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User Manual

LTE

v e r s i o n 3.1.0

AT310_UML_E0

AT310_UML_E0

experts in radio network planning


& optimisation software

Forsk USA Office

Forsk Head Office

Forsk China Office

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7 rue des Briquetiers

Suite 302, 3/F, West Tower,

Suite 3100

31700 Blagnac

Jiadu Commercial Building,

Chicago, IL 60606

France

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USA

Tianhe Hi-Tech Industrial Zone,


Guangzhou, 510665,
Peoples Republic of China

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sales@forsk.com

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+33 (0) 562 747 210

+86 20 8553 8938

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+33 (0) 562 747 211

+86 20 8553 8285

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atollsupport@forsk.com.cn

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Atoll 3.1.0
User Manual

Forsk

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual Release AT310_UML_E0

Copyright 1997 - 2011 by Forsk


The software described in this document is provided under a licence agreement. The software may only be used or copied under the terms and
conditions of the licence agreement. No part of this document may be copied, reproduced or distributed in any form without prior authorisation
from Forsk.
The product or brand names mentioned in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective registering parties.
The Atoll user documentation is a guide and reference for users working with Atoll. Atoll is easy to use and offers a clear, self-explanatory user
interface. The user documentation helps the user make effective and efficient use of all the features that Atoll offers. The user documentation
aims to familiarise the user with the working environment of Atoll and enable him to use all of Atolls features and functions.
The Atoll user documentation is technology-specific. For each Atoll radio technology, the Atoll user manual contains instructions and information
specific to that technology as well as chapters describing the Atoll working environment and the tools available.

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Table of Contents

AT310_UML_E0

Table of Contents

Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

The Working Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2

The Atoll Work Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


Working with Document Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Docking or Floating an Atoll Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3

The Explorer Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17


Working with the Explorer Window Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Working with Layers Using the Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.3
1.3.1
1.3.1.1
1.3.1.2
1.3.1.3
1.3.2
1.3.2.1
1.3.2.2
1.3.2.3
1.3.2.4
1.3.2.5
1.3.3
1.3.3.1
1.3.3.2

Working with Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


Using the Object Context Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Renaming an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Deleting an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Displaying the Properties of an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Modifying Sites and Transmitters Directly on the Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Selecting One of Several Transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Moving a Site Using the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Moving a Site to a Higher Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Changing the Azimuth of the Antenna Using the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Changing the Antenna Position Relative to the Site Using the Mouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Display Properties of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Defining the Display Properties of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Examples of Using the Display Properties of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

1.4
1.4.1
1.4.1.1
1.4.1.2
1.4.1.3
1.4.1.4
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6
1.4.7
1.4.8
1.4.9
1.4.10
1.4.10.1
1.4.10.2
1.4.10.3
1.4.10.4
1.4.10.5
1.4.10.6
1.4.11
1.4.11.1
1.4.11.2
1.4.11.3
1.4.11.4
1.4.11.5
1.4.11.6
1.4.12
1.4.12.1
1.4.12.2

Working with Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


Changing the Map Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Zooming In and Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Zooming In on a Specific Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Choosing a Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Changing Between Previous Zoom Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Moving the Map in the Document Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Using the Panoramic Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Centring the Map Window on an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Centring the Map Window on a Table Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Adjusting the Map Window to a Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Measuring Distances on the Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Displaying Rulers Around the Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Displaying the Map Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Using Zones in the Map Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Using a Filtering Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Using a Computation Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Using a Focus Zone or Hot Spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Using Polygon Zone Editing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Using a Printing Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Using a Geographic Export Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Editing Polygons, Lines, and Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Adding a Vector Layer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Creating Polygons, Lines, and Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Editing the Shape of Polygons and Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Combining or Cropping Polygons Using the Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Editing a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Editing Contours, Lines, and Points Using the Context Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Exporting Coverage Prediction Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Exporting an Individual Coverage Prediction in Vector Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Exporting an Individual Coverage Prediction in Raster Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Table of Contents

1.4.12.3
1.4.13
1.4.14
1.4.15

Forsk 2011

Exporting Multiple Coverage Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44


Saving a Map as a Graphic Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Copying a Map to Another Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Map Window Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.2.1
1.5.2.2
1.5.2.3
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.5.5
1.5.6
1.5.6.1
1.5.6.2
1.5.7
1.5.8
1.5.9
1.5.10
1.5.11

Working with Data Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47


Opening a Data Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Accessing an Object Types Table Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Adding a Field to an Object Types Data Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Deleting a Field from an Object Types Data Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Editing the Contents of a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Opening an Objects Record Properties Dialogue from a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Defining the Table Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Copying and Pasting in Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Copying and Pasting a Table Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Pasting the Same Data into Several Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Viewing a Statistical Analysis of Table Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Exporting Tables to Text Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Importing Tables from Text Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Exporting Tables to XML Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Importing Tables from XML Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

1.6
1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.2.1
1.6.2.2
1.6.2.3
1.6.3
1.6.4
1.6.5

Printing in Atoll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60


Printing Data Tables and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Printing a Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Printing Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Defining the Printing Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Defining the Print Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Previewing Your Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Printing a Docking Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Printing Antenna Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64

1.7
1.7.1
1.7.1.1
1.7.1.2
1.7.1.3
1.7.1.4
1.7.2
1.7.2.1
1.7.2.2
1.7.3
1.7.3.1
1.7.3.2
1.7.3.3
1.7.3.4
1.7.4
1.7.4.1
1.7.4.2
1.7.5
1.7.5.1
1.7.5.2
1.7.5.3
1.7.5.4
1.7.5.5
1.7.5.6
1.7.6
1.7.6.1
1.7.6.2
1.7.6.3
1.7.6.4
1.7.6.5
1.7.6.6
1.7.7
1.7.8

Grouping, Sorting, and Filtering Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65


Grouping Data Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Grouping Data Objects by a Selected Property. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Configuring the Group By Submenu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Advanced Grouping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Examples of Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Sorting Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Sorting Data in Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Advanced Sorting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Filtering Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Filtering in Data Tables by Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Advanced Data Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Restoring All Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Advanced Filtering: Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
User Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Saving a User Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Loading a User Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Site and Transmitter Lists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Creating a Site or Transmitter List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Adding a Site or Transmitter to a List from the Explorer Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Adding a Site or Transmitter to a List from the Map Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Adding Sites or Transmitters to a List Using a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Editing a Site or Transmitter List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Filtering on a Site or Transmitter List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Folder Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Creating a Folder Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Applying a Saved Folder Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Reapplying the Current Folder Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Saving a Folder Configuration in an External File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Loading a Folder Configuration from an External File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Deleting a Folder Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Creating and Comparing Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Filtering Data Using a Filtering Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

AT310_UML_E0

1.8
1.8.1
1.8.2
1.8.3
1.8.3.1
1.8.3.2
1.8.3.3
1.8.4
1.8.5
1.8.6
1.8.7

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Table of Contents

Tips and Tricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


Undoing and Redoing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Refreshing Maps and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Searching for Objects on the Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Searching for a Map Object by Its Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Searching for a Map Object using Any Text Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Searching for a Point on the Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Using the Status Bar to Get Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Saving Information Displayed in the Event Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Using Icons from the Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Using Shortcuts in Atoll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Starting an Atoll Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

2.1

Before Starting a Radio-Planning Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

2.2
2.2.1
2.2.1.1
2.2.1.2
2.2.1.3
2.2.2
2.2.2.1
2.2.2.2
2.2.2.3
2.2.2.4
2.2.2.5

Creating an Atoll Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


Creating a New Atoll Document from a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Templates Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Creating a New Atoll Document from a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Defining a New Atoll Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Working in a Multi-User Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
The Atoll Multi-User Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Creating a New Atoll Document from a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Working With a Document on a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Refreshing an Atoll Document from the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Archiving the Modifications of an Atoll Document in the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2

Making a Backup of Your Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


Configuring Automatic Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Recovering a Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

2.4

Making and Sharing Portable Atoll Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Geographic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

3.1

Geographic Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

3.2

Supported Geographic Data Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.3.1
3.3.3.2
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6
3.3.7

Importing Geo Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111


Importing a Raster-format Geo Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Importing a Vector-format Geo Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Importing MSI Planet Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Importing One MSI Planet Data Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Importing a MSI Planet Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Importing a WMS Raster-format Geo Data File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Grouping Geo Data Files in Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Embedding Geographic Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Repairing a Broken Link to a Geo Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

3.4

Digital Terrain Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5

Clutter Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118


Assigning Names to Clutter Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Defining Clutter Class Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Adding a Clutter Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Refreshing the List of Clutter Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Displaying Total Surface Area per Clutter Class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

3.6

Clutter Heights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3

Contours, Lines, and Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122


Managing the Display of a Vector Layer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Managing the Properties of the Vector Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Moving a Vector Layer to the Network Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

3.8
3.8.1
3.8.2

Scanned Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124


Importing Several Scanned Images. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Defining the Display Properties of Scanned Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Table of Contents

3.9
3.9.1
3.9.2

Population Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125


Managing the Display of Population Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Displaying Population Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

3.10
3.10.1
3.10.2
3.10.3
3.10.4
3.10.5

Custom Geo Data Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Creating a Custom Geo Data Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a File to a Custom Geo Data Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing the Properties of a Custom Geo Data Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Statistics on Custom Geo Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Integrable Versus Non Integrable Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126
126
127
128
128
129

3.11
3.11.1
3.11.2
3.11.2.1
3.11.2.2
3.11.2.3

Setting the Priority of Geo Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Setting the Display Priority of Geo Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Priority of Geo Data in Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 1: Two DTM Maps Representing Different Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 2: Clutter Classes and DTM Maps Representing the Same Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 3: Two Clutter Class Maps Representing a Common Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129
129
130
130
131
131

3.12

Displaying Information About Geo Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

3.13
3.13.1
3.13.2

Geographic Data Sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132


Exporting a Geo Data Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Loading a Geo Data Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

3.14
3.14.1
3.14.1.1
3.14.1.2
3.14.1.3
3.14.1.4
3.14.2

Editing Geographic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Editing Clutter Class Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Clutter Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Clutter Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Coordinates of Clutter Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Clutter Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Population or Custom Data Maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134
134
134
134
135
135
135

3.15
3.15.1
3.15.1.1
3.15.1.2
3.15.2
3.15.3
3.15.4
3.15.5

Saving Geographic Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Saving Modifications to an External File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting an Edited Clutter Class Map in a Raster-Format File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting an Edited Vector Layer in Vector-Format File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Updating the Source File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combining Several Raster Files into One File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting an Embedded File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a New File from a Larger File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136
137
137
138
138
138
139
140

Antennas and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5

Working With Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Creating an Antenna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Planet-Format Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing 3-D Antenna Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Smoothing an Antenna Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing an Antenna Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

143
143
144
145
147
147

4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8

Working With Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Defining TMA Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Feeder Cables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Transmitter Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Updating the Values for Total Losses and the Transmitter Equipment Noise Figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..................................................................................................
Creating or Modifying a Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..................................................................................................
Creating or Modifying Waveguides and Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

147
148
148
148
149
150
151
151
152

5
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.2.1
5.1.2.2
5.1.2.3
5.1.2.4

Forsk 2011

Working with Calculations in Atoll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155


Working with Propagation Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Propagation Model Characteristics: Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Standard Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommendations for Working with the Standard Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculating Diffraction With the SPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample Values for SPM Formulas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculating f(clutter) with the Standard Propagation Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

155
155
156
157
158
158
159

AT310_UML_E0

5.1.2.5
5.1.2.6
5.1.3
5.1.3.1
5.1.3.2
5.1.3.3
5.1.4
5.1.4.1
5.1.4.2
5.1.4.3
5.1.5
5.1.5.1
5.1.5.2
5.1.5.3
5.1.6
5.1.7
5.1.7.1
5.1.7.2
5.1.7.3
5.1.8
5.1.9
5.1.10
5.1.11
5.1.12
5.1.13
5.1.14

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Table of Contents

Modelling Fixed Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160


Defining the Parameters of the Standard Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
The Okumura-Hata Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Defining General Settings (Okumura-Hata) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Selecting an Environment Formula (Okumura-Hata). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Okumura-Hata) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
The Cost-Hata Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Defining General Settings (Cost-Hata) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Selecting an Environment Formula (Cost-Hata) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Cost-Hata). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
The ITU 529-3 Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Defining General Settings (ITU 529-3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Selecting an Environment Formula (ITU 529-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (ITU 529-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
The ITU 370-7 Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
The Erceg-Greenstein Propagation Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Defining General Settings (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI)). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Selecting an Environment Formula (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
The ITU 526-5 Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
The WLL Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
The Longley-Rice Propagation Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
The ITU 1546 Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
The Sakagami Extended Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
CrossWave Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Managing Propagation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5

Defining Calculation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173


Defining Calculation Parameters for One Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Defining the Same Calculation Parameters for a Group of Transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Defining the Same Calculation Parameters for All Transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Defining a Default Propagation Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Defining a Default Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6
5.3.7
5.3.7.1
5.3.7.2
5.3.7.3
5.3.7.4
5.3.7.5
5.3.8

Managing Path Loss Matrices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175


Calculating Path Loss Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Stopping Path Loss Matrix Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Setting the Storage Location of Path Loss Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Using Centralised Path Loss Matrices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Checking the Validity of Path Loss Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Optimising Path Loss Matrix Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Tuning Path Loss Matrices Using Measurement Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Defining the Area to be Tuned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Defining Maximum Corrections and Thresholds on Path Loss Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Tuning Path Loss Matrices Using CW Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Tuning Path Loss Matrices Using Drive Test Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Managing the Path Loss Tuning Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Exporting Path Loss Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

5.4
5.4.1
5.4.1.1
5.4.1.2
5.4.1.3
5.4.1.4
5.4.1.5
5.4.2
5.4.2.1
5.4.2.2
5.4.2.3
5.4.2.4
5.4.2.5
5.4.2.6

Predictions Available in Atoll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186


Making Point Predictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Starting a Point Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
The Views of the Point Analysis Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Moving the Receiver on the Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Taking Indoor Losses into Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Taking Shadowing into Account in Point Analyses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Making Coverage Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Creating Coverage Predictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Defining the Storage Location of Coverage Prediction Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Calculating Coverage Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Saving Defined Coverage Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Calculating Indoor Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Taking Shadowing into Account. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Table of Contents

Forsk 2011

LTE Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

6.1

Designing an LTE Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

6.2
6.2.1
6.2.1.1
6.2.1.2
6.2.1.3
6.2.1.4
6.2.1.5
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.6.1
6.2.6.2
6.2.6.3
6.2.6.4
6.2.6.5
6.2.6.6
6.2.7
6.2.7.1
6.2.7.2
6.2.7.3
6.2.7.4
6.2.7.5
6.2.8
6.2.9
6.2.9.1
6.2.9.2
6.2.10
6.2.10.1
6.2.10.2
6.2.10.3
6.2.10.4
6.2.10.5
6.2.10.6
6.2.10.7
6.2.10.8
6.2.10.9
6.2.11
6.2.11.1
6.2.11.2
6.2.11.3
6.2.11.4
6.2.11.5
6.2.11.6
6.2.11.7
6.2.11.8
6.2.11.9

Planning and Optimising LTE Base Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Creating an LTE Base Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definition of a Base Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating or Modifying a Base Station Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placing a New Base Station Using a Station Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Station Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duplicating an Existing Base Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Group of Base Stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Sites and Transmitters Directly on the Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Tips for Base Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Multi-band LTE Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the Repeaters Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Modifying Repeater Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placing a Repeater on the Map Using the Mouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Several Repeaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining the Properties of a Repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tips for Updating Repeater Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Remote Antenna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the Remote Antennas Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placing a Remote Antenna on the Map Using the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Several Remote Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining the Properties of a Remote Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tips for Updating Remote Antenna Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Working Area of an Atoll Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Studying a Single Base Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making a Point Analysis to Study the Profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Studying Signal Level Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Studying Base Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Path Loss Matrices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning a Propagation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Calculation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Computation Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Transmitters or Cells as Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signal Level Coverage Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysing a Coverage Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LTE Coverage Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing and Exporting Coverage Prediction Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning Neighbours. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Neighbours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Exceptional Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Importance Factors for Neighbours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allocating Neighbours Automatically. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking Automatic Allocation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allocating and Deleting Neighbours per Cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculating the Importance of Existing Neighbours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Consistency of the Neighbour Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Neighbours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

200
201
201
208
209
210
215
216
216
217
217
217
218
218
218
219
219
221
221
221
222
222
222
224
224
224
225
226
228
229
230
232
233
233
234
239
248
266
266
267
267
267
268
270
273
275
276
277

6.3
6.3.1
6.3.1.1
6.3.1.2
6.3.1.3
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.4.1
6.3.4.2
6.3.4.3
6.3.4.4
6.3.4.5
6.3.4.6

Configuring Network Parameters Using the AFP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


AFP Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interference Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Neighbour Importance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resources Available for Allocation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning Physical Cell IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying and Analysing the AFP Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Find on Map Tool to Display AFP Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying AFP Results Using Transmitter Display Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grouping Transmitters by Channels or Physical Cell IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysing the Frequency Allocation Using Coverage Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Consistency of the Physical Cell ID Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Physical Cell ID Allocation Histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

278
278
278
280
280
280
281
282
283
284
284
285
285
285

10

AT310_UML_E0

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Table of Contents

6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.2.1
6.4.2.2
6.4.2.3
6.4.2.4
6.4.2.5
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.4.1
6.4.4.2
6.4.5
6.4.5.1
6.4.5.2
6.4.5.3
6.4.5.4
6.4.5.5
6.4.5.6
6.4.5.7
6.4.6

Studying Network Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285


Defining Multi-service Traffic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Creating a Traffic Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Creating a Sector Traffic Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Creating a User Profile Traffic Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Creating User Density Traffic Maps (No. Users/km2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Converting 2G Network Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Exporting Cumulated Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Exporting a Traffic Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Working with a Subscriber Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Creating a Subscriber List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Performing Calculations on Subscriber lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Calculating and Displaying Traffic Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
LTE Traffic Simulation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Creating Simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Displaying the Traffic Distribution on the Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Displaying the Results of a Single Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Displaying the Average Results of a Group of Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Updating Cell Load Values With Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Estimating a Traffic Increase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Making Coverage Predictions Using Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

6.5
6.5.1
6.5.1.1
6.5.1.2
6.5.1.3
6.5.1.4
6.5.1.5
6.5.2
6.5.2.1
6.5.2.2
6.5.2.3
6.5.2.4
6.5.3
6.5.3.1
6.5.3.2
6.5.4
6.5.5
6.5.6
6.5.6.1
6.5.6.2
6.5.6.3

Optimising Network Parameters Using the ACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315


The ACP Module and Atoll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Using Zones with ACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Using Traffic Maps with ACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Shadowing Margin and Indoor Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
ACP and Antenna Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
EMF Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Configuring the ACP Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Defining the Storage Location of ACP Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Defining the Antenna Masking Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Configuring the Default Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Configuring Setup-specific Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Optimising Cell Planning with the ACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Creating an Optimisation Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Defining Optimisation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Running an Optimisation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Working with Optimisations in the Explorer Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Viewing Optimisation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Viewing Optimisation Results in the Properties Dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Viewing Optimisation Results in the Map Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Viewing Optimisation Results Using the Histogram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.3
6.6.4
6.6.4.1
6.6.4.2
6.6.4.3
6.6.4.4
6.6.4.5
6.6.5
6.6.6
6.6.7

Verifying Network Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363


Importing a Drive Test Data Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Displaying Drive Test Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Defining the Display of a Drive Test Data Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Network Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Filtering Measurement Points Along Drive Test Data Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Creating Coverage Predictions on Drive Test Data Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Displaying Statistics Over a Drive Test Data Path. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Extracting a Field From a Drive Test Data Path for a Transmitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Analysing Measurement Variations Along the Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Exporting a Drive Test Data Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Extracting CW Measurements from Drive Test Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Printing and Exporting the Drive Test Data Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

6.7
6.7.1
6.7.2
6.7.2.1
6.7.2.2
6.7.3
6.7.3.1
6.7.3.2
6.7.3.3
6.7.3.4

Co-planning LTE Networks with Other Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372


Switching to Co-planning Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Working with Coverage Predictions in an Co-Planning Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Updating Coverage Predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Analysing Coverage Predictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Performing Inter-technology Neighbour Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Setting Inter-technology Exceptional Pairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Configuring Importance Factors for Inter-technology Neighbours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Allocating Inter-technology Neighbours Automatically. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Displaying Inter-technology Neighbours on the Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

11

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Table of Contents

6.7.3.5
6.7.3.6
6.7.3.7
6.7.4
6.7.5
6.7.5.1
6.7.5.2
6.7.6

Forsk 2011

Allocating and Deleting Inter-technology Neighbours per Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Calculating the Importance of Existing Inter-technology Neighbours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Consistency of the Inter-technology Neighbour Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an LTE Sector From a Sector in the Other Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using ACP in a Co-planning Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a New Co-planning Optimisation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing the Other Network into the Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ending Co-planning Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

383
386
388
389
389
390
390
390

6.8
6.8.1
6.8.2
6.8.2.1
6.8.2.2
6.8.2.3
6.8.3
6.8.4
6.8.5
6.8.6
6.8.7
6.8.8
6.8.8.1
6.8.9
6.8.10
6.8.11
6.8.11.1
6.8.12

Advanced Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Frequency Bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Global Network Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Options on the Global Parameters Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Options on the Calculation Parameters Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Global Network Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining LTE Radio Bearers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining LTE Quality Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining LTE Reception Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining LTE Schedulers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining LTE UE Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Smart Antenna Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Smart Antenna Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining ICIC Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modelling Shadowing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Shadowing Margins per Clutter Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modelling Inter-technology Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

391
391
392
392
394
394
395
396
396
399
400
401
401
402
403
404
404
405

6.9

Tips and Tricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

6.10

Glossary of LTE Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

12

Chapter 1
The Working
Environment
This chapter presents the Atoll working environment and
explains the tools and shortcuts available.

In this chapter, the following are explained:

"The Atoll Work Area" on page 15

"The Explorer Window" on page 17

"Working with Objects" on page 19

"Working with Maps" on page 29

"Working with Data Tables" on page 47

"Printing in Atoll" on page 60

"Grouping, Sorting, and Filtering Data" on page 65

"Tips and Tricks" on page 82

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Chapter 1: The Working Environment

14

Forsk 2011

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Chapter 1: The Working Environment

AT310_UML_E0

1 The Working Environment


The Atoll working environment is both powerful and flexible. It provides a comprehensive and integrated set of tools and
features that allow you to create and define your radio-planning project in a single application. Atoll includes advanced multitechnology network planning features (e.g., CDMA/LTE), and a combined single-RAN, multi-RAT GSM/UMTS/LTE Monte Carlo
simulator and traffic model. You can save the entire project as a single file, or you can link your project to external files.
The Atoll working environment uses familiar Windows interface elements, with the ability to have several document windows
open at the same time, support for drag-and-drop, context menus, and support for standard Windows shortcuts, for example,
for cutting and pasting. Atoll not only enables you to create and work on your planning project, but also offers you a wide
range of options for creating and exporting results based on your project. The working environment provides a wide selection
of tools to facilitate radio-planning, such as a search tool to locate either a site, a point on the map, or a vector.
The Explorer window plays a central role in Atoll. The Explorer window contains most of the objects in a document arranged
in folders.
Using the Explorer window, you can manage all objects in the Atoll document: sites, transmitters, calculations, etc., as well
as geographic data such as the Digital Terrain Model (DTM), traffic maps, and clutter classes. You can, for example, define various coverage predictions or configure the parameters or display of data objects.
The content of the folders in the Explorer window can be displayed in tables, allowing you to manage large amounts of data.
You can sort and filter the data in a table, or change how the data is displayed. You can also use the table feature to enter
large amounts of information by importing data or by cutting and pasting the information from any Windows spreadsheet into
the table.
The map is the working area for your document and Atoll provides many tools for working with the map. You can change the
view by moving or zooming in or out and you can choose which objects are displayed and how they are displayed. You can
also export the current display definition, or configuration, to use it in other documents.
This chapter provides an overview of the Atoll working environment.
This chapter explains the following topics:

"The Atoll Work Area" on page 15


"The Explorer Window" on page 17
"Working with Objects" on page 19
"Printing in Atoll" on page 60
"Working with Maps" on page 29
"Working with Data Tables" on page 47
"Grouping, Sorting, and Filtering Data" on page 65
"Tips and Tricks" on page 82.

