

of

but

sentences,

not

should

be regarded

6.3.5

Primary*Topicalization

in

topicalization

either
called

respectively

examples
through

Topic.

relative

Primary

Topicalization

clauses

two kinds

and
it

instead

of

Primary

and

Topicalization,

can become topic:

As I have taken

of Primary

Hence,

sentences:
In Primary

Subject

extraposition

topicalization.

146) mentions

complement

or object

in

allowed

topicalization.
in

Topicalization.

subject

Primary

in

as void

(1972:

Hopper

Secondary

is

transformation

they

Topic

relative
will

can be

Object
and
clauses,

the

be illustrated

of complement

sentences.

313
The following
Topicalization

in

both

illustrate

examples

Bengali.

6. . 5.1

Subject

(54)

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who book reading-was

a.

Primary

'The girl,
b.

of Primary

versions

Topic

boi

se amader Daklo

porc6ilot

she us
a book,

who was reading

called
us'

called

bhzddrolokt

Jini

gan

sunchen,

tini

amar

bondhu

gentleman

who

song

listening

he

my

friend

'The

listening

who is

gentlemant

is

song#

My

friend'
The subject

of

the

becomes

clause)

relative

sentences
in

initially
when the
it

as the
any

fronted
be
can

in

following
The'subject

in

marked

boi

manner:
of

the

in

are

Bengali

in

another

usually

sentence

like

that

sentence,

show the
can also

the

orders

occur

in

meeTa Je,

Dorchilo

Topic.

indicates

also

sentences'to

of

unmarked

position

like-(54a)

case

Primary

The process

Sentences

process.

zation

(54b)

subjects

occurs

subject

in'Subject

and

sentence.

in

antecedent

topic

(54a)

in

The antecedents
of

sentence(the

topicaliin

occur

Daklo.

se amader

latter

the

can be

example

fronted

like

sentence
the

(54a)

after

meeTa 'the

girl'.

marked and unmarked

sentence

is

and when it
word order

unmarked
is
other

it

the

subject

The question
sentences
always

marked for
than

fronting

in

topicalization

SOV, which

is

may arise

Bengali.

shows the

of the
about

When a

SOV word pattern


it

illustrated

may change its


in

(41).

314
6.3-5.2

Object

Primary

Topic

When the object


becomes topic,

clause
Topic.
(55)

This
a.

meeTa,

Je

girl-the

who

'The girl,
boi

(55a

reading-was

'The

girl,

topic

(55a)

topic.
Both
in

occur

matrix

following
zation

topicalization
the

shown after

primary

are

Bengali

after

sentences.

(56)

Je

dzroJa

who door
'Mou is

given

where the

fronted

from

(55a)

(meeTa Ithe

moves the

can

girl')
on the

topic

primary

to

show the Primary

se

student

in

constituent
The

position.

relative

mou skuler

opened she Mou


a school

us'

position.

introducing

khullo,

is

and object

to sentence-initial

sentence

Topict

assigning

topic

called

called

rule.

subject

Daklo

se amader

a book,

fbook?

topicalization

conjoined
a.

who she us

sentence-initial

examples
in

is

subject

Primary
the

girl-the

boi

us?

called

Je,

Primary

marking

called

meeTa

of Object

under

for

be interpreted

she us

a book,

who was reading

position

example.

se amader Daklo

porchilo,

clause

Primary

as a Object

the following

who was reading

process

or a relative

book reading-was

book

former

object.

shown in
boi

of the relative

as the

may be taken

Porchilo

shows the

object
its

it
is

process

of a sentence

school-of

Topicali-

clauses

in

chattri
student

who opened the door'

the

315
b.

mou, Je
Mou

who door

'Mou,
(57)

Je

a.

doroJa

Khullot

se

opened

she school-of

who opened the door,

boi

porche,

'Who is

is

student

a school

student'

moenar

bandhobi

-Che girl-the

Moina's

friend

a book the

reading

chattri

meeTa

se

who book reading

skuler

is

girl

a friend

of

Moinal
['The

is

girl

a friend

of Moina who is

reading

book']
b.

ReeTa,

Je

girl-the

who book

'The

boi

who is

girl,

porche,

se

reading

she Moinals
a book,

reading

bandhobi

maenar

is

friend

Moinals

friend'
In

topicalization,

primary

the

relative

clause

under

topicalization

is

marked

as a topic

constituent
(57a),

and

the

after

the

meeTa

tshe-the

in

(57b)).

After
the

initially-from

Je

in

girl'

57a)

non-deictic
'Mou,

whot

initially

like
in

'she-Moul
becomes

pronoun

topicalization,
matrix

sentence

due to
in

(56b)

the

(56a)

sentences

matrix

sentence
(56a)

in

deictic

without
the

the

When no

the

the

and

as it
any

pause

constituents

comma intonation
Je

'the

se-

is

and the, relative

and meeTa,

in

occurs

before

rule.

occurs
(se-mou

correlatives

by a comma).

(mou,

that

by coreferential

preceded

becomes

noun

that

constituent

can be shifted

sentence

matrix

the

(shown
move
pronoun

after

them

girl,

who'

316
(56a) and (57a) show that

Sentences like

which occur in the matrix

constituents
unstressed

and when they move forward

sentences,

receive

sentence-stress.

sentence mou 'Moul and mee 'girl'


cedents of the relative
in Bengali,
after'the

topic

follows

as topic

of the

The topic

of the

Even in simple

is the constituent

the topic,

remain

sentences

both occur as the ante-

clause.

sentences

which occurs initially

of the fronting

application

the

and the comment

rule

as shown in the following

examples.
0

(58)

a.

mohua bhat

khachche

Mohua rice

eating

'Mohua is
b.

(58a),

of the
the

khachche

mohua

rice

eating

Mohua

the

in

noun mohua 'Mohual


the

whereas

(58b).

rice'

eating

subject

sentencet

topc

rice?

bhat

'Mohua
is
.
In

eating

The meaning

constituents,

topicalization

of two different

shows that

becomes the
shown in
rice.
eats

the

topic

many things
topic

(58b)
but

bhat

becomes

(58a)

nouns in
is

mohua 'Mohuat,

activity

shows that

of the

at

of the

the

the

sentence

which

due to the
and (58b).
so that

subject-noun

subject

moment what

'rice'

sentences,

as a comment of Mohuals

predicate

Likewise,

becomes the

the person
and the

of the

topic

becomes different

have identical

(58a)

object-noun

becomes the

she is

and nothing

eating
of the
eating
else.

mohua
is
of
sentence

317
The term
sense that

the topic

the

of

can be explained
both

ground:

constituent

instance

sentence.
in

but

adverbs
analysis

and ours

emphasis

is

examples
subject

that

in

examples

is

placed

turnO

adjective

becomes the

(op. cit)

in

the

It

nouns
in

or an object

topicalized,

in

is

already

topic

(58b).

in

is

Bengali.

to show the

they

Subject

only

Hopper's

discussion
of the

shown in
occur

Verbs
may be.

topicalization

more

various

the

following

either

adjectives

and
and

adjectives

between

present

(whichmay

though

and adverb.

in

the first

in

consider

a sentence),

easily

back-

are present

mentions

we can also

that

and 58b)

as Topic

on the distribution

besides

are given

'rice'

the

becomes

(58a)

like

in

the

it

provided,

The main difference

can be topicalized
generally

is

'rice'

of a sentence.

constituents

in

bhat

topics,

as topics.

present

and bhat

and Adverbs

primary

is

of the above theoretical

constituent

Though Hopper
Object

here

topic

and which,

Adjectives

applied

mohua becomes the

where the

present

terms

is

Sentences

mohua 'Mohual

sentence,

6.3.6

the

already

Topic'

and when new information

sentence

the

'Primary

as a

and adverbs
are not

The follo,; iing


of noun,

318
(59)

Topicalization
a.

b.

of Noun

sariTa,

Ja

mzena kinechilo,

sari-the

which

Moina bought

'The sari

that

m-3ena, Je
Moina

(60)

a.

putulTa,

tThe doll,

se amar

bought
the

silk'

friend

she my
my friend'

is

sari,

bandhobi

AdjeCtive

of

doll-the

Z.

sariTa

silk-of

made of

kinechilov

who bought

Topicalization

that
is

Moina bought

who sari-the

'Moina,

ta silker

Ja

mou. kinechilop

ta

sundor

which

Mou bought

that

beautiful

that

Mqu. bought,

-4

was beautiful'

sundor

seTa,

Je

PutulTa

mou kinechilo

beautiful

that-the

which

doll-the

Mou bought

was beautiful

'That
Topicalization

the

doll

that

Mou bought'

Adverb

of

bhzddrolok,

Jini

taratari

IraTchen,

tini

te kJon

gentleman

who

fast

walking

he

Daktar
doctor
'The

gentleman,

who is

walking

is

fast,

physician'

a.

taratari

ATchen

bhzddrolok,

Jini,

tini

ee'kJon

fast

walking

gentleman

who

he

Daktar
doctor

(lit)

319
'The gentleman,

who is

fast,

walking

is

physician'
taratari,

bh; )ddrolok,

Jini

fast

gentleman

who walking

ICaTchen, tini

akhon

he

Daktar
doctor
'The gentlemant

who is

fastt

walking

is

physiciant
ToPicalizing

of noun,

is

(60)

in

are given
'beautiful',

position
zation

(60a)

in

clause

more acceptable
(61a)

adverb.

the

is

used in

in

sentence-final
moving

without

is

adjectives
is

that

as in

is

the

(60a)

which

than'(61a)
in

spoken pattern
phrases

as the

incomplete

sundor

'The handsome man'.

without

From this

the final

in

(61a).

verb

occurs

since

the

(61a)

Adjectives

the

meaning

of the

The reason

or followed

perspective

(61al)

topicalize

a head noun.

handsome'

the

whereas

to

topicali-

after

the language.

must be preceded
'The man is

sundor

inside

are difficult

the head noun too,

examples

occurs

language,
of

and

shows the

sentence

literary

Ja 'which'

to initial

(61)

originally

the unmarked

the

in

and fronted

the

inside

adjective.
occurs

to become topic.

occurs

an adjective
lokTa

shown in

Two different

an adjective,
in

of an adverb

relative
is

to become topic.

sentence

in

pronoun

to topicalize

which

of the

part

(59b)

in

the relative

after

clause

fronted

is

and adverb

The noun moena 1110inat occurs

above examples.
relative

adjective

by a noun,

or sundor
(60a)

is

lokTa
not

320
fully

acceptable,

Secondary

lies

(i. e. already

duced in

initial

(or

a pronoun

rule
added

for

Chomsky

the

(1972:
has

constituent
or

an S.
inanimate

less

has

been

like

The pronoun
pronoun

tend

which

also

a relative

pronoun

may occur

221)

formulated

in

its

the

same
is

when a new constituent

in

placed

in

front

Indonesian
a sentence,

and could

'their'

in

placed

introduced

a-pronoun

and

sentence

sentences)
has

to

occur

position,

from

which

in

as a rule

constituent

and is

is

which

constituent

When the

shown

-nja

intro-

topic.

topicalization

146)

is

end of the

(1965:

sentence

as

the

non-relative

secondary

within

Hopper

more

in

place.

vacant

former

topicalized

not

topicalization,

or at

to become the
its

is

which

considered

The constituents

position

from

fronted

is

and the

secondary

under

fronted
be
can
is

but

can be considered

topicalization.

be topicalized
in non-

The constituent

a sentence,

as a topic

sentence-stress

secondary

new information

of putting

When a new constituent

a sentence

the

in

present

Topicalization.

Primary

gets

the nature

and Secondary

Primary

(58b))
and becomes topic
and

(58a)

e. g.

in

between

in a sentence.

on a constituent
old

has

Topicalization

The main difference


Topicalization

'beautifult)

the head noun.

been moved from

6.3.7

(sundor

as the adjective

be placed

Indonesian,
before

of

an S.

where

a new

which
in
itself

an inanimate

looks
front
is

of
an

noun.

321
The following

example

the

topicalization

in

daun

pohon

secondary

(62)

a.

pandjang
'The length

The constituents
yield

(62)

the

b.

taken

constituent

'The leaves

itu

dua

(62a)

is

as shown in

to

which

-nJat
(62b).

dua meter

pandjang-nja
tree,

two meters'

can be fronted

inserting

after

of that

show

meter

leaves

in

pandjang

daun pohon itu,

to

Indonesian.

itu

topicalization

(op. cit)

Hopper

from

tree

of that

daun_pohon

secondary

follows

is

length

their

is

two

meters'
occurs

-nja
in

it

as a topic

could

rule
in

marker)

secondary

topicalization,

topicalized

and is

e.. P. a pronoun.
second
are
(63)

sentence

given
a.

both

from

constructed

The topic
for

after

to

which*occurs
to-the

sentence

which

any topic

is

inclvded

topicalization.

Bengali

is

of

not

marker,
in

only

the

examples

topicalization.

uccota

hochche

oi

barir

Janalagulor

length

is

that

house-of

windows

house's

rule

The following

show secondary

of that

Hopper's

According

without

marker

and animate

including

(as a new constituent


a sentence.

pronoun

enclitic

inanimate

the first

'The length
a

singular

be shown easily

inclusion

pronoun

person

As Bengali-has

Indonesian.

pronouns,

third

as the

windows

is

tin

phut

three

feet

three

feet'

oi

barir

Janalagulo,

Jader

uccota

hochche

that

house-of

windows

their

length

is

322
tin

phuT

three

feet

'The windows

of that

length

their

housep

three

is

feet,
b.

b.

map

hochche

oi

meeTar

Jamagulor

collis

inci

length

is

that

girl's

dresses

forty

inches

that

girl's

dress

tThe

length

oi

meeTar Jamagulo,

that

of

dresses

girl's

is

inches'

forty

Jader

map

hochche

collis

their

length

is

forty

their

length

inci
inches
'That
In

(63),

(a)

the

(b)
and

(63a)

(631)
after
and

Jader

'their'

in

windows

of that

dresses

of that

before

Indonesian

The only
sentences

Jader

'their

(which

pronouns,

is

they

between
the

is

difference

equivalent
ucCota

initially

of

show similarities

Bengali

is

to -nja)

structural
in

in

(63a)

and

pronoun

whereas

'the

to

'their'

eniclitic

llengthl,

tthe

meeTar Jamagulo

and oi

as pandjang-nJa,

word before
the

that

in

pronoun

and map, lmeasurel

difference

any

Janalagulo

barir

wher e Jader

'length'

uccota

pandjang

from

(63a)

inanimate

(6315) are fronted

in

girl'

with

Apart

in

houset

occurs

independent

oi

sentences.

topicalization

show secondary

(63bf).
and

the

the

inchest

illustrated

is

topicalization

introducing

forty

is

shown without

are

sentences

Secondary

topicalization.

inserted

dresses,

girl's

in

occurs

-nja
Bengali,
as an

ma tmeasurel.
properties

topicalization.

of the

323
The examples
any relative
it

in

occurs

relative
Otherwise

the

identical

fronting

(64)

for

of the

rule

that

pronoun.

clause

shows
are in

that

constituents

uccota

deher

cho phuT

length

is

that

boy-of-the

body's

six

of that

boy's

body is
uccota

oi

cheleTar

deho,

Jar

that

boy's

body

which-of

phut

ta

bes moJbut

feet

that

quite

is

(64b)

in

The important
unless

the

marker)

impossible

to

house'

(63a)

(64).

So,

topicalization
are

move oi
and oi

any

introduced

the

length

'which'

as a rule
in

or

like
noun
in

of

hochche

chD

is

six

of which

is

six

the

Janalagulo
deher
(63)

and

topicali-

topicalization

pronoun
in

(in

tthe

(64)

show that

the

sentences

(63)

of

unless

& (64)

it

windows

body

impossible

is

sentences,

'the

is

before

introduced

secondary

secondary

introduced
barir

is

relative

cheleTar

examples
of

boy,

rule

is

length

feet'

strong

Jar

enclitic

as L topic

six

feet

strong'

quite
(64a),

'length'

markers

the enclitic

the

cheleTar

topicalizing

zation.

this,

oi

feet,

uccota

pronoun,

examples.

'The body of that

After

introduced,

hochche

IThe length
b.

is

Besides

of the relative

structure

are without

coreferential

of

place

Compare the following


a.

the

sentence.

in

occurs

clause

a relative

the matrix

(63)

shown in

are

sentence

pronoun

(63).

