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DEN102

Stress Analysis

Torsion of Shaft
2.1 Distribution of shear stress

φ θ angle of twist

r
φ (r )
r
L

T: Torque
L: length of shaft r2
2.2 Shear stress and angle of twist

T ⎛ D2 ⎞
Tr TL τ max = ⎜ ⎟
τ (r ) = , θ= J ⎝ 2 ⎠
J GJ

T: Torque
τ (r )
r
G: Shear modulus of shaft
L: Length of shaft r2
J: Polar second moment of area
D1
π
J = (D 4
2 −D
1
4
) D2
32
2.2 Shear stress and angle of twist

T ⎛ D2 ⎞
Tr TL τ max = ⎜ ⎟
τ (r ) = , θ= J ⎝ 2 ⎠
J GJ

T: Torque τ (r )

G: Shear modulus of shaft


L: Length of shaft r2
J: Polar second moment of area

π
J = (D 4
2 −D
1
4
)
32
2.2 Shear stress and angle of twist

T ⎛ D2 ⎞
Tr TL τ max = ⎜ ⎟
τ (r ) = , θ= J ⎝ 2 ⎠
J GJ

T: Torque τ (r )

G: Shear modulus of shaft


L: Length of shaft
J: Polar second moment of area

π
J = (D 4
2 −D
1
4
)
32
2.2 Shear stress and angle of twist

T ⎛ D2 ⎞
Tr TL τ max = ⎜ ⎟
τ (r ) = , θ= J ⎝ 2 ⎠
J GJ

T: Torque
G: Shear modulus of shaft
L: Length of shaft
J: Polar second moment of area τ (r )

π
J = (D 4
2 −D
1
4
)
32
2.2 Shear stress and angle of twist

T ⎛ D2 ⎞
Tr TL τ max = ⎜ ⎟
τ (r ) = , θ= J ⎝ 2 ⎠
J GJ

T: Torque τ (r )
G: Shear modulus of shaft
L: Length of shaft
J: Polar second moment of area

π
J = (D 4
2 −D
1
4
)
32
2.2 Shear stress and angle of twist

T ⎛ D2 ⎞
Tr TL τ max = ⎜ ⎟
τ (r ) = , θ= J ⎝ 2 ⎠
J GJ

T: Torque τ (r )
G: Shear modulus of shaft
L: Length of shaft
J: Polar second moment of area

π
J = (D 4
2 −D
1
4
)
32
2.2 Shear stress and angle of twist

T ⎛ D2 ⎞
Tr TL τ max = ⎜ ⎟
τ (r ) = , θ= J ⎝ 2 ⎠
J GJ τ (r )

T: Torque
G: Shear modulus of shaft
L: Length of shaft
J: Polar second moment of area

π
J = (D 4
2 −D
1
4
)
32
Example 1. A solid shaft is to transmit 500kW at 600r.p.m
(n). Find the minimum required shaft diameter if the
maximum shear stress in the shaft must not exceed
40N/mm2.
[hint: power=ωT, 1W=1Nm/sec, ω=2πn/60 radians/sec]

D
Example 2. A hollow shaft, of external diameter D2 and
internal diameter D1, where D1/D2=2/3, is required to
transmit a torque of 125kNm. Find the minimum value of D2
if both the following conditions must be satisfied:
(1) The maximum shear stress in the shaft must not
exceed 60MPa (1Pa=1N/m2);
(2) The twist of the tube over a length of 10m must not
exceed 10.
(3) Sketch the shear stress distribution across the wall of
the tube. The shear modulus G=84×103N/mm2

D1 D2
Homework 1.
A hollow shaft, of external diameter D2 and internal
diameter D1, where D1/D2=0.5, is to transmit 500kW (P) at
600r.p.m (Ω). Find the minimum required shaft diameter if
the maximum shear stress in the shaft must not exceed
40N/mm2.
Homework 2.
A hollow shaft, of external diameter D2 and internal
diameter D1, where D1/D2=0.5, is required to transmit a
torque of 150kNm. Find the minimum value of D2 if both
the following conditions must be satisfied:
(1) The maximum shear stress in the shaft must not
exceed 50N/mm2;
(2) The twist of the tube over a length of 8m must not
exceed 1o.