1.1 The Atoll Work Area


The Atoll work area, shown in Figure 1.1 on page 16, consists of the main window where the map window and data tables and
reports are displayed and the Explorer window. The Explorer window contains the data and objects of a document, arranged
in folders. It is presented in detail in "The Explorer Window" on page 17.
Atoll offers a variety of tools to help you plan a network. The tools open in separate windows, some of which can be docked
into the work area or floated over the work area (see Figure 1.1 on page 16).

15

Atoll 3.1.0 User Manual


Chapter 1: The Working Environment

Forsk 2011

Toolbar

Document window
(map)
Workspace
Explorer window
(docked)

Panoramic window
(floating)

Find on Map window


(docked)
Figure 1.1: Atoll user interface

1.1.1 Working with Document Windows


When you have one Atoll document open, you can have several document windows open at the same time. You can resize,
maximise, and minimise document windows as you can in any Windows-based application.
As well, you can tile document windows, in order to display all of them at the same time, or cascade them, in order to display
the title bar of each document window.
To tile document windows:

Select Window > Tile.

To cascade document windows:

Select Window > Cascade.

1.1.2 Docking or Floating an Atoll Window


Only document windows are part of an individual Atoll document. Other windows and tools, such as the Explorer window,
display the content of the active document. They are not part of the individual Atoll document, but part of the working environment and, when you switch to a different document, they will display the content of the active document.
You can change how these windows and tools are displayed. You can also remove them from their position and float them
over the Atoll working environment.
To display a window:

On the View menu, select the name of the window.

To display a tool window:

On the Tool menu, select the name of the window.

To close a window or tool:

Click the Close button ( ) in the corner of the window. Depending on the position of the docking window, this button
can be in the upper-left or upper-right corner.

You can change how much room a window takes if it shares a docking area with other windows by maximising or minimising
the window.

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To maximise a window in its docking area:

Click the Maximise button ( ) near the corner of the window. Depending on the position of the window, this button
can be in the upper-left or upper-right corner.

To minimise a window in its docking area:

Click the Minimise button ( ) near the corner of the window. Depending on the position of the window, this button
can be in the upper-left or upper-right corner.

You can leave a window in its docking area, or you can have it float over the working environment, allowing you to maximise
the amount of area for document windows or other windows.
To float a window:

Double-click the docking window title bar. The docking window leaves the docking area and floats over the working
environment.
You can move the docking window by clicking the title bar and dragging it. To prevent the
window from docking as you move it, press CTRL as you drag the docking window.

To dock a window:

To return the window to its previous docked location, double-click the docking window title bar.
Or

Click the title bar of the docking window and drag the window to a different docking area.
The window positions for docking windows are not associated with the current document;
they remain the same no matter which document you open.

1.2 The Explorer Window


The Explorer window plays a central role in Atoll. The Explorer window contains the data and objects of a document, arranged
in folders. Each object and folder has a context-specific menu that you can access by right-clicking. You can modify items at
the folder level, with changes affecting all items in the folder, or you can access and edit items individually. As well, most folder
contents can also be accessed in a table, allowing you to easily manage large amounts of information. For information on
working with tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on page 47.
In this section, the following are described:

"Working with the Explorer Window Tabs" on page 17


"Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 18
"Working with Layers Using the Explorer" on page 19.

1.2.1 Working with the Explorer Window Tabs


The Explorer window has three tabs; each tab has objects and folders containing objects.
To move from one tab to another:

Click the tab at the bottom of the Explorer window.

You can open a folder on a tab to view its contents. Each folder containing at least one object has an Expand ( ) or Contract
button ( ) to the left of its name.
To expand a folder to display its contents:

Click the Expand button (

) to the left of its name.

The tabs in the Explorer window are:

The Network tab: The Network tab allows you to manage radio data and calculations. Depending on the modules
installed with Atoll, the Network tab has the following folders:
-

Sites
Transmitters
Predictions
UMTS Simulations, CDMA2000 Simulations , WiMAX 802.16e simulations, or LTE Simulations
Traffic analysis (GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects only)

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Interference matrices (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, LTE, and WiMAX projects only)


Subscriber lists (LTE and WiMAX projects only)
Multi-point analyses (
Automatic cell planning results (GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS, LTE, and WiMAX only)
Hexagonal design
Microwave links
CW Measurements and drive test data

The Geo Tab: The Geo tab allows you to manage geographic data. The number of folders depends on the number
and types of geographical data types (vector data, scanned images, etc.) you import or create:
-

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Clutter classes
Clutter heights
Digital terrain model
Population data
Geoclimatic parameters
Any other geo data map
Traffic maps (GSM/GPRS/EDGE/TDMA, UMTS HSPA, CDMA2000, LTE, and WiMAX)

The Parameters tab: The Parameters tab allows you to manage the propagation models and additional modules.
It contains:
-

Propagation Models: The Parameters tab has a Propagation Models folder with the following propagation
models:
- Cost-Hata
- Erceg-Greenstein (SUI)
- ITU 1546
- ITU 370-7 (Vienna 93)
- ITU 526-5
- ITU 529
- Longley-Rice
- Microwave ITU-R P.452 Model
- Microwave Propagation Model
- Okumura-Hata
- Standard Propagation Model
- WLL
Radio Network Equipment: The Radio Network Equipment folder contains antenna models, transmitter models,
repeater and smart antenna equipment, and waveguides, cables, and feeders.
Traffic Parameters: The Traffic Parameters folder contains services, mobility types, terminals, user profiles, and
environments.
Network Settings: The Network Settings folder contains station templates, frequencies and frequency bands,
bearers, reception equipment, quality indicators, etc.
Microwave link network settings and equipment
The AFP models available in your Atoll installation.
Any additional module created using the API.

1.2.2 Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer


You can use the Explorer to display or hide objects on the map. This allows you to hide one type of object so that another type
of object is more plainly visible. For example, you could hide all predictions but one, so that the results of one prediction are
more clearly displayed.
Hiding an object affects only its visibility in the map window; it will still be taken into
consideration during calculations.

To hide an object on the map:


1. Select the tab of the Explorer window that contains that object.
2. Clear the check box ( ) immediately to the left of the object name. The check box appears cleared (
is no longer visible on the map.

) and the object

You can hide the contents of an entire folder by clearing the check box to the left of the
folder name. When the check box of a folder appears greyed ( ), it indicates that the
folder contains both visible and hidden objects.

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1.2.3 Working with Layers Using the Explorer


In Atoll, the map is made of objects arranged in layers. The layers on the top (as arranged on the Network and Geo tabs) are
the most visible on the screen and in print. The visibility of the lower layers depends on which layers are above and visible (see
"Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 18) and on the transparency of these layers (see "Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types" on page 25).
To move a layer up or down:
1. Select the tab of the Explorer window that contains that object.
2. Click and drag the object to its new position. As you drag the object, a horizontal black line indicates where the object
will remain when you release the mouse button (see Figure 1.2).

Figure 1.2: Moving a layer


Before you print a map, you should pay attention to the arrangement of the layers. For
more information, see "Printing Recommendations" on page 61.

1.3 Working with Objects


In Atoll, the items found in the Explorer window and displayed on the map are referred to as objects. Most objects in Atoll
belong to an object type. For example, a transmitter is an object of the type transmitter.
Atoll enables you to carry out many operations on objects by clicking the object directly or by right-clicking the object and
selecting the operation from the context menu.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Using the Object Context Menu" on page 19


"Modifying Sites and Transmitters Directly on the Map" on page 21
"Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.

1.3.1 Using the Object Context Menu


In Atoll, an objects context menu gives you access to commands specific to that object as well as to commands that are
common to most objects. In this section, the following context menu commands common to all objects types are explained:

Rename: "Renaming an Object" on page 19.


Delete: "Deleting an Object" on page 20.
Properties: "Displaying the Properties of an Object" on page 20.

1.3.1.1 Renaming an Object


You can change the name of an object in Atoll.
To rename an object:
1. Right-click the object either in the Explorer window or on the map. The context menu appears.
2. Select Rename from the context menu.
3. Enter the new name and press ENTER to change the name.

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In Atoll, objects such as sites or transmitters are named with default prefixes. Individual
objects are distinguished from each other by the number added automatically to the
default prefix. You can change the default prefix for sites, transmitters, and cells by editing
the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.

1.3.1.2 Deleting an Object


You can delete objects from either the Explorer window or from the map.
To delete an object:
1. Right-click the object either in the Explorer window or on the map. The context menu appears.
2. Select Delete from the context menu. The selected object is deleted.

1.3.1.3 Displaying the Properties of an Object


You can modify the properties of an object in the Properties dialogue.
To open the Properties dialogue of a data object:
1. Right-click the object either in the Explorer window or on the map. The context menu appears.
When you are selecting data objects on the map, it can be difficult to ensure that the
correct object has been selected. When a site is selected, the site (and its name) is
surrounded by a black frame (
). When a transmitter is selected, both ends of its
icon have a green point (
). When there is more than one transmitter with with the
same azimuth, clicking the transmitters in the map window opens a context menu
allowing you to select the transmitter you want (see "Selecting One of Several
Transmitters" on page 21).
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
Switching Between Property Dialogues
You can switch between the Properties dialogues of items (transmitters, antennas, sites, services, user profiles, etc.) in the
same folder or defined view in the Explorer window by using the browse buttons (
of each Properties dialogue:

: jump to the first item in the list

: jump to the previous item in the list

: jump to the next item in the list

: jump to the last item in the list

) in the lower-left corner

If you have made any changes to the properties of an item, Atoll prompts you to confirm these changes before switching to
the next Properties dialogue.
You can use this feature, for example, to access the properties of co-site transmitters without closing and reopening the Properties dialogue. Switching is performed within the folder or, if you have created a view, within the view. For example:

If transmitters are grouped by site, you can switch only within one site (co-site transmitters).
If transmitters are grouped by a flag, you can switch only within this group.
If transmitters are grouped by activity and by a flag, you can switch only within transmitters having the same activity
and the same flag.

The browse buttons are not available:

When creating a new item.


When opening an items Properties dialogue by double-clicking its record in a table.
For repeater properties.
For propagation model properties.

The Display tab of the Properties dialogue is explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.

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1.3.2 Modifying Sites and Transmitters Directly on the Map


In a complex radio-planning project, it can be difficult to find the data object on the Network tab, although it might be visible
in the map window. Atoll lets you access the Properties dialogue of sitesand transmitters directly from the map. You can also
change the position of a site by dragging it, or by letting Atoll find a higher location for it.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Selecting One of Several Transmitters" on page 21


"Moving a Site Using the Mouse" on page 21
"Moving a Site to a Higher Location" on page 21
"Changing the Azimuth of the Antenna Using the Mouse" on page 22
"Changing the Antenna Position Relative to the Site Using the Mouse" on page 22.

1.3.2.1 Selecting One of Several Transmitters


If there is more than one transmitter with the same azimuth, Atoll enables you to select a specific transmitter.
To select one of several transmitter with the same azimuth:
1. In the map window, click the transmitters. A context menu appears with a list of the transmitterswith the same
azimuth (see Figure 1.3).

Figure 1.3: Selecting one transmitter


2. Select the transmitter from the context menu.
-

When you select a transmitter, it appears with a green point at both ends of the icon (

).

1.3.2.2 Moving a Site Using the Mouse


You can move a site by editing the coordinates on the General tab of the Site Properties dialogue, or by using the mouse.
To move a site using the mouse:
1. Click and drag the site to the desired position. As you drag the site, the exact coordinates of the pointers current location are visible in the Status bar.
2. Release the site where you would like to place it. By default, Atoll locks the position of a site. When the position of a
site is locked, Atoll asks you to confirm that you want to move the site.
3. Click Yes to confirm.
While this method allows you to place a site quickly, you can adjust the location more
precisely by editing the coordinates on the General tab of the Site Properties dialogue.

1.3.2.3 Moving a Site to a Higher Location


If you want to improve the location of a site, in terms of reception and transmission, Atoll can find a higher location within a
specified radius from the current location of the site.
To have Atoll move a site to a higher location:
1. Right-click the site in the map window. The context menu appears.
2. Select Move to a Higher Location.

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3. In the Move to a Higher Location dialogue, enter the radius of the area in which Atoll should search and click OK. Atoll
moves the site to the highest point within the specified radius.

1.3.2.4 Changing the Azimuth of the Antenna Using the Mouse


In Atoll, you can set the azimuth of a transmitters antenna by modifying it on the Transmitter tab of the Transmitter Properties dialogue, or you can modify it on the map, using the mouse. The azimuth is defined in degrees, with 0 indicating north.
The precision of the change to the azimuth depends on the distance of the pointer from the transmitter symbol. Moving the
pointer changes the azimuth by:

1 degree when the pointer is within a distance of 10 times the size of the transmitter symbol.
0.1 degree when the pointer is moved outside this area.

To modify the azimuth of the antenna using the mouse:


1. On the map, click the antenna whose azimuth you want to modify.
2. Move the pointer to the end of the antenna with a green circle ( ). An arc with an arrow
appears under the pointer.
3. Click the green circle and drag it to change the antennas azimuth.
The current azimuth of the antenna is displayed in the far left of the status bar.
4. Release the mouse when you have set the azimuth to the desired angle.
The antennas azimuth is modified on the Transmitter tab of the Transmitter Properties
dialogue.
You can also modify the azimuth on the map for all the antennas on a base station using the mouse.
To modify the azimuth of all the antennas on a base station using the mouse:
1. On the map, click one of the antennas whose azimuth you want to modify.
2. Move the pointer to the end of the antenna with a green circle ( ). An arc with an arrow
appears under the pointer.
3. Hold CTRL and, on the map, click the green circle and drag it to change the antennas azimuth.
The current azimuth of the antenna is displayed in the far left of the status bar.
4. Release the mouse when you have set the azimuth of the selected antenna to the desired
angle.
The azimuth of the selected antenna is modified on the Transmitter tab of the Transmitter
Properties dialogue. The azimuth of the other antennas on the base station is offset by the
same amount as the azimuth of the selected antenna.
If you make a mistake when changing the azimuth, you can undo your changes by using
Undo (by selecting Edit > Undo, by pressing CTRL+Z, or by clicking
undo the changes made.

in the toolbar) to

1.3.2.5 Changing the Antenna Position Relative to the Site Using the Mouse
By default, antennas are placed on the site. However, antennas are occasionally not located directly on the site, but a short
distance away. In Atoll, you can change the position of the antenna relative to the site either by adjusting the Dx and Dy
parameters or by entering the coordinates of the antenna position on the General Tab of the Transmitter Property dialogue.
Dx and Dy are the distance in metres of the antenna from the site position. You can also modify the position of the antenna
on the map, using the mouse.
To move a transmitter using the mouse:
1. On the map, click the transmitter you want to move.
2. Move the pointer to the end of the antenna with a green rectangle ( ). A cross appears under
the pointer.
3. Click the green rectangle and drag it to change the antennas position relative to the site.
The current coordinates (x and y) of the antenna are displayed in the far right of the status
bar.
4. Release the mouse when you have moved the selected transmitter to the desired position.
The position of the selected transmitter is modified on the General tab of the Transmitter
Properties dialogue.

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If you make a mistake when changing the position of the transmitter, you can undo your
changes by using Undo (by selecting Edit > Undo, by pressing CTRL+Z, or by clicking
in the toolbar) to undo the changes made.

1.3.3 Display Properties of Objects


In Atoll, most objects, such as sites or transmitters, belong to an object type. How an individual object appears on the map
depends on the settings on the Display tab of the object types Properties dialogue. The Display tab is similar for all object
types whose appearance can be configured. Options that are inapplicable for a particular object type are unavailable on the
Display tab of its Properties dialogue (see Figure 1.4).
In this section, the display options are explained, followed by a few examples of how you can use them while working on your
Atoll document (see "Examples of Using the Display Properties of Objects" on page 28).
In this section, the following are explained:

"Defining the Display Properties of Objects" on page 23


"Examples of Using the Display Properties of Objects" on page 28.

1.3.3.1 Defining the Display Properties of Objects


When you access the Properties dialogue of a group of objects, for example, when you access the Properties dialogue of the
Sites folder, the Display tab will show options applicable to all objects in that group (see Figure 1.4).

Figure 1.4: The Display tab for Sites


When you access the Properties dialogue of an individual object, the Display tab will only show the options applicable to an
individual object (see Figure 1.5).

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Figure 1.5: The Display tab for an individual site


To define the display properties of an object type:
1. Right-click the object type folder in the Explorer window. The context menu appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
3. Select the Display tab. Depending on the object type, the following options are available:
-

"Defining the Display Type" on page 24


"Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types" on page 25
"Defining the Visibility Scale" on page 25
"Defining the Object Type Label" on page 26
"Defining the Object Type Tip Text" on page 26
"Adding an Object Type to the Legend" on page 27

4. Set the display parameters.


5. Click OK.
Defining the Display Type
Depending on the object selected, you can choose from the following display types: unique, discrete values, value intervals,
or automatic.
To change the display type:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
2. Select the display type from the Display Type list:
-

Unique: defines the same symbol for all objects of this type. By defining a unique symbol for an object type,
objects of different types, for example, sites or transmitters, are immediately identifiable.
i.

To modify the appearance of the symbol, click the symbol in the table below. The Symbol Style dialogue appears.

ii. Modify the symbol as desired.


iii. Click OK to close the Symbol Style dialogue.
-

Discrete values: defines the display of each object according to the value of a selected field. This display type can
be used to distinguish objects of the same type by one characteristic. For example, you could use this display type
to distinguish transmitter by antenna type, or to distinguish inactive from active sites.
i.

Select the name of the Field by which you want to display the objects.

ii. You can click the Actions button to access the Actions menu. For information on the commands available, see
"Using the Actions Button" on page 25.
iii. To modify the appearance of a symbol, click the symbol in the table below. The Display Parameters dialogue
appears.
iv. Modify the symbol as desired.
v. Click OK to close the Display Parameters dialogue.
-

Value intervals: defines the display of each object according to set ranges of the value of a selected field. This display type can be used, for example, to distinguish population density, signal strength, or the altitude of sites.
i.

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ii. Define the ranges directly in the table below. For an example, see Figure 1.7 on page 27.
iii. You can click the Actions button to access the Actions menu. For information on the commands available, see
"Using the Actions Button" on page 25.
iv. To modify the appearance of a symbol, click the symbol in the table. The Display Parameters dialogue appears.
v. Modify the symbol as desired.
vi. Click OK to close the Display Parameters dialogue.
-

Automatic: only available for transmitters; Atoll automatically assigns a colour to each transmitter, ensuring that
each transmitter has a different colour than the transmitters surrounding it.
i.

Click the symbol in the table below. The Display Parameters dialogue appears.

ii. Modify the symbol as desired.


iii. Click OK to close the Display Parameters dialogue.

When you create a new map object, for example, a new site or a new transmitter,
you must click the Refresh button (
) for Atoll to assign a colour to newly created object according to the set display type.
You can define the default symbol used for sites and how it is displayed by editing
an option in the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.

Using the Actions Button


The Actions button on the Display tab of the Properties dialogue allows you to modify the display type as defined in "Defining
the Display Type" on page 24.
To access the Actions menu:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
2. Click the Actions button. The Actions menu gives you access to the following commands:
-

Properties: Atoll displays the Display Parameters dialogue, enabling you to define the appearance of the selected
symbol in the table.
Select all: Atoll selects all the values in the table.
Delete: Atoll removes the selected value from the table.
Insert before: When the selected display type is value intervals, Atoll inserts a new threshold in the table before
the threshold selected in the table.
Insert after: When the selected display type is value intervals, Atoll inserts a new threshold in the table after the
threshold selected in the table.
Shading: Atoll opens the Shading dialogue. When "Value Intervals" is the selected display type, you select Shading
to define the number of value intervals and configure their colour. Enter the upper and lower limits of the value
in the First Break and Last Break boxes respectively, and enter a value in the Interval box. Define the colour
shading by choosing a Start Colour and an End Colour. The value intervals will be determined by the set values
and coloured by a shade going from the set start colour to the set end colour.
When "Discrete Values" is the selected display type, you select Shading to choose a Start Colour and an End Colour.

Display Configuration: Select Load if you want to import an existing display configuration. Select Save if you want
to save the display settings of the current object in a display configuration file, so that you can share them with
other users or use them in other documents.

Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types


You can change the transparency of some objects, such as predictions, and some object types, such as clutter classes, to allow
objects on lower layers to be visible on the map.
To change the transparency:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
2. Move the Transparency slider to the right to make the object or object type more transparent or to the left to make
it less transparent.
Defining the Visibility Scale
You can define a visibility range for object types. An object is visible only if the scale, as displayed on the Map toolbar, is within
this range. This can be used to, for example, prevent the map from being cluttered with symbols when you are at a certain
scale.

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Visibility ranges are taken into account for screen display, and for printing and previewing printing. They do not affect which
objects are considered during calculations.
To define an object visibility range:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
2. Enter a Visibility Scale minimum in the between 1: text box.
3. Enter a Visibility Scale maximum in the and 1: text box.
Defining the Object Type Label
For most object types, such as sites and transmitters, you can display information about each object in the form of a label that
is displayed with the object. You can display information from every field in that object types data table, including from fields
that you add.
To define a label for an object type:
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
2. Click the Browse button (

) beside the Label box. The Field Selection dialogue appears (see Figure 1.6).

Figure 1.6: Defining a label


3. Select the fields which you want to display in the label:
a. To select a field to be displayed in the label for the object type, select the field in the Available Fields list and click
to move it to the Selected Fields list.
b. To remove a field from the Selected Fields list, select the field in the Selected Fields list and click
it.

to remove

c. To change the order of the fields, select a field and click or to move it up or down in the list. The objects will
be grouped in the order of the fields in the Selected Fields list, from top to bottom.
4. Click OK to close the Field Selection dialogue and click OK to close the Properties dialogue.
For most object types, you can also display object information in the form of tip text that
is only visible when you move the pointer over the object. This option has the advantage
of not filling the map window with text. For more information on tip text, see "Defining the
Object Type Tip Text" on page 26.
Defining the Object Type Tip Text
For most object types, such as sites and transmitters, you can display information about each object in the form of tip text
that is only visible when you move the pointer over the object. You can display information from every field in that object
types data table, including from fields that you add.
In the Explorer window, the tip text displays the total numbers of elements present in the Sites and Transmitters folders, and
the view.