If

clauses.

needs an extra

which

that

is
of

that

that

boy'

secondary
the

topic

as new constituents.

324
6.4

Extraposition

6.4.1

Introductory
Extraposition
from

moves a constituent
leaving

sentence

movement of the
kind

of movement rule,
in

described

the following

mentizers

or relative

mentizers;

and c.

clause-

relative

position,

It

Jespersen
was

to

be followed

an embedded
Rosebaum

included

examples.
included

Emonds

(1976:

later

both

relative
Ross

as the

types

different

used

the

the

term
(1967)

by Rosenbaum

of

end of

the

(1967),

discussed
antecedent

Lakoff
rule
the
of

in

and

sentence.
clauses

(1968)

in

and Emonds

their

function

Extra-

by which

rule

and non-relative

extraposition

119-122)

The

clauses.

a transformational

moved to

Later,

may be used

relative

comple-

with

is

the

sentences

who first

is

clause

(1976)

which

Bengali.

any comple-

without

be on extraposing

Extraposition

others.

with

different

three

with

sentences

sentences

in

known as Extraposition,

is

b.

the

original-position.

section

clauses;

here will

main stress

his

a.

of construction:

after

subject

its

is

litt

sentence,

of the

which

the

moved from

is

from

constituent

the dummy constituent

in

as a subject

which
end of the

to the

position

subject

the dummy position

in

inserted

types

of movement rule

to the end of the

position

subject

is

litt

a kind

e. g. when a constituent

position,

This

is

discussion.
of

a sentence.

'It'#
Higgins

325
(1973)

has criticized

extraposition

some of Emond's principles.


is

expraposition
been criticized

not

Both rules

discussion

(65)

which

with

minor

52-53).

173) which
for

are relevant

IT

Op

1204+3

VP

L--TebilTa

gol

ta

sotti

table-the

round

that

true

'That
ce

the

table

is

round

eTa sottl.

TebilTa

gol

it

true

table-the

round

'It

is

true

that

the

table

is

true?

is

identical

are necessary

(66)

b.

the

the present

-S-Y

NP

has

179) and the


is

which

234
SC:

here,

to Bengali.

X-

rule

There are

by Ross (1967:

modifications

application
SD:

cyclic

maybe given

(1973:

by Higgins

Rosebaum's.

their

of rules

accepted

comment that

a last

(1969:

has been proposed

rule

second rule

for

but

by Jackendoff

two formulations
first

Even Rossts

a cyclic

but

analysis

round'

to

326
d.
VP

NP
I

Comp

Adj

lta
sotti

p0

TebilTa

v
II

Aj

gol

table-the

that

round

true

e.
d,

NP
I

AdJ

s
NP

SOL

VP

TebilTa
zf

Adj
I
gol

true

table-the

round

eTa Insertion:

The noun

eTa sotti.

TebilTa

gol

it

true

table-the

round

'it

is

phrase

occurs

at

the

(66b),

it

is

position

rule

replaces

the

the

true

that

the

TebilTa

complement
beginning

moved to
(66c).

of
the

the

is

gol

end of

the

complement

(66b)

roundt
'the

unextraposed

table

by the

movement

from

and moves it

is

sentence

sentence

The extraposition

noun phrase

embedded sentence

table

in
extra-

rule

the position
to the

round'

of

end of the

327
(66c).

sentence

This

where a location

may be taken

of the noun phrase


to the matrix

an embedded position
trates

the way noun phrase

of the

sentence

On the

other

'the

complement

roundt

is

shown in

in

Bengali

from

(66e)

sentence.

the noun phrase

procedure

has been shifted

the application

after

hand,
is

table

as a syntactic

illus-

moved to the

is

end
rule.

of extraposition
TebilTa

gol

embedded position

in

complement

its

(66d).

6.4.2

Extraposition

Extraposition
rule

which

is

complement

head is

to the noun phrase

applicable

and a head noun.

used before

end of the

the

Extraposition
copying

rule,

both

contain

When extraposition

to the

as it

it

and replaces

examples

of extraposition

is

complement

phrase

complement
it

applied

sentence

sentence.

in

may be regarded

Bengali
the

clause

by eTa 'it'.

which

a.

The following

on copying

rule

will

make this

mzena Je

mouke

bhalobase

ta

niscito

Moina that

Mou-to

loves

that

cer3tal-r,

'That

Moina loves

Mou is

as a

a sentence

clear.
(67)

moves

and a pronoun

complement

copies

contains

transformational

an optional

Noun phrases

construction.

the

is

ceptabx-I

328
b.

It

Je

eTa niscito
it

Cdpt:aj:tL that

'It

is. chtdalim

can be seen from

sentence
loves
final
rule

(which

Mou')

is

is

position

Moina Mou-to

loves

Moina

how the

(67b)

initial

Compare the

(67a)

in

position
to the

owing

complement
'Moina

mouke bhalobase

=ena

underlined:

Mout

loves

the above examples

of extraposition.

(68)

bhalobase

that

moved from
in

mzena mouke

copying

to

or movement

following

sentences.

meizh

dekhe

Je

mour

nace

kotha

moena

cloud

seeing

that

peacock

dances

this

word

Moina

bolechilo
said
'Moina

said

that

the peacock

dances

the

seeing

cloud'
b.

eTa mzena bolechilo


it.

Moina

said

Je

meRh

dekhe

mour

that

cloud

seeing

peacock

nace
dances
Moina

'This
the

(69)

a.

b.

that

said

the

seeing

cloud'

mzena Je

ottonto

klanto

Moina that

very

tired

'Everyone

kn'4
q'Is that

eTa szbai

Jane

it

know that

'This

dances

peacock

all

everyone

Je

knows

ta

sobai

Jane

that

all

know

Moina is

very

tired'

mzena ottonto

klanto

Moina

tired

that

very
Moina

is

very

tiredt

329
The important
the noun phrase

(68)

complement

is

is

complement
the

seeing

length

a full

to the initial

also

of the

given

'The peacock

in

(68).

mour nace

has been shifted

sentence

sentence

dances

a sentence

and eTa 'it'

main sentence

string

examples

contains

The whole

dances'.

in

where the noun phrase

sentence

which

end of the

to the

with

megh dekhe mour nace

cloud',

'The peacock

the

occurs

due to extra-

construction

may be elaborated

position

change which

syntactic

for

is
the

inserted

extraposition

rule.

6.4.3

ftTa - Insertion
We have discussed
is

where the

clause

This

may be called

rule

and when it
('Itt

(70)

a.

in

the

following
Je

dhurto

you

that

cunning

is

I'That
b.

it

pronoun

eTa litt.

('It'

insertion)

may be called
is

inserted

example..

tumi

'It

of extraposition

IeTa - insertion'

The way eTa 'it'

deletion).

is-shown

pattern

by another

replaced

eTa tit',

drops

the

that
that

shameful

1VJJakzr

ta

shameful
you are
is

cunning

you are

shameful']

eTa 1: )JJakor

Je

tumi

dhurto

it

shameful

that

you

cunning

'it

is

shameful

that

cunning'

you are

cunning'

IeTa - deletion'
in

the

clause

330
(70)9,

In

before

the

Bengali.

be put

must
shown

(71)

in

in

Je

lokTa

'It
b.

for

front

of

or

for

that
is

step

needed

replacing

avoid

litt,

eTa

a noun

(70)

from

to

possible

clause

and occurs

position

clear

tumi

after

occurs

a further

but

Ithatl

Je

a pronoun

as

that

is

ta sondehatitbhabe

cor
thief

that

any doubt

without

it

without

'It

is

is

(71a),

in
lokTa

cor

true

any doubt
between

in

whereas
'the

sotto

any doubt

without

placed

that

Je is

placed

true
a thief'

Je

lokTa

cor

that

man-the

thief

the man is

'the

a thief'

man is

the man is

that

lokTa

sotto

any doubt

without

eTa sondehatitbhabe

'that'

where

is

extraposition

(71).

a.

'thief'

the

is

clause

it

in

forward

man-the

je

It.

complement

items

its

changed

in

'that'

Je

(70b).

Sometimes,

some other

litt.

has

in

be noticed

to

eTa

which

'you'

tumi

extraposing
in

of

(70a),

in

is

stop

insertion

and the
'You'

a further

man'

before
occurs

a thieft

and cor
them

in

(71b)

as a complement

sentence.
The transformational
the

shifts
noun

or

position

the

pronoun

rule
'that'

of

Je

in

front

of

structure.
(72)

a.

N (Pron)

Je

=4

Ob

can be shown which

complementizer
it

to

get

after

a complement

the

331
SD:

X-N-

Je -Y

12340b
SC:
(72b)

1324

shows the
both

sentence

trated

the

after

in

can be shown through

(73)

a.

NP in

the

it,

the

after
This

of extraposition.

is

extraposition
the following

base phrase

lokTa

Je

man-the
'That

is

illus-

where the

examplev

marker

to Bengali

applied

is

left

empty.

ta

sondehatitbhabe

thatthief

that

without

the man is

a thief

cor

is

sotto

any doubt

true

true

without

any

sotto

Je

lokTa

cor

true

that

man-the

thief

(lit)

doubt'
b.

the unextraposed

(71).
The way the

subject

in

noun and before

of the rule

application

of Je ?that'

occurrence

eTa sz)ndehatitbhabe
it

without

any

'It

is

without

true

doubt

any

doubt

that

the

man is

thief'
C.

NP
II

VP

Li

A4j 7P

lokTa
'the

man is

cor
a thief

sondehatitbhabe

sotto

is

any doubt'

true

without

332
d.

Extraposition:

After

lokTa

sondehatitbhabe

Je cor

sotto

'is

true

that

without

any doubt
e.

eTa 'it'

the

man is

thieft

addition:

lokTa

eTa sondehatitbhabe

Je cor

sotto
fit

is

true

without

any

doubt

that

the

man is

thief'
f.

Je

'that'

shifting:

VP

NP
I

AdJ-P
Je lokTa

eTa svndehatitbhabe

cor

sotto
The obvious
lies

with

its

problem

correlatives,

for

extraposition

because,

in

every

in

Bengali

complex

333
sentence
in

wi. th any relative

the matrix

exmaples
(74)

in

the matrix

meeTa,

Jej

girl-the

who me

correlative

embedding

of the

occurs

of the

The following

se-ht:ence.

distribution

show'the

a.

to show the

sentence

clasue

relative

the

clause,

correlatives.

amake bhalobase,

se 1 kzleJer

loves

she college-of

chattri
student
who loves

fThe girl,
b.

(Je

JeTa,

kvtha)

II
(which

what

word

bee lae

szhoJ

me

time

easy

not

fWhat

you

are

me, is
tumi

saying

studentf

bolcho,

seTa.,

kaJer

saying

that

working

) you

is

a college

in

practice

not

easy

to

do'
co

bhat

Jokhon,

ami
I

rice

when

khachchilam,

se tzkhon

eating-was

he then

bose
sitting

chilo
was
'He was sitting
d.

ami

J.3todin

as many days

It

is

clear

prithibi

dekhbo

earth

see-will

'I

will
from

see the
the

when I was eating

above

earth

rice?

b'debo,

t-ztodin

survive-will

-,samany

as long

sentences

as I will

(74a-d)

that

1
days

survive'
the

334
correlatives

are

the

clause

is

matrix

sentence,

relative
the

of

place

in

forward

place
to

According

the

must

be dropped

after

inserting

the
(75)

for

quite

the

of

a.

the

following

correlative.

in

many cases
the

correlative,
to

the

speakers.

inserting

after

the

correlative

However,

unintelligible
the

the

eTa - addition,

of

its

with

to

moves

sentence

clause

eTa insertion.

may be shown in
subject

relative

of

When

sentences.

and moved forward

the matrix

eTa in*place

becomes

sentence
This

rule

complex

extraposed

the

of

in

present

always

eTa as

sentence.

eTa koleJer

chattri,

meeTa,

it

student

girl-the

college-of

Je

amake

who me

bhalobase
,

loves
'It
,

b.

is

the

student

a college

who loves

girl

me'

eTa kaJer

beelae

sohoJ

nze,

JeTa

tumi

bolcho

it

working

time

easy

not

what

you

saying

'It

is

do in

practice

not

easy

to

what

you

are

saying'
c.

*eTa
it

tzkhon

bosechilo,

Jakhon

ami

bhat

then

sitting-was

when

rice

khachchilam
eating-was
'It
d.

when I was eating

was sitting

rice'

*eTa

prithibi

dekhbo

J-ztodin

ami

it

earth

see-will

as many days

'It

will

see the

earth

as long

Vacbo

survive-will

as I will

survive'

335
(75a & 75b),

Except

after

sentences
tical

other

if

(7.67) yields

(76)

a.

(75a)
as the

not

are gramma-

occurs

added in

the

(75b).

in

On the

as a subject,

sentence

after

(75a)

in

common noun occurs

sentences

grammatical

ungrammatical

(75b)
and

marker

relative

eTa is

yield

examples

extraposition.

inanimate

hand,

in
shown

other

eTa insertion

after

and the

the

as

extraposition

(76).
kzleJer

se

she college-of

chattri

meeTa,

Je

student

girl-the

who me

amake

bhalobase
loves
IShe is

b.

a college

met

bm lae

sohoJ

noe,

JeTa

tumi

bolcho

that

time

easy

not

what

yoU

saying

working
is

not

to

easy

se tzkhon

bose

he then

sitting-was

do what

chilo,

yoi;

Jakhon

are

ami

when

when I was eating

'He was sitting

a.

who loves

girl

seTa kaJer

'That
C.

the

student

saying'

bhat

khachchilam

rice

eating

ricef

tvtodin'

prithibi

dekhbo,

J)todin

ami

so many days

earth

see-will

as many days

b'acbo

survive-will
'So many days I will
will
VI

see the

earth

as long

as I

survive?
shall

surviveI3

see the

earth

for

I
days
as
as many

336
It
reduces

the

(1974:

772)

may be said

have

also

position
definite

determiner.

Bengali,

in

occurs

initially

a.

Je

who yesterday
se

played

she just

eimattro

left

Just

is

girl

the

not

or

case

for

indefinite,

77).

bissobiddal-'e

Te"."nis

University-to

tennis

cole

gm lo

now left
who played

ei

mattro

cole

just

now

left

bissobiddaloe

Te-'.nis

khelechilo

University-at

tennis

played

'A

girl
the

tennis

yesterday

at

left

just

oi
that

girl-the

who played

ei

mattro

Just

cole

Je

gztokal

who

yesterday

tennis

Te'--7nis khelechilo
I-

University-at

tennis

girl

just

the University'

left

gm lo,

now left

bissobiddaloe

'That

geslo,

yesterday

University'

meeTa

at

initial

University'

ae kTa mee

at

extra-

with

definite

gotokal

khelechilo

that

applied

(cf.

and Cole

Ziv

Hebrew

this

sentence

any

girl

'A girl

ce

if

any determiner,

Ee kTa mee,
a

b.

for

mentioned

However,

in

eTa-insertion

sentences.

grammaticality

which

the

sometimes

of

grammaticality

reduces

(77)

that

Je

g-Dtokal

who yesterday.

played
who played

tennis

yesterday

337
d.

sei

meeTa

ei

that

girl-the

just

khelechilo

University-at

tennis

played

girl

the

meeTa

ei

this

girl-the

just

girl

the

'this'

are

easier

occurring

extrapose
it
the

to

the

following

any

EekTa 'a/onet,
shown in

clause

yesterday

in

extrapose
the

above examples

the

sentence

examples

it

case

relative

clause

is

after
show

and extraposition

end of the

in

in

possible
of

a clause

relative

sei

sentence.