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To define tip text for an object type:


1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
2. Click the Browse button (

) beside the Tip Text box. The Field Selection dialogue appears (see Figure 1.6).

3. Select the fields which you want to display in the tip text:
a. To select a field to be displayed in the tip text for the object type, select the field in the Available Fields list and
click

to move it to the Selected Fields list.

b. To remove a field from the the Selected Fields list, select the field in the Selected Fields list and click
remove it.

to

For most object types, you can also display object information in the form of a label that is
displayed with the object. This option has the advantage of keep object-related information permanently visible. For more information on tip text, see "Defining the Object Type
Label" on page 26.
Once you have defined the tip text, you must activate the tip text function before it appears.
To display tip text:

Click the Display Tips button (

) on the toolbar. Tip text will now appear when the pointer is over the object.

If you have more than one coverage prediction displayed on the map, the tip text displays the tip text for all the coverage
predictions available on a pixel up to a maximum of 30 lines. You can change this default maximum using an option in the
atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
Adding an Object Type to the Legend
You can display the information defined by the display type (see "Defining the Display Type" on page 24) in your Atoll documents legend. Only visible objects appear in the Legend window. For information on displaying or hiding objects, see
"Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 18.
In Figure 1.7, on the Display tab of a signal level prediction, the intervals defined are:

Signal level >= -65


red
-65 > Signal level >= -105 shading from red to blue (9 intervals)
Signal level < -105
not shown in the coverage.

The entries in the Legend column will appear in the Legend window.

Figure 1.7: Defined thresholds as they will appear in the Legend


With value intervals, you can enter information in the Legend column to be displayed on the legend. If there is no information
entered in this column, the maximum and minimum values are displayed instead.
1. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
2. Select the Add to legend check box. The defined display will appear on the legend.
To display the Legend window:

Select View > Legend Window. The Legend window appears.

You can also display the comments defined in the properties of a coverage prediction in the Legend window by setting an
option in the atoll.ini file. For more information about setting options in the atoll.ini file, see the Administrator Manual.

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1.3.3.2 Examples of Using the Display Properties of Objects


In this section are the following examples of how display properties of objects can be used:

"Automatic Display Type - Server Coverage Predictions" on page 28


"Shading - Signal Level Coverage Prediction" on page 28.

Automatic Display Type - Server Coverage Predictions


When making a best server prediction, Atoll calculates, for each pixel on the map, which server is received the best. If the
selected display type for transmitters is "Automatic," Atoll colours each pixel on the map according to the colour of the transmitter that is best received on that pixel. This way, you can identify immediately which transmitter is best received on each
pixel. The following two figures show the results of the same best server area and handover margin coverage prediction.
In Figure 1.8, the transmitter display type is "Discrete Values," with the site name as the chosen value. The difference in colour
is insufficient to make clear which transmitter is best received on each pixel. In Figure 1.9, the transmitter display type is
"Automatic." Because Atoll ensures that each transmitter has a different colour than the transmitters surrounding it, the
prediction results are also immediately visible.

Figure 1.8: Value interval display type

Figure 1.9: Automatic display type

To display the results of a server coverage prediction with the transmitters set to the automatic display type:
1. Right-click the Transmitters folder in the Explorer window. The context menu appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
3. Select the Display tab.
4. Select "Automatic" as the Display Type.
5. Click OK.
6. Click the Refresh button (

) to update the display of the prediction results.

Shading - Signal Level Coverage Prediction


Atoll displays the results of a signal level prediction as value intervals. On the map, these value intervals appear as differences
of shading. You can use the Shading command to define the appearance of these value intervals to make the results easier to
read or more relevant to your needs. For example, you can change the range of data displayed, the interval between each
break, or you can change the colours to make the intervals more visible.
In this example, Figure 1.10 shows the results of the best signal level plot from -60 dBm to -105 dBm. However, if you are more
interested in reception from -80 dBm to -105 dBm, you can change the shading to display only those values. The result is visible in Figure 1.11.

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Figure 1.10: Shading from -60 dBm to -105 dBm

Figure 1.11: Shading from -80 dBm to -105 dBm

To change how the results of a signal level coverage prediction are displayed:
1. Expand the Predictions folder in the Explorer window and right-click the signal level prediction. The context menu
appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
3. Select the Display tab.
4. Click Actions to display the menu and select Shading. The Shading dialogue appears.
5. Change the value of the First Break to "-80". Leave the value of the Last Break at "-105."
6. Click OK to close the Shading dialogue.
7. Click OK to close the Properties dialogue and apply your changes.

1.4 Working with Maps


Atoll has the following functions to help you work with maps:

"Changing the Map Scale" on page 29


"Moving the Map in the Document Window" on page 30
"Using the Panoramic Window" on page 30
"Centring the Map Window on an Object" on page 31
"Centring the Map Window on a Table Record" on page 31
"Adjusting the Map Window to a Selection" on page 31
"Measuring Distances on the Map" on page 32
"Displaying Rulers Around the Map" on page 32
"Displaying the Map Legend" on page 32
"Using Zones in the Map Window" on page 33
"Editing Polygons, Lines, and Points" on page 39
"Saving a Map as a Graphic Image" on page 45
"Copying a Map to Another Application" on page 45.
"Map Window Pointers" on page 46.

1.4.1 Changing the Map Scale


You can change the scale of the map by zooming in or out, by zooming in on a specific area of the map, or by choosing a scale.
Atoll also allows you to define a zoom range outside of which certain objects are not displayed (see "Defining the Visibility
Scale" on page 25).

1.4.1.1 Zooming In and Out


Atoll offers several tools for zooming in and out on the map. When you zoom in or out on the map, you do so based on the
position of the cursor on the map.
To zoom in on the map:
1. Click the Zoom icon (

) on the Map toolbar (or press CTRL+Q).

2. Click the map where you want to zoom in.

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You can also zoom in by pressing CTRL++, by selecting Zoom > Zoom In from the View
menu, or by holding down the CTRL key and rotating the mouse wheel button forward.

To zoom out on the map:


1. Click the Zoom icon (

) on the Map toolbar (or press CTRL+Q).

2. Right-click the map where you want to zoom out.


You can also zoom out by pressing CTRL+, by selecting Zoom > Zoom Out from the View
menu, or holding down the CTRL key and rotating the mouse wheel button backward.

1.4.1.2 Zooming In on a Specific Area


To zoom in on a specific area of the map:
1. Click the Zoom Area icon (

) on the Map toolbar (or press CTRL+W).

2. Click in the map on one of the four corners of the area you want to select.
3. Drag to the opposite corner. When you release the mouse button, Atoll zooms in on the selected area.

1.4.1.3 Choosing a Scale


To choose a scale:
1. Click the arrow next to the scale box (

) on the Map toolbar.

2. Select the scale from the list.


If the scale value you want is not in the list:
1. Click in the scale box (

) on the Map toolbar.

2. Enter the desired scale.


3. Press ENTER. Atoll zooms the map to the entered scale.

1.4.1.4 Changing Between Previous Zoom Levels


Atoll saves the last five zoom levels, allowing you to move quickly between previous zoom levels and zoomed areas.
To move between zoom levels:

Click the Previous Zoom button (

) to return to a zoom level you have already used (or press ALT + ).

Once you have returned to a previous zoom level, click the Next Zoom button (

) to return to the latest zoom level

(or press ALT + ).

1.4.2 Moving the Map in the Document Window


You can move the map in the document window using the mouse.
To move the map in the document window:
1. Click the Move Map Window button (

) on the Map toolbar (or press CTRL + D).

2. Move the pointer over the map and drag the map in the desired direction.

1.4.3 Using the Panoramic Window


The Panoramic window displays the entire map with all of the imported geographic data. A dark rectangle indicates what part
of the geographic data is presently displayed in a document window, helping you situate the displayed area in relation to the
entire map.
You can use the Panoramic window to:

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Zoom in on a specific area of the map


Resize the displayed map area

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Move around the map.

To zoom in on a specific area of the map:


1. Click in the Panoramic window on one of the four corners of the area you want to zoom in on.
2. Drag to the opposite corner. When you release the mouse button, Atoll zooms in on the selected area.
To resize the displayed map area:
1. Click in the Panoramic window on a corner or border of the zoom area (i.e., the dark rectangle).
2. Drag the border to its new position.
To move around the map:
1. Click in the zoom area (i.e., the dark rectangle) in the Panoramic window.
2. Drag the rectangle to its new position.

1.4.4 Centring the Map Window on an Object


You can centre the map on any selected object, for example, a transmitter, a site, or on any zone in the Zones folder on the
Geo tab of the Explorer window. When centring the Map window on an object the current scale is kept.
You can select the object in the map window or in the Explorer window.
To centre the map window on a selected object:
1. Right-click the object in the map window or in the Explorer window.
2. Select Centre in Map Window from the context menu.
If you want to quickly find an object, such as a site, on the map, you can select it in the
Explorer window and then select the Centre in Map Window command.

1.4.5 Centring the Map Window on a Table Record


You can centre the map on any record in the following tables:

Sites table
Transmitters table
Any vector table.

When centring the Map window on an object the current scale is kept.
To centre the map window on a table record:
1. Open the table.
2. Right-click the record. The context menu appears.
3. Select Centre in Map Window from the context menu.

1.4.6 Adjusting the Map Window to a Selection


You can adjust the Map window to display the contents of the Sites folder (or of a view), or a set of measurement data points
or any object or zone on the Geo tab of the Explorer window. When you adjust the Map window to display a selection, Atoll
optimises the display by changing the scale and position so that the selection (for example, the sites) is completely displayed
in the Map window.
To adjust the map window to a folder an object on the Geo tab of the Explorer window:
1. Right-click the folder or object in the Explorer window. The context menu appears.
2. Select Adjust Map Window from the context menu.
You can also adjust the Map window to a record (polygon or line) in a vector table. The
Map window is then adjusted so that the polygon (or line) entirely occupies the displayed
map.

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1.4.7 Measuring Distances on the Map


You can measure distances on the map by using the Distance Measurement tool. The Distance Measurement tool also gives
you the azimuth of a straight line between two points. You can also use the Distance Measurement tool to measure distance
along a line with several points. Atoll will then give you the distance between each point (as you measure), the azimuth of
each segment between two points, and the total distance.
To measure a distance on the map between two points:
1. Click the Distance Measurement button (

) on the toolbar.

2. Click the first point on the map once.


As you move the pointer away from the first point, Atoll marks the initial position and connects it to the pointer with
a line.
3. Place the pointer over the second point on the map. The status bar displays the following (see Figure 1.12):
-

The distance between the two points


The azimuth between the two points.

To measure the total distance on the map on a line over a series of points:
1. Click the Distance Measurement button (

) on the toolbar.

2. Click the first point on the map once.


As you move the pointer away from the first point, Atoll marks the initial position and connects it to the pointer with
a line.
3. Click once on the map at each point on the line between the first point and the final point, where you will have to
change direction on the line.
4. When you reach the last point on the line, the status bar displays the following (see Figure 1.12):
-

The total distance between the first point and the last point
The distance between the second-last point and the last point
The azimuth between the last two points.

Total distance between


Azimuth between secondfirst and last point
last and last point
Distance
between
second-last and last point
Figure 1.12: Measurement data in the status bar

1.4.8 Displaying Rulers Around the Map


You can display rulers around the map in the document window.
To display rulers:
1. Select Document > Preferences. The Preferences dialogue appears.
2. In the Preferences dialogue, click the Coordinates tab.
3. Under Display rulers, select where you want the rulers to be displayed in the map window.
4. Click OK.

1.4.9 Displaying the Map Legend


You can display a map legend. The legend will contain the information on the object types that you have added to it. For information on adding object types to the legend, see "Adding an Object Type to the Legend" on page 27.
To display the legend:

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1.4.10 Using Zones in the Map Window


On the Geo tab of the Explorer window, Atoll provides you with a set of tools known as zones. The zones are a type of polygon,
which can be created and modified in the same way as contours, lines, or points. Zones can be used to define areas of the map
for the following purposes:

Filtering Zone: The filtering zone is a graphical filter that restricts the objects displayed on the map and on the
Network tab of the Explorer window to the objects inside the filtering zone. It also restricts which objects are used in
calculations such as coverage predictions, etc.

Computation Zone: The computation zone is used to define which base stations are to be taken into consideration in calculations and the area where Atoll calculates path loss matrices, coverage predictions, etc.

Focus Zone and Hot Spots: With the focus zone and hot spots, you can select the areas of coverage predictions
or other calculations on which you want to generate reports and results.

Printing Zone: The printing zone allows you to define the area to be printed.

Geographic Export Zone: The geographic export zone is used to define part of the map to be exported as a bitmap.
Zones are taken into account whether or not they are visible. In other words, if you have
drawn a zone, it will be taken into account whether or not its visibility check box in the
Zones folder of the Geo tab in the Explorer window is selected. For example, if you have
filtered the sites using a filtering zone, the sites outside the filtering zone will not be
taken into consideration in coverage predictions, even if you have cleared the filtering
zones visibility check box. You will have to delete the zone if you no longer want to select
sites using a filtering zone.

In this section, the following are explained:

"Using a Filtering Zone" on page 33


"Using a Computation Zone" on page 34
"Using a Focus Zone or Hot Spots" on page 35
"Using Polygon Zone Editing Tools" on page 36
"Using a Printing Zone" on page 38
"Using a Geographic Export Zone" on page 38.

1.4.10.1 Using a Filtering Zone


The filtering zone is a graphical filter that restricts the objects displayed on the map and on the Network tab of the Explorer
window to the objects inside the filtering zone. It also restricts which objects are used in calculations such as coverage predictions, etc. By limiting the number of sites, you can reduce the time and cost of calculations and make visualisation of data
objects on the map clearer.
The filtering zone is taken into account whether or not it is visible. In other words, if you have drawn a zone, it will be taken
into account whether or not its visibility check box in the Zones folder of the Geo tab in the Explorer window is selected. You
will have to delete the zone if you no longer want to select sites using a filtering zone.

1.4.10.1.1

Creating a Filtering Zone


To create a filtering zone:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button (

) to the left of Zones folder to expand the folder.

3. Right-click the Filtering Zone folder.


4. Select Draw from the context menu.
5. Draw the filtering zone:
a. Click once on the map to start drawing the zone.
b. Click once on the map to define each point on the map where the border of the zone changes direction.
c. Click twice to finish drawing and close the zone.
The filtering zone is delimited by a blue line. The data objects outside of the selected zone are filtered out. On the
Network tab of the Explorer window, any folder whose content is affected by the filtering zone appears with a special
icon (

), to indicate that the folder contents have been filtered.

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You can also create a filtering zone as follows:

Vector Editor toolbar: You can use the New Polygon (


) and New Rectangle (
) buttons available in the Vector
Editor toolbar to draw the filtering zone.
Existing polygon: You can use any existing polygon as a filtering zone by right-clicking it on the map or in the Explorer
window and Use As > Filtering Zone from the context menu. You can also combine an existing filtering zone with any
existing polygon by right-clicking it on the map or in the Explorer window and selecting Add To > Filtering Zone from
the context menu.
Importing a polygon: If you have a file with an existing polygon, for example, a polygon describing an administrative
area, you can import it and use it as a filtering zone. You can import it by right-clicking the Filtering Zone folder on the
Geo tab and selecting Import from the context menu.
Fit to Map Window: You can create a filtering zone the size of the map window by right-clicking the Filtering Zone
folder on the Geo tab and selecting Fit to Map Window from the context menu.

Once you have created a filtering zone, you can use Atolls polygon editing tools to edit it. For more information on the polygon editing tools, see "Using Polygon Zone Editing Tools" on page 36.
You can save the filtering zone, so that you can use it in a different Atoll document, in the
following ways:

Saving the filtering zone in the user configuration: For information on saving the
fiiltering zone in a user configuration, see "Saving a User Configuration" on
page 76.
Exporting the filtering zone: You can export the filtering zone by right-clicking the
Filtering Zone on the Geo tab of the Explorer window and selecting Export from
the context menu.

1.4.10.2 Using a Computation Zone


The computation zone is used to define the area where Atoll carries out calculations. When you create a computation zone,
Atoll carries out the calculation for all base stations that are active, filtered (i.e., that are selected by the current filter parameters), and whose propagation zone intersects a rectangle containing the computation zone. Therefore, it takes into consideration base stations inside and base stations outside the computation zone if they have an influence on the computation
zone. In addition, the computation zone defines the area within which the coverage prediction results will be displayed.
When working with a large network, the computation zone allows you to restrict your coverage predictions to the part of the
network you are currently working on. By allowing you to reduce the number of base stations studied, Atoll reduces both the
time and computer resources necessary for calculations. As well, by taking into consideration base stations within the computation zone and base stations outside the computation zone but which have an influence on the computation zone, Atoll gives
you realistic results for base stations that are close to the border of the computation zone.
If there is no computation zone defined, Atoll makes its calculations on all base stations that are active and filtered and for
the entire extent of the geographical data available.
The computation zone is taken into account whether or not it is visible. In other words, if you have drawn a computation zone,
it will be taken into account whether or not its visibility check box in the Zones folder of the Geo tab in the Explorer window
is selected. You will have to delete the computation zone if you no longer want to define an area for calculations.

1.4.10.2.1

Creating a Computation Zone


To create a computation zone:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the Zones folder.

3. Right-click the Computation Zone. The context menu appears.


4. Select Draw from the context menu.
5. Draw the computation zone:
a. Click once on the map to start drawing the zone.
b. Click once on the map to define each point on the map where the border of the zone changes direction.
c. Click twice to finish drawing and close the zone.
The computation zone is delimited by a red line.
You can also create a computation zone as follows:

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Vector Editor toolbar: You can use the New Polygon (


Editor toolbar to draw the computation zone.

) and New Rectangle (

) buttons available in the Vector

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Existing polygon: You can use any existing polygon as a computation zone by right-clicking it on the map or in the
Explorer window and selecting Use As > Computation Zone from the context menu. You can also combine an existing
computation zone with any existing polygon by right-clicking it on the map or in the Explorer window and selecting
Add To > Computation Zone from the context menu.
Importing a polygon: If you have a file with an existing polygon, for example, a polygon describing an administrative
area, you can import it and use it as a computation zone. You can import it by right-clicking the Computation Zone on
the Geo tab and selecting Import from the context menu.
Fit to Map Window: You can create a computation zone the size of the map window by right-clicking the Computation
Zone on the Geo tab and selecting Fit to Map Window from the context menu.

Once you have created a computation zone, you can use Atolls polygon editing tools to edit it. For more information on the
polygon editing tools, see"Using Polygon Zone Editing Tools" on page 36.
You can save the computation zone, so that you can use it in a different Atoll document,
in the following ways:

Saving the computation zone in the user configuration: For information on saving
the computation zone in a user configuration, see "Saving a User Configuration" on
page 76.
Exporting the computation zone: You can export the computation zone by rightclicking the Computation Zone on the Network tab of the Explorer window and
selecting Export from the context menu.

1.4.10.3 Using a Focus Zone or Hot Spots


Using the focus zone and hot spots, you can define an area on which statistics can be drawn and on which reports are made.
While you can only have one focus zone, you can define several hot spots in addition to the focus zone.
It is important not to confuse the computation zone and the focus and hot spots. The computation zone defines the area
where Atoll calculates path loss matrices, coverage predictions, etc., while the focus and hot spots are the areas taken into
consideration when generating reports and results.
Atoll bases the statistics on the area covered by the focus zone; if no focus zone is defined, Atoll will use the computation
zone. However, by using a focus zone for the report, you can display the statistics for a specific number of sites, instead of
displaying statistics for every site that has been calculated.
Atoll takes the focus zone and hot spots into account whether or not they are visible. In other words, if you have drawn a focus
zone or hot spot, it will be taken into account whether or not its visibility check box in the Zones folder of the Geo tab in the
Explorer window is selected. You will have to delete the zone if you no longer want to define an area for reports.
A focus zone can consist of more than one polygon. The polygons of a focus zone must not
intersect or overlap each other.

1.4.10.3.1

Drawing a Focus Zone or a Hot Spot


To define a focus zone or a hot spot:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the Zones folder.

3. Right-click the Focus Zone or Hot Spots folder, depending on whether you want to create a focus zone or a hot spot.
The context menu appears.
4. Select Draw from the context menu.
5. Draw the focus zone or hot spot:
a. Click once on the map to start drawing the zone.
b. Click once on the map to define each point on the map where the border of the zone changes direction.
c. Click twice to finish drawing and close the zone.
A focus zone is delimited by a green line; a hot spot is delimited by a heavy black line. If you clear the zones visibility
check box in the Zones folder of the Geo tab in the Explorer window, it will no longer be displayed but will still be taken
into account.
You can also create a focus zone or hot spot in one of the following ways:

Vector Editor toolbar: You can use the New Polygon (


Editor toolbar to draw the focus zone or hot spot.

) and New Rectangle (

) buttons available in the Vector

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Existing polygon: You can use any existing polygon as a focus zone or hot spot by right-clicking it on the map or in the
Explorer window and selecting Use As > Focus Zone or Use As > Hot Spot from the context menu. You can also combine an existing focus zone or hot spot with any existing polygon by right-clicking it on the map or in the Explorer
window and selecting Add To > Hot Spot or Add To > Hot Spot from the context menu.
Importing a polygon: If you have a file with an existing polygon, for example, a polygon describing an administrative
area, you can import it and use it as a focus zone or hot spot. You can import it by right-clicking the Focus Zone or Hot
Spots folder on the Geo tab and selecting Import from the context menu. When you import hot spots, you can import
the name (in text format) given to each zone as well. Additionally, because you can have several hot spots, you can
import more than one polygon into the Hot Spot folder, with each as a separate hot spot.
Fit to Map Window: You can create a focus zone or hot spot the size of the map window by right-clicking the Focus
Zone or Hot Spots folder on the Geo tab and selecting Fit to Map Window from the context menu.
You can save the focus zone or hot spot, so that you can use it in a different Atoll document, in the following ways:

Saving the focus zone in the user configuration: For information on saving the
focus zone in a user configuration, see "Saving a User Configuration" on page 76.
Exporting the focus zone or hot spots: You can export the focus zone or hot spots
by right-clicking the Focus Zone or the Hot Spots folder on the Geo tab of the
Explorer window and selecting Export from the context menu.

1.4.10.4 Using Polygon Zone Editing Tools


Atoll provides you with several different ways of editing the computation zone, focus zone, hot spots, and filtering zones. You
can edit these zones by editing the points that define them, by combining several polygons, or by deleting parts of the polygons that make up these zones. When you no longer need the zone, you can delete it from the map.
The computation, focus and hot spot polygons can contain holes. The holes within polygonal areas are differentiated from
overlaying polygons by the order of the coordinates of their vertices. The coordinates of the vertices of polygonal areas are in
clockwise order, whereas the coordinates of the vertices of holes within polygonal areas are in counter-clockwise order.
In this section, the following are explained:

1.4.10.4.1

"Editing Polygon Zones" on page 36


"Removing a Polygon Zone" on page 38.