Clauses
is

the

'that',

oi

The above examples

to the

extraposition

before

end of

the

clauses.

of Relative

Bengali,
to

tennis

who played

can be used initially

Extraposition

head

like

the relative

Though

left

University'

can move the relative

becomes

just

gztokal

who yesterday

played

in

yesterday

Je

left

tennis

determiners

sentences

now

University-at

any determiners

6.4.4

tennis

gm lo,

cole

khelechilo

extraposing
that

mattro

Te:7nis

and ei

who yesterday

who played

bissobiddaloe

at

gotokal

University'

ei

'This

'that'

left

just

Je

gaelo,

left

now

Te,nis

at

Different

cole

bissobiddalze

'That

e.

mattro

a relative
which

that

its

it

a head,

It

is

head

shown how a relative

this

easy

and to

position

away from

of

clause,

has

pronoun.

kinds

all

to

move

noun.
clause

In
is

338

(78)

when it

extraposed

easily
a.

oi

lokTa,

that

man-the

Je

with

occurs

its

bhai,

mitar

se,

brother

who Mitals

head.
boi

a3khon

book

he now

porche
reading
man who is

tThat
a book
b.

the

brother

of

Mita,

is

reading

nowt

oi

lokTa

ea khon

boi

porche,

Je mitar

that

man-the

now

book

reading

who Mitats

bhai
brother*
man is

'That

a book

reading

the

who is

brother.

of

Mital,
(79)

lokTa,

Je

that

man-the

who Dacca

bhat

khachche

rice

eating

oi

a.

man who has

'That

Dhaka

theke
from

come from

eseche,

sel

ea khon

come-has

he

now

Dacca

is

eating

rice

Dhaka

theke

now,
b.

oi

lokTa

that

man-the

ea khon
now

bhat

khachche,

Je

rice

eating

who Dacca

from

eseche
come-has
'That
Dacca'

man is

now eating

rice

who has

come from

339
(80)

a.

oi

lokTa,

Je

that

man-the

who red

suit

wearing

loitering
asbe

he afternoon-in

our

house

come-will

'That

loitering

man who is

lokTa
lal

'That

house

our

who red

in

suit

wearing

loitering

of shifted

relative

position

the verbless

relative

clause.

'being'

is

in

of relative

clause

in

the

afternoon

suit'

in

clause

clause-final

optional

our' house

a red

(78)
and

verb

asbe,

ghurebEe rachche

in

will

barite

pore

come to

suit

afternoon'

suT

loitering

combination

a red

amader

of the relative

The shifting

in

the

bikele

man will

who is

(79)

(80)
and
plus

clause

As the

with

the

extradoes not

a verb

or without

of

of a

occurrence

sentences,

in

verb

shows the extraposition

Bengali

shows

any problem.

create

Extraposition
headed and headless
the

in

difference

of relative
relative

syntactic

against

without

any head noun.

a.

order

relative

Compare the

ami

Jantam

Je

knew

who playing

'I

knew that

of

khelche,

who is

There

is

not

much

the headed relative


clauses,
following

se ekTu
he little

playing

to

applicable

clausesis

clauses.

the headless

clauses

(81)

ghure

barite

oi

position

pore

amader

Je

that

bee rachche,

suT

se bikele

come to
b.

lal

will

which

occur

examples.
pzrei
after

cole

Jabe

go-will

go a little

after'

540
b.

ami Jantam

se ekTu

pore

cole

he little

after

go-will

'I

knew
knew that

a.

s; )bai

Jane

all

know who

'All
b.

The above

sobai

Jane

all

know he

playing'

(81)

any head

nouns.

if

of

the

to

extrapose

is

opposite

a.

tini

cole

came

he

left-has

cole
left-has
he has

relative

sentencep
the
its

(82)

is

a time

relative

This

is

the

in

Jini

in

If

esechilen,

left-has
has

we want
be the

following

the

who came

morning

clause

unextraposed

gee chen

'Who came yesterday

is

without

will

meaning
e. g.

may be shown

morning-in-the

'who

initial

the

allowed.

not

structure,

yesterday

-(lit)

occur

came'

in

phrase

szkale

came

on extraposition

clause

former

who

Je khelche

'who

one restriction

esechilen

shown as headless

are

esechilen

Jini

who came'

clauses

kal

cole

left

geechen

left'

gee chen,

extraposition

clause.

relative
(83)

there

from

who is

after

esechilen,

and

and Jini

There
Bengali:

tini

(81)

the

where

khelche

who playing

go a little

who came has

know that

examples

relatives

Jini

know that

'All

Je

(lit)

playing'
(82)

he will

Jabe

leftl

example.
tini
he

341
b.

*kal
yesterday

szkale

tini

cole

morning-in-the

he.

left-has

'Who came has


Je

'who'

(83)

in

any antecedent
that

the

the

of

has

person

left

(83b)

becomes

(83a).

before

relative

clause,

different

after
the

indicates

a relative

it

clause

indicate

'place'

or

'reason'

allow

relative

clauses

to

be extraposed.

(83)

can also

the

affect

the

correlative

up of

splitting
the

or

on the

to

clause

relative

the

meaning

the

end of

relative
of

the

the

something

extra-

distribution

element
meaning

like

this
like

the

After

moving

the

sentence,

which

of

pronouns

of

element.
the

of
to

Sentences

pronouns

and correlative
sentence

but

initial

other

be explained

related

However,

which

pronoun-and

not

the

be extraposed.

means

structure

and conveys

it

relative

the

sentence

if

'time',

cannot

came

twho came has

means

and is

that

it

morning,

applying

(83a)

from

ilho

without

(83a),

In

clause

relative

(83)

deictic

who came yesterday

So,

Sentence

occur;

left

esec;-Avn

morning'

clause.

morning'.
the

to

position

relative

the

yesterday

yesterday

as an indefinite

occurs

extraposing

after

left

Jini

gm chen,

contains

may

a time

phrase.

6.4.5

Non-restrictive
Ziv

mentioned
positive

in

Relative

(1974)
Cole
and
I
their-discussion*that

relative

clauses

Clauses
as well

cannot

cannot

be Extraposed

as Emonds (1979)

non restrictive
be extraposed.

have

or apThe main

342
for

reason

movement

this
rule,

clauses.

the

tive

relative
a clause

sentence

and the

meaning.

(84)

bh: )ddrolok,

Jini

moved to

is

esechen

house-to

come-has

non-restricthe

the

moved to

clause

ante-

the

end of

the

place

of

a different

conveys

(84).

teacher

our

barite

'The gentleman,

the

amader sikkhok,

who

gentleman

and the

as a non-restrictive

is

relative

may be shown in

This

a.

the

is

clause

comma after

qualify

sentence

relative

a sentence

for

any

clause

matrix.

clause,

relative

to

the

relative

possible

not

unable

clause.

the

as without

clauses

When a relative

the

is

of

clauses

between

which

is

nature

relative

non-restrictive

relative

restrictive

sentence,

cedent

for

NP is

from

as extraposition

appositive

a comma in

made without
matrix

that

extraposition

clauses-damages
In

is

view

tini

amader

he

our

our teacher,

who is

has come to

our house'
b.

bh: )d"drolok
gentleman

amader

barite

esechen,

Jini

amader

our

house-to

come-has

who

our

sikkhok
teacher
fThe

gentleman

has

come to

our

house

who is

our

teacher'
In

(84a),

relative

Jini
clause

amader

sikkhok

'who

which

modifies

the

is

our

teacher'

antecedent

is

bhDddrolok

the

343
'gentleman'.
of

the

barite
of

the

After

sentence
esechen

'he

and

the

becomes

sentences

its

due to

in

move the

in

meaning

may be shown

place

modifies

the

extraposing
the

non-identical.

the

at

in

clause

way to

antecedent

This

also

end

amader

occurs

non-restrictive

one possible

(84b).

So,

'gentleman'.

difference

the

avoid

(84a)

is
with

along

clause

two

there

However,

to

the

of

house'

and which

clause

tini

sentence

our

the

to

clause

matrix

come to

in

clause

relative

the

relative

relative

meaning

has

bh:Dddrolok

antecedent
the

(84b),

in

original

the

moving

end of

two

in

the

relative
the

sentence
like

sentences
following

examples.

(84") a.

b.

bhzddrolok,

Jini

amader sikkhok,

gentleman

who

our

barite

esechen

house-to

come-has

tini

amader

barite

he

our

house-to

amader

sikkhok

our

teacher

'He has

the relative

in
shown
as
remains

clause

(84'b),

unchanged

non-restrictive

he

our

Jini

bhvddrolok,

esechen,

our

amader

gentleman

come-has

house

the

gentleman,

who

who is

teacher'

our

If

come to

teacher

tini

the
even

sentence

is

moved along
of

meaning
after

moving

due to

with

both
the

its

antecedent
(84a-b),

sentences
relative

extraposition

clause
rule.

of

the

344
6.4.6

Extraposition
There

in

of PP and NP

extraposing

the

one is

called

first

(1976:

156).

English

by Culicover
Bengali

position
to

the

PP contained
PP in

of

show the

movement

Extraposition

(85)

A girl
A girl

b.

of

in

Bengali,

paral-led

in

of

this

cases,

Extraposition

whole

relative

clause

(85a)

it.

(85b,

the

shows
c)

is

and not
extrafor

containing

clause

whole

in
Bengali

the

given

a NP.

form

such

Dacca
in

Je

the

Dhaka

who Dacca

class.

rom

Dacca.

eseche,

from

come-has

with

brought-has

her'

class

the

theke

thinp

who has

in

enrolled

eneche

with

for

clause),

so5ge

things

Culicover

relative

Jinis

'A girl

in

PP as illustrated

modifiers

and

enrolled

girl

second

Bengali
a PP.

of PP

from

a-. kTa mee,


a

in

English

6.4.6.1
a.

the

PP and the

to

In

of

The

a PP as a modifier

opposed,

clause.

can be applied

sentence.

out

precisely

has

(as

moving

of

allow

not

structure

the

simply

not

optionally

a relative

involves

is

of

NP as pointed

of

does

the

end of

The Extraposition

Where English

uses

the

that

Extraposition

the

Extraposition

surface

transformations

NPs to

one the

since

two

are

come from

Dacca

has

se Onek
she many

brought

many

345
ce

as kTa mee

znek Jinis

so5ge

girl

many things

with

theke

eseche

from

come-has

'A girl

has brought

come from
In

the

examples

PP, the
relative
of

the

correlative

in

the

relative

relative

are

to
is

pronoun
the

clause

There

many things

given

her

with

2.1.2).

are

three

deleted

who has

All

after

as the

matrix

possible

shown below.

Extraposition

these

the

The deletion
antecedent

sentence

ways

of

shifting

sentence.

possible

and the

(cf.

show the

the

end of

became

clause

NP which

is

coreferential
to

who Dacca

come-has

Dacca'

which

clause

Je Dhaka

eneche,

occurs

extraposing

of

are

rules

the

precedes

an

mentioned

in

(1967).

Ross

6.4.6.2

Extrposition

(86)

Es kTa mee,

a.

10

a,

bhalo,

who is

good

quite

nie

se mukto

brought

she pearl
has

good,

eseche

brought

has

pearls

her'

eekTa mee

mukto nie

pearl

girl

'A girl
b.

Je bes

NP

who quite

girl

IA girl,
with

from

brought

has brought

oi

horinTa.

Je

that

deer

which

eseche,

Je

has

who quite

who is

pearls
doure

palachche,

running

away

bes

quite

bhalo
good

good'

se boner
it

forest-of

346
,moddhe thake
in

stay

'The deer which

is

rlinning

in

away stays

the

forest'
.0

b.

oi

horinTa

boner

moddhe

thake,

Je

that

deer-the

forest-of

in

stay

which

doure

palachche
running
fThe

away

deer

in

stays

the

forest

is

which

running

away I

6.4.6.3
(87)

Complex NP Shift

a.

lokTa

bari

se,

Je

he

who man-the

kinechilo,

house bought

'He, the man who bought


,0

Je

he him

knew

who man-the

fHe kn6w him,


b.

se

Taka

dhar

she money loan


tar

kach

theke

her

near

from.

will

ask

'She

the

lokTa

man who

caibe

knew
(lit)

bought

house
bought

meeTa,

ask-will

him

kinechilo

bari

cinto,

cinto

knew him'

a house,

se take

take

a housef
tar

'Je

bandhobi,

who her

girl-the

friend

for

a loan

from

the

dhar

caibe,

meeTa,

ask-will

girl-the

girl

who is

friend'
b.

tar

kach

theke

Taka

she her

near

from

money loan

se

her

347
Je

bandhobi

tar

who her friend


the

from

loan

ask for

tShe will

her

who is

girl

friend'

from

Extraposition
(88)

a.

cheleTa,

Je

boy-the

who exam-in

Subject

Sentential

porikkhate

bhalo

korbe,

- se-amar

well

do-will

he my

bondhu
friend
boy,

tThe

in

do well

who will

his

is

examinati6n,

my friendt
1*

a.,

se amar*bondhu,
friend

he my

cheleTa,

Je

boy-the

who exam-in

bhalo

porikkhate

well

korbe
do-will
'He is
his

b.

the

my friend

boy,

in

do well

who will

examination'

TuTu Je

mouer

sari

pherot

dee eni,

eTa amader

Tutu

that

Mouts

sari

return

gave-not

it

khub

kharap

legechilo

very

bad

felt

tWe felt

very

bad that

Tutu

did

not

our

return

Mouls

sari'

"b.

eTa amader
it

our

khub

kharap

legechilo

Je,

TuTu mouer

very

bad

felt

that

Tutu

Mou's

348
sari

pherot

dm eni

sari

return

gave-not

'It

gave us very
Mou's

return
Extraposition
relative
Sok
in

'man'
(87a),

nouns

thousel

whereas,

mee 'girl'

will

do well

sari

pherot

in

the

deseni

as the

complement

sentence.

for

applicable

to

(89)

the

did

types

Rule

NP -Y

32

korbe

modify

two

The
?the

boy

and TuTu mouer


Mou's
the

sarif
entire

matrix
in

as a complementizer

of

rules

extraposition

Op

for

Extraposition

(88b)

in

the

can be
which

Bengali.

Transformational

23

b halo

return

same clause
are

(87b).

transformational

three

the

'money'

(88a)

phrase.

a noun

in

in
not

in

in

nouns

phrase

fthatf

Je

shows

The following
formulated

not

the

where

nouns

and Taka

NP as they

sentential

sentence.

two

are

examinationf
'Tutu

(88b)

two

porikkhate

cheleTa

in*(87),

shown

with

the noun

constitute

clause

is

composed

and bari

which

relative

occur

is

Tutu did

that

sari'

Complex-NP

of
clause

bad feeling

from

NP:

are

349
(90)

NP

-S-Y

124

Op

=4

(91)

Complex-NP Shift:

Rule for

Transformational

3
of Sentential

Extraposition

Rule for

Transformational
Subject:
NP

X-S-

-Y
op

1234
24

1 eTa+3

The working
three

(92)

of

varieties

amader

debe,

us

give-will

your

is

not

of

shown as the

the

following:

boigulo

used

books

mitthe
3
that
untrue

that

you

not

n2e
not
us your

give

will

used

(lit)

untrue'

untrue

that

you

will

give

us

books']

amader dabi
132

our

your

bEe borhito

ta

demand is
used

tomar

that

demand is

books

SC:

Je

amader
12
demand
our

J'Our

is

rules

from NP
dabi

'Our

transformational

extraposition

Extraposition
SD:

of

demand

mitthe

n-3e

Je

tomar

beeborhito

untrue

not

that

your

used

boigulo

amader

debe

books

us

give-will

'Our

demand is

not

untrue

that

you

will

give

us

350
your

used books'

123
(93)

Complex-NP Shift

from

Extraposition
SD:

132

=1

se mach kinlo
T_
23

bought

he fish
korte

esechilo,

doing

came

Je

man-the

who house-to

fish

sell

kach theke
4
him near from
tar

fish

'He bought

mach bikkri

barite

lokTa,

from

the

man who came to sell

it

to the house'
SC:

kach

theke

mach kinlo

near

from

fish

mach bikkri

korte

esechilo

fish

doing

came

se tar
142--3
he him

sell

lokTal

bought.

Je

barite

man-the

who house-to

bhalo

korbe,

se amar

well

do-will

he my

123.4
(94)

Extraposition

of Sentential

SD:

cheleTa,

Je

boy-the

who exam-in

Subject

porikkhate

bondhu
friend
'The

boy,

who will

do well

in

his

examination,

my friend'

SC:

bondhu
+
cheleTa,
amar
eTa
it

my

friend

boy-the

korbe
do-will
2

eTa +21

Je

porikkhate

who exam-in

bhalo
well

is

351
6.4.7

Extraposition

Rules

The examples
trate

the

clearly

movement
subject

rule

the

sentence

a simple

the

end of

Keyser

following

is

in

detached
this

The rule

created.

and Postal

the

Due to

sentence.
is

is

it

where

more

a simple

initially

from

a new node

clause

To make this

occurs

the

illus-

so far

given

extraposition

of

the

below,

stated

that
clause

at

been

extraposition.

the

and re-attached
of

of

where

position

movement

role

can be said

it

explicit,

have

which

(1976:

233)

is
with

modification.

(95)

The following

show the

will

example

operation

of

the

phrase

structure

rule.

(96)

tumi,

Je

bolechile

aJ

skule

Jabe

na,

you

that

said

today

school-to

go-will

not

ta

amar bhalo

lageni.

that

my

feel-not

a.

'I

did

wontt

not

good
feel

be going

it

good

to

school

what

you

todayt

said

that

you

352
.

tumi

NP
IIIII

NP

NP

-Adj

-V

b2-

ta

amar

bhalo

lageni

Je bolechile
Jabe

aJ skule
'You

na

that

said

my good

feel

not'

to

be going

wontt

that

you

today

school
C.

NP

II
eTa

amar bhalo

I did

fit

feel

not

lageni

good

bolechile

tumi

aJ skule

Jabe na

you

that

said

school

Bengali

can

final

the

contain

string

The occurrence
string
these
to

the

matrix

any

adjective

verb,

noun,

string

noun,

grammatical
of

sentence

categories
the

matrix

forward

after

adjective
the

that

indicates

place

a. sentence

to

clause

applying

and adverb

extraposition.
in

the

can be constructed

sentence
place

after
of

the

can be moved to

initial
with

'be
moved
can

as constituents

the

in
like

categories
and they

to

today'

a complex-sentence

grammatical

and adverb

of
of

of

you

be going

won't

The initial

Je

pushing
the

clause.

the
The

353

is

shown in

(97)

a.

.0

different

of

occurrence

the

following

Je

Thik

ete

you

that

right

that-in

'There

is

ete

kono

is

the

clause

no doubt

kono sandeho nei

s: )ndeho

no doubt

any doubt

that

any doubt

'There

in

categories

examples.

tumi

that-in

b.

grammatical

not

you are right?

nei

Je

tumi

Thik

not

that

you

right

that

you

are

right'

tar

beebohar

khub

marJito,

nze

ta

his

behaviour

very

sophisticated

not

that

not

very

dukkhoJznok
sad
'It

is

sad that

his

behaviour

is

sophisticated'
Jf

b.

eTa dukkhoJ-Dnok

Je

tar

beebohar

khub

marJito

it

that

his

behaviour

very

sophisti-

sad
nze

cated
fIt

not
is

sad that

his

behaviour

is

not

very

sophisticated'
ce

tader

barite

kvkhon

mita

esechilo

ta

amar

their

house-to

when

Mita

came

that

mine

mone

nei

mind-in

not

'I

cannot

remember

when Mita

went

to

their

house?

354
I
C.

eTa

it

amar

mone

mine mind-in

nei

tader

barite

kokhon

mita

not

their

house-to

when

Mita

esechilo
came
tIt

I cannot

went to their

(lit)

houset
d.

remember when Mita

bondhur

dol

Je

sukher

paera

ta

sobai

friends

group

that

happiness

pigeon

that

all

Jane
know
'All

know that

friends

are

the

pigeons

of

happi-

ness'
.1

d.

eTa sobai

Jane Je

bondhur

dil

sukher

it

know that

friends

group

happiness

all

paera
pigeon
tIt

is

known to all

that

friends

are

the pigeons

of happinesst
eTa-insertion
where
the

the

first

is
second
sentence

shown in

all

the

sentence

has

moved initially

in

its

place.

examples

except
after

for

(97a),
shifting

355
6.4.8

Condition

onExtraposition

Extraposition
is

clause

embedded in
tion

it

initial

rule

it

moves constituent

in

medial

When the
if

when a relative

only

relative
is

either

in

is

Bengali.

The following

example

instance

where the relative

from

final'position

extraposition

of the antecedent

of the relative
clause

occurs

posi-

as extra-

shows that

shifting

is

clause

moved fro. m its

or clause

to the

positions

but

positions,

be a case of extraposition,

not

This

movement rule

or

position,

or medial

sentence.

Possible

initial

position.

final

would

position

in

embedded

final

in

never

is

the
the

a right-

clause
after

shows the
in

an

the

antecedent.
(98)

a.

bhzddrolok,

Jini

namkora

sahittik,

tini

boi

gentleman

who

famous

writer

he

book

porchen
reading
'The gentleman,

a famous writer,

is

a book'

reading
b.

who is

tini

namkzra

sahittik

Jini

boi

he

famous

writer

who

book reading

porchen

sei
that

bhoddrolok
gentleman

'He is
that
['He

a famous writer,

gentleman'
is

reading

reading

a book,

(lit)

a famous writer
a book']

who is

the

gentleman,

who is

356
Instead

of

the

moving

of

the

relative

to

the

end of

whole

sentence

Extraposition
are
they

generated
move out

they

move out

they

are

eTa

litt

insertion,

the

head

noun.

eTa is

in

inserted

sentence
Postponed

which

' eTa takes


Thus

Subject

(Quirk

et

head

that

the

1979:

sentences
When

noun

and after

position

of

two

may contain

of
al,

the

underlying

in

moved

NP position.

from

sentence,

moved rightward

when embedded
their

the

a sentence

the

that

is

extraposition.

applying

from

detached

antecedent

tgentleman')

after

shows

the

clausep

(bhoddrolok

clause
the

relative

sense

sentence
963).

subjects
the

if

embedded

may-be

called

357
6.5

Intraposition
Emonds (1979)
to extraposition,

approach

as the

show the derivation

examples

and intraposition.

of extraposition
dupure

a.

an alternative

he describes

which

The following

'Intraposition'.

(99)

has proposed

surJer

np_pn-at sun-of
'It

true

is

tap

Je

bhDabDho ta

heat

that

awful

that

of

sun at noon is

that

the heat

Thik
true

awful'
Thik
eTa

b.

co

it

true

'It

is

dupure
noon-at
'It

Je

dupure

that

noon-at-sun-of

true

is

that

surJer

heat

of

tap

bhDabDho

heat

awful

sun at

is

noon

awful'

surJer

tap

Je

Thik
bh-,,
)ho
eTa
)ab:

sun-of

heat

that

awful

true

that

the

heat

sun at

of

true

it

noon

is

awful?
The examples

the

(99a);

in

sentence
in

which

(99c).

sense,

derive
derives
applicable
following.

from

each

from

the

to
It

the

(99c)
is

is

extraposed

mutually

be, mentioned

and intraposition
from

(99c),

(99b).

from

In

as they

exclusive
An intraposition
The rule

structure.

transformation

neutral

derived

derived

structure.

other's

should

is

sentence

structure

69b)

in

extraposition

structure
their

above

given

The extraposed

intraposed

this

are

show the

may be stated
here

that

which
as the

the

position

is

558;
of

the

(99b)

seen
(100)

its

shows

and intraposition

extraposition
in

'that'

Je

complementizer

for

movement

structure

can be

which

(99c).

and

Intraposition
SD: [eTa

Rule
Ldupure

Thikl[Jel

surJer

tap][bh,,

sun-of

heat

between

the

)abDho]

1234
it

SC:
(100)

is

are

b,

each

structure
c)

initial

the

their

to

opposite

part

end of

have
the

sense

They

therefore
rule

here.

the

moved forward
respect

'
same

both

have

the

can be seen

from

the

other.
which

due to

constituents
this

two

the

examples

previously.

given

that

awful

extraposed

sentence

In

positions.

the

of

the

other

The intraposition
the

noon-at

difference

and the

rule,

changing

underlying

basic

the

that

intraposition
without

the

moved to

is

sentence

that

32

that

shows

structures

true

it
not

has not
tried

analysis
yet
to

been

still

immature

developed

by others.

is

make an exhaustive

analysis

in
We
of

CHAPTER SEVEN

Focus

7.0

Introductory
In

focus,

matrix

in

following

main

is

shifted

However,

more

deals
is

emphasis

clause

clause

with
given

the

in

meaning

on focus

the

of

than

and

a clause

included

also

is

the

or

new information
is

made of

When focus

relative
the

of

Presupposition

former

as the

emphasis

and gives

a sentence.

focus,

in

is

study

constructions.

constituents
the

sentence,

a brief

section

and pseudo-cleft

on the

sentence
or

the

cleft

assigned
in

and Clefting

with
sentence.

presuppo-

sition.

important

Cleft

and pseudo-cleft

roles

in

sentence

and they

position

of

difference

eTa

honorific

in

it
the

is

in

in

following:

section

examples.

359

English,

the

a cleft

it

Hume.
with

All

of
in
the

following

show difficulties

is

subject

my father,

these

rules

in

sentence,

eTa as the

allow

kinds

involved

than

clauses

subject

do not

various

becomes

described

Professor

following

and pseudo-cleft

structure

relative

the

like

cleft
with

The extra-

after

sentence

also

in

constituents
focus.

described

as the

fit'
nouns

sentence

my teacher,
shown

is

which

The Bengali

inserting

cleft

is

different

shows
of

section.

the

Bengali

it

clefting,

in

clauses

When a Bengali

clefting.

different

described

are

relative

in

sentences

focusing

play

constructions

as
of
it

features

and explanatory

a
was
are

360
Focus

7.1

Focus

7.1.1

and Presupposition

In recent
Presupposition

clauses.

sophical

concept

many linguists

in

a sentence,

focus

the

regarding

is

which

is

meaning

deal

focus

is

of a sentence.

More priority

presupposition,

and the latter

it

becomes relevant

it

gives
taken

new information,

as information

will

sition
So, it

be
said
may

applied

if

presupposition.
already

in

it

is

that

assumed and focus

gives

than

to

only

when

the

it

can be

assumptions

to focus.
it

in

identical

presupposition

a sentence

Presupposition

the meaning

to any sentence,

establishes

contrast

analysed

in

of focus.

assigned

from

scope of

to discuss

to focus

are not

to a sentence,

is

is

be included

whereas,

which

an utterance

underlie

meaning,

is

the

directing

to the analysis

When focus

status.

As both

importance

given

Focus and presupposition


their.

new information

with

in

importance

show its

and to

directly

by

in a

meaning.

Our main intention

and syntax.

semantics

a philo-

Linguistics

for

applied

of

analysis

of meaning

have equal

they

a sentence,

in

involved*in

directly

and presupposition
in

concept

also

the

more or less

is

has been applied

which

Focus and

in

emphasis

Presupposition

Focus,

sentence.

studies

have received

relative

Linguistics,

in

contains
standpoint

provides

When presuppoits

affects

which

meaning.

a two-fold
of focus

the meaning

the new information

of

and

361
meaning.
(1979)

(1967,1968),

Halliday

(1979)

and Akmajian
focus

between

standpoints

distinctions
to

given

between

which

them.

from

are very

philosophical

between

are used in

in making

useful

The following

show the distinction

and the way they

sition

both

Lyons
distinction

have made an explicit

and presupposition

and linguistic

(1973),

Schachter

example

focus

can be

and presuppoto convey

a sentence

meaning.
ko ki?

what
a k? l

'What is

kz

that

is

the

-the

sentence.

above

a speaker

So the

etc.

a sari,

if

the

identity

sentence,

like
is

presupposition

Alternatively,
then

and a hearer

may be something

which

an object,

a picture,
in

that

illustrates

Sentence'(1)

focus
of

is

assume

a book,
present
to

assigned

kD will

be as the

following:
(2)

k; )

hochche

Ee kTa

gzlper'

b6i

is

story-of

book

IK is

is

The focus
after

giving

which

id

this

way:

focus

assigned

to

the

stress

assigned

The following
both

book'

a story

'What

main

gZlper
to
boi

by gDlper
is

K? I,

examples

but

are

and presupposition.

not

given

boi
it.

'story

book'

in

The new information

can be interpreted
as

(2)

'What

where

is

only

a story

a sentence

in

book? t

contains

362
boiTa

a.

Je

book-the

b.

that

chilo

na

was

not

'I

did

not

mzenar

the

Jini

rugi

dekhte

esechilen

patient

see-to

came

to

father,

who is

examine

a patient'

the way focus


both

in

it

and after

-somewhere,

is

the

inclusion
book

the

one presupposes

that

who came to

that
to

and

'he
the

where

answer

focus
it

plays
assigns

transferred
where

the

from

'He is

be shown in

the

he

our

house-to

our

have

the book was


it

gives

the

table.

In

(3b),

house

was the

been

provided

by focus

the

'

the

a physician'.
role

in

gives

easily

examples.

father

answer

father

of

Moina?

Sop it

is

clear

relative

clauses

Even focus
to

our

One can presuppose

focus

Who is

is

came to

focus

has

one constituent

following

barite

of

new information.

new information

amader

was on the

a distinctive

know

tini

(3).

So that

question:
is

my

known that

new information

a physician'.

underlying

and the
that

is

the

that

a physician,

already

that

Moina,

was

book was on the table'

in

new information

of

amar Jana

and presupposition

sentences

the way that

ta

Daktar,

who doctor

been included
in

know that

father

can be noticed

(3a)

on

Moinals

house

chilo,

opore

table's

abba,

IMoinats

It

Tbbiler

another

can be
constituent,

transferable.

This

may

363
a.

lokTa

Je

man-the
'That
b.

likheche.,

man-the

which

story

written-has

the

ta

bes

bhalo

that

quite

good

the man has written

story

golpo

.y
the
stor

man has

is

quite

good'

ta

bes

bhalo

that

quite

good

is

written

quite

good'

lokTa

Je

gzlpo

likheche,

ta

bes

bhalo

man-the

which

story

written-has

that

quite

good

the

the

story

man has

mzena mouke

Je

phrDkTa

Moina

which

frock

Mou-to
frock

Moina

that,

frock

that

is

written
diechilo,

quite

ta

good'

;)purbo

that
gave
excellent
.
gave to Mou was excellent'

mDena m1buke Je phr2kTa


'The

C.

written-has

Je

'The
b.

story

lokTa

'That

a.

which

the

'That
es

g-31po likheche,

ta

diechilo,

Moina

gave

mzena mouke Je phizkTa

Opurbo

Mou was excellent?

to

ta

diechilo,

Dpurbo

frock-the
'The

d.

=)ena

frock

that

Moina

mouke Je phrokTa

gave

Mou was

to

excellent'

ta"-opurbo

diechilo,

excellent

'The frock

(4a) illustrates
'quite',
that

that

that

after

Moina gave to Mou was excellent'

focusing

on the constituent

the meaning of the sentence becomes that

was written

verb likheche

by the man was not bad.


'has written'

sentence becomes different

in

(4b),

from (4a).

After

bes

the story
focusing-on

the meaning of the


(4b) illustrates

that

364the

(4b)
wrote

in

its

the

illustrate

also

to

one constituent

following

the

of

meaning

(4),

that
another

sentence

is

(4a)

and

the

man

that

are

which

sentences

transferring

focus

of

interchanges

constituent

which

focusing

from

(4c)

of

Like

a poem.

After

it..

read

difference

The meaning

not

(5)

not

its

shows

meaning.

a story,

shown in
from

(4c)

?story?,

on gDlpo

and did

a story,

man wrote

may be assigned

the

in

manner:

J.

(5)

a.

to

d.

Mou,

that

distinguish
constituent,
appropriate

who gave an excel-

was M6ina.
gave

frock

an excellent

she was Mou,


Moina

on frock:

Focus

is

on

frock

to

Mou,

(5c)
of

person

gave

Mou,

to

something

was a frock.

that

meaning

is

Moina

on M3u:

a girl,

Focus

co

However,

is

Focus

b.

to Mou, that

frock

lent

the

on M'O'ina:

Focus is

and

the

; )purbo

(5d)

that

was an zpurbo
way focus

an intonation
point

in

was

the

will

be:

phr2k

'an

is

utterance

gave

to

of

to

something

frock'.

excellent

(,,,

and the

together

Moina

assigned

contour

gave

purbo-

can be conjoined

utterance

the

Moina

'excellent':

To

a sentence

sign)

is

a sentence.

used

at

the

365
The Meaning

7.1.2

A sentence
before

and after

1967:

204);

the

may be neutral

or

application

focus

this

Je

123).

in

complex
in

meaning
(Halliday,

it

The following

boi

mee, se

examples

kinechilo

she book bought

whose name was Mou bought

m'O'u name Je mee,

b.

Focusing

and after

point.