Editing Polygon Zones


Atoll enables you to edit a polygon zone in several different ways. The first step in editing a polygon zone is selecting it, either
by:

Selecting the polygon zone in the Zones folder of the Geo tab of the Explorer window
Selecting the polygon zone by clicking it on the map, or
Selecting the polygon zone from the list in the Vector Editor toolbar.

Once you have selected the polygon zone, you can edit it as explained in the following sections:

"Editing the Points of a Polygon Zone" on page 36


"Editing Polygon Zones Using the Toolbar" on page 37
"Editing Polygon Zones Using the Context Menu" on page 37.

Editing the Points of a Polygon Zone


To edit a point of a polygon zone:
1. Put the polygon zone in editing mode as explained in "Editing Polygon Zones" on page 36.
2. Select the polygon zone. You can now edit it by:
-

Moving a point:
i.

Position the pointer over the point you want to move. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Drag the point to its new position.


-

Adding a point to the polygon zone:


i.

Position the pointer over the polygon zone border where you want to add a point. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Right-click and select Insert Point from the context menu. A point is added to the polygon zone border at the
position of the pointer.
-

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Deleting a point from a polygon zone:

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i.

Position the pointer over the point you want to delete. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Right-click and select Delete Point from the context menu. The point is deleted.
Editing Polygon Zones Using the Toolbar
In Atoll, you can create complex polygon zones by using the tools on the Vector Editor toolbar. The filtering, computation,
and focus zone polygons can contain holes. The holes within polygonal areas are differentiated from overlaying polygons by
the order of the coordinates of their vertices. The coordinates of the vertices of polygonal areas are in clockwise order,
whereas the coordinates of the vertices of holes within polygonal areas are in counter-clockwise order.
To edit a polygon zone using the icons on the Vector Editor toolbar:
1. Put the polygon zone in editing mode as explained in "Editing Polygon Zones" on page 36.
2. Click the contour to edit. The Vector Editor toolbar has the following buttons:
-

: To combine several polygon zones:


i.

In the Vector Editor toolbar, click the Combine button (

).

ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the new polygon zone.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the polygon zone.
iv. Double-click to close the polygon zone.
v. Draw more polygon zones if desired. Atoll creates a group of polygons of the selected and new contours. If
polygon zones overlap, Atoll merges them.
-

: To delete part of the selected polygon zone:


i.

In the Vector Editor toolbar, click the Delete button (

).

ii. Draw the area you want to delete from the selected polygon zone by clicking once on the map where you want
to begin drawing the area to delete.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the area.
iv. Double-click to close the area. Atoll deletes the area from the selected contour.
-

: To create a polygon out of the overlapping area of two polygons:


i.

In the Vector Editor toolbar, click the Intersection button (

).

ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the polygon that will overlap the selected one.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the polygon.
iv. Double-click to close the polygon. Atoll creates a new polygon of the overlapping area of the two polygons
and deletes the parts of the polygons that do not overlap.
-

: To split the selected polygon into several polygons:


i.

In the Vector Editor toolbar, click the Split button (

).

ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the polygon that will split the selected one.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the polygon.
iv. Double-click to close the polygon. Atoll separates the area covered by the polygon from the selected polygon
and creates a new polygon.
Editing Polygon Zones Using the Context Menu
When you are editing polygon zones, you can access certain commands using the context menu.
To edit a polygon zone using the context menu:
1. Click the polygon zone you want to edit.
2. Right-click the polygon zone to display the context menu and select one of the following:
-

Properties: Select Properties to open the Properties dialogue of the selected polygon zone. The Properties dialogue gives the coordinates of each point that defines the position and shape of the polygon zone.
Insert Point: Select Insert Point to add a point to the border of the contour at the position of the pointer.
Move:
i.

Select Move from the context menu to move the contour, line, or point on the map.

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ii. Move the contour, line, or point.


iii. Click to place the contour, line, or point.

1.4.10.4.2

Quit edition: Select Quit Edition to exit editing mode.

Delete: Select Delete to remove the selected contour, line, or point from the map.

Removing a Polygon Zone


When you no longer need a polygon zone, you can remove the zone and redisplay all data objects.
To remove a polygon zone:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button (

) to the left of Zones folder to expand the folder.

3. Right-click the folder containing the zone you want to remove.


4. From the context menu, select Delete Zone. The polygon zone is removed and all document data are now displayed.
You can also delete it by right-clicking its border on the map and selecting Delete from
the context menu.

1.4.10.5 Using a Printing Zone


The printing zone allows you to define the area to be printed. For information on using the printing zone, see "Defining the
Printing Zone" on page 61.

1.4.10.6 Using a Geographic Export Zone


If you want to export part of the map as a bitmap, you can define a geographic export zone. After you have defined a
geographic export zone, Atoll offers you the option of exporting only the area covered by the zone if you export the map as
a raster image.
To define a geographic export zone:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the Zones folder.

3. Right-click the Geographic Export Zone folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Draw from the context menu.
5. Draw the geographic export zone:
a. Click the point on the map that will be one corner of the rectangle that will define the geographic export zone.
b. Drag to the opposite corner of the rectangle that will define the geographic export zone. When you release the
mouse, the geographic export zone will be created from the rectangle defined by the two corners.
The geographic export zone is delimited by a light purple line . If you clear the geographic export zones visibility check
box in the Zones folder of the Geo tab in the Explorer window, it will no longer be displayed but will still be taken into
account.
You can also create a geographic export zone as follows:

Vector Editor toolbar: You can use the New Polygon (


) and New Rectangle (
) buttons available in the Vector
Editor toolbar to draw the geogaphic export zone.
Existing polygon: You can use any existing polygon as a geographic export zone by right-clicking it on the map or in
the Explorer window and selecting Use As > Geographic Export Zone from the context menu. You can also combine
an existing geographic export zone with any existing polygon by right-clicking it on the map or in the Explorer window
and selecting Add To > Geographic Export Zone from the context menu. The "effective" geographic export zone will
be the rectangle encompassing the several polygons composing the geographic export zone.
Importing a polygon: If you have a file with an existing polygon, you can import it and use it as a geographic export
zone. You can import it by right-clicking the Geographic Export Zone folder on the Geo tab and selecting Import from
the context menu.
Fit to Map Window: You can create a geographic export zone the size of the map window by right-clicking it on the
map or in the Explorer window and selecting Fit to Map Window from the context menu.

Once you have created a geographic export zone, you can use Atolls polygon editing tools to edit it. For more information on
the polygon editing tools, see "Using Polygon Zone Editing Tools" on page 36.

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You can save the geographic export zone, so that you can use it in a different Atoll document, in the following ways:

Saving the geographic export zone in the user configuration: For information on
saving the geographic export zone in a user configuration, see "Saving a User Configuration" on page 76.
Exporting the geographic export zone: You can export the geographic export zone
by right-clicking the Geographic Export Zone on the Geo tab of the Explorer
window and selecting Export from the context menu.

The geographic export zone can only export in raster format. You can not export in raster
format if the coverage prediction was made per transmitter (for example, coverage
predictions with the display type set by transmitter, by a transmitter attribute, by signal
level, by path loss, or by total losses). Only the coverage area of a single transmitter can
be exported in raster format.

1.4.11 Editing Polygons, Lines, and Points


Atoll uses different types of polygons, lines, and points in the map window. For example, the zones such as the computation,
focus zone and hot spot, described in "Using Zones in the Map Window" on page 33, are specific types of polygons. Another
type of polygon, called contours, can along with lines and points, be used to add additional information to geographic data.
Atoll provides you with several different ways of editing the polygons, lines, and points. You can move or delete the points
that define polygons, lines, and points. You can edit polygons by editing the points that define them, by combining several
polygons, or by deleting parts of the polygons.
Polygons, including the computation, focus zone and hot spot polygons can contain holes. The holes within polygonal areas
are differentiated from overlaying polygons by the order of the coordinates of their vertices. The coordinates of the vertices
of polygonal areas are in clockwise order, whereas the coordinates of the vertices of holes within polygonal areas are in counter-clockwise order.
When you no longer need the polygon, line, or point, you can delete it from the map.
In this section, the different ways of editing polygons, lines, and points are explained:

"Adding a Vector Layer" on page 39


"Creating Polygons, Lines, and Points" on page 39
"Editing the Shape of Polygons and Lines" on page 40
"Combining or Cropping Polygons Using the Toolbar" on page 41
"Editing a Point" on page 41
"Editing Contours, Lines, and Points Using the Context Menu" on page 42.

1.4.11.1 Adding a Vector Layer


You can add vector objects such as polygons, lines or points to geographical map information in a project by first creating a
vector layer. You can also modify certain geographic data maps, for example, population maps, and custom data, by adding a
vector layer to them and afterwards adding polygons, lines and points. For information on modifying certain geographic data
maps by adding a vector layer, see "Editing Population or Custom Data Maps" on page 135.
To add a vector layer to the Geo tab:

Click the New Vector Layer button (

) ) on the Vector Editor toolbar.

Atoll creates a folder called "Vectors" on the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
For information on adding vector objects such as contours, lines, and points to the vector layer, see "Creating Polygons, Lines,
and Points" on page 39.

1.4.11.2 Creating Polygons, Lines, and Points


Once you have created a vector layer, as explained in "Adding a Vector Layer" on page 39, you can add polygons, lines, and
points to it.
To add a polygon, line, or point to a vector layer:
1. Right-click the vector layer on the Geo tab. The context menu appears.
2. Select Edit from the context menu. The tools on the Vector Editor toolbar are available.

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You can also make the vector tools available by selecting the vector layer to edit from
the Vector Editor toolbar list. Because Atoll names all new vector layers "Vectors" by
default, it might be difficult to know which Vectors folder you are selecting. By renaming
each vectors folder, you can ensure that you select the correct folder. For information on
renaming objects, see "Renaming an Object" on page 19.
If the Vector Editor toolbar is not visible, select View > Toolbars > Vector Editor.
3. Click one of the following buttons on the Vector Editor toolbar:
New Polygon:
a. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour.
b. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
c. Double-click to close the contour.
New Rectangle:
a. Click the point on the map that will be one corner of the rectangle.
b. Drag to the opposite corner of the rectangle.
c. Release the mouse to create the rectangle defined by the two corners.
If the polygon or rectangle is on the vector layer of a population map, or custom data, you
must define the value the polygon or rectangle represents and map the vector layer. For
more information, see "Editing Population or Custom Data Maps" on page 135.
New Line:
a. Click once on the map where you want to begin the line.
b. Click each time you change angles on the line.
c. Double-click to end the line.
New Point: Click once on the map where you want to place the point.
4. Press ESC to deselect the currently selected button on the Vector Editor toolbar.

1.4.11.3 Editing the Shape of Polygons and Lines


You can edit the shape of polygons and lines on the vector layer.
To edit the shape of polygons and lines:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu appears.
2. Select Edit from the context menu. The vector tools on the Vector Editor toolbar are activated.
You can also activate the vector tools by selecting the vector layer to edit from the
Vector Editor toolbar list.

3. Select the contour or line. You can now edit by:


-

Moving a point:
i.

Position the pointer over the point you want to move. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Drag the point to its new position. If you are editing a rectangle, the adjacent points on the rectangle change
position as well, in order for the rectangle to retain its shape.
-

Adding a point to a contour or a line:


i.

Position the pointer over the contour border or line where you want to add a point. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Right-click and select Insert Point from the context menu. A point is added to the contour border or line at the
position of the pointer.

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Deleting a point from a contour or a line:


i.

Position the pointer over the point you want to delete. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Right-click and select Delete Point from the context menu. The point is deleted.

1.4.11.4 Combining or Cropping Polygons Using the Toolbar


In Atoll, you can create complex contours by using the tools on the Vector Editor toolbar.
To edit a vector object using the icons on the Vector Editor toolbar:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu appears.
2. Select Edit from the context menu. The vector tools on the Vector Editor toolbar are activated.
You can also activate the vector tools by selecting the vector layer to edit from the
Vector Editor toolbar list.

3. Click the contour to edit. The Vector Editor toolbar has the following buttons:
-

: To combine several contours:


i.

In the Vector Editor toolbar, click the Combine button (

).

ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the new contour.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
iv. Double-click to close the contour.
v. Draw more contours if desired. Atoll creates a group of polygons of the selected and new contours. If contours
overlap, Atoll merges them.
-

: To delete part of the selected contour:


i.

In the Vector Editor toolbar, click the Delete button (

).

ii. Draw the area you want to delete from the selected contour by clicking once on the map where you want to
begin drawing the area to delete.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the area.
iv. Double-click to close the area. Atoll deletes the area from the selected contour.
-

: To create a contour out of the overlapping area of two contours:


i.

In the Vector Editor toolbar, click the Intersection button (

).

ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour that will overlap the selected one.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
iv. Double-click to close the contour. Atoll creates a new contour of the overlapping area of the two contours and
deletes the parts of the contours that do not overlap.
-

: To split the selected contour into several contours:


i.

In the Vector Editor toolbar, click the Split button (

).

ii. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour that will split the selected one.
iii. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
iv. Double-click to close the contour. Atoll separates the area covered by the contour from the selected contour
and creates a new contour.

1.4.11.5 Editing a Point


To edit a point:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu appears.
2. Select Edit from the context menu. The vector tools on the Vector Editor toolbar are activated.

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You can also activate the vector tools by selecting the vector layer to edit from the
Vector Editor toolbar list.

3. Select the point. You can now edit by:


-

Moving:
i.

Click the point you want to move. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Drag the point to its new position.


-

Deleting a point:
i.

Click the point you want to delete. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Right-click and select Delete from the context menu. The point is deleted.

1.4.11.6 Editing Contours, Lines, and Points Using the Context Menu
When you are editing contours, lines, and points, you can access certain commands using the context menu.
To edit a vector object using the context menu:
1. Click the vector object you want to edit.
2. Right-click the vector object to display the context menu and select one of the following:
-

Delete: Select Delete to remove the selected contour, line, or point from the map.
Convert to Line: Select Convert to Line to convert the selected contour to a line.
Convert to Polygon: Select Convert to Polygon to convert the selected line to a contour.
Open Line: Select Open Line to remove the segment between the last and the first point.
Close Line: Select Close Line to add a segment between the last and the first point of the line.
Insert Point: Select Insert Point to add a point to the border of the contour at the position of the pointer.
Move:
i.

Select Move from the context menu to move the contour, line, or point on the map.

ii. Move the contour, line, or point.


iii. Click to place the contour, line, or point.
-

Quit edition: Select Quit Edition to exit editing mode.


Properties: Select Properties to open the Properties dialogue of the selected contour, line, or point. The Properties dialogue has two tabs:
-

General: The General tab gives the name of the vector Layer, the Surface of the object, and any Properties of
the contour, line, or point.
Geometry: This tab gives the coordinates of each point that defines the position and shape of the contour,
line, or point.
Only the commands relevant to the selected contour, line, or point are displayed in the
context menu.

1.4.12 Exporting Coverage Prediction Results


In Atoll, you can export the coverage areas of a coverage prediction in raster or vector formats. In raster formats, you can
export in BMP, TIF, JPEG 2000, ArcView grid, or Vertical Mapper (GRD and GRC) formats. When exporting in GRD or GRC
formats, Atoll allows you to export files larger than 2 GB. In vector formats, you can export in ArcView, MapInfo, or AGD
formats. The file exported can then be imported as a vector or raster object in Atoll or in another application.
When you export a coverage prediction in vector format, the exported zone is delimited by the rectangle encompassing the
coverage. When you export a coverage prediction in vector format, you can export the entire coverage prediction, or you can
export a defined area of the coverage prediction.
All coverage types can be exported, however, you can not export a coverage prediction in raster format if the coverage prediction was made per transmitter (for example, coverage predictions with the display type set by transmitter, by a transmitter
attribute, by signal level, by path loss, or by total losses). In this case, only the coverage area of a single transmitter can be
exported in raster format.

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You can export coverage predictions separately or you can export several coverage predictions at the same time. When you
export more than one coverage prediction, Atoll suggests the formats that can be used for all the coverage predictions to be
exported.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Exporting an Individual Coverage Prediction in Vector Format" on page 43


"Exporting an Individual Coverage Prediction in Raster Format" on page 43
"Exporting Multiple Coverage Predictions" on page 44.

1.4.12.1 Exporting an Individual Coverage Prediction in Vector Format


To export a coverage prediction in vector format:
1. Select the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the Predictions folder.

The coverage prediction must be displayed in the map window before it can be exported.
For information on displaying objects in the map window, see "Displaying or Hiding Objects
on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 18.
3. Select Export the Coverage from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. In the Save As dialogue, enter the File name and select the vector format from the Save as type list.
If you have chosen to export the prediction coverage in a vector format other than in AGD format, you can modify the
coverage prediction export:
a. Coordinate Systems: You can change the reference coordinate system for the file being exported.
b. Resolution: You can change the Resolution of the exported coverage. The default resolution is the resolution of
the coverage prediction results (as set in the coverage prediction Properties dialogue).
c. Filtering: You can apply a filter to the coverage prediction export to fill empty pixels with a value averaged from
surrounding pixels. Define the level of filtering by moving the Filtering slider, or entering the percentage in the
text box.
d. Smoothing: You can smooth the vectors exported by a set percentage by moving the Smoothing slider, or entering
the percentage in the text box.
5. Click Save to export the coverage prediction results.

1.4.12.2 Exporting an Individual Coverage Prediction in Raster Format


To export a coverage prediction in raster format:
1. Select the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the Predictions folder.

The coverage prediction must be displayed in the map window before it can be exported.
For information on displaying objects in the map window, see "Displaying or Hiding Objects
on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 18.
3. You can export the entire coverage prediction, the geographic export zone, or part of the coverage prediction:
To export the entire coverage prediction:
-

Right-click the coverage prediction you want to export.

To export the geographic export zone, define the geographic export zone:
a. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
b. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the Zones folder.

c. Right-click the Geographic Export Zone folder. The context menu appears.
d. Select Draw from the context menu.
e. Draw the geographic export zone by clicking the point on the map that will be one corner of the rectangle that will
define the geographic export zone and dragging to the opposite corner of the rectangle that will define the geographic export zone. When you release the mouse, the geographic export zone will be created from the rectangle
defined by the two corners.

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The geographic export zone is delimited by a light purple line. If you clear the geographic export zones visibility
check box in the Zones folder of the Geo tab in the Explorer window, it will no longer be displayed but will still be
taken into account.
f. Right-click the coverage prediction you want to export.
To export part of the coverage prediction:
a. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the coverage prediction.

b. Right-click the part of the coverage prediction you want to export.


4. Select Export the Coverage from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
5. In the Save As dialogue, enter the File name and select the raster format from the Save as type list.
6. Enter the file name and select the type and the path of the file to be exported.
7. Click Save to export the coverage prediction results. The Raster Export dialogue appears.
a. Under Region, select the area to export:
-

Entire covered area: to export a rectangle containing only the area covered by the study,
Computation zone: to export a rectangle containing the entire computation zone, or
Geographic export zone: to export the rectangle defined by the geographic export zone.

b. If desired, you can apply a filter to the coverage prediction export to fill empty pixels with a value averaged from
surrounding pixels. Define the level of filtering by moving the Filtering slider, or entering the percentage in the
text box.
c. Filtering:
d. Click OK to finish exporting the coverage prediction results.
You can not export in raster format if the coverage prediction was made per transmitter
(for example, coverage predictions with the display type set by transmitter, by a transmitter attribute, by signal level, by path loss, or by total losses). Only the coverage area of a
single transmitter can be exported in raster format.

1.4.12.3 Exporting Multiple Coverage Predictions


If you have several coverage predictions that you want to export, you can export them at the same time.
To export several coverage predictions at the same time:
1. Select the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Export Coverages from the context menu. The Coverage Export dialogue appears.
4. In the Coverage Export dialogue, select the check boxes corresponding to the coverage predictions you want to
export. By default, Atoll selects the check boxes of all coverage predictions whose visibility check box is selected on
the Network tab of the Explorer window.
5. Under Options, you can define the following parameters:
-

Folder: Enter the folder you want to store the exported coverage predictions in or click the Browse button (
)
to navigate to it.
Format: Select the vector file format you want Atoll to export the coverage predictions in.
Time stamp: If you select the Time stamp check box, Atoll will add the date and time to the file name of each
exported coverage prediction.
Resolution in metres: You can define a resolution for the exported coverage predictions.

6. Click Export to export the selected coverage predictions. The selected coverage predictions are saved in the selected
folder.
When you export several coverage predictions at the same time, Atoll does not take the
geographic export zone into consideration. The geographic export zone is only taken into
consideration for raster file formats.

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1.4.13 Saving a Map as a Graphic Image


You can save a map as a graphic image.
To save a map as a graphic image:
1. Select Edit > Select Area.
a. Click in the map on one of the four corners of the area you want to select.
b. Drag to the opposite corner.
2. Select File > Save Image As. The Map Export dialogue appears.
3. In the Map Export dialogue, select the zone that you want to save as an image. You can select:
-

Selection: The area on the map selected in step 1.


Geographic export zone
Printing zone

4. Click Export. The Save As dialogue appears.


5. In the Save as dialogue, select a destination folder, enter a File name, and select a file type from the Save as type list.
The following file formats are supported: TIF, BIL, BMP, and ArcView Grid (TXT). If you want to use the saved file as a
digital terrain model, you should select the TIF, BIL, or TXT format. When saving in BIL format, Atoll allows you to save
files larger than 2 Gb.
6. Click Save. The Exported Image Size dialogue appears.
7. You can define the size of the exported image in one of two ways:
-

Scale: If you want to define the size by scale, select Scale, enter a scale in the text box and a resolution. If you want
to export the image with rulers, select Include Rulers.
Pixel size: If you want to define the size by pixel size, select Pixel size, and enter a pixel size in the text box.
If you want to use the exported file as a digital terrain model, you must define the size of
the exported image by pixel size. Atoll then creates a geo-reference file for the exported
image.

8. Click OK.

1.4.14 Copying a Map to Another Application


You can copy a selected area of the map into a document created using another application.
To copy a selected area of the map into a document created using another application:
1. Select Edit > Select Area
2. Define the area to copy:
a. Click in the map on one of the four corners of the area you want to select.
b. Drag to the opposite corner.
3. Select Edit > Copy Image. The Copy Image dialogue appears.
4. Define the resolution of the image in one of the following ways:
-

Select Use screen resolution


Select Use custom resolution and enter a resolution in metres.

5. Click OK.
6. Open the application into which you want to paste the image.
7. In the new application, select Edit > Paste Special.
8. In the Paste Special dialogue, select Picture (Enhanced Metafile).
You can also select Bitmap to paste the selection without rulers, or Text to paste the upper
left and lower right coordinates of the selection.