Mou named who girl


'The girl

of

1973:

clarify

mou name

a.

before

TakiTala,

to

given

are

a Sentence:.

of

se boi

books'

kinechilo

Mou

mou name Je mee,

C*

se bZoi kinechilo

book
No focus

is

assigned

statement,

while

b'oi

in

in

'book'

a sentence,

("less

(6c).

focus,

the

after

focus

and in

simple

and regular

feature

a.

is

on mou and on
is

focus

turn

of

This
sentence.
the

assigned

not

less
and

complicated
After

is

a sentence

when a simple

and a matrix

(7)

of

on new information.

clause

following

neutral

a neutral

embodies

presuppositions").

meaning

relative

the

is

it

(6b)
if

seems that

"fewer

standpoint
applying

assigned

in

meaning

the

emphasis

another

so that

It

complicated"

assigning
to

focus

the

(6a),

in

shifted

can be shown
becomes

new sentence

sentence.

This

Bengali

sentences.

is

lekha

es kTa boi

Mou Jasimuddin-of

written

from

complex
becomes

a very
Compare

examples.

mou Josimuddiner

owing

porche

book reading

366
'Mou is
b.

by Jasimuddin'

a book written

reading

mou eekTa

bOi,

Ja

porche,

ta

Mou

book

which

reading

that

diner

lekha

din-of

written

tMou is

a book

reading

is

which

hochche

Josimud

is

Jasimud-

by

written

Jasimuddin'
(8)

a.

moena Josimuddiner
Moina

Jasimuddin-of

lekha

polligiti

sunte

written

folk-song

listen-to.

bhalobase
likes
'Moina

likes

the

to

listen

to

folk

songs

written

by Jasimuddin'
I

b.

moena p'o'lltgiti,
Moina

folk-song

which

lekha

is

Jasimuddin-of

written

written
['Folk
written
moena

to

hear

listen-to
'Moina

folk

songs

which

are

by Jasimuddin'
songs

which

likes

Moina

to

hear

are

those

by Jasimuddin'l
polligiti,

Moina folk-song
sunte

the

ta
that

likes

listen-to

Josimuddiner

likes

bhalobase,

sunte

hochche

'Moina

0
b.

Ja

Ja

Josimuddiner

lekha,

ta

which

Jasimuddin-of

written

that

bhalobase
likes
likes

by Jasimuddin'

to hear

folk

songs which

are written

'367
In the

above examples,

in

(8b).
and

(7b)

(8a),

(7b)

of

the

relative

and

(8)

are

cedents
in

(7)

of

them

(7)

be given

with

relative

clauses
in

the

sentence'are

a.

which

in

related

(8).

and

sentences

simple

latter

types

porte

b.

mou Ja
Mou what
'What

(10)

a.

mena
Moina
IMoina

b.

as both
which

example

free

last

These

like

constitu-

types

of

k; re
does

books'

pochondo

kzre,

ta

like

does

that

Mou likes

is

gan

sunte

song

listening.

hochche

book

is

p,3ra
reading

books'

reading

bhalobase
likes

listening

to

songs'

moena Ja

bhalobase,

ta

hochche

Moina

what

likes

that

is

'What

Moina

likes

I
boi

is

listening

gan sona
song

to

are

can also

with

on the

ant e-

sentences

structures

sentences

sentences.

to read

likes

(b)

and

of

focus

pzchondo

Mou book read-to


'Mou likes

and

the

sentences

type

are

(9-11).

in

compared

mou boi

of

deep
simple

assigning

after

(a)

and

song'

incidentally

their

A similar

(7a)

in

'folk

Both

NPs in

constituted

are

focused

are

clauses.

identical

contain

is

and polligiti

(8b),

and

shown in

ents

'book'

in

focused

clauses

No constituent

boi

whereas,

composed without

are

The relative

clauses.

any relative

(8a)
and

(7a)

listening

a sorygI

368
(11)

mouke mze:n.a bhalobase

a.

b.

Mou-to

Moina likes

'Moina

likes

mouke

Je

Mou-to

who likes

bhalobase,

'Who likes

In the

which

in

focus

i-s assigned

turn

which

are given

cleft

sentences.

cleft

sentences

divided

into

in

both
where

includes

the

focusing

rule,

show their

sentences

if

focus

is

always

can even constitute

are formed

pseudo-clefts

in

for

the

as pseudohas been

can be analysed

The reason

sentence,
to the
the

Bengali,

which

the

higher

the

of cleft

it
of

clause,
We-

clause.

same way the


are

same simple

that

formulation

to the lower
in

for
is

sentences

sentence

construction

of pseudo-

own verbs.

assigned-in

For convenience,

examples

clause

assigned

a cleft

the

(b sentence)

According

is

that

sections

a pseudo-cleft

phrase.

cleft

focus

sentences.

(a sentence)

as pseudo-cleft

in

the

(b)

are taken

one sentence

No

clauses.

are all

sentences

simple

sentences

the

namely

sentences

are

whereas,

in

and a subordinate

assigned

presupposition

be repeated

sentences,

here,

(b)

the

sections

is

(9-11).

(a)

two sectionsand'two

considering

in

relative

constituents

as the

(b)

when focus

the headless

The (b)

as a main clause

sentences
complex

be clarified

should

Moina

are

the

on the last

assigned

One point

in

is

(a)

the

sentences

constitute

m5ena

Moinal

(9-11),

(b)

and the

hochche

se
she

Mou is

above examples

sentences,

is

Mout

shown already

sentences

can

and pseudo-cleft.

369
(12)

mou boi

a.

pochondo kDre

porte

Mou book read-to


'Mou likes
b.

it

is

'It

(13)

is

book

mou boi

a.

mou Ja

(12b)
only
cleft

is

Focus

that

Mou likes'

Cleft

in

into

(b)

p oint

is

in

sentence

to another,

does

that

after

reading

the

only

reason

sentences

boi

is

book

of focusing
is

the

after

relation

lower
the
on
in

exchanging

have also
to cleft

remain

valid

place

discussed

sentences.

can be converted

focus.
focus

pseudo-cleft.

sentences

following-example
applying

The

and pseudo-

on cleft

clause

and Ross(1971)
in

reading

pseudo-cleft.

assigned

higher

p-Dra-

books'

of

(13b)'a
and

and even changing

both

hochche

and Pseudo-cleft

(1965)

sentence

that

ta-

focus

and presupposition

The (a)

k-ire

kDre,

is

and on the

cleft

does

Mou like

books'

read

of cleft,

that

kre

Ja mou pDchondo

p2chondo

like

is

Lakoff
focus

that

difference

sentences

7.1.3

reading

Mou likes

significant

in

book

p3chondo

an example

clause

p-zra,

reading

to

mou what
'What

boi

porte

'Mou likes
b.

does

to read books'

(hochche)

eTa

like

The interesting

from

one constituent

of the

constituents,

as cleft

to make such a statement

sentences.
is

that

(14a)

The
and

370
(14b)
(14)

are not
a.

b.

directly

eTa mou, Je

(15)

a.

kinechilo

Mou

'It

was Mou who bought

who book bought


a book'

eTa boi,

Ja

mou kinechilo

it

book

which

Mou bought

'It

was a book

is

A few

in

assigned

eTa mou,

Je

today

klaser

pDrasuna

class-of

study

is

Mou who is
study

-(namely),
J'It

is

eTa mou Je

aJ

it

Mou who today

'It

is

not

do?

J'It
not

is

studying

do today?

']

korche,

ta

hochche

what

doing

that

is

her

(something)

klaser

her

for

pzrasuna,
study

class-of
studying

for

today,

class'

studying

Mou who today

the

Ja

doing

for

Mou who is

Sentences

and Negative

aJ

Mou what

are

any major
constituents
0
here to show the
given

Bengali.

Affirmative

'It

to

examPles

Focus in

it

Mou bought'

that

can be assigned

a sentence.

way focus

boi

it

Focus
of

by T-rule.

related

her

for

class

today']

class
ta

kore

that

did

her

class

that

ni
not
did

Mou did

371
There
in

is

or negative

affirmative
(15a)

mou 'Moul

of focus

sentence

is

show focus

are all

on different
here

are repeated

man-the
'The

focus

after

which

a negative

the

man has

they

negatively.

besi

n that

writte

(to

a sentence);

ta

are

which

sentences

has been assigned

story

that

story

in

where

in

Examples

likheche,

gz)lpo

(15),

the focus.

affirmative

constituents

Je

lokTa

a.

(4)

in

previously

(16).

either

got

constituents

as shown in

possible

(15b)

'study'

on different

of focus

as shown in

sentences

and Parasuna

Changing

given

on the assignment

no restriction

bhalo

very

n-ze

good

not

not

very

written

is

ta

bhalo

good'
b.

lokTa
'The

Je

likheche,

golpo
that

story

the

man has

besi

is

written

nze
very

not

good'
After

on the

statement
not

could
ent

in

of

meaning

sentences,

the

of

which

blocks

Focus

may be assigned

the

sentence

of

of

earlier
a sentence

a negative

incoming

constitu-

new information.

and Object

which

The following
focus

in

constituents

presence

on Subject

the

sentences,

the

focus

information.
assigning

on negative

du.e to

hold,

the

7.1-3.2

part

focus

assigning

on subject

is

to

subjecto

relevant

examples
(17a)

for
are

object,
giving
given

and object

or

any

new
to

show the

(17b):

372
(17)

eTa b'Oi, Ja

a.

b.

(17b)

it

book which

'It

is

'It

was Mou who bought

who book

is

assigned

like

kinechilo

Mou a

book

bought

(18)

a.

the

following

Mou what
'What
b.

is

that

is

pushed

the

of

examples

relate

to a

cleft
This

sentences.

kinechilo,

ta.

bought

that

Mou. bought
Je

book

who bought

may be

focusing
for

se
she

a book
between
the
the

hochche
is

b"Oi
book

was a book'

kinechilo,

difference

forward

above

pseudo-cleft

boi

after

and in

examples:

'Who bought
The only

"book'),

a book'
to

are

mou Ja

(boi

These sentences

boi

Comparable

in

on object

mou eekTa

there

a book'

the following:

'Mou bought

shown

bought

(mou 'Moul).

sentence

sentences,

kinechilo

Mou,

focus

7)

boi

Mou boughtt

it

on subject

neutral

Mou bought

a book that

eTa mOu, Je

(17a),

In

mou kinechilo

hochche

mou

is

Mou

was, Moul
cleft

and pseudo-cleft

constituentt
clefts

the

and pushed

sentences

relative

clause

backward

for

373
the pseudo-clefts.
perfectly

both

the following
(19)

a.

b.

If
in

book that

'It

is

Mou what

boug4t-not

Mou did

cleft

(19b).

buy?

not

b"Oi (Pseudo-cleft)

hochche

that

is

book

buy was. a book'

not

in

object

same way focus

-the

(19a)

cleft

and pseudo-

can be assigned

on the

(20).

in
Je

eTa mou,

Mou did
ta

on the

as shown

it

got

a book that
keneni,

in

mou occurs

Mou bought-not

mou Ja

assigned

b.

Compare

(Cleft)

mou keneni

it

is

a.

works

sentences.

and pseudo-cleft

eTa b"Oi, Ja

Focus

(20)

cleft

it

applied,

sentences:

'What

subject,

is

negation

boi

(Cleft)

keneni

Mou

'It

who book bought-not


was Mou who did not buy books'

Je

boi

keneni

se hochche

who book

bought-not

Who

not

did

as the

buy

in

subject

Mou

is
books

(Pseudo-cleft)
mou

was Moul

(20a)

and

(20b)

which

in

turn

focus.

The underlying
can be shown

in

the

structure

following

way:

of the above

sentences

374
(21)

NP

VP

s
I

NP
I

NP

Det
II

I-I,
m kTa

mou

Imou

Quirk
of assigning
are given

(1979:

in

bought-has'

939) have shown various


The following

a sentence.

from Bengali

here

kineche

book

et al

focus

boi

following

after

ways

examples
focusing

their

rules.
(22)

a.

Focus at S:
mou name je

meeTa,

Mou name who girl-the


'The
b.

girl

Focus

whose

at

V:

mou name

Je

she Dacca-in

name is

meeTa,

thake

se Dhakae

Mou lives

se Dhakae

lives
in

Dacca'

in

Dacca'

thake
lives

'The

ce

girl

whose

name

is

Mou lives

Focus at. 0 D:
mou name Je

meeTa,

Mou name who girl-the


'The
the

girl
book'

whose
,

name is

se

"ie
bO

she book-of
Mou is

mzlaT

dichche

cover

giving

putting

a cover

on

375
d.

Focus at Adv:
mou name Je

meeTa

Mou name who girl-the


'The

girl

T. V.

she often

name is

Mou often

and adverbs

(22d)

whose

deekhe

tibhi

se prai

watches

watches

television'
Focusing
as they

(22b)

on verbs
have

features,

interesting
in

verb

is

focused

here

to

show the
'Just',

and aro

(23)

ami Je

meeTake

a.

moutusi-

is

Moutusi

b.

whom I

ami
I

tomake

Je

you-to

that

sudhu

are

sUdhu boi
book

only

hochche

girl

These

chosen

are

adverbs

'only',

'too'.

who girl-the

'The

A few

rule.

Thik/prae

when the

especially

a sentence.

focusing

may be explained

gave

kAli
just

diechilam,

se

gave

she

book

the

only

is

Moutusil

bokechilam,

tar

Jonne

rebuked

that

for

dukkhito
sorry
II
C*

am sorry

that

% hu Je
amake sud
me

n-e. takeo

ta
that
'I

that

only

not
have

also

him-also
not

to help

only

him'

rebuked

you

for

nothing

mainer

Takae

colte

salary-of

money-of

maintain

sahaJJo

korte

help

can-to

to

maintain

hze

h,e
have

myself

on salary

but

376
d. *

tumi

amake je

you

me

'Tell

that

me what

,4
Thik

ki

dite

ta

cao

exactly

what

give-to

exactly

you want

that

want

to

bzlo

give

me?

say

tar

bon-'o

Je

necechilo,

ta

ami

Jantam

his

sister-also

that

danced

that

knew

na

not
'I
The above

did

know that

not

show t4e

examples

his

sister

focusing

also

danced'

on different

types

of

adverbs.
It
focusing

Focusing

a relative

relative
clefts

from

clear

clause

clause
are

on nouns,

also

and in

and simple
included

focusing

in

on cleft

and pseudo-cleft

section.

the

above

can be made on different

sentence.
in

is

such

types

of

constituents
adverbs

a simple
sentence,

in

discussion

the

is

are

shown
the

and pseudoto

A general

sentences.

Besides

sentence.

discussion

sentences

of

and verbs

clefts

that

made in

show
discussion
the

following

377
7.2

Sentence

Cleft

Clefting

7.2.1

Rule

Cleft
the present
different

and pseudo-cleft
as they

study

the

elaborate

along

clefts,
behaviour.

is

their

with

Cleft

into

The only

two

parts,

in

are

difference
the

The reason

in

present

tense

in

Bengali

remains

eTa

(hochche)

it

in

the

so that

clefts

we can

and pseudo-

and transformational

formed

are

sentences

sentence.

(24)

of

syntactic

sentences

divided

either

absent

and pseudo-

of cleft

discussion,

patterns

the

and extraposing

role

this

focusing

'

own verb.
Bengali.

in

structural

Cleft
clause

(7.1-3)

section

previous

in

roles

has been shown schematically

sentences

cleft

a sentence

The focusing

clauses.

relative

important

play

in

constituents

are

sentences

in

important

(cf.

first
is

or
that

formed

its

same way in

the

in

when a

containing

is

that

the

in

the

second

may remain

verb

clause

or

a copular
or

a clause

in

verb

a sentence

(24).

in

as shown

red

part

each

in

ea kTa lal

is

English

occasionally

1.2-5-3)

absent

in

boi,

Ja

book

which

maena upohar
Moina

present

peechilo
got
tIt

(is)

a red

The verb, hochche


without

affecting

list

book

which

Moina

may remain

structure

got

absent

and the

as a present'

in

meaning

the

sentence

of the

sentence.

378
Note that

in

form

the

like

something
eTa 'it',

with

on the next

falls

in

'different

al

place

their

and focusing

be

could

items

capable

are

Quirk

a sentence.

The following

focusing.

begins

it

and focus

Though word order

in

sentence

951):

by a verb,

followed

positions

et

its

changes

are based

examples

presentation.

tini

hochchen

baali

he

is

Bengali

sresThogrontho
book

best

for

many years

Bengali

Rabindranath

poet

many years

ago for

his

Jini

tar

who

his

bzchorage

Gitanjali's

received

Prize

poet

Rabindranath
bohu

Prize

Nobel

robindronath,

Jonne

peechilen

was the

kobi

gitanJolir

puroskar

'It

1979:

et al,

se-iitence

a cleft

and gets

has

clause

a cleft

951) have shown the way an item

on their
(25)

is

element.

of interchanging
(1979:

(Quirk

it

in

of word orders

this

then

second

clause.

of a relative
The sequence

is

the

sentences,

such cleft

nobel

ago Nobel

who received
famous

the

book

Gitanjalil
It

is

neutral
clause
versa.

possible

to

sentence
patterns
Examples:

derive

various

(non-cleft
change

with

cleft

sentence)
the

sentences
like

sentence

(25)t
patterns,

from
where

any
the

and vice

379
(26)

a.