9. Click OK. The area of the map, including the rulers, is pasted as an image into the new document.

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1.4.15 Map Window Pointers


In Atoll, the pointer appears in different forms according to its function. Each pointer is described below:
Appearance

Description

Meaning

Selection arrow

The zone selection pointer indicates that, on the map, you can define a zone to print
or copy and, in the Panoramic window, you can define the zone to be displayed on
the map. To define a zone, click and drag diagonally.

Polygon drawing
pointer

The polygon drawing pointer indicates you can draw a zone to filter either sites or
transmitters, draw computation/focus/hot spot/filtering/printing/ geographic
export zones, or draw vector or raster polygons on the map. To draw a polygon, click
once to start, and each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of
the polygon. Close the polygon by clicking twice.

The rectangle drawing pointer indicates you can draw computation/focus/hot spot/
Rectangle drawing
filtering/printing/geographic export zones, or draw vector or raster rectangles on
pointer
the map. To define a zone, click and drag diagonally.
Hand

The hand pointer indicates you can move the visible part of the displayed map.

Zoom tool

The zoom pointer indicates you can click to zoom in and right-click to zoom out at
the location of the mouse pointer

Zoom area

The zoom area pointer indicates you can zoom in on an area of the by clicking and
dragging to define the area.

New transmitter

The transmitter pointer indicates you can place a transmitter on the map where you
click. You can place more than one station by pressing CTRL as you click on the map.

Point analysis

The point analysis pointer indicates that you have selected the Point Analysis tool
and have not yet chosen the first point.

Point placed
(Receiver)

The point placed pointer indicates the position of the receiver on the map that is
used for the point-to-point analysis. The results are displayed in the CW
Measurements or Point Analysis window.

Pencil

The pencil pointer indicates you can create a polygonal clutter zone, by clicking once
to start the polygon, once to create each corner, and by double-clicking to close the
polygon.

Deletion

The deletion pointer indicates that you can delete a newly created polygonal clutter
zone by clicking its border.

Position indicator

The position indicator pointer indicates you can select the border of a polygon.
Right-clicking the polygon border opens a context menu allowing you to add a point,
delete the polygon, or centre the map on the polygon.

Select/create
points

The select/create points pointer indicates you can modify the polygon in the map
window. You can add a new point and modify the polygon contour by clicking on one
of the edges and dragging. You can move an existing point by clicking and dragging
an existing point. You can right-click to open a context menu to delete a point,
delete the polygon, or centre the map on the polygon.

Placing a CW
measurement
point

The first CW measurement point pointer indicates you can click a point on the map
to create the first point of a CW measurement path.

Placing points in a The next CW measurement point pointer indicates the first CW measurement point
CW measurement has been set and you can now click other points on the map. Double-click to end the
path
CW measurement path.
The measurement pointer indicates you can click on the map to set the start point of
Measurements on
your measurement. As you move the pointer, the distance between the first point
the map
and the pointer is displayed in the status bar.

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Appearance

Description

Meaning

Terrain section

The terrain section pointer indicates that you can create a terrain section by clicking
once on the map to create the first point and once more to create the second point.
The terrain profile between the two points is displayed in the Point Analysis window
and stored under Terrain Sections in the Geo tab.

1.5 Working with Data Tables


Atoll stores object data (sites, transmitters, repeaters, antennas, UMTS or CDMA2000 cells, UMTS or CDMA2000 parameters,
etc.) in the form of tables, containing all their parameters and characteristics. The data contained in prediction reports are
also stored in the form of tables.
You can add columns to the data table and you can delete certain columns. When you create a new column, you can create a
default value for a field you create. You can also create a list of options (for text fields) from which the user can choose when
filling in the field.
You can filter, sort, and group the data contained in these tables, and view a statistical analysis of the data. You can also export
the data or import data into the Atoll data tables. The options for working with data tables are available from the context
menu or from the Table toolbar displayed above the table.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Opening a Data Table" on page 47


"Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields" on page 47
"Editing the Contents of a Table" on page 49
"Opening an Objects Record Properties Dialogue from a Table" on page 50
"Defining the Table Format" on page 50
"Copying and Pasting in Tables" on page 54
"Viewing a Statistical Analysis of Table Contents" on page 56
"Exporting Tables to Text Files" on page 57
"Importing Tables from Text Files" on page 58
"Exporting Tables to XML Files" on page 59
"Importing Tables from XML Files" on page 59.

1.5.1 Opening a Data Table


To open a data table:
1. Click the Network or Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the data folder of which you want to display the data table.
3. Select Open Table from the context menu.

1.5.2 Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields


The data for each object type is stored in the form of a data table. Every data table in Atoll is created with a default set of
columns, each corresponding to a field. In this section, the following functions are explained:

"Accessing an Object Types Table Fields" on page 47


"Adding a Field to an Object Types Data Table" on page 48
"Deleting a Field from an Object Types Data Table" on page 49

1.5.2.1 Accessing an Object Types Table Fields


The fields contained in an object types table are defined in a dialogue.
To access an object types table fields:
1. In the Explorer window, open the data table as described in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Right-click the table in the map window. The context menu appears.
3. Select Table Fields from the context menu. A dialogue appears where you can view the existing fields and add or
delete new ones.
The dialogue displays the following information for each type of data (see Figure 1.13):
-

The name of the field in the database (Name).


The name of the field as it appears in the ATL file (Legend).
The Type of the field.

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The maximum Size of the field.


The Default value of the field.
The Group to which the field belongs. When opening an Atoll document from a database, you can select a group
of custom fields to be loaded from the database, instead of loading all custom fields.

Figure 1.13: The Table tab

1.5.2.2 Adding a Field to an Object Types Data Table


You can add a custom field to any object types data table.
To add a custom field to an object types data table:
1. Access the object types table fields as explained in "Accessing an Object Types Table Fields" on page 47.
2. Click Add. The Field Definition dialogue appears (see Figure 1.14).
3. The Field Definition dialogue has the following text boxes:
-

Name: Enter the Name for the field that will appear in the database
Group: If desired, you can define a Group that this custom field will belong to. When you open an Atoll document
from a database, you can then select a specific group of custom fields to be loaded from the database, instead of
loading all custom fields.
Legend: Enter the name for the field that will appear in the Atoll document.
Type: Select a type for the field (text, short integer, long integer, single, double, true/false, date/time, or currency)
Size: The Size field is only available if you have selected "text" as the Type. Enter a size in characters.
Default value: If you want, enter a default value that will appear each time you create a new record of this object
type.
Choice list: The Choice list field is only available if you have selected "text" as the Type. You can create a choice
list by entering the list items in the Choice list text box, and pressing ENTER after each list item, if you want,
keeping each on a separate line.
Select the Restricted check box, if you want the custom field to only accept values listed in the Choise list text box.
Clear the Restricted check box, if you want to allow users to enter values other than those in the choice list.

4. Click OK to return to the object type table.


User or custom fields are for information only and are not taken into account in any calculation. You can find these fields on the Other Properties tab of an object types Properties
dialogue.

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Figure 1.14: The Field Definition dialogue

1.5.2.3 Deleting a Field from an Object Types Data Table


You can delete custom fields from an object types data table. Custom fields are the fields that the user adds to an object
types data table, as explained in "Adding a Field to an Object Types Data Table" on page 48.
To delete a custom field from an object types data table:
All data stored in the field will be lost when you delete the field itself. Make sure that you
are not deleting important information.

1. Access the object types table fields as explained in "Accessing an Object Types Table Fields" on page 47.
2. Select the custom field that you want to delete.
Some fields can not be deleted. If you select a field and the Delete button remains
unavailable, the selected field is not a custom field and can not be deleted.

3. Click Delete. The field is deleted from the object types data table.

1.5.3 Editing the Contents of a Table


To edit the contents of a table:
1. Click the Network or Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the data folder of which you want to display the data table.
3. Select Open Table from the context menu.
4. Edit the content of the table by entering the value directly in the field (see Figure 1.15).
5. Click elsewhere in the table when you have finished updating the table. Your changes are automatically saved.
If a list of options has been defined for a field, you can select a value from the list (see
Figure 1.16) or enter a new value.

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Figure 1.15: Editing data in the transmitters data tables

Figure 1.16: Choosing data in the transmitters data tables

1.5.4 Opening an Objects Record Properties Dialogue from a Table


You can open the Record Properties dialogue of an object, for example, a site, antenna, transmitter, or cell, from its data table.
To open the Record Properties dialogue of an object:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Right-click the record whose properties you want to see.
3. Select Record Properties from the context menu.
You can also open the Record Properties dialogue by double-clicking the record. To avoid
editing the record when you double-click, double-click the left margin of the record instead
of the record itself. You can also select the record and click the Record Properties button
(

) in the Table toolbar.

1.5.5 Defining the Table Format


Atoll lets you format the data tables so that the data presented is more legible or better presented. You can change the format
of the data table by:

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"Formatting Table Cells" on page 51


"Changing Column Width or Row Height" on page 51
"Displaying or Hiding a Column" on page 52
"Freezing or Unfreezing a Column" on page 53
"Moving Columns" on page 53

Formatting the Column Headers


To define the format of the column headers:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Right-click the table. The context menu appears.
3. Select Format > Header Format from the context menu. The Format dialogue appears.
4. The Format dialogue has the following tabs:
-

Font: You can select the Font, Outline (the font style), font Size, Effects, and Text colour.
Colour: You can select the colour of the column headers by selecting a Foreground colour, a Background colour,
and a pattern from the list box. You can also select a 3D Effect for the header.
Borders: You can select the Border, the Type, and the Colour for each column header.
Alignment: You can select both the Horizontal and Vertical alignment of the column header text. The Alignment
tab has additional options as well, allowing you to enable Wrap text, Auto-size, and Allow enter.

5. Click OK.
Formatting Table Cells
To define the format of the table cells:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Right-click the table. The context menu appears.
3. Select Format > Cell Format from the context menu. The Format dialogue appears.
4. The Format dialogue has the following tabs:
-

Font: You can select the Font, Outline (the font style), font Size, Effects, and Text Colour.
Colour: You can select the background colour (Interior) of the column headers, by selecting a Foreground colour,
a Background colour, and a pattern from the list box. You can also select a 3D Effect for the header.
Borders: You can select the Border, the Type, and the Colour for each column header.
Alignment: You can select both the Horizontal and Vertical alignment of the column header text. The Alignment
tab has additional options as well, allowing you to enable Wrap text, Auto-size, and Allow enter.

5. Click OK.
Changing Column Width or Row Height
You can change the column width and row height in a data table. When you change the column width, you change the width
only for the selected column. When you change the row height, however, you change the row height for every row in the
table.
To change the column width:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Click the border separating two column headers and drag to change the column width (see Figure 1.17).
To change the row height:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Click the border separating two rows and drag to change the row height (see Figure 1.18).
The width or height of the columns or rows change once you release the mouse.

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Figure 1.17: Changing column width

Figure 1.18: Changing row height


Displaying or Hiding a Column
You can choose which columns in data tables to display or hide.
To display or hide a column:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Right-click the table. The context menu appears.
3. Select Display Columns from the context menu or click the Display Columns button (
Columns to Be Displayed dialogue appears (see Figure 1.19).

) in the Table toolbar. The

4. To display a column, select its check box.


5. To hide a column, clear its check box.
You can also hide a column by right-clicking on its header and selecting Hide Columns
from the context menu or by clicking the Hide Columns button (
) in the Table
toolbar. You can hide more than one column by pressing CTRL while selecting the
columns and then clicking the Hide Columns button (
6. Click Close.

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Figure 1.19: The Columns to Be Displayed dialogue


Freezing or Unfreezing a Column
In Atoll, you can freeze one or more columns of a data table so that they always remain visible as you scroll horizontally
through the table. For example, while scrolling through the Sites table, you might want to have the Name column always visible. You can keep this column, or any other column visible, by freezing it.
To freeze a column:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Select the header of the column you want to freeze. Click and drag over several headers to select more than one
column to freeze.
You can only freeze adjacent columns.

3. Right-click the selected header or headers and select Freeze Columns from the context menu or click the Freeze Columns button (

) in the Table toolbar.


You can not freeze a column in a report table.

To unfreeze columns:

Right-click the table and select Unfreeze All Columns from the context menu or click the Unfreeze All Columns button
(

) in the Table toolbar.

Moving Columns
In Atoll, you can change the column order so that you can group similar columns or present data in a determined order.
To move a column:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Select the header of the column you want to move. Click and drag over several headers to select more than one
column to move.
You can only move several columns at the same time when they are adjacent.

3. Click again on the selected column and drag to the desired area. As you drag the column, the position the column will
occupy is indicated by a red line (see Figure 1.20).

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Figure 1.20: Moving columns


4. Release the mouse column to place the column.

It may be necessary to click Refresh

in the Map toolbar for your changes to appear.

1.5.6 Copying and Pasting in Tables


In Atoll, you can copy and paste data in tables using the Copy (CTRL+C), Cut (CTRL+X), and Paste (CTRL+V) commands on the
Edit menu. You can copy and paste data to create new elements or you can copy and paste the same data into several cells.
In this section, the following is explained:

"Copying and Pasting a Table Element" on page 54


"Pasting the Same Data into Several Cells" on page 54.

1.5.6.1 Copying and Pasting a Table Element


You can create a new element in tables by copying an existing element, pasting it into a new row and editing the details that
are different.
Each element in a table must have a unique Name.

To create a new element by copying and pasting:


1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Click in the left margin of the table row containing the element to select the entire row.
3. Select Edit > Copy to copy the table row.
4. Click in the left margin of the table row marked with the New Row icon (

) to select the entire row.

5. Select Edit > Paste to paste the copied data into the new row. Atoll, creates a new element from the copied data. The
name of the new element is the same as that of the copied element, preceded by "Copy of." You can edit this name.

1.5.6.2 Pasting the Same Data into Several Cells


You can paste the same data into several cells, using Fill Up or Fill Down.
To paste the same data into several cells:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Click on the cell with the data you want to copy and drag to select the cells into which you want to copy the data (see
Figure 1.21).

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Figure 1.21: Selecting the cells


3. Copy into the selected cells:
-

To copy the contents of the top cell of the selection into the other cells, right-click the selection and select Edit >
Fill Down from the context menu or click the Fill Down button (

) in the Table toolbar (see Figure 1.22).

Figure 1.22: Copying the contents of the top cell


-

To copy the contents of the bottom cell of the selection into the other cells, right-click the selection and select
Edit > Fill Up from the context menu or click the Fill Up button (

) in the Table toolbar (see Figure 1.23).

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Figure 1.23: Copying the contents of the bottom cell

1.5.7 Viewing a Statistical Analysis of Table Contents


You can view a statistical analysis of the contents of an entire column in a table or of the contents of a selection of cells.
To view a statistical analysis of table contents:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Select the column data you want to analyse:
To view a statistical analysis of an entire column:
-

Click the column title. The entire column is selected.

To view a statistical analysis of a selection of cells in one column:


-

Select the cells you want to analyse. You can select contiguous cells by clicking the first cell and dragging to the
last cell of the selection you want to analyse, or by clicking the first cell, pressing SHIFT and clicking the last cell.
You can select non-contiguous cells by pressing CTRL and clicking each cell in the column separately.
In Atoll you can organise data in several different ways, allowing you to select only
certain data. For more information, see "Grouping, Sorting, and Filtering Data" on
page 65.

3. Right-click the selection of cells. The context menu appears.


4. Select Statistics from the context menu. The Statistics dialogue appears (see Figure 1.24).

Figure 1.24: The Statistics dialogue


The statistics displayed depend on the type of numerical data selected. If you leave the Statistics dialogue open, you
can view the statistical analysis of other cells by selecting them in the table. The contents of the Statistics dialogue are
updated automatically.

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1.5.8 Exporting Tables to Text Files


You can export entire Atoll data tables, or selected columns, to ASCII text files (in text and comma-separated value formats)
and to MS Excel files.
To export a table:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Right-click the table. The context menu appears.
3. Select Export from the context menu. The Export dialogue appears. You can see how the exported table will appear
in the Preview pane (see Figure 1.25).

Figure 1.25: Exporting a data table


4. Select the Header check box if you want to export the names of the columns with the data.
5. Select a Decimal Symbol from the list.
6. Select a Field Separator from the list.
7. Select the fields (displayed as columns in the table) you want to export. You can display all the fields belonging to a
table by clicking the Expand button ( ) to the left of the table name. You can select contiguous fields by clicking the
first field, pressing SHIFT and clicking the last field. You can select non-contiguous fields by pressing CTRL and clicking
each fields separately.
a. To select a field to be exported, select the field in the Available Fields box and click
ported Fields list. All fields in the Exported Fields list will be exported.

to move it to the Ex-

b. To remove a field from the list of Exported Fields, select the field in the Exported Fields list and click
move it.

to re-

c. To change the order of the fields, select a field and click or to move it up or down in the list. The fields at the
top of the Exported Fields appear at the left of the exported table.

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You can save the choices you have made in the Export dialogue as a configuration file by
clicking the Save button at the top of the dialogue and entering a name for the file in the
Save As dialogue that appears. The next time you export a data table, you can click Load
in the Export dialogue to open your configuration file with the same settings you used this
time.
8. Click Export. The Save As dialogue appears.
9. In the Save As dialogue, enter the File name and select the format from the Save as type list.
10. Click Save to export the table.
You can export the Sites and Transmitters tables to text files by selecting the folder or view in the Explorer window and pressing CTRL+E.
For information on importing data into a data table, see "Importing Tables from Text Files" on page 58.

1.5.9 Importing Tables from Text Files


You can import data in the form of ASCII text files (in TXT and CSV formats) into Atoll data tables.
To import a table:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Right-click the table. The context menu appears.
3. Select Import from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
4. Select the ASCII text file you want to open and click Open. The Import dialogue appears (see Figure 1.26).

Figure 1.26: Importing information into a data table


5. If the file you was creating using a different Coordinate system, click the Browse button (
) to select the coordinate
system the file was created with. Atoll will covert the coordinates in the imported file to correspond to the coordinate
system used in the Atoll document.
6. Enter the number of the first line of data in the 1st Data Line box.
7. Select a Decimal Symbol from the list.
8. Select a Field Separator from the list.
9. Select the Update Records check box if you want to replace the data of records already existing in the table.

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Atoll compares the values in the left-most column of the data to be imported with the
values in the same column of the data table to see if records already exist. The values of
these records are replaced when the Update Records check box is selected. If the Update
Records check box is not selected, these records are not imported.
10. Under Field Mapping, there are two header rows:
-

Source: The column headers from the text file you are importing.
Destination: The column headers from the Atoll data table.

Align the content of the source file with the content of the destination file by clicking the column header in the Destination row and selecting the corresponding column from the Atoll data file (see Figure 1.26). Select <Ignore> for
source file columns that you do not want to import.
You can change the width of the columns to make the contents easier to work with. See
"Changing Column Width or Row Height" on page 51.

You can save the choices you have made in the Import dialogue as a configuration file by
clicking the Save button at the top of the dialogue and entering a name for the file in the
Save As dialogue that appears. The next time you export a data table, you can click Load
in the Import dialogue to open your configuration file with the same settings you used this
time.
11. Click Import. The contents are imported in the current Atoll data table.
You can import data from text files into the Sites and Transmitters tables by selecting the folder or view in the Explorer
window and pressing CTRL+I.
For information on exporting the information in a data table into a text file, see "Exporting Tables to Text Files" on page 57.

1.5.10 Exporting Tables to XML Files


You can export the data tables in your Atoll document to XML files. You can use XML to exchange information between Atoll
and the OMC.
Atoll creates one XML file for each exported data table, and an index.xml file that contains the mapping between the tables
that were exported and the XML files corresponding to each data table. The index.xml file also stores the information on the
system (GSM, UMTS, etc.), the technology (TDMA, CDMA, TD-SCDMA, etc.), and the version of Atoll with which the XML files
were created. For more information about the formats of the XML files, see the Technical Reference Guide.
To export all the data tables in your document to XML files:
1. Select Document > Data Exchange > XML File Export. The Browse for Folder dialogue appears.
2. Select the folder where the XML files are to be stored. Click the Make New Folder button if you want to create a new
folder to store the XML files.
3. Click OK. All the data tables in the document are exported to XML files.
For information on importing the data tables from XML files into your document, see "Importing Tables from XML Files" on
page 59.

1.5.11 Importing Tables from XML Files


You can import data tables into your Atoll document from XML files. You can use XML to exchange information between Atoll
and the OMC.
In order for Atoll to be able to correctly import the data tables from XML files, the XML files and the current Atoll document
must use the same system (GSM, UMTS, etc.), the technology (TDMA, CDMA, TD-SCDMA, etc.), and the Atoll version used to
create the XML files must be the same as the version used to import the data. For more information about the formats of the
XML files, see the Technical Reference Guide.
To import data tables into your document from XML files:
1. Select Document > Data Exchange > XML File Import. The Browse for Folder dialogue appears.
2. Select the folder where the index.xml file is located.
3. Click OK. The data tables from the XML files listed in the index.xml file are imported in the document .

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Tables are imported in the same order they appear in the index.xml file. Do not modify the
order of tables in the index.xml file because the order in which the data is imported is very
important; some data must be imported before other data. For example, antennas used by
transmitters must be imported before the transmitters themselves.
During the import procedure, existing data in the tables are overwritten by the data from the XML files. Once the import is
complete, Atoll performs a database integrity check, and a duplicate records check to ensure that the import did not create
database problems.
For information on exporting the data tables in your document to XML files, see "Exporting Tables to XML Files" on page 59.

1.6 Printing in Atoll


In Atoll, you can print any part of your document, including maps, data tables, document reports, and antenna patterns. This
section explains the following:

"Printing Data Tables and Reports" on page 60


"Printing a Map" on page 60
"Printing a Docking Window" on page 64
"Printing Antenna Patterns" on page 64.

1.6.1 Printing Data Tables and Reports


Data tables and reports are both presented in tabular format in Atoll and can, therefore, both be printed in the same way.
If you want to see how the table will appear once printed, see "Previewing Your Printing" on page 64.
To print a table:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. If you want to print an area of the table, select it by clicking in one corner of the area and dragging diagonally to the
opposite corner.
3. Select File > Print.
4. If you want to print only a selected area, choose Selected in the Print dialogue.
5. Click OK to print.

1.6.2 Printing a Map


You can print a map in Atoll and create a paper copy of coverage predictions, etc. Atoll offers several options allowing you to
customise and optimise the printed map. Atoll supports printing to a variety of paper sizes, including A4 and A0.
Before you print a map, you have the following options:

You can print the entire map, or you can define an area of the map to be printed in one of the following ways:
-

Selecting the print area (see "Defining the Printing Zone" on page 61).
Creating a focus zone (see "Drawing a Focus Zone or a Hot Spot" on page 35).