S as Focus
eTa hochche

amar bandhob. 1 selina,

it

my

is

friend

Selina

Jonne

puroskar

peechilo

novel

for

prize

received

was my friend

for

her

best

Selina,

tar

who her

upponaser

tIt

Je

sresTho
best

the

who received

prize

novel'

0d as Focus
eTa chilo

robindronather

sresTho

grontho

it

Rabindranath's

best

book

was

gitanJoli,

Ja

ami porechi

Gitanjali

which

was Rabindranath's

'It

ce

I have

read'.

A time

as Focus

eTa 1ohub'zchor
it

before

book

Gitanjalip

J-zkhon

baali

when

Bengali

which

kobi
poet

robindronath

tra-r sresTho

grontho

gitanJolir

Jonne

Rabindranath

his

book

Gitanjalits

for

best

nobel

puroskar

peechilen

Nobel

Prize

received

was long

Rabindranath
best

honorific.

best

age

many years

'It

eTa 'it'

read-have

cannot

book

the

Bengali

Nobel

Prize

ago when
the

received

poet
for

his

Gitanjalit

precede

Being

time

NPs in which

inanimate,

it

occurs

the head noun is


before

nonhuman

380
cf.

nouns:

by eTa 'it'

can be preceded

any inanimate

NP denoting

(27)

a.

the

following

(28)

(29)

a.

of

its

a cow'
manus

it

man

'It

is

a man'

eTa m kTa Tebil


it

'It

is

table
a tabl. el

it

Rabindranath's

lIt

is

a photograph

eTa robindronather
it

Rabindranath's

'It

is

*eTa
In-i
it-he

Rabindranathfs

photograph
Rabindranathl

upponnas
novel
novel'

robindronather

baba

Rabindranath's

father

(he)

is

Rabindranath's

eTa amar bhai


it

chobi

of

my

brother

father'

(honorific)
followed
(26b).

occurrence

examples.

eTa Ee kJon

'It

b.

is

pronoun

as shown in

object,

eTa robindronather

b.

the

cow

-a
'It
is

co

if

pronouns

eTa EekTa goru


it

b.

However,

of eTa and restrictions

occurrence
shown in

(26c).
and

(26b)

by a
The
are

381
'It

*eTa amar sikkhok


lr-.
ini
it/he
my teacher

c.

(he)

'It
(30)

my brother'

is

a.

my teacher'

eTa ki?

eTa hochche

m kTa boi

it

it

what

lWhat
b.

is

is

co

d.

is

manus

it

man

'It

is

a man'

eTa are

some other

is
item

the

above

shown

in

in

the

case

of

has

the

form

e ke

a girl',
without

etc.

is
* In

has

sentences

examples.

The most

common

question

and answer

forms

in

examples

e mou 'she

Bengali

in

as a subject
in

becomes

a man'

a picture'

eTa a3kJon

question

animate

'He is

'It

that

mee 'she

man

picture

with

answer

a.

ways

the

manus

it

using

indicate

ee kJon

chobi

illustrated

along

hochche

heV

The way eTa occurs

of

a book'

kTa
m
eTa

been

book

is

he is

he who?
'What

'It

itV

is

ke?

is

(30).

an animate
'who

Moul,
case

is

(30a)

and

and human items,


he/she?

' and the,

o mou '-she is
of

any human binding,

(30b)

Moul,

an inanimate
the

question

se

or
has

382
the

form

'boi

'it

'that
the

eTa ki

a book',

is
is

twhat

a cowl,

etc.
use

correctly

as it

'photograph

of

of

(30d)

show the

proper

occurs

before

the

the

(he)
fit
tion
not

is
is
of

as a subject

allowed

It

honorifically.
eTa has

is

subject.

In

general,

animate

nouns,

but

exception

For

this

reason

common honorific

the

is

it

does
nouns

not
like

but

the

occurrence

i's

is

not

colloquial

speakers

do not

before
(ini)

where

human nouns

which

are

from

clear

these

on its
for
occur
which
occur
sikkhok

'it
eTa bhai

a girl',

and

(29a)

obey

robindronath
is

for
have

as the

The excepit

examples

and

human nouns

subject

Iteacherlo

that

as a

inanimate

honorific

is

used

occurrence

both

for

used

human nouns,

(29b)

may also

human nouns

of

eTa

etc.

eTa occurs
it

(30d),

Moul,

in

quite

and

the

eTa mee 'it

of

(30c)

In

which

in

it

*eTa

restrictions

selectional

the

eTa,

Though

like

shown

of

as a human quantifier

eTa mou 'it

eTa is

the
incorrect

father

eTa.

and use

but

my brother',
using

using

is

show

eTa is

with

and human.

and after

persons

that

(29a)

'the

to

given

indicates

and human noun,

eTa insertion

Rabindranath',

are

eTa

oTa guru

a construction

occasionally

famous

for

except

(29a)

with

(30c).

in

a doll't

Whereas,

way of

becomes

answer

is

honorific

Iman'.

Bengali
of

rules

in

appropriate

noun

non'human

pattern

eTa.

(28a)

an animate

manus

of

and

is

eTa can be taken


before

'that

a construction

which

used

and the

(28a)

occurs

Rabindranath',

of

',

Rabindranath'.
in

as eTa occurs

it?

oTa putul

appropriate

used

is

with

features.
of

any

as shown in

583
(29c).

1"_'
't
in.,

eTa may be replaced


the-hon'.

human nouns by-ini


human nouns which
must be used in

7.2.2

do not

eTa insertion,

allow

place

of it.

Focus

in

Cleft

Sentences

It

is

quite

clear

sentence

cleft

case of honorific
use of any
tke
Incase
of non-honorific

focusing

meaning
a..

may be taken

teacher

eakTa boi

diechilen,

teacher

yields

new

hochchen
is

dorsoner

he

philosophy-in

oddhapok
teacher

in

philosophy'
Jini

our

teacher

saheb

who Mou-to

d,orsoner,

oddhapok

book

Hai

diechilen,

tini

gave

he

mouke

teacher
Mr Hai,

teacher

on Wednesday,

is

Mou-to

saheb,

eTa hochche
e

wednesday-on

amader

wednesday-on

our

mouke

hi
sikkho. )k

a-. kTa boi

is

budhbare

tini

a teacher

budhbare

it

and

Mr Hai who gave a book to Mou on

philosophy-in

co

constituents

Hai saheb who

Wednesday who is

'It

that

examples
device

saheb Jini

book gave

*eTa
ini
it

or

hai

amader sikkhok
our

b.

above

Exampies:

it.

'Our

the

as a focusing

items

on prticular

in

from

e 'he/she'

(who)

is

who gave

a teacher

N
mou,

Jake

Mou

whom our

amader

in

a book

to

philosophyl

sikkhzk

hai

teacher

Hai saheb

saheb

Mou

384
eekTa boi

budhbare

Wednesday-. on a

diechilen,

darsoner

se

book gave

whe philosophy-in

chattri
student
'It

was Mou, who is

in

a student

to

Philosophy

Mr
Hai
gave a book on Wednesday'
whom
d.

m kTa

eTa hochche
it

is

boi,
book

Ja

amader

sikkhok

hai

our

teacher

Hai

what

saheb

mouke

budhbare

saheb

Mou-to

wednesday-on*gave

diechilen,

ta

tari

that

his-emp

lekha
written
'It

was a book

that

Mou on Wednesday,
e.

bUdhbar,

it

wednesday

teacher
is

boi

diechilen

Mou-to

book

gave

book

to

amader

when our

Ee kTa

was Wednesday

Mr Hai

when our

gave

to

by himt

written

Jakhon

mouke

fIt

f.

which

eTa chilo
was

our

sikkhok

hai

saheb

teacher

Hai

saheb

teacher

Mr Hai

gave

Moul

amader

sikkhok

hai

our

teacher

Hai saheb wednesday-on

budhbare

saheb

mouke

Ja

Mou-to

what

diechilen,

ta

hochche

ea kTa

gzlper

boi

gave

that

is

story-of

book

tWhat our teacher


was a story

book'

Mr Hai gave to Mou on Wednesday

385
Sentences

which

patterns
first

clause

(31b-e)

(31a)

has

sentence

matrix
and the

the

been

antecedent

in

the antecedent

against

relationship

the relative
in

occurs

its

pronoun.

relative

so the

IbookI.

(31d),

so the

tWednesdayl

occurs

as a pronoun

occurs

as a. time-clause.

Ja 'whatf

and correlative

in

structure
(31a)

a relative

clause

is

subject
place

it

relative

pronoun

(31b),

in

matrix,

pronoun

the

shows its

hai

against

relative
in

antecedent

of a regular-pronoun

(31f)p

of

correlative

Jokhon

fthatt

and ta

saheb

antecedent

the inanimate

clause.

so

mou becomes

of the

as the

'Mr

saheb

(31).

is

the

which

'when'

as it
occur

as

shows a

(3lb-e).

a neutral
in

of the

marker

than

the

inanimate

occurs

and eTa as the

different

of

structure

(31e)

relative

structure

of

(31b),

in

each

coreferential

boi

sentence

in

clause

order

can be

original

hai

to match against

place

budhbar

to

and not

in

clause

the

mou 'Moul,

as shown in

'Mr Hail

of

position

due

the

has changed as the

sentence

structure
change

and the

the

of

(31c),

(31)

relative-clause.

retains

matrix-sentence

the

of

initial

altered

the

in

interesting

focusing

of

antecedent

is

Hail

eTa for

the

the

of

sentences.

in

a constituent

moved to

after

sentence

the

been

has

beginning

simultaneously

change

The most

where

the

at

shown

are

(3lb-f).

show variable

and clefting

made considerable

sentences
seen

clefting

in

in

'it'

eTa

(31)

in

constituents

after

and

has

which

are

focusing

of

Focusing

illustrated

sentence,

and without

which'is

focusing

shown with
any constituents.

386
(31f)

is

the

in

ally
which

are

which

is

a-cleft
sentence

cleft

in

constructions
in

the

(in

(31c),

eTa-Ja

with

the

relative

ferential
core

Relative

7.2.3

clauses

(32),
That

Clauses

to

So,

the

ini

or

occurs

'he/she'
as a

is

the

'she-whom?
(31e)

'it-when'
sentences

as they

clause

mentioned

in

se-Jake

cleft

structure

in

Cleft
point

are introduced

the relative
is

'it'

are

contain
usually

seem
co-

maintained

can occur

without

element.

One interesting
relative

which

eTa-Jokhon

no relative

as normally

strictly

show different

(31b),

clauses,
This

elements.

referential

any

(31f).

'what-that'

Ja-ta
and
perfect

(31d),

'it-that'

The

clause.

can be explained

lhe-whot

(31a)

(31).

in

human nouns)

(3lb-f)

in

ini-Jini,

way:

sentences,

with

book'.

and non-clefted

(3lb-e),

The way eTa


use

element

corefere'ntial
following

matrix

honorific

of

case

their

the

at

'story

a relative

in

shown

are

section.

previous

clefted

with

(31f),

assigned

can be seen

sentence

which

sentences

the

constituents

in

boi

on gDlper

clauses

as a non-cleft

occurs

on the

is

initi-

occurs

except

Focus

between

relative

with

sentences

(3lb-e),

(31f)

in

which

assigned

sentence.

difference

one major

is

by eTa in

preceded
not

a wh-phrase,

Focus

sentence.

the

end of

with

constituted

say that

clause

occurs

Sentences
can be noticed
in

the

after

when eTa occurs

cleft
the

as the

when
In

sentences.
matrix
subject

sentence.
in

387
cleft

sentence

alway

the

precedes

clause.

relative
(32)

the matrix

sentence,

ce kTa boi

eTa hochche

a.

b.

it

is

'It

is

a book'

amader

sikkh-zk

hai

saheb

budhbare

our

teacher

Hai

saheb

wednesday-on

boi

diechilen

book

gave

'Our

teacher

book

Mr Hai

a book

gave

aakTa

mouke
Mou-to

Mou on

to

Wednesday'
Co

eTa hochehe

Ee-kTa boi,

it

is

book

Ja-

amader

sikkhik

hai

what

our

teacher

Hai

saheb

budhbare

mouke

diechilen

saheb

wednesday-on

Mou-to

gave

was a book

'It

which

Mr Hai

gave

sentence

in

teacher

our

to

Mou on Wednesday'
The common structure

be fronted,

easily
sentence
final
clauses

that

is

Bengali

is

position.
are

more

the

pronoun

of

and the

as an initial
common than
Three

shown in

relative

relative
one in

different
the

a cleft

following

medial

clause

sentence

distributions
examples.

in

clause
or

can

of
.

relative

388
(33)

(34)

Relative

Clause

eTa Je

gacher

pata,

ta

amader

barite

ache

it

which

tree-of

leaf

that

our

house-in

has

'It

is

to,

(lit)

in

Relative

our

is

the

the

in

a Cleft

leaf

belongs

Sentence:

horiner

moto,

se

Moina

eyes

deer's

like

she

whose

student

Moina

whose

a student

eyes

like

are

those

of

a deer

Linguistics'

of

Clause

Relative

which

Sentence:

cokh

Linguistics-of

is

tree

a Cleft

moena Jar

chattri

is

in

used medially

bhasatZtter

'It

(35)

house

Clause

eTa hochche
it

used initially

used finally

in

a Cleft

Sentence:

eTa hai

saheb

agei

bolechilen,

Jini

amader

Hai

saheb

before

said

who

our

who is

our

it

bhasatotter

oddhapok

Linguistics-in

teacher

'It

was told

before

(who)

by Mr Hai,

Linguistics

teacher'
The structural
should

be introduced

'be'

verbal

said

that

not
rence

pattern

regular
in

form
the

of
at

before

occurrence

in
a noun

Bengali#
phrase.

cleft

the

beginning

a noun
of

sentences
of

so that
However,

verb
it

has
there

in

has

already

present

an optional
is

eTa

and hD-

a sentence
It

phrase.

'bet

that

suggests

tense

been
is

occur-

a restriction

on

389
of the

the occurrence

this

eTa does not

that

above is

point

introduction

of

will

applied

not

to

be discussed

clefting

involves

in

also

such

to

complex

The nature

clause.
cases

of

MO-Ue'.*

can be

clefting
but

in

given

the

clefting

of
will

here.
the

following

grame

farmer

village-in

farmer
'The

The coreferential

cow

a
farmer

One of the

in

the

the village?

kinechilo
bought

bought

NP in
with

lives

lives

es kTa goru

sentences:

bask-jre

casa

casa

relativization,

of

that

a relative

'The farmer
b.

has

sentences,

involved

Consider

a.

clefting

Examples

apparent

simple

transformations

clause.

process

made the

of

clause.

incorporating

sentences

(36)

the

a relative

only

and

Constructions

make it

section

the

that

7.2.1)

freely,

completely

discussion

The preceding
(see

occur

of Relative

'Clefting

has been suggested

which

T-rule.

do'dbt on the

casts

7.2.4

constituents

either
other

a cow'

sentence

is

sentence

becoming

two possibilities

is:

accessible

to

the matrix

390
(36)

c.

casa,

Je

farmer

who village-In

baskzre,

grame

lives

se eekTa

goru

he

cow

kinechilo
bought
'The

farmer,

who lives

Subsequent

is

clefting
(36)

of
If

we have

Je

farmer

it

application

'farmer',

casa

Asa,
eTa

d.

this

bought

a village,

can be applied.

rule

clefting

rule,

to

in

grame

who village-in

a relativization

the

the

a' cow'

by

NP focused

following

result:

baskpre,

se eekTa

goru

lives

he a

cow

kinechilo
bought
'It

from

Apart

the

(who)

bought

the

insertion
does

pattern

clause

of

application
pronoun

relative

the

like

'he'

If
cow,

(i.

the

is

involved:

(36)

e.

the

Je

usual
the

farmer,

of

'it,

eTa

in

the

(36d),

in

show much difference


clefting

'who'

rule

and the

relative

village,

than

the

relative

as a result

as it

the

retains

pronoun

is

one which
a rather

is

eekTa
the

more

goru

head

complex

eTa m kTa goru,

Ja

casa

kinechilo,

Je

it

that

farmer

bought

who

cow

of

se

pattern.

by clefting

NP foccussed

the

coreferential

clause,

construction),

relative

who lives

a cow,

not

a NP other

e.

of

the

was

'a

noun
change

391
grame

bask-3re

village-in

lives

'It

was a cow that

in
After

inserting

eTa 'it'

initially

on m kTa goru

introduced

correlative

farmer

bought,

who lives

a village'

and focusing
is

the

'a

Es kTa goru

with
pronoun

the

of

to

the

sentence

cowl,

a new relative

as its

antecedent.

relative

(36e)
pronoun
The
is

construction

then

deleted.
The same series
if

both

(37)

a.

NPs are

of

dokandar

haisTrite

baskDre

shopkeeper

High Street-in

lives

lives

possible

in the High Street'

dokandar

pionke

merechilo

shopkeeper

postman

struck

Me
Co

is

+human e. g.

'The shopkeeper
b.

transformations

sho"p3l7ruck

the

dokandar,

Je

shopkeeper

who High

postman'

haisTriTe

bask2re,
lives

Street-in

se pionke
he postman

merechilo
struck
'The

shopkeeper.

struck

the

who lives

in

the

Street,

postman$

eTa hochche

dokandar,

Je

it

shopkeeper

who High

is

High

haisTriTe
Street-in

baskzre
lives

392
se pionke

merechilo

he postman

struck

'It

was the

Street,
e.

Jake

it

postman

whom shopkeeper

is

Street-in

within
the
(37)

main

the

relative

is

pronoun

Je

shopkeeper,

(37e)

in

than

is

being

optionally

It

is

postman

whom shopkeeper

Je

haisTriTe

in

illustrated

end,

dokandar

merechilo
struck

lives
whom the

postman

in

as

the

High

(37f)

are

struck,

shopkeeper

Street'
less

common than

the

type

(37e).

The examples
if

the

bask-Dre

Street-in

Such constructions

at

retained:

Jake

who lives

embedded

placed

pion,

was the

who

struck'

eTa hochche

'It

who

struck

Street,

rather

High

merechilo

whom the

clause

clause

who High

show that

he

High

correlative
f.

lives

in
the

if

(se)

postman

lives

dokandar,

bask3re

was the

the

postman'

pion,

'It

the

in

eTa hochche

High

that

the

who struck

haisTriTe

Note

who lives

shopkeeperp

the

relative
focusing

the

contains

a relative

different

given

transformation

clefting

constructions,

are

which

the

sentence

NPs in
clause.

(36)

in
is

structure

a complex

and

applied

(37)
to

changes

construction

The'transformational

on
which

rule

also

393
that

implies
the
the
is

this
clause

statement
is

is

Note,
that

embedded

noun

the

relative

focused

required

if

within

the

the

is

matrix

the

deleted

and
antecedent,

modification
original

clause.

NP

other

any

NP as its

slight

then

clause,
If

pronoun

the

If

relativization.

eTa-insertion.

however,
is

after

of

correlative

having

pronoun,

introduced.

head

the

then

focused,

the

change

required

a relative
is

is

NP focused
only

can be done

clefting

relative

of

394Sentences

Pseudo-Cleft

7.3

Construction

7.3.1

like

Pseudo-clefts
in

their

as the
in

subject

are

a.

C*

d-arkar

your

good

sleep-of

need

need

tomar

dzrkar

it

good

sleep

which

you

need

'It

is

from

constituents.
'it'

is

added

first

a
sentence

sleep'

Ja

a good

tomar
you
you

that

sleep

you

need'

dorkar

ta

hochche

bhalo

ghum

need

that

is

good

sleep

is

a good

(38b)

occurs

need

In the above examples

derived

(sound)

a good
ghum

Both cleft

a pseudo-cleft.

the neutral

sleep'

(38c)
and

as a cleft

and pseudo-cleft
sentence

(38a)

sentences

after

They are transformationally


the

initial

string

in'(38b)

as
are

adding

related.

eTa

to

the

The

between

eTa bhalo

'What

is

clauses.

the

where

ghumer

what

is

and pseudo-cleft

distinction

bhalo

Ja

'it'

wh-clause

higher

tomar

fYou
b.

the

of

difference

sentence.

as a neutral

occurs

eTa

cleft

sentence,

and a pseudo-cleft

cleft

in

show the

will

examples

that

and the

Both

predicates

The main

is

clefts

pseudo-clefts.

construction,
following

in

subject

new information

convey

focus.

and pseudo-clefts

clefts

inserted

(38)

through

constituents

between

clefts

which

is

395

like

(38c).

pseudo-cleft

has added
plus

in

absent

pseudo-cleft

is

ta

Ithatt

medial

the

after

(1976:
of

a verb

of

The following
verbs

(39)

in

may or

126)

which

?that,

may remain

an initial

mentions

that

wh-word,

which

with

occurs

the

without

to

respect

that
in

be present

clarify
or

with

sentences

may not

will

a pseudo-cleft

a negative
a sentence.
function

two-way

of

any negation.

any Negation

Ja

mou korechilo

ta

hochche

se

what

Mou did

that

is

she room-of

Jalie

rekhechilo

on

put

'What

Mou did

the
b.

with

pseudo-cleft

examples

Without
a.

and ta

can be said

it

also

and WithoutNegation

constructions

element

pseudo-cleft

and a be verb

correlative,

Culicover
the

Bengali

the'sentence

'what'
of

the

of

correlative.

With

7.3.2

So,

in

formed

last

the

construction.

cleft

Ja

namely

clause

end of
the

a cleft,

hochch, e 'is',

a be verb

the

at

Like

new constituents,

as a correlative

The initial

pattern.

transferred

is

sentence

may be taken

which

clause

a relative

neutral
in

tthat',

by $a

followed

was that

bati

ghorer

she put

on the

light

hochche

ea kTa

bhalo

is

good

light

of

room'

Ja

mou ceechilo,

ta.

what

Mou wanted

that

gzlpo
story

396
likhte
write-to
Mou wanted

'What
(40)

to

write

a good

storyl

With

Negation

a.

Ja

mou korechilo

ta

hochche

sara

rat

ghzrer

what

Mou did

that

is

all

night

room-of

bati

Jalie

rakheni

light

on

put

'What

Mou did

b.

not
to

was not
(but

night'

the

put

to'keep,

light

it

the

on of

room

all

Ja

mou ceechilo

ta

hochche

ee kTa

g2lpo

na

what

Mou wanted

that

is

story

not

off)

likhte
write-to
Mou wanted

'What
to

is

sentences
constituent
of
In

(40a),

is
not

verb

that
put

important
sentence

the

one gets
Mou did,

mou sara
the

light

structural
becomes

a story'

is

rat

of

the

answer

ghorer

on of

the

changes
a pseudo-cleft:

is

bati

verb
in

korechilo
the

Ja

sentence.

verb
ni

this
phrase

'Mou did

There

night'.
occur

end

'did'

main

rakhe

the

the

end of

Jalie

room all
which

the
to

attached

the

at

the

answer

the

and negative

always

occurs

in

asserted

negation,

sentence
which

is

which

through

phrase

what

way:

question

given
of

write

(but

one)

the

to

The answer

the

read

to

was not

are

when a neutral

'what'

is

added

two

397
the
and

initially
side
side
that

of

the

sentence

of

the

sentence.

(1976:
that

This

205).
headless

the

to

following

from

right

the

the

left
hand

be made clear

similarities

also

mentioned

occur

similarities

to

have

is

only

embedded

should

similarity

Hence,

bears

a.

is

relatives

pseudo-clefts.
cleft

One point

which

a point

relatives,

an answer

gets

sentences

pseudo-cleft

is

which

question

Culicover
in

superficial

but

heads

without
the

first

the

headless

headless

with
in

part

is

of

the
not

the

sense
the

pseudoCompare

relatives.

sentences:
Ja

ta

mou porchilo,

that

Mou reading-was

what

hochche
is

m kTa

golper

story-of

boi
book
'What
b.

Mou was reading

book'

was a story

Ja

mou kinechilo,

ta

hochche

m kTa boro

what

Mou bought

that

is

large

khEe lna
toy
'What
co

was a, large

Mou bought

Ja

m3ena dekhche,

what

Moina

looking

toyl

ta

hochche

EekTa

sundor

that

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beautiful

at is

a beautiful

sari

sari
'What Moina is
The examples

which

are

looking

given

in

(41)

are

of

sari'

pseudo-clefts

398
and show head
The first
less

nouns

the

of

part

clauses)

can be constructed

changing

the

of

a.

Ja

(better

sentendes

to

headless

the

sentences

which

ta

tar

mone

nei

that

her

mind-in

not

mou porhcilo,

'What Mou read


b. -

relatives

say

after
contain

CO

ta

sobai,

p-zchondo

koreche

what

Mou bought

that

all

liked

has

Mou bought

Ja =ena

The apparent

quite

was liked

dekhche,

Moina

is

of

the

different.

are

that

all-to
at

between
due to

sentences.

by all'

sobaike

looking

similarities

relatives

ta

looking

Moina

'What

part

remember?

mou kinechilo,

what

headless

she cannot

Ja-

IWhat

are

Mou was reading',

into

what Mou reading-was

first

head-

with

Examples:

heads.

(42)

part

second

similarities

sentences.

and Ja mzena dekhche

These

at'.

the

end of

'What

Mou bought',

looking

is

Moina

has

sentences

'What

Ja mou kinechilo

the

at

occur

Ja mou porchilo

e. g.

relatives,

'What

which

bolbe
say-will

she will

the

initial
However,

tell

to

and the

pseudo-clofts
wh-clauses
structurally

all'

or

the
they

399
Clefts

7.3.3

and Pseudo-clefts

Like

A neutral

sentence.
is

which
relative

in

clause

and focus

is

is

moved from

its

is
the

(43)

for

needed
following

a.

or

here

and does

not

initial

also

a simple

as being

not

any whthe

position,
This

one

contain

If

assigned.

wh-constituent.

raising

may be shown

examples.

mou w kTa g; )lper

boi

Mou a,

book bought

story-of

'Mou bought
b.

taken

structure

the

are

a neutral

is

sentence
its

pseudo-ciefts

from

simple

constituent

in

the

clefts,

by a transformation

derived

rule

the

a story

kinechilo

book'

Ja

mou kinechilo,

ta

hochche

m kTa g; lper

what

mou bought

that

is

story-of

boi
book
'What

(that)

Mou bought

YP

between

The comparison
in

the

occurs

sense
in

that

a cleft

extraposition

Ja

VP

mou Wh kiechilo

Mou bought'

'what

focusing

book'

lip

mou kinechilo

id

clause

a story

ss

C.

helpful

is

it

clefts

shows

the

and pseudo-clefts
way the

and pseudo-cleft.
rules

in

a sentence.

relative

as well
This

as
feature

is

400
later

can be illustrated

after

the

comparing

structures

of

and pseudo-clefts.

clefts

(44)

kTa
m
mou

gzlper

boi

Mou a

story-of

book

'Mou bought
b.

kinechilo
bought

book'

a story

Ja

mou kinechilo,

ta

hochche

askTa

golper

what

Mou bought

that

is

story-of

boi
book
Mou bought

'What

eTa ea kTa

co

-story

book

'It

was a story

book

sentence

(44a)

and pseudo-clefts

cleft

focus

and pseudo-clefts

order

initial

part
in

sentence
which

(44c).

remains

clause

in

is

assigned

(44c)

in

the

The

relative

clear

at

the

the

the

from

occurs

same
in

clause,

cleft

of the
cleft
sentence

pseudo-cleft.

as the

the-above

the

end of the

end of the

in

cleft

occurs

beginning

extraposed*in

cleft

in

constituent

for

'story

boi

are not

and at

and at

is

Both in

on gzlper

Focusing

which

is

transformations

(44c).
and

The relative'clause

It

Mou bought'

constituents

(44b)

constituent
(44c).

that

an NP, occurs

unextraposed,

The focusing

Mou bought

(44b).

sentence

pseudo-cleft

what

(44b)

cleft

pseudo-cleft
contains

also

sentence

in

mou kinechilo

in

(44c).
and

(44b)

in

Ja

has undergone

focusing

the

though

book',

the

g-31per-boi,

It

The neutral

book'

was a story

initial

examples

that

401
is

when a pseudo-cleft
posed

automatically

final

part

is

(44)

eTa eakTa

c.

needed

'It

If

a cleft

formation

the

in

as shown
golper

was a story

Ja

book

that

Mou bought

it

extra-

to

the

the

extrapose

a further

the

boi,

initial

to

we want

is

clause

from

sentence,

eTa mou kinechilo,

(45)

relative

transferred

sentence.

in

clause

relative

and is

the

of

formed,

trans-

following

examples.

mou kinechilo
Mou bought'

Ja

hochche

ee kTa

golper

which

is

story-of

book'

(lit)

boi
book
Mou bought

'It

(1979)

AkmajJan
interesting
19-20)

examples

(44c)

sentence

is

(45).
and

derived

in

can be stated
simple

sentence

cleft,

(b)
and

gets

focus.

relative

The form

It

clause

exists
other

should
is

is:

in

formation

or simple
identical

of a simple

the above

is

sentence

which

phrase

part

as the

predicate
here

it

sentence

subject

be mentioned

sentence,

to the neutral

(a)

manner:

in

of

shown in

the

introduced

(1979:

when a pseudo-cleft

a pseudo-cleft

the following

the

already

structure

two ways in

in

distributed

is

from a neutral

sentence.

or simple

This

the phrase

contain

should

the

have made some


Higgins

sentences.

regarding
which

sentences,

(1979)

and Higgins

one point

mentions

was a story

on pseudo-cleft

study

pseudo-cleft

which

that

one part
in

of the

a pseudophrase

which

when a

the pseudo-cleft

sentence

402
the

structure

above

is

clause
of

is

pseudo-cleft

(46)

a.

following

the

be shown in

retained

the

above

(cf.

Bengali

structure

44a).

This

may

examples.

mou aJ

ee kTa g; )lper

Mou today

boi

(Neutral)

kineche

book bought-has

story-of

'Mou has bought


b.

Bengali

When a relative

a sentence,
in

in

structure

structure.

in

introduced

not

becomes

pseudo-cleft

correlative

English

the

from

different
is

as the

Bengali

in

different

an English

of

book today'

a story

kineche,

ta,

Ja

mou aJ

what

Mou today'bought-hasthat

m kTa

hochche
is

g,31per_boi
book

story-of

In

(46)9

in

bered

'a story
is

focus
matrix

subject
bought
the

book'

is

the

the predicate

predicate

is

clause

the predicate

contrast

the English.

of

It

is

Likewise,

(46a)

are dismem-

in

the

(46b)

subject

boi

of the

the

the

is
'what

This

clause.

that

and
of

mou 'Moul

pseudo-cleft

may be said

boi

'-is a story

and Ja aJ kineche

Bengali
the
of

are

ea kTa gzlper

EekTa golper

of it.

sentence

sentences

complement
'that'

ta

to it.

the
relative
of
today'

of both

be noticed.

and hochche

sentence

sharp

against

can easily

bookt

a story

the neutral

constituents

(46b)

assigned

is

book'

phrase

is

from

structures

The way the

identical.

today

formed

is

pseudo-cleft

and the

(46a)

bought

Mou has

'What

has

shows

construction
this

is

the

403
usual

Bengali

of

pattern

Clauses

Relative

the relative

or "free

are those

whereas,

is

occurrence

of

which

"free

lack

relatives"

may be

relatives"

in

occur

full

with

in

it.

where the two varieties

sentences

interesting.

equally

sentences

and 'non-restrictives'

('restrictive'
the

on the

analysis

pseudo-cleft

"bound relatives"

heads

from

Pseudo-clefts

pseudo-clefts

in

occur

"Bound relatives"

wing

in

clauses

The heads which

in

(1979)

Akmajian's

either

derived

sentence.

a neutral

7.3.4

is

when pseudo-cleft

his

terms.

lexical

our terms),

Compare the folloof pseudo-clefts

are

shown (47)

Pseudo-clefts
a.

Bound

with

Relatives:

mou aJ

Je

Jinis

kinechilo,

seTa holo

ee kTa

Mou today

what

thing

bought

that

was

putul
doll
'What
b.