You can accept the default layout or you can modify the print layout (see "Defining the Print Layout" on page 62).
You can see how the map will appear once printed (see "Previewing Your Printing" on page 64).
Printing graphics is a memory-intensive operation and can make heavy demands on your
printer. Before printing for the first time, you should review the "Printing
Recommendations" on page 61 to avoid any memory-related problems.

To print a map:
1. Select the document window containing the map.
2. You now have the following options before printing the map:
-

You can select a print area ("Defining the Printing Zone" on page 61) or create a focus zone ("Drawing a Focus Zone
or a Hot Spot" on page 35).
You can modify the print layout ("Defining the Print Layout" on page 62).
You can see how the map will appear once printed (see "Previewing Your Printing" on page 64).

3. Select File > Print.

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4. Click OK.

1.6.2.1 Printing Recommendations


The appearance of the map is determined by the arrangement and properties of the objects the map contains. Objects in Atoll
are arranged in layers. The layers on the top (as arranged on the Network and Geo tabs) are the most visible on the screen
and in print. The visibility of the lower layers depends on which layers are above it and on the transparency of these layers
(for information on transparency, see "Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types" on page 25).
Before printing a map, it is recommended to organise the layers from top to bottom as follows, when a document contains
surface layers (raster maps or polygonal vector maps), lines (vectors such as roads, or airport), and points (measurements,
etc.):

Points (vectors)
Roads and Lines (vectors)
Surface polygons (vectors)
Multi-format maps - population, geoclimatic, traffic maps (vector or raster), and others
Clutter class maps (transparent raster maps)
Images, DTM, or clutter height maps (non-transparent maps).

Sites and transmitters must be above all the other layers. For this reason, visible objects on the Network tab, for example,
sites, transmitters, and predictions, are displayed above objects on the Geo tab. For performance reasons, however, it is
strongly recommended to put vector layers, such as roads, over predictions. This will ensure that these vector layers are visible
when you print the map.
To put vector layers from the Geo tab over predictions:
1. In the Explorer window, click the Geo tab.
2. Right-click the vector layer you want to move to the Network tab. The context menu appears.
3. Select Move to Network Tab from the context menu.
4. Click the Network tab.
5. Drag the vector layer to a position above Predictions but below Sites, Antennas, and Transmitters.

1.6.2.2 Defining the Printing Zone


You can define an area to be printed.
To create a printing zone:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the Zones folder.

3. Right-click the Printing Zone folder. The context menu appears.


4. Select Draw from the context menu.
5. Draw the printing zone:
a. Click the point on the map that will be one corner of the rectangle that will define the printing zone.
b. Drag to the opposite corner of the rectangle that will define the printing zone. When you release the mouse, the
printing zone will be created from the rectangle defined by the two corners.
The printing zone is delimited by a light green line (see Figure 1.27). If you clear the printing zones visibility check box
in the Zones folder of the Geo tab in the Explorer window, it will no longer be displayed but will still be taken into
account.

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Figure 1.27: Printing zone


You can also create a printing zone as follows:

Vector Editor toolbar: You can use the New Polygon (


) and New Rectangle (
) buttons available in the Vector
Editor toolbar to draw the printing zone.
Existing polygon: You can use any existing polygon as a printing zone by right-clicking it on the map or in the Explorer
window and selecting Use As > Printing Zone from the context menu. You can also combine an existing printing zone
with any existing polygon by right-clicking it on the map or in the Explorer window and selecting Add To > Printing
Zone from the context menu. The "effective" resulting printing zone will be the rectangle encompassing the several
polygons composing the printing zone.
Importing a polygon: If you have a file with an existing polygon, you can import it and use it as a printing zone. You
can import it by right-clicking the Printing Zone folder on the Geo tab and selecting Import from the context menu.
Fit to Map Window: You can create a printing zone the size of the map window right-clicking the Printing Zone folder
and selecting Fit to Map Window from the context menu.

Once you have created a printing zone, you can change its size by dragging the edges of the zone displayed on the rulers of
the map window. You can also use Atolls polygon editing tools to edit the printing zone. For more information on the polygon
editing tools, see "Using Polygon Zone Editing Tools" on page 36.
You can save the printing zone, so that you can use it in a different Atoll document, in the
following ways:

Saving the printing zone in the user configuration: For information on saving the
printing zone in a user configuration, see "Saving a User Configuration" on page 76.
Exporting the printing zone: You can export the geographic export zone by rightclicking the Printing Zone on the Geo tab of the Explorer window and selecting
Export from the context menu.

1.6.2.3 Defining the Print Layout


You can use the Print Setup dialogue to define how your map will appear when you print it. On the Print Setup dialogue, you
can:

Set the scale of the map.


Choose to print the rulers with the map.
Choose to print the area outside the focus zone.
Choose to print the legend.
Add a title, comment, logo, header, or footer.
Select paper size and source, as well as the page orientation and the margins.

These settings can be saved as a configuration, allowing you to define a standard appearance which you can then load and
use the next time you print a similar document.

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To define the appearance of the map when it is printed:


1. Select File > Print Setup. The Print Setup dialogue appears. You define the print setup on the Page tab, the Components tab, and the Header/Footer tab. You can see any changes you make in the schematic preview on the right side
of the Print Setup dialogue.
If you have previously defined a configuration file containing all the necessary settings, you
can click the Load button under Configuration to import those settings.

2. Click the Page tab. On the Page tab, you can define the page size, margins, and orientation and the scale of the printed
map:
a. Under Orientation, select whether the page should be printed in Portrait or Landscape.
b. Under Paper, select the Size of the paper and, optionally, the Source of the paper.
c. Under Scaling, define the scale of the printed image either by selecting Fit to page, or by selecting Scale and defining the scale.
d. Under Margins, set the margins of the page in millimetres.
3. Click the Components tab.
a. Under Map, you can define the appearance of the printed map:
-

Select the Rulers check box if you want to print the map with a scale around it.
Select the Area inside focus zone only check box if you only want to print the part of the map inside the focus
zone.

b. Under Legend, you can define the placement of the legend.


-

Select the Legend check box if you want to print a legend with the map.

Click a button to set the Position of the legend. The buttons


inside the square will place the legend on top of the map. The
buttons outside of the square will place the legend outside of the
map.

Click the Font button to open the Font dialogue to define the font of the legend.

c. Select the Comments check box if you want to print a comment with the map and set its Position. Clicking the
Properties button opens a dialogue where you can enter text and set variables such as the current time and date.
If you want the comment to appear on the map (and not outside of it), select the On the map check box.
4. Click the Header/Footer tab. On the Header/Footer tab, you can set the position of graphic elements.
a. Select the Map Title check box if you want to define a title for the map and set its Position. Clicking the Properties
button opens a dialogue where you can enter text and set variables such as the current time and date. If you want
the title to appear on the map (and not outside of it), select the On the map check box.
b. Under Logo 1 and Logo 2, you can define graphics that appear for the map. The graphics can be a company logo
or other information, such as copyright information, in the form of a BMP graphic.
i.

For the selected logo check box, click the Properties button. The Logo dialogue appears.
By default, Atoll searches for the logo files in the Atolls installation folder. If a file named logo.bmp is present
in this folder, it is considered as the default header logo. However, you can select a different file.

ii. Click File. The Open dialogue appears.


iii. Select the your graphic in BMP format and click Open.
Only BMP graphics can be used as logos. If your logo is in a different format, you must first
convert it using a graphics programme to the BMP format.

iv. Select the correct Width and Height (in pixels).


v. Click OK.

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c. Select the Header/Footer Note check box if you want to define a header or footer for the map and set its Position.
Clicking the Properties button opens a dialogue where you can enter text and set variables such as the current
time and date. If you want the header or footer to appear on the map (and not outside of it), select the On the
map check box.
5. Once you have made your settings, click OK to close the Print Setup dialogue, or click Print to print the document.
You can save the current settings as a configuration file by clicking the Save button under
Configuration. This enables you to re-use the same settings the next time by loading them.

1.6.3 Previewing Your Printing


When you want to print maps, data tables, or reports, you can preview your printing.
To preview your printing:
1. Select the map or table you want to print.
2. Select File > Print Preview. The Print Preview window appears.
At the top of the Print Preview window, you can click one of the following buttons:
-

Click the Print button (

) to open the Print dialogue.

Click the Next Page button (

Click the Previous Page button (

Click the Zoom In button (

Click the Zoom Out button (

Click the Toggle One/Two Pages Display button (


Click Close to close the print preview.

) to display the following page


) to display the previous page.

) to zoom in on the print preview.


) to zoom out on the print preview.
) to switch display from one to two pages side by side

1.6.4 Printing a Docking Window


You can print the content of many docking windows using the context menu; selecting File > Print only prints the contents of
a document window, as explained in "Printing a Map" on page 60. The docking windows whose contents you can print are:

Legend Window (for more information on this tool, see "Adding an Object Type to the Legend" on page 27)
Point Analysis Tool
CW Measurement Analysis Tool (for more information on this tool, see the Measurements and Model Calibration
Guide.
Drive Test Data Analysis Tool
Microwave Link Analysis (for more information on this tool, see "Studying Reflection" on page 88)

To print the content of a docking window:


1. Open the docking window you want to print.
-

If you want to print a Point Analysis window, click the tab you want to print.

2. Right-click the window you want to print.


3. Select Print from the context menu. The Print dialogue appears.
4. Click OK to print.

1.6.5 Printing Antenna Patterns


You can print the horizontal or vertical pattern of an antenna.
To print an antenna pattern:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Open the Antennas table:
To open the RF Antennas table:
a. Click the Expand button (

) to the left of the Radio Network Equipment folder.

b. Right-click the Antennas folder.

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c. Select Open Table from the context menu.


3. Right-click the antenna whose pattern you want to print.
4. Select Record Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Select the Horizontal Pattern tab or the Vertical Pattern tab.
6. Right-click the antenna pattern and select Linear or Logarithmic from the context menu.
7. Right-click the antenna pattern and select Print from the context menu.

1.7 Grouping, Sorting, and Filtering Data


In Atoll you can organise data in several different ways, allowing you to select only certain data and then, for example, modify
only selected data or run calculations on the selected data. Atoll allows you to group, sort, or filter data quickly by one criterion, or by several.
After you have defined how you will group, sort, or filter data, you can save this information as a folder configuration.
In this section the following will be explained:

"Grouping Data Objects" on page 65


"Sorting Data" on page 69
"Filtering Data" on page 71
"Folder Configurations" on page 80
"Creating and Comparing Views" on page 81

1.7.1 Grouping Data Objects


You can group objects according to a selected property on the Network tab of the Explorer window. The objects to be grouped
can be in a data folder or in a view (see "Creating and Comparing Views" on page 81). You can also define the properties by
which you can group objects. Grouping objects in the Explorer window is similar to sorting data in the data table because it
puts all records with the selected property together.
Once you have grouped data objects, you can access their Properties dialogue from the context menu to edit properties on
all grouped objects. You can save the grouping parameters as a folder configuration. For information, see "Folder Configurations" on page 80.
This section explains:

"Grouping Data Objects by a Selected Property" on page 65


"Configuring the Group By Submenu" on page 66
"Advanced Grouping" on page 66.

For examples of grouping data objects, see "Examples of Grouping" on page 67.

1.7.1.1 Grouping Data Objects by a Selected Property


You can group data objects by a selected property using the Group By command on the context menu.
To group data objects by a selected property:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder or view whose objects you want to group. The context menu appears.
3. From the Group By submenu, select the property by which you want to group the objects. The objects in the folder
are grouped by that property.
If the range of properties available in the Group By submenu has been configured as
explained in "Configuring the Group By Submenu" on page 66, you can select additional
properties by selecting More Fields from the Group By submenu. For information on using
the dialogue that appears, see "Configuring the Group By Submenu" on page 66.
To undo the grouping:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder or view whose objects you have grouped.
3. From the context menu, select from the Group By > None.
See "Examples of Grouping" on page 67.

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1.7.1.2 Configuring the Group By Submenu


Some data objects, such as transmitters, have a large number of properties that will appear by default in the Group By
submenu. You can make it easier to group data objects by configuring the Group By submenu to display only the properties
that are relevant for grouping.
To configure the Group By submenu:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder whose Group By submenu you want to configure. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the General tab of the Properties dialogue.
5. Click the Configure Menu button next to the Group By field that shows how the data objects are presently grouped.
The Menu Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 1.28).

Figure 1.28: The Menu Configuration dialogue


6. Select the fields you want to appear in the Group By submenu. You can display all the fields belonging to a table by
clicking the Expand button ( ) to the left of the table name. You can select contiguous fields by clicking the first field,
pressing SHIFT and clicking the last field. You can select non-contiguous fields by pressing CTRL and clicking each fields
separately.
-

To select a field to appear in the Group By submenu, select the field in the Available fields list and click
move it to the Grouping Fields list.

to

To remove a field from the list of Grouping Fields, select the field in the Grouping fields list and click
remove it.

to

To change the order of the fields, select a field and click or to move it up or down in the list. The objects will
be grouped in the order of the fields in the Grouping fields list, from top to bottom.

7. Click OK to close the Menu Configuration dialogue and click OK to close the Properties dialogue. The Group By submenu will now contain only the fields you selected.

1.7.1.3 Advanced Grouping


You can group data objects by one or more properties, using the Group By button on the Properties dialogue.
To group data objects by one or more properties:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder or view whose objects you have grouped.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the General tab of the Properties dialogue.
5. Click the Group By button. The Group dialogue appears (see Figure 1.29).

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Figure 1.29: The Group dialogue


6. Select the fields by which you want to group the objects. You can select contiguous fields by clicking the first field,
pressing SHIFT and clicking the last field. You can select non-contiguous fields by pressing CTRL and clicking each fields
separately.
-

To select a field to be used to group the objects, select the field in the Available Fields list and click
it to the Grouping Fields list.

to move

To remove a field from the list of Grouping Fields, select the field in the Grouping Fields list and click
remove it.

To change the order of the fields, select a field and click or to move it up or down in the list. The objects will
be grouped in the order of the fields in the Grouping Fields list, from top to bottom.

to

7. Click OK to close the Group dialogue and click OK to close the Properties dialogue and group the objects.
To undo the grouping:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder or view whose objects you have grouped.
3. From the context menu, select from the Group By > None.

1.7.1.4 Examples of Grouping


In this example, there is an Atoll document with a large number of sites and, therefore, transmitters. While it is easy to see
on the map which transmitters are part of which site, in the Explorer window, you can only see a very long list of transmitters
under the Transmitter folder.
By right-clicking the Transmitter folder and selecting Group By > Site (Figure 1.30), you can group the transmitters by the site
they are located on.

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Figure 1.30: Grouping transmitters by site


The result of grouping can be seen in Figure 1.31.

Figure 1.31: Transmitters grouped by site


You can also group objects by the computation or focus zone. You normally create a computation or focus zone when you
want to concentrate on a given subset of transmitters, for example, when you are working on a certain area of the network.
By grouping them by computation or focus zone, the transmitters you are working on are immediately visible under the Transmitter folder.
By right-clicking the Transmitter folder and selecting Group By > Polygon > Focus Zone (Figure 1.30), you can group the transmitters in the focus zone together.

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Figure 1.32: Grouping transmitters by zone


The result of grouping can be seen in Figure 1.31. The transmitters are now in two groups: those inside the focus zone and
those outside the focus zone.

Figure 1.33: Transmitters grouped by site

1.7.2 Sorting Data


In Atoll, you can sort the document data either in the data tables or using the Sort function of Properties dialogue. You can
sort the data in ascending (A to Z, 1 to 10) or descending (Z to A, 10 to 1) order.
You can sort the data by either one or by several columns. When you sort data by several columns, Atoll sorts the records by
the first column and then, within each group of identical values in the first column, Atoll then sorts the records by the second
column, and so on.
Once you have sorted data objects, you can save the settings as a folder configuration. For information, see "Folder Configurations" on page 80.
This section explains the following:

"Sorting Data in Tables" on page 69


"Advanced Sorting" on page 70

1.7.2.1 Sorting Data in Tables


When sorting data in tables, you can sort by one column or by several columns:

"Sorting by One Column" on page 70


"Sorting by Several Columns" on page 70.

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Sorting by One Column


To sort data in a table by one column:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Select the header of the column that you want to sort on. The entire column is selected.
3. Right-click the column header. The context menu appears.
4. From the context menu, select how you want to sort:
-

Sort Ascending: sort the data table records from the lowest value in the reference column to the highest value.

Sort Descending: sort the data table records from the highest value in the reference column to the lowest value.
You can also sort data in a table by selecting the column as described and then clicking
either the Sort Ascending (

) or Sort Descending (

) buttons in the Table toolbar.

Sorting by Several Columns


You can only sort in a table by adjacent columns. If you want to sort by columns that are not adjacent, you can move the
columns first as explained in "Moving Columns" on page 53.
If you want to sort data by several columns without moving the columns, you can use the
Sort function on the Properties dialogue. For information, see "Advanced Sorting" on
page 70.
To sort data in a table by several columns:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Click the header of the first column and drag over the adjacent columns that will be your sort references. The entire
column is selected.
3. Right-click the column headers. The context menu appears.
4. From the context menu, select how you want to sort:
-

Sort Ascending: sort the data table records from the lowest value in the first reference column to the highest
value.

Sort Descending: sort the data table records from the highest value in the first reference column to the lowest
value.
You can also sort data in a table by selecting the column as described and then clicking
either the Sort Ascending (

) or Sort Descending (

) buttons in the Table toolbar.

1.7.2.2 Advanced Sorting


You can sort data by several criteria using the Sort function of the Properties dialogue.
To sort data using the Sort function of the Properties dialogue:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder whose data you want to sort. The context menu appears
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the General tab in the Properties dialogue.
5. Click the Sort button. The Sort dialogue appears (see Figure 1.34).
6. For the first column you want to sort on:
a. Select the column name from the Sort by list.
b. Choose whether you want to sort in ascending or descending order.
7. For each other column you want to sort on:
a. Select the column name from the And by list.
b. Choose whether you want to sort in ascending or descending order.

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8. Click OK.

Figure 1.34: The Sort dialogue

1.7.3 Filtering Data


In Atoll, you can filter data according to one or several criteria. You can filter data to be able to work with a subset of data, or
to facilitate working with large documents by reducing the amount of records displayed.
The filtered data objects are the data objects that remain after you have applied your filter criteria.
You can save the filtering parameters as a folder configuration. For information, see "Folder Configurations" on page 80.
This section explains the following:

"Filtering in Data Tables by Selection" on page 71


"Advanced Data Filtering" on page 72
"Restoring All Records" on page 73
"Advanced Filtering: Examples" on page 73.

1.7.3.1 Filtering in Data Tables by Selection


You can filter a data table by selecting one or more values. Once you have selected one or more values, you can choose to
view only records that have the same value or only records that do not have that value.
To filter a data table on one or more fields:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Select the value to filter on. To select more than one value, press CTRL as you click the other values.
3. Right-click the selected value or values and select one of the following from the tables context menu:
-

Filter by Selection: All records with the selected value or values are displayed. You can now modify these records
or make calculations on them as you would normally do with the entire data table (see Figure 1.35 on page 72).

Filter Excluding Selection: All records without the selected value or values are displayed. You can now modify
these records or make calculations on them as you would normally do with the entire data table (see Figure 1.36
on page 72).

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Figure 1.35: Filtering by selection (Antenna AO9209)

Figure 1.36: Filtering excluding selection (Antenna AO9209)


You can also filter data in a table by selecting the values as described and then clicking
either the Filter by Selection (
toolbar.

) or Filter Excluding Selection (

) buttons in the Table

1.7.3.2 Advanced Data Filtering


You can use advanced data filtering to combine several criteria in different fields to create complex filters.
To create an advanced filter:
1. Open the data table as explained in "Opening a Data Table" on page 47.
2. Click the Advanced Filter button (

) in the Table toolbar. The Filter dialogue appears.

You can also access the Filter dialogue by clicking the Filter button of the tables
Properties dialogue.

3. Click the Filter tab:


a. Select a Field from the list.
b. Under Values to Include, you will find all the values represented in the selected field. Select the check boxes next
to the values you want to include in the filter. Click Clear All to clear all check boxes.

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Making selections on the Filter tab of the Filter dialogue is the equivalent of filtering by
selection as explained in "Filtering in Data Tables by Selection" on page 71.

4. Click the Advanced tab:


a. In the Column row, select the name of the column to be filtered on from the list. Select as many columns as you
want (see Figure 1.37).

Figure 1.37: The Filter dialogue - Advanced tab


b. Underneath each column name, enter the criteria on which the column will be filtered as explained in the following table:
Formula

Data are kept in the table only if

=X

value equal to X (X may be a number or characters)

<> X

value not equal to X (X may be a number or characters)

<X

numerical value is less than X

>X

numerical value is greater than X

<=X

numerical value is less than or equal to X

>=X

numerical value is greater than or equal to X

*X*

text objects which contain X

X*

text objects which start with X

5. Click OK to filter the data according to the criteria you have defined.
Filters are combined first horizontally, then vertically.
See "Advanced Filtering: Examples" on page 73.

1.7.3.3 Restoring All Records


After you have applied filter criteria to records, you may want to cancel the filter criteria and display all the records again.
To restore all records:

Click the Remove Filter button (

) in the Table toolbar.

1.7.3.4 Advanced Filtering: Examples


In this section, you will find a few examples of advanced filtering:

"Advanced Filtering: Example 1" on page 74


"Advanced Filtering: Example 2" on page 74
"Advanced Filtering: Example 3" on page 75.

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Advanced Filtering: Example 1


In this example, there is an Atoll document with antennas from two manufacturers and with different characteristics.

Figure 1.38: Initial table


The objective of this example is to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a beamwidth between
50 and 100. To do this, the following filter syntax is entered on the Advanced tab of the Filter dialogue (for information on
the Advanced tab, see "Advanced Data Filtering" on page 72):

The first criterion, as shown in Figure 1.39, is all antennas made by a manufacturer with a name beginning with a "K"
("=K*"). While you could write in the entire name ("=Kathrein"), it is not necessary because there is only one manufacturer with a "K."
The second criterion is all antennas with a beamwidth under 100.
The third criterion is all antennas with a beamwidth over 50.

The combination of these criteria is all antennas from manufacturers with a name beginning with "K" and with a beamwidth
under 100 but over 50.
The result of this advanced filter can be seen in the second pane of Figure 1.39.

Figure 1.39: Advanced filtering

1.7.3.4.2

Advanced Filtering: Example 2


In this example, the document is the same as in "Advanced Filtering: Example 1" on page 74. The objective of this example is
the same as well: to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a beamwidth between 50 and 100. The
filter syntax is entered on the Advanced tab of the Filter dialogue (for information on the Advanced tab, see "Advanced Data
Filtering" on page 72), in this case, however, the entered filter syntax contains errors:

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The second criterion is all antennas with a beamwidth under 100 and over 50.

The result of this advanced filter can be seen in the second pane of Figure 1.39.

Figure 1.40: Errors in filtering


As previously stated, the objective of this example was to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a
beamwidth between 50 and 100. However, because the second criterion (beamwidth under 100 and over 50) is malformed,
with "> 50" placed under "< 100", it functioned as an OR condition and not as an AND condition. The resulting filter searched
for all antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a beamwidth under 100, or all antennas over 50; all antennas are displayed.

1.7.3.4.3

Advanced Filtering: Example 3


In this example, the document is the same as in "Advanced Filtering: Example 1" on page 74. The objective of this example is
the same as well: to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a beamwidth between 50 and 100. The
filter syntax is entered on the Advanced tab of the Filter dialogue (for information on the Advanced tab, see "Advanced Data
Filtering" on page 72), in this case, however, the entered filter syntax contains errors:

As shown in Figure 1.41, the first criterion is all antennas made by a manufacturer with a name beginning with a "K"
("=K*").
The second criterion is all antennas with a beamwidth under 100 and over 50.

The result of this advanced filter can be seen in the second pane of Figure 1.39.

Figure 1.41: Errors in filtering


As previously stated, the objective of this example was to use filter criteria to find antennas manufactured by Kathrein with a
beamwidth between 50 and 100. However, because the second criterion is malformed, the filter only generates an error
message and no antennas are filtered out.

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1.7.4 User Configurations


In Atoll, you can save many parameters and settings in user configurations and then load them in other documents. User
configurations are used to store parameters and settings that are not stored in databases. User configuration files enable you
to ensure that all users in a multi-user environment use the same settings.
The file extension of user configuration files is CFG. The file extension GEO is, however, used if only the geographic data set
or zones are being saved in a user configuration file. User configuration files are XML files and may be opened in text and XML
editors.
You can save the following information in user configuration files:

Geographic data set: Full paths of imported geographic maps, map display settings (such as, the visibility scale, transparency, tip text, etc.), clutter description (code, name, height, standard deviations, etc.), and raster or user profile
traffic map description.
When you save the geographic data set in a user configuration file, the coordinate
system of all vector geographic data must be the same as that of the raster geographic
data.

Zones: Filtering, focus, computation, printing, and geographic export zones in the current document.
Folder configurations: Sort, group, and filter settings (the current folder configuration, even if not saved, and other
defined configurations for the folders), the filtering zone, and the display settings of network data folders (including
measurement display settings).
Automatic Neighbour Allocation Parameters: The input parameters of the automatic neighbour allocation.
Automatic Scrambling Code Allocation Parameters: The parameters of the automatic scrambling code allocation.
Automatic PN Offset Allocation Parameters: The parameters of the automatic PN offset allocation.
Prediction List: The list of predictions in the Predictions folder and their settings (general, coverage conditions, and
display).
GSM Automatic Frequency Planning Parameters: Calculation options selected when starting a GSM AFP session as
well as calculation parameters used for interference histograms.
Macros: Full paths of any macros. Macros are loaded for entire Atoll sessions and not for a specific Atoll document.
You can export the macros to a user configuration even if you do not have an Atoll document open.

For a detailed description of the user configuration file, see the Administrator Manual.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Saving a User Configuration" on page 76


"Loading a User Configuration" on page 77.

1.7.4.1 Saving a User Configuration


You create a user configuration by saving the selected settings to an external file.
To save a user configuration:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Save. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 1.42).

Figure 1.42: Saving a user configuration


2. Select the check boxes of the information you want to export as part of the user configuration.

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3. Click OK. The Save As dialogue appears.


4. Enter a File name for the user configuration file and click Save. The folder configuration has been saved.

1.7.4.2 Loading a User Configuration


You can load a user configuration that you or another user has created, as explained in "Saving a User Configuration" on
page 76, into your current Atoll document. If the user configuration you load contains macro information, it will only be
loaded if no document is currently open. When there is no Atoll document open, only macro information is loaded from the
user configuration.
To load a user configuration:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Load. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the user configuration file with the data you want to use in your current document.
3. Click Open. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 1.43).

Figure 1.43: Loading a user configuration


4. Select the check boxes of the information you want to load.
5. Click OK. The user configuration is loaded into your current document.

1.7.5 Site and Transmitter Lists


In Atoll, you can create lists of sites and transmitters. Once you have created a site or transmitter list, you can modify the list
and use it to filter data to be able to work with a subset of data, or to facilitate working with large documents by reducing the
amount of records displayed.
In a multi-user environment, site lists can be stored in the database. When you open a document from a database, you can
select the sites to load according to any defined site lists. In a large radio-planning project, this allows you to more effectively
manage your resources by reducing the unnecessary data you retrieve from the database.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Creating a Site or Transmitter List" on page 77


"Adding a Site or Transmitter to a List from the Explorer Window" on page 78
"Adding a Site or Transmitter to a List from the Map Window" on page 78
"Adding Sites or Transmitters to a List Using a Zone" on page 79
"Editing a Site or Transmitter List" on page 79
"Filtering on a Site or Transmitter List" on page 79.

1.7.5.1 Creating a Site or Transmitter List


You can create lists of sites or transmitters that you can then use to filter the data displayed.
To create a site or transmitter list:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder where you want to create the list:

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Site list: if you want to create a site list:


a. Right-click the Sites folder. The context menu appears.
b. Select Site Lists > Open Table from the context menu. The Site Lists table appears.
Transmitter list: if you want to create a transmitter list:
a. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
b. Select Transmitter Lists > Open Table from the context menu. The Transmitter Lists table appears.
3. Enter the name of the new list in the row marked with the New Row icon (

).

1.7.5.2 Adding a Site or Transmitter to a List from the Explorer Window


You can add a site or transmitter to a list by selecting it from the Explorer window.
To add a site or transmitter to a list:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button (

) to the left of Sites or Transmitters folder to expand the folder.

3. Right-click the site or transmitter you want to add to the list. The context menu appears.
Site list: if you want to add a site to a list:
-

Select Add Site to a List from the context menu. A dialogue appears.

Transmitter list: if you want to add a transmitter to a list.


-

Select Add Transmitter to a List from the context menu. A dialogue appears.

4. Select the name of the list from the dialogue.


You can create a new list by entering a name in the list instead of selecting the name
from the list. The selected site or transmitter will be added to the new list.

5. Click OK. The site or transmitter is added to the selected list.


You can quickly create a complete list by first filtering the contents of the Sites or
Transmitters folder as explained in "Filtering Data" on page 71. Then, by right-clicking
the Sites or Transmitters folder and selecting Site Lists > Add Sites to a List or
Transmitter Lists > Add Transmitters to a List from the context menu, you can add the
filtered contents of folder to the list you select.

1.7.5.3 Adding a Site or Transmitter to a List from the Map Window


You can add a site or transmitter to a list by selecting it from the map window.
To add a site or transmitter to a list:
1. In the map window, right-click the site or transmitter you want to add to a list.
Site list: if you want to add a site to a list:
-

Select Add Site to a List from the context menu. A dialogue appears.

Transmitter list: if you want to add a transmitter to a list.


-

Select Add Transmitter to a List from the context menu. A dialogue appears.

2. Select the name of the list from the dialogue.


You can create a new list by entering a name in the list instead of selecting the name
from the list. The selected site or transmitter will be added to the new list.

3. Click OK. The site or transmitter is added to the selected list.

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1.7.5.4 Adding Sites or Transmitters to a List Using a Zone


You can add the sites or transmitters contained in a zone to a site or transmitter list.
To add the sites or transmitters contained in a zone to a list:
1. Create a zone as explained in "Using Zones in the Map Window" on page 33 that contains the sites or transmitters you
want to add to a list. You can use a filtering, computation, focus, hot spot, printing, or geographic export zone.
2. On the Geo tab of the Explorer window, right-click the zone and select one of the following from the context menu:
-

Add Sites to a List: Select Add Sites to a List to add the sites in the zone to a site list. A dialogue appears.
Add Transmitters to a List: Select Add Transmitters to a List to add the sites in the zone to a site list. A dialogue
appears.

3. Select the name of the list from the dialogue.


You can create a new list by entering a name in the list instead of selecting the name
from the list. The selected site or transmitter will be added to the new list.

4. Click OK. The sites or transmitters contained in the zone are added to the selected list.

1.7.5.5 Editing a Site or Transmitter List


You can edit a site or transmitter list using the Site List or Transmitter List table.
To edit a site or transmitter list:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder where you want to edit the list:
Site list: if you want to edit a site list:
a. Right-click the Sites folder. The context menu appears.
b. Select Site Lists > Open Table from the context menu. The Site Lists table appears.
Transmitter list: if you want to edit a transmitter list:
a. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
b. Select Transmitter Lists > Open Table from the context menu. The Transmitter Lists table appears.
3. Select the name of the list you want to edit and click Properties. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. You can now edit the list:
To add a site or transmitter to the list:
-

Select the name of the site or transmitter in the row marked with the New Row icon (

).

To delete a site or transmitter from the list:


a. Click in the left margin of the row containing the site or transmitter to select it.
b. Press DEL to delete the site or transmitter from the list.
5. Click OK when you have finished editing the site or transmitter list.

1.7.5.6 Filtering on a Site or Transmitter List


You can use site or transmitter lists to filter the contents of the Sites and Transmitters folders.
To filter folder contents using a site or transmitter list:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder whose contents you want to filter. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. On the General tab of the Properties dialogue, click the Filter button. The Filter dialogue appears.
5. If you have created a list, there will be an additional tab:
-

Sites: Click the Site Lists tab.


Transmitters: Click the Transmitter Lists tab.

6. Select the check box of the list or lists that you want to display.

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7. Click OK to close the Filter dialogue.


8. Click OK to close the Properties dialogue. Only sites or transmitters that belong to the selected list are now displayed
on the Network tab of the Explorer window and in the map window.

1.7.6 Folder Configurations


In Atoll, the parameters defining how data contained in a folder are grouped, sorted, or filtered are referred to as a folder
configuration. You can define folder configurations and save them, allowing you to consistently apply the same grouping,
filtering, or sorting criteria.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Creating a Folder Configuration" on page 80


"Applying a Saved Folder Configuration" on page 80
"Reapplying the Current Folder Configuration" on page 80
"Saving a Folder Configuration in an External File" on page 81
"Loading a Folder Configuration from an External File" on page 81
"Deleting a Folder Configuration" on page 81.
For transmitters, there is a default folder configuration called Same as Sites Folder. You
can apply this configuration to arrange the transmitters in the Transmitters folder with the
same parameters as those defined for sites.

1.7.6.1 Creating a Folder Configuration


In Atoll, you can save the parameters defining how data contained in a folder are grouped, filtered, or sorted as a folder configuration.
To create a configuration:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder whose settings you want to save.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the General tab in the Properties dialogue.
5. If you have not yet done so, set the following parameters as desired:
-

Group By (see "Grouping Data Objects" on page 65)


Sort (see "Sorting Data" on page 69)
Filter (see "Filtering Data" on page 71).

6. Under Folder configuration, click Save.


7. Enter the name of the configuration in the Save Configuration dialogue.
8. Click OK to save the configuration and click OK to close the Properties dialogue.
The saved folder configuration is only available for the current folder and can be reapplied to the folder by selecting it from
the Folder Configuration submenu on the folders context menu.

1.7.6.2 Applying a Saved Folder Configuration


You can apply a folder configuration that has been created and saved for the present folder.
To apply a saved folder configuration:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder to which you want to apply a folder configuration. The context menu appears.
3. On the Folder Configuration submenu, select the name of the folder configuration you want to apply. The folder configuration is applied to the current folder.

1.7.6.3 Reapplying the Current Folder Configuration


If you have grouped, filtered, or sorted a data folder, you have created and applied a folder configuration. If you then add or
modify data, the properties of these may not match the folder configuration you previously made on the data folder. In this
case, you can reapply the same filter or sort settings to the new or modified data.

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To reapply the folder configuration:


1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder whose folder configuration you want to reapply.
3. Select Update Folder Configuration from the context menu. The previously configured folder configuration is reapplied to the data.

1.7.6.4 Saving a Folder Configuration in an External File


When you create a folder configuration, you save it in the current ATL document. However, you can save it as part of a user
configuration in an external file, so that it can be used in other documents.
To save a folder configuration in an external file:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Save. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 1.42 on page 76).
2. Select the Folder Configuration check box.
If you want to export other configurations at the same time, select those check boxes as well.
3. Click OK. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name for the CFG file and click Save. The folder configuration has been saved.

1.7.6.5 Loading a Folder Configuration from an External File


Once you have saved a folder configuration as explained in "Saving a Folder Configuration in an External File" on page 81, you
can load it into your current document.
To load a folder configuration:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Load. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the CFG file with the folder configuration you want to import.
3. Click Open. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 1.43 on page 77).
4. Select the Folder Configuration check box.
If you want to import other configurations at the same time, select those check boxes as well.
5. Click OK. The folder configuration is imported.

1.7.6.6 Deleting a Folder Configuration


You can delete a folder configuration from the Atoll document when you no longer need it.
To delete a folder configuration:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder with the folder configuration you want to delete.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the General tab in the Properties dialogue.
5. Under Folder configuration, select the name of the configuration from the list.
6. Click Delete. The folder configuration is deleted.
When you delete a folder configuration, Atoll will not ask for confirmation; it is deleted
immediately.

1.7.7 Creating and Comparing Views


You can compare the effects of different grouping, sorting, or filtering settings by creating views of object folders on the
Network tab and applying different settings to each view. Each view contains a copy of the data in the object folder in which
it was created.
To create a view of a folder:
1. On the Network tab of the Explorer window, right-click the folder you want to create a view of.
2. Select Create View from the context menu. A view is created containing a copy of the original folder content.

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You can now perform the following actions on the view:

Grouping (see "Grouping Data Objects" on page 65)


Sorting (see "Sorting Data" on page 69)
Filtering (see "Filtering Data" on page 71).
If you have created several views, you can rename each one to give it a more descriptive
name. For information on renaming an object, see "Renaming an Object" on page 19.

Once you have performed the actions on each view, you can compare the differences, by displaying in turn each view, with
its grouping, sorting, or filtering settings, on the map. For more information on display properties, see "Display Properties of
Objects" on page 23.
To compare views:
1. On the Network tab of the Explorer window, clear the check boxes to the left of each view. The data objects are not
displayed on the map.
2. Select the check box of one of the views, leaving the check boxes of the other views cleared. The data objects of the
selected view, with its associated grouping, sorting, or filtering settings, are displayed on the map.
3. Clear this check box and select the check box of a different view. How the objects are displayed on the map will
change, depending on the different grouping, sorting, or filtering settings of the selected view.
You can remove views by deleting them. When you delete a view, the data contained are not deleted. When you delete the
last view, the data reappear under the initial folder.
To delete a view:

Select the view to be deleted and press DEL.


If, after deleting the last view, the data do not reappear under the initial folder, you can
refresh the display by right-clicking the folder and selecting Group By > None from the
context menu.

1.7.8 Filtering Data Using a Filtering Zone


In Atoll, you can simplify your calculations by using a polygon on the map to limit the amount of data considered in calculations. By limiting the number of sites, you can reduce the time and cost of calculations and make the display of data objects
on the map clearer. You can select a pre-existing computation or focus zone as a filter zone or you can draw a new filtering
zone.
The data objects filtered by the polygon are reflected on the map and in the data tables. On the Network tab of the Explorer
window, any folder whose content is affected by the filtering zone appears with a special icon (
contents have been filtered.

), to indicate that the folder

When you have applied a polygon filter, you can perform the following actions on the filtered data:

Grouping (see "Grouping Data Objects" on page 65)


Sorting (see "Sorting Data" on page 69)
Filtering (see "Filtering Data" on page 71).

For more information on creating and editing a filtering zone, see "Using a Filtering Zone" on page 33.

1.8 Tips and Tricks


In this section, you will learn a few shortcuts and tricks to help you work more efficiently with Atoll:

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"Undoing and Redoing" on page 83


"Refreshing Maps and Folders" on page 83
"Searching for Objects on the Map" on page 83
"Using the Status Bar to Get Information" on page 84
"Saving Information Displayed in the Event Viewer" on page 85
"Using Icons from the Toolbar" on page 85
"Using Shortcuts in Atoll" on page 88.

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1.8.1 Undoing and Redoing


You can undo or redo most actions in Atoll, up to a maximum of 10 actions. If you perform an action that can not be undone,
for example, a simulation, the Undo and Redo histories are erased.
For example, you can undo or redo:

Most modifications in the workspace: such as creating, deleting, and moving a site, a station or a group of stations,
modifying the antenna azimuth, moving a transmitter, or deleting a transmitter,
Tasks performed in the Explorer: such as creating and deleting objects (sites, transmitters, antennas, repeaters or
remote antennas, links, groups of hexagons, measurement paths, coverage predictions, maps, propagation models,
etc.).
Tasks performed in tables: such as adding or deleting records, pasting in tables.

To undo an action:

Select Edit > Undo.

To redo an action that you have undone:

Select Edit > Redo.

1.8.2 Refreshing Maps and Folders


Under certain circumstances, for example, when you add data that is inconsistent with an applied filter, the data displayed on
the map or in the Explorer window may not be actual. You can refresh the display to get Atoll to reload the data and reapply
the current folder configurations.
To refresh the display of the Explorer window and the map:

Click the Refresh button (

) on the toolbar or press F5.

1.8.3 Searching for Objects on the Map


Atoll provides the Find on Map tool for finding data objects on the map. You can search for some objects (sites, vectors, transmitters, repeaters) by their name or by any text field, using Find on Map. You can also use Find on Map to search for a point
on the map by its x and y coordinates. Additionally, the Find on Map tool enables you to find technology-specific attributes
such as a BSIC-BCCH pair in GSM. Using the Find on Map tool to find technology-specific attributes is covered in the chapter
for that technology.
This section explains:

"Searching for a Map Object by Its Name" on page 83


"Searching for a Map Object using Any Text Property" on page 84
"Searching for a Point on the Map" on page 84.

1.8.3.1 Searching for a Map Object by Its Name


You can use the Find on Map tool to search for the following map objects by name:

sites
transmitters
repeaters
remote antennas
vectors

To search for a map object by name using the Find on Map tool:
1. Select Tools > Find on Map. The Find on Map window appears.
2. From the Find list, choose the map object you are searching for:
-

Vector
Site
Transmitter
Repeater/Rem. Antenna

The map object you select appears in the Field box.


3. Enter the name of the object in the text box marked with an equal sign ("="). You can use an asterisk ("*") as a wild
card by entering it as the first character. For example, entering "*X*" will find all names which contain "X".
Atoll automatically begins searching and displays the results in the Find on Map window.
4. Select the object from the list. Atoll centres it in the map window.

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1.8.3.2 Searching for a Map Object using Any Text Property


You can use the Find on Map tool to search for the following map object using any text (i.e., non-numeric) property:

sites
transmitters
repeaters
remote antennas
vectors.

To search for a map object by a text property using the Find on Map tool:
1. Select Tools > Find on Map. The Find on Map window appears.
2. From the Find list, choose the map object you are searching for:
-

Site
Transmitter
Repeater/Rem. Antenna
Vector

3. From the Field list, select the text property on which you want to search, for example, "Antenna," or "Main Propagation Model."
4. Enter the name of the object in the text box marked with an equal sign ("="). You can use an asterisk ("*") as a wild
card by entering it as the first character. For example, entering "*X*" will find all names which contain "X".
Atoll automatically begins searching and displays the results in the Find on Map window.
5. Select the object from the list. Atoll centres it in the map window.

1.8.3.3 Searching for a Point on the Map


You can can use the Find on Map tool to search for a point by its x and y coordinate.
To search on the map for a point using the Find on Map tool:
1. Select Tools > Find on Map. The Find on Map window appears.
2. From the Find list, choose Position.
3. Enter the X and Y coordinates of the point, using the same units as defined under Display on the Coordinates tab of
the Preferences dialogue (see "Projection and Display Coordinate Systems" on page 94).
4. Click Find. Atoll centres the point in the map window.

1.8.4 Using the Status Bar to Get Information


Atoll displays the following information, if available, about the current position of the mouse pointer in right side of the status
bar (see Figure 1.44):

the current X-Y coordinates (according to the defined display coordinate system)
the altitude (as defined in the DTM)
the clutter class (as defined in the clutter classes properties)
the clutter height (as defined in the clutter height file, or in the clutter classes).

X-Y coordinates

Altitude

Clutter class

Figure 1.44: Information displayed in the status bar

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1.8.5 Saving Information Displayed in the Event Viewer


Atoll displays information about the current document in the Event Viewer. The Event Viewer displays information ( ),
warning ( ), and error ( ) messages, as well as the progress of calculations. You can save the information displayed in the
Event Viewer in a log file.
To save events in the Event Viewer in a log file:
1. If the Event Viewer is not displayed, select View > Event Viewer to display it.
2. Click the event in the Event Viewer to select it. Click and drag to select several events.
3. Right-click the select event(s). The context menu appears.
4. Select Save As. The Save As dialogue appears.
5. In the Save As dialogue, select a destination folder, enter a File name, and select a file type from the Save as type list.
6. Click OK. The selected events are saved in the text file.
You can also automatically generate log files for each Atoll session and select the level of information displayed in the Event
viewer. For more information about these settings, see the Administrator Manual.

1.8.6 Using Icons from the Toolbar


You can access many commands in Atoll by clicking its icon on the toolbar. Some of them are also linked to shortcut keys (see
"Using Shortcuts in Atoll" on page 88).
The different icons located in the toolbar are listed below:

In the Standard toolbar


Open the Project Templates dialogue (CTRL+N)
Open the Open dialogue (CTRL+O)
Save the current document (CTRL+S)
New from an existing database
Refresh from database
Save pending changes in database
Import a file
Load a user configuration
Save a user configuration
Cut the selected data (CTRL+X)
Copy the selected data (CTRL+C)
Paste the content of the clipboard (CTRL+V)
Undo the last modification (CTRL+Z)
Redo the previous undone modification (CTRL+Y)
Print the current window (table or map) (CTRL+P)
Preview the current window before printing (table or map)
Open the Atoll Help

In the Radio Planning toolbar


Station template currently selected
Create a new transmitter or station based on the currently selected model

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Create a new group of hexagons based on the currently selected station template
A new hexagon group is created in the Hexagonal Design folder if the check box to the left
of this folder is selected when you create a new station or a group of stations. If the check
box is not selected, you can create a new station without creating a corresponding hexagon group.
Create a new repeater or remote antenna for the currently selected transmitter
Graphically manage neighbours for the selected transmitter
Open the Point Analysis window
Calculate only invalid matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations (F7)
Force the calculation of all matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations (CTRL+F7)
Stop the calculation of all matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations (ESC)

In the Map toolbar


Refresh display of map and folders (F5)
Select an object and disable zooming and panning tools.
Move the map (CTRL+D)
Map scale currently used
Previous view (zoom and location) (Alt+left arrow)
Next view (zoom and location) (Alt+right arrow)
Zoom in or out on the map and centre on the cursor location (CTRL+Q)
Define a zoom area on the map (CTRL+W)
Display a height profile
Measure distances on the map
Turn on tip text
Find on the map

In the Vector Editor toolbar


Create a new vector layer (in either the Geo or the Network tab)
Select the vector layer to edit
Draw a new polygon
Draw a new rectangle
Draw a new line
Draw points
Combine several vector polygons
Cut out areas in polygons
Create new polygon from overlapping areas
Split one polygon along the drawn lines.

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In the Windows toolbar


Display the Network tab of the Explorer window
Display the Geo tab of the Explorer window
Display the Parameters tab of the Explorer window
Display the Event Viewer
Display the Legend Window
Display the Panoramic Window

In the Table toolbar


Import data from a file into the table
Export data from the table to a file
Display the properties of the current record
Centre the current record on the map
Define which columns should be displayed
Hide the selected columns
Freeze the selected columns
Unfreeze all frozen columns
Filter by the selected fields
Filter excluding all records with the selected values
Define an advanced filter
Remove the filter
Sort the selected columns in ascending order
Sort the selected columns in descending order
Display statistics
Copy the contents of the top selected row into the rows below
Copy the contents of the bottom selected row into the rows above
Select the entire table
Align the contents of the selected columns to the left
Centre the contents of the selected columns
Align the contents of the selected columns to the right
Display the selected columns in bold
Display the selected columns in italics
When you place the cursor over an icon, tip text appears, giving a short description.

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1.8.7 Using Shortcuts in Atoll


Atoll provides many shortcuts that enable you to access commonly used tools and commands more quickly.
The shortcuts available are listed below (some of the same commands can be accessed using a toolbar icon; see "Using Icons
from the Toolbar" on page 85):

Using the CTRL key:


-

CTRL++: Zoom in on the map (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+: Zoom out on the map (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+A: Select all records in a table

CTRL+C: Copy the selected data (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+D:

and click the map)


and right-click the map)

In tables: Copy the first cell of a selection down into all selected cells

In the map window: Move the map in the map window (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+E: Export the table of the selected Sites or Transmitters folder or view to a text file. For more information,
see "Exporting Tables to Text Files" on page 57.

CTRL+F: Open the Find on Map tool

CTRL+I: Import the table of the selected Sites or Transmitters folder or view from a text file. For more information,
see "Importing Tables from Text Files" on page 58.

CTRL+N: Open the Project Templates dialogue (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+SHIFT+N: Create a new document from an existing database

CTRL+O: Open the Open dialogue (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+P: Print the current window (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+Q: Select Zoom In/Out tool (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+S: Save the current active document (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+U: Copy the last cell of a selection up into all selected cells

CTRL+V: Paste the content of the clipboard (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+W: Define a zoom area on the map (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+X: Cut the selected data (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+Y: Redo the previous undone modification (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+Z: Undo the last modification (in the toolbar, click

)
)

)
)

Using the ALT key:


-

ALT+: Previous zoom and location on the map (in the toolbar, click

ALT+: Next zoom and location on the map (in the toolbar, click

ALT+F8: Open the Add-ins and Macros dialogue

)
)

Using the Function Keys


-

F5: Refresh display of map and folders (toolbar: select

F7: Calculate only invalid matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations (in the toolbar, click

CTRL+F7: Force the calculation of all matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations (in the toolbar, click
)
You can also access menus and commands by pressing the ALT key and typing the
underlined letter in the menu or command name.

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Chapter 2
Starting a Project
This chapter explains how to start a new Atoll project.

In this chapter, the following are explained:

"Before Starting a Radio-Planning Project" on page 91

"Creating an Atoll Document" on page 91

"Making a Backup of Your Document" on page 103

"Making and Sharing Portable Atoll Projects" on


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2 Starting an Atoll Project


When you want to start a new project, you base it on a template that has the data and folder structure necessary for the technology you are using. Once you have started your new Atoll project, you can modify the network parameters to meet your
particular needs. Several templates are supplied with Atoll: GSM GPRS EDGE, CDMA200 1xRTT 1xEV-DO, microwave radio
links, UMTS HSPA, WiMAX, and LTE. The actual templates supplied depend on the modules included with your Atoll installation. You can also create your own templates by opening an existing template, making the changes necessary to meet your
own needs and then saving it as a new template.
When you open an existing project, you can select it from the File menu if it is one of the last projects you have worked on,
or you can open it from the Open dialogue. Because Atoll can work with linked geographic data files, it may happen that one
of the linked files was moved or renamed since the last time you worked on that project. Atoll enables you to find the file and
repair the link.
In this chapter, the following are explained:

"Before Starting a Radio-Planning Project" on page 91


"Creating an Atoll Document" on page 91.

2.1 Before Starting a Radio-Planning Project


For every radio-planning project you must assemble the information necessary:

Radio equipment: sites, transmitters, antennas, repeaters, and other equipment. For more information on radio
equipment, see the technology-specific chapters.
Radio data: frequency bands, technology-specific parameters, coordinate systems, etc. For more information on radio
data, see the technology-specific chapters.
Geographic data: clutter classes, clutter heights, DTM, population maps, etc. For more information on geographic
data, see Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project.

Once the necessary data have been assembled, you can create the Atoll document.

2.2 Creating an Atoll Document


Whatever the radio technology you will be modelling, you create an Atoll document in one of two ways:

From a document template: You can create a new Atoll document, including a multi-RAT document, from a template.
Atoll is delivered with a template for each technology you will be planning for. For information on creating a document
from a template, see "Creating a New Atoll Document from a Template" on page 91.
You can also create your own template by basing it on an existing document that you have already customised with,
for example, certain geo data or antennas.

From an existing database: When you create a new Atoll document from a database, the database you connect to
has been created with the technology or technologies, in the case of a multi-RAT document, and data you need.
Working with a database allows several users to share the same data while at the same time managing data consistency. The exact procedure for creating a new Atoll document from a database differs, depending on the database containing the data. Atoll can work with several common databases. For information on starting a document from a
database, see "Creating a New Atoll Document from a Database" on page 97.

2.2.1 Creating a New Atoll Document from a Template


You can create a new Atoll document from a template. Atoll has a template for each technology you will be planning for. Each
template provides data and a data structure suitable for the technology. For example, the tables and fields for transmitters
as well as the radio parameters available differ according to the project. As well, the objects that are available are appropriate
for the technology. For example, UMTS cells are only available in UMTS documents and TRX are only available in GSM-TDMA
documents.
If you create a multi-RAT document, Atoll enables you to select the multiple radio technologies you will be planning for. In a
multi-RAT document, the data and data structures for each radio technology planned for are made available in the new Atoll
document.
Once you have selected the appropriate template for your radio-planning project, you configure the basic parameters of the
Atoll document (see "Defining a New Atoll Document" on page 94).
In this section, the following are explained:

"Templates Available" on page 92


"Creating a New Atoll Document from a Template" on page 92

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"Defining a New Atoll Document" on page 94

2.2.1.1 Templates Available


Depending on your configuration of Atoll, the following templates are available:

GSM GPRS EDGE: This template can be used to model second generation (2G) mobile telecommunications using
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology. This template can be used to model the following technologies:
-

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication): GSM is a 2G technology based on TDMA.

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service): GPRS is a packet-switched technology that enables data applications on
GSM networks. It is considered a 2.5G technology.

EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution): EDGE is an advancement for GSM/GPRS networks that triples data
rates. Because it is based on existing GSM technology, it allows for a smooth upgrade for GSM operators, giving
them capabilities approaching those of a 3G network, while remaining with the existing 2G system. Two types of
EDGE are considered: standard EDGE (also called EGPRS) and EDGE Evolution (EGPRS2).

CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO: This template can be used to model third generation (3G) mobile telecommunications
based on CDMA2000 technology. CDMA2000 is an evolution of CDMA, or code division multiple access. This template
can be used to model the following technologies:
-

1xRTT (1 Radio Transmission Technology): 1xRTT is sometimes considered not as 3G but as 2.5G in terms of
mobile telecommunications. It offers increased voice capacity as compared to 2G technologies, but not as much
as pure 3G solutions.
1xEV-DO (1x Evolution - Data Only): 1xEV-DO is an evolution of CDMA2000 that provides data transfer rates of
over 10 times those of 1xRTT. It is considered a 3G solution and addresses, as its name suggests, data only.

UMTS HSPA: UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) and HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access)
and HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access), collectively referred to as HSPA, are third generation (3G) mobile telecommunication systems based on WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) technology. Although WCDMA
is similar in implementation to CDMA, the two technologies are incompatible. UMTS and HSPA are usually implemented in place and over GSM networks.

TD-SCDMA: TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous CDMA) is a 3G mobile telecommunication system based on Time
Division Duplex (TDD) mode. TD-SCDMA transmits uplink and downlink traffic in the same frame in different time
slots.

WiMAX: Atoll WiMAX is a state-of-the-art WiMAX and Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) network planning tool
developed in cooperation with world-leading WiMAX equipment suppliers. Atoll WiMAX supports IEEE 802.16e.

LTE: This template can be used to model the new fourth generation (4G) networks based on the UTRAN LTE (UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access Networks Long Term Evolution) specifications proposed by the 3GPP. Atoll LTE is strictly follows the latest 3GPP LTE specifications, and has been developed in collaboration with the market-leading equipment
manufacturers. Atoll LTE is the first and most comprehensive LTE network planning tool available on the market.

3GPP Multi-RAT: This template can be used to model the most common multi-technology multiple technology
projects. When starting a new 3GPP multi-RAT project, Atoll allows you to select which radio technologies will be modelled in the same project: GSM, UMTS, and LTE.
The multi-RAT template can also be used to create a GSM, UMTS, or LTE single-RAT
document. By using the multi-RAT template to create a single-RAT document, you will
have the flexibility of being able to add additional technologies to the document in the
future.

2.2.1.2 Creating a New Atoll Document from a Template


To create a new document from a template:
1. Select File > New > From a Document Template. The Project Templates dialogue appears.
2. Select the template on which you want to base your document and click OK. Atoll creates a new document based on
the template selected.
-

If the template you selected was "Multi-RAT," Atoll displays a dialogue enabling you to select the radio technologies you want to model in the new document: GSM, UMTS, or LTE.

Figure 2.1 shows a new Atoll document based on the UMTS HSPA template. The Network tab of the Explorer window now
has a folder structure suitable for a UMTS HSPA radio-planning project, with, among other UMTS-specific elements, UMTS
HSPA HSPA simulations. Figure 2.2 shows the contents of the Geo tab of the new document. Figure 2.3 shows the contents of
the Parameters tab, with other UMTS HSPA parameters. The Antennas folder is expanded to show the UMTS-compatible
antennas suggested by Atoll. These can be modified or replaced.

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Figure 2.1: New Atoll document based on a template

Figure 2.2: New Atoll document Geo Tab

Figure 2.3: New Atoll document Parameters tab

When you create an Atoll document from a template, the document is not connected to a database.
To verify whether the document is connected to a database:

Select Document > Database > Connection Properties. The dialogue in Figure 2.4 appears.

Figure 2.4: An Atoll document based on a template is not connected to a database

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2.2.1.3 Defining a New Atoll Document


Once you have created a new Atoll document as explained in "Creating a New Atoll Document from a Template" on page 92,
you configure the basic parameters of the Atoll document. You can accept the default values for some parameters, such as
basic measurement units, but you must set projection and display coordinate systems.
In this section, the following are explained:

2.2.1.3.1

"Projection and Display Coordinate Systems" on page 94


"Setting a Coordinate System" on page 95
"Selecting the Degree Display Format" on page 95
"Setting Measurement Units" on page 96

Projection and Display Coordinate Systems


In Atoll, you define the two coordinate systems for each Atoll document: the projection coordinate system and the display
coordinate system. By default, the same coordinate system is used for both.
A projection is a method for producing all or part of a round body on a flat sheet. This projection cannot be done without
distortion, thus the cartographer must choose the characteristic (distance, direction, scale, area or shape) which is to be
shown appropriately at the expense of the other characteristics, or he must compromise on several characteristics1. The
projected zones are referenced using cartographic coordinates (meter, yard, etc.).
Two projection systems are widely used:

The Lambert Conformal-Conic projection: a portion of the earth is mathematically projected on a cone conceptually
secant at one or two standard parallels. This projection type is useful for representing countries or regions that lay
primarily east to west.
The Universal Transverse Mercator projection (UTM): a portion of the earth is mathematically projected on a cylinder
tangent to a meridian (which is transverse or crosswise to the equator). This projection type is useful for mapping large
areas that are oriented north-south.

A geographic system is not a projection, but a representation of a location on the earth's surface from geographic coordinates
(degree-minute-second or grade) giving the latitude and longitude in relation to the origin meridian (Paris for the NTF system
and Greenwich for the ED50 system). The locations in the geographic system can be converted into other projections.
Atoll has databases including more than 980 international coordinate system references, a database based on the European
Petroleum Survey Group and another one regrouping only France's coordinate systems. Atoll uses the cartographic coordinate systems for projection and either cartographic or geographic coordinate systems for display.
The maps displayed in the workspace are referenced with the same projection system as the imported geographic data files;
thus, the projection system depends on the imported geographic file. By choosing a specific display system, you can see (using
the rulers or status bars) the location of sites on the map in a coordinate system different from the projection coordinate
system. You can also position on the map sites referenced in the display system: the coordinates are automatically converted
from the projection system to the display system and the site is displayed on the map.
In Figure 2.5, the Brussels geographic data file has been imported. The map shows Brussels projected using the cartographic
UTM system (coordinates in metres). On the other hand, site coordinates are stated in the geographic WGS 84 system (coordinates in degrees-minutes-seconds).

1.
Snyder, John. P., Map Projections Used by the US Geological Survey, 2nd Edition, United States Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C., 313 pages, 1982.

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Figure 2.5: UTM system used with WGS 84 system


All imported raster geographic files must be use the same cartographic system. If not, you
must convert them to a single cartographic system.

2.2.1.3.2

Setting a Coordinate System


Because you are working with maps, you must set a coordinate system for your Atoll document. By default, projection and
display coordinate systems are the same, but you can choose a different display coordinate system if you want.
To define the coordinate system:
1. Select Document > Properties. The Properties dialogue appears.
2. On the Coordinates tab, click the Browse button (
dialogue appears.

) to the right of the Projection field. The Coordinate Systems

3. In the Coordinate Systems dialogue, select a catalogue from the Find in list. For the projection system, only cartographic systems (
) are available.
4. Select a coordinate system from the list.
If you frequently use a particular coordinate system you can add it to a catalogue of
favourites by clicking Add to Favourites.

5. Click OK. The selected coordinate system appears in the Projection field and, by default, in the Display field as well.
6. If you wish to set a different coordinate system for the display, click the Browse button (

) to the right of the

Display field and repeat step 3. to step 5. For the display system, both cartographic systems (identified by the
symbol) and geographic systems (

2.2.1.3.3

) are available.

Selecting the Degree Display Format


Atoll can display longitude and latitude in four different formats. For example:

265629.9N
26d56m29.9sN
26.93914N
+26.93914

To change the degree display format:


1. Select Document > Properties. The Properties dialogue appears.
2. On the Coordinates tab, select the format from the Degree Format list.
3. Click OK.

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The degree format options apply only to the geographic coordinate systems.

2.2.1.3.4

Setting Measurement Units


When you create a new Atoll document, Atoll sets certain measurement units for reception, transmission, antenna gain,
distance, height and offset to internal defaults. You can accept these default measurement units, or you can change them
using the Properties dialogue.
To set the measurement units:
1. Select Document > Properties. The Properties dialogue appears.
2. On the Units tab, select the desired unit for the following measurements:
-

Antenna Gain
Transmission
Reception
Distance
Height and Offset
Temperature

3. Click OK.

2.2.2 Working in a Multi-User Environment


A multi-user environment is one where a number of users, or groups of users, work simultaneously on given parts of a single,
large (perhaps nation-wide) network. Different user groups may be working on regional or smaller sections of the network.
This section describes the different components of multi-user environments and outlines their purpose.
When you create a new Atoll document from a database, Atoll loads the data to which you have rights from database into
your new document and then disconnects it from the database. The connection to the reference database is reactivated only
when necessary, thus ensuring access to the database by other users.
When you work on a document created from a database, you are working on data that you are sharing with other users.
Consequently, there are issues related to sharing data that do not arise when you are working on a stand-alone document.
For example, when you archive your changes to the database, the changes you have made may occasionally interfere with
changes other users have made and you will need to resolve this conflict.
In this section, the following are explained:

"The Atoll Multi-User Environment" on page 96


"Creating a New Atoll Document from a Database" on page 97
"Working With a Document on a Database" on page 98
"Refreshing an Atoll Document from the Database" on page 100
"Archiving the Modifications of an Atoll Document in the Database" on page 100.

2.2.2.1 The Atoll Multi-User Environment


An Atoll multi-user environment consists of the following elements, connected over a network:

96

A central Atoll project: The central Atoll project can only be accessed, modified, and updated by the Atoll administrator. Through this central Atoll project, the Atoll administrator can manage all the data shared by all the individual
Atoll users or groups of users.

Shared data: Shared data are initially set up by the administrator using the central Atoll project and are then accessed,
modified, worked on, and updated by the Atoll users and the administrator. The shared data are mainly of the following three types:
-

The central database: The central database stores all the radio data of all the Atoll user documents. It is initiated
through the central Atoll project by the administrator, and is then subdivided into sections on which users or
groups of users can work simultaneously. Once the database is in place, users can modify their projects, refresh
their projects from the data stored in the database, and archive their modifications in the database. The use of a
database means that potential data conflicts due to modifications from other users, modified or deleted records,
for example, can be detected and resolved.

Shared geographic data: Shared geographic data files are usually stored on a common file server with a fast access
connection. Since geographic data files are usually large, they are usually linked to an Atoll file, i.e., they are stored
externally, so as to minimise the size of the Atoll file. Users who modify geographic data locally, for example,
editing edit clutter or traffic in their respective projects, usually store these modifications locally, since these modifications rarely have an impact on other users.

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Path loss matrices: The path loss matrices are calculated through the central Atoll project by the administrator
and can be updated only by the administrator. Each user can read these path loss data but cannot modify them.
If users modify their Atoll documents in such a way that the path loss data becomes invalid for their document,
any path loss matrices calculated by these users are stored locally, either embedded in the ATL file or linked to an
external file. The shared path loss data are not modified.
Shared path loss matrices are updated when the calculation administrator performs an update, taking into account the modifications made by other users which have been stored and updated in the central database. Shared
path loss matrices enable a number of users to work with a centralised path loss matrices folder, containing path
loss matrices corresponding to the central Atoll project.

User Documents: Individual user documents are initialised by the administrator but are later worked upon and managed by each user. User documents are Atoll files which are connected to the central database, load only the required
part of the geographic data (as defined by the CFG file, for example), and have access to the shared path loss matrices
folder.

Figure 2.6: Components of Multi-user Environments


For information on creating and maintaining the database, see the Administrator Manual.

2.2.2.2 Creating a New Atoll Document from a Database


When you create a new document from a database, you must connect to the database. Once connected, Atoll loads the database into a new Atoll document. Then the connected is interrupted. A new connection with the database will be created only
when necessary, in order to allow other users access to the database.
The exact procedure of connecting with the database differs from one database to another. Atoll can work with the following
databases:

Microsoft Access
Microsoft SQL Server
Oracle
Sybase
Microsoft Data Link files

The following sections give examples of connecting to two different databases and loading data:

"Connecting to a Database" on page 98.


"Selecting the Data to Load From the Database" on page 98.

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An example of a new Atoll document created from a database is shown in:

2.2.2.2.1

"Working With a Document on a Database" on page 98

Connecting to a Database
To create a new document from a database:
1. Select File > New > From an Existing Database. The Open from a Database dialogue appears.
2. In the Files of type list, select the option corresponding to the type of your database. Depending on the type of the
database, a dialogue may appear where you can enter your User Name, Password, and Server.
Additional dialogues may open asking you to choose which project in the database to load
or which site list to load.

3. Click OK. The Data to Load dialogue appears, allowing you to select the data to load into Atoll as a new document (see
"Selecting the Data to Load From the Database" on page 98).

2.2.2.2.2

Selecting the Data to Load From the Database


When you create a new document from a database, you can select the data to be loaded from the database to create the
document in the Data to load dialogue. You can select which Project, Site List, Custom Fields Groups, and Neighbours to load.
If you load the intra-technology or the inter-technology neighbour list, Atoll will also load the associated exceptional pairs
table.

Figure 2.7: Selecting the data to load

2.2.2.3 Working With a Document on a Database


Figure 2.8 shows a new Atoll document based created from a database. The Network tab of the Explorer window now has a
folder structure suitable for a UMTS radio-planning project. The Sites folder is expanded to show that a document created
from a database can have additional data, such as sites, unlike a document created from a template. These can be modified
or replaced. Figure 2.9 and Figure 2.10 show the contents of the Geo and Parameters tabs of the new document, respectively.

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Figure 2.8: New Atoll document opened from a database


The new document might open with no site displayed in the map window. This is because
the north-west point of the project is by default the axis origin. You can re-centre the document on the data displayed in the Network tab by expanding the Sites folder, right-clicking
any site, and selecting Centre in Map Window from the context menu.

Figure 2.9: New Atoll document Geo Tab

Figure 2.10: New Atoll document Parameters tab

When you create an Atoll document from a database, you can view the characteristics of the database connection.
To view the characteristics of the database connection:
1. Select Document > Database > Connection Properties. The Database Connection dialogue appears (see Figure 2.11).
2. You can now:
-

Disconnect your document from the database.


If you disconnect your document from the database, it will be become a stand-alone
document and you will not be able to reconnect it to the database.

Modify your connection to the database.

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Figure 2.11: The Database Connection dialogue

2.2.2.4 Refreshing an Atoll Document from the Database


As you are working on your document, other users who have access to the database may have modified some of the data. You
can ensure that you have the most recent data in your document by refreshing the information from the database. How
frequently you refresh the document depends on how frequently the database is updated. If the database is updated
frequently, you should refresh your document frequently as well, in order to continue working with the most up-to-date data.
To refresh an Atoll document from the database:
1. Select Document > Database > Refresh From the Database. The Refresh dialogue appears.
2. In the dialogue, you can do one of the following if you have modified your document but have not yet saved those
changes in the database:
-

Archive your changes in the database: This option allows you to archive your changes to the server instead of
refreshing your document from the server.
Refresh unmodified data only: This option allows you to refresh from the database only those items that you have
not modified in your document.
Cancel your changes and reload database: This option allows you to cancel any changes you have made and start
over from the point of the last archive to the database.

If you chose Refresh unmodified data only or Cancel your changes and reload
database, Atoll proceeds without asking for confirmation.
If you chose Archive your changes in the database, the Archive dialogue appears.
For information on using the Archive dialogue, see "Archiving the Modifications of
an Atoll Document in the Database" on page 100.

3. Under Take into account, you can select the neighbour lists, Intra-technology Neighbours and Inter-technology
Neighbours, to refresh.