(thing)

Mou bought

mDena Je

somoe bari

Moina

time

which

today
phirechilo

home returned

was a doll'
tokhon
* then

baroTa
twelve
'It

was twelve

noon

Moina
when

cam home?

tupur
noon

404
(48)

Pseudo-clefts
a.

Free

with

mou, Ja

kinechilo,

ta

holo

putul

Mou what

bought

that

was

doll

"What Mou bought


b.

did

bari

Moina

home returned

at

was twelve

the

end of

constituents

diff

sentences
have

and free

(49)

(50)

bound

dupur

baroTa

then

noon

twelve

above
items,

or

after

and free

came home'

sentences,

however,

i. e.

assigned

the

focus

post-copular
in

relatives

pseudo-

sentences.
(1979:

Akmajian

which

the

focusing

in

takhon

when Moina

noon

sentences

both

phirechilo,

of

for

restrict

the

cleft

when

dissimilarities

not

was a doll'

Jokhon
m-zena

'It
Apparent

Relatives

from

er

semantic

19)

other

out

This
in

(49).

that

pseudo-cleft

on initial

sentences

variables.
as shown

relatives

points

is
and

true

clauses
for

both

(50).

Bound Relative
Je

Jinis

kinechilo,
moena

what

thing

Moina

bought

'The

thing

Moina

bought

ta

hochche

golap

that

is

rose

was rosest

Free Relative
Ja

moena kinechilo,

bought
Moina
what
'What Moina bought

ta

hochche

golap

that

is

rose

was roses'

bound

405
'thing'

Jinis
(49).
classes
thing,
the

The head

noun

functions

and is

capable

of

free

relative

have

also

the

the

of

the

examples

phul

Moina

rose

flower

JiniS

dropped

after

bought
Ithingt

class.

where

the

This
given

in

in

semantic
of

any
Same in

initial

wh-

may be
that

indicates

variables.
already

meaning

Variables

which

Relative

over

its

of

variables.

golap

the

pseudo-cleft

kTa
m
mDena

IMqina
Both

the

by focusing,

place

following

as a variable

conveying

semantic

easily

replaced
takes

in

Bound

in

noun

inanimateness

includes

which

words

as the, head

occurs

focus

can be shown after


(49)

and

(50).

(50)

have

kinechilo
bought

a rose'
in

assigning

(49)

and Ja

focus

'what?

on golap

in
phul

Ir-ose

been

(flower)'.

CHAPTER EIGHT

Conclusion

stLLdy is

The present
of

Bengali

structural

of

theoretical

aspects

introduced

to

only

to

of

finding

in

date

rules

The Bengali

interrogative

pronouns

I
from

differs

in

which

non-human

its

and non-honorific,

Je and the

'what,

inanimate

in
the

which

modification.
and needs
its

distinction
has
than

between

Je

with

their

three

1whot

in

their

the

do with

to

includes

are

the

respect-Bengali

counterpart

which'

syntax.

from

relative
human,

non-honorific,

honorific

406

rules

different

grammar

Je differ

the

are

properties.

that,

largely

describe

rather

honorific,

been

t6

this

done

work

complex

pronouns

a*sentence

in

differ

and inanimate

and Je

and thus

Bengali

form.

morphological
0

pronouns

problems

needed

quite

rules

interrogative

occurrences

pronouns

is

pattern

has

some of

grammarians

in

English,

and the

relative

'what'

As a result,

relative

are

relativi-

of

as the

model

the

the

The rules

language,

transformational

Bengali

than

aspects

transformational

grammatical

supplementary

rather

to

some. methodological

the

by transformational

provided

their

for

given

rules.

different,

aspects

is

emphasis

explaining

languages.

on non-Aryan

on different

clauses

be expected,

the

using

relative

explain

As would

zation.
arose

More

relativization.
aspects

based

is
is

inanimate.
occurrence

a human
Jini,

Ja

The human
in

407
When both

sentence.

due to

become deictic

they

Je and the

between
of

after

the

the

between

the

two

occurrence
to

occur

after

correlatives
a Bengali

sentence.
correlativet

but

the

of

Bengali

shows

for
the

Underly, ing
described

Bengali

the

the

shows

for

are

present

clauses
for

formulated
completely

not
From

Matzhing

this

point

Analysis,

have-been

Conjunction-Analysis
dissertation,

in
the

employing

are

clauses.
the

pronominali-

relative

rules
they

relative

pronoun

construction
of

the

a:

Moreover,

pronoun.

difficulties

Analysis,

Promotion

Structure
in

process

of

the'matrix

by a coreferential

construction,

relative

satisfactory
view,.

As most

languages.

the

in

can be made without

linguists

by different

proposed

English

the

of

and

in

The relative-correlative

NP.

sentences

other

the

use

pronoun

marker

a relative

replaced

sentence,

matrix

zatioil

without

the

relative

relative

correlative

NP is

identical
an
when

the

to

are

The common pattern


its

construction

not

pronouns

in. regard

i. e.

and the

A relative

rules

clause

relative

clause

relative

shows

vs

vs non-honorific,

sentences..

matrix

construction,

relative

the

honorific

structures

in

(animate

properties

Bengali

different

in

correlative

of

juncture

their

of

postcedent,

a close

Je fails

different

having

vs non-deictic),

involved

the

respect

human vs non-human,

deictic

in

in

the

antecedent.

inanimate,

in

of

A contrast

The inanimate

antecedent.

before

presence

postcedent.

Besides

of

the

Je can be noticed

types

the

of Je occur

types

but

as they

fail

to

408
the

explain

been

has

new rule
Bengali

relative-correlative

clauses.

when it

headless
tive

of

and this

rent

structure

Like

the

the

the

with

single

them
relative

the

Je and Ja)

can occur
clauses.

- different

distinguish

them.
in

structure
shows a diffe-

also

Bengali

also

allows

double.

Bengali
'are

relatives

plural
double

preceding

shows

mark

double

related

or

types

relatives.

to

the

of

as a relative

double

and allow

This

and absence

with

Though

has
also

plural
used

side
All

plurality.

Though

relatives.

(except

inflections
relatives,
the, head

selectional

word

clauses

their
show

following

identical

include
to

in

or

Je as a rela-

of

presence

language

double

have

pronouns

as a

a pause

shows

helps

and

relative

with

the

relatives

plural

may occur

postcedent,

they

markers.

relatives

relative

inanimate

relative

as plural
pronouns,

by side

a deictic

when Je occurs

the

relatives,

single

relative

the

of

It

relative-correlative

clauses,

relative

relatives

for

also

the

from

the

relative

pronoun

The occurrence

Moreover,

Apart

Bengali

relative

the

as a complementizer,

or

can handle

Je.

of

antecedent

except

a sentence,

correlatives,

Bengali

the

clause.

a comma'intonation.
pronoun

case

and as a complementizer

pronoun

order

the

preceding

after

relative

in

of

Je becomes

occurs

pronoun

feature

as a aeictic

as a complementizer.

relative

in

pronoun,

as a relative

which

Bengali,

can be observed

pronouns

Bengali

interesting

The most

pronoun

for

proposed

relative

in

structure

not

all

nouns

in

restrictions

of

-i-i.

409

on the
in

different

of

occurrence

The different

head

the

juncture

relative

the

constructions

pronouns

can

inanimate

Je

is

the

useful

of

clause

formation

the

the

hand,

and the

noun

clauses

head

of

makes

other

which
The

noun.

structures
aspect

non-

clauses,

also

possible

in

Bengali

of

relative

Bengali

relative

The headless

relative.
Bengali.

headless

in

pronouns

which

also

All

the

relative

relatives,

the
(cf.

except

Object,
are

Noun Phrase
Bengali

2.2.2)

for

Oblique
easily

Bengali.

In

Accessi-

relative
shows

that

clauses.
Bengali

Subject,

Direct

Object,

Genitive

NP and

accessible

for

positions.

relativizable

in

(1977)

explaining

Hierarchy,

Comparison

Object

is

precede

relative

head

In

2.1.8).

in

Indirect

relative

relative
from

headless

and Comriels

the

head

On the

infinite

Keenan

The Accessibility
all

the

constitute
(cf.

nouns

the

common in

fairly

are

relatives

the

is

the

them,

interesting

The most

clauses.

Object,

clauses

shows

process

pronouns

definite.

clause

clauses

relative

restrictive

between

relative

relative

and stacked.

non-restrictive

relative

of

stacking

allows

in

in

or

exists

pronoun

separates

bility

pronouns

headless

As the

between

deictic

comma intonation
relative

follow

nouns

exists

clause,

the

clauses.

relative

before

and the

they

while

nouns,

restrictive

a close

relative

Bengali

of

clauses,

relative

head

occur

types

non-restrictive,

restrictive,

restrictive
the

of

clauses.

relative

are

types

relative

relative

cl ause
I

forming

410
case is

strategies,
Internal
for

the

it

sentence,

to

show Prenom,

As Bengali

strategies.

occurrence

POstnom and

has SOV word structure

becomes easier

due to the

Strategy
the

included

to
the

of

show the
verb

Internal

the

at

end of

sentence.
As case has been included
Accessibility,

Noun hrase

in

the

no separate

discussion

of the

of it

account

has

been given.
A short

and participial

gerundive

shows different

constructions

the

within

application.

relative

of the

of complement

either

as a relative

been made in

clause

complement

pronoun,

along

of Je,

Je 'that'

to

with

necessitates

A few rules
These include

Gapping,

and Focus.

constructions.
the

and different

or as a deictic

relative

use of Je in

different.

in

types
other
in

the

between

Scrambling,
allows

of

Je.

two types

deletion

The
senten-

clause
of Je.

Six

Topicalization,
the

the

complement

Chapters

has

complement

than

relative
the

in

Bengali

discussion

an extended

are included

Bengali

of head

in

show the

pronoun

the distinction

(4.2)

As Je can occur

as a complementizer

and as a relative

position

Five

section

illustrate

two more complementizers

with

occurrence
ces,

clauses.

Chapter

their

occurrence

constructions

or as a complementizer,

pronoun,

This

infinitive,

showing

and participial

complementizer

types

clauses

of the

gerundive

The complement

after

clause.

possibilities

in-infinitive,
nouns

occurrence

has been made on the

discussion

and Seven.
Extra-

of

411
identical

verbs,

identical

elements

When the

object

SOV pattern
OSV, the

OVS, or

to

position

of

difference

sometimes

show the

the
the

fronting

When topic

topic.

the

subjectt

OVS, OSVO or

not

clause

antecedent

a topic.
constituents

marked

something

like

that

the

This

occurs

In the
than

the

rules

the

in

the

before

a relative

case when topic-is


the antecedent,

and, after

can be marked

be either

could

the

order,

clause,

of

as a

than

constituents

topicalization

due to

SOV

original

topic

word_order:

be-seen

to
the

end of

'Assigning

unmarked

SOV, word

included

the

a sentence

this.

may also

where

changed

of

movement

as a topic,:

other

of
and

this
to

assigned

condition
context

retains

initially,

order

clause
is

is

word

retained.

relative

is

shows

constituent

sentence

noun

to

rule

constituents

are-also

clauses

relative

subject

object

Other

Extraposition

When a Bengali

order,

word

of

to

gramma-

one

major

relation

a SVO,

scrambling

ows the

emphasis.

or

movement

sentence.

the

in

Topicalization

like

in

into
become

'The

certain

show

When an

etc.

patterns

rule'sh.

constituents

certain

sentences

constituents-from

of

movement

clauses.

changed

a sentence.

The movement

a sentence.

use

the

of

some

relative

them,

is

sentence

within
of

to

a sentence

movement

freedom

the

of

another

the

when

as SVO, OVS, 'OSV,

alternate

the

tical-after

from

applied

such

original

in

is

movement'rule
structures

and adverbs

dropped

are

variable

shows

nouns

on any

ofSOV

case

of

is

a relative
rule.
it

assigned"to
the'constituents

-When an
is

marked

any other
move

as

412
initially

in

of the relative
object

of the

place

topicalization

takes

comparison

is

difference

between

Bengali

it

initially,

Bengali
the

is

clause

sentence

and the matrix

easier

verb.

is

more easily

moveable

the

impose restrictions

occasionally
a. subject

before

insertion

does

honorific
not

nouns

non-honorific

position

is

possible

embedded

in

initial
Three

position.

extraposition

position

from

transformational

in

Bengali

rules.

relative

NP,

complex

Subject

of

-'anyiinanimate
extra-

but

NP shift#,

is

clause

final

not-in

extraposition,

are

of eTa as
eTa

-Moreover,

positions,

pro-

sentences-

when a relative

types

different

Sentential.

relative

on, t4einsertion,,

and pronouns.

an. intransitive

and-the

any problem-before.

and medial

from

than

nouns and'pronouns.

create

becomes

Moreover,

The Bengali

positions.

to a

When
it

toBengali,

applied

are dropped

correlatives

their
change
nouns

the

is

for

of the

clause,

has a head.

clauses

or

to a relative

When extraposition

occurs

fsapplied

moves forward.,,

one which

verb

sentence

and

the main sentence

to extrapose

transitive

contains

moves--to, the-end

sentence

Extraposition

a sentence

end of

and

has shown the

When extrap. osition

applied

Primary

Topicalization,

and, this

which

the latter

clauset

is

shown in

When a complement

rule.

relative

extrapos-ition

and

and Indonesian.

moved to the

extraposition

The way subject


is

place,,

Indonesian,

by eTa 'it'.

it

pattern

In Secondary

made with

copies

replaces

the

changed.

Topicalization.

Secondary

in

is

clause

and the whole

antecedent

namely

extra-and

examined'with

their

413
a discussion

is

There
to

show the

new information

is

included

only

the

to

focus.

show their

differences

application.

Focus

as to

as well
study

tant

is

is

introduced

in

the

in

first

reason

in

tense

the

A cleft

Various

element.

by a verb,

are

sentences

cleft

of

cedent

in

sentence
as the

of

in
subject

a pseudo-cleft
of

eTa,

focusing

without

moves

to'the

As both

is.

on the

next

from

any

and pseudo-

different

constituthe

preceding

construction

sentence.

may be

can be derived

or

The

which

cleft

either

present

falls

and a cleft

clause

relative

the

with

occurs

a verb

with

either
the

'it'

clause

a relative

constituted
cedent

eTa

a sentence.

Bengali

in

sentence

absent

in

verb

clauses

shown after

a sentence

sentence.

and focus

sentences

Relative

sentence.

neutral

or

in

a sentence

cleft

in

When a cleft

clause

impor-

play

may remain

begins

The

and pseudo-clett

a copular

sentence

followed

optionally

in

or

noun,

sentences.

c.onstructions

verb

second

constitu-

object

constituents

the

occasionally

a clause

deleted.

ents

in

noun,

clauses.

relative.

Bengali,

or
that

is

different

its

any major

cleft

sentences

and after

to

in

in

relevant
the

subject

included

also

the

is

before

meaning

applied

Presupposition

applied,

and pseudo-clef

and extraposing

it

and negative

focusing

in

roles

is

as the

such

Cleft

sentences.

in

affirmative

focus

of

that

extent

is

which

a sentence.

can be assigned

a sentence

of

ents

in

When focus

describing

focus,

of

sentence
it.

ante-

may be
The ante-

end of**th6
and Ja
eTa

'it'

twhatt

occurs

and Ja

414
'what'

they

inanimate,

are

any honorific

clefting

nouns

The present

in

Bengali

of

for
it

but

the

which

many aspects

frame

versus
for

depend,

relative

the

absence

any detailed

cannot.
of

relevant

claim

are

clauses.

investigated,
relative,

as

consti-

formulate
to

be final,

pronouns,

as far

illustrated

language.

non-restrictive

to

relative

aspects

which

in

clauses

and to

clauses

the

relativi-

Bengali

descriptions

the

apply

on my, intuition

solely

can be further

relative

of

case of

and pronouns.

and relative

study

of

eTa and Ja

describe

colloquial

examples
pattern

colloquial

restrictive

of

as

to

an attempt.

the

standard

and their

clauses

the

to

up-to-date

All

to

the

nouns

to

The present

them.

possible.

case

of
types

gives

relative

in

I had

speaker

different

rules

is

pronouns

relative

grammar,

a native

Owing

Bengali.

description

tute

pronouns,

honorific

study

in

problem

transformationallmodel

generative
zation

or

of

as subjects

stand

cannot

create

as
are

There-are
such
clauses

used
still
as the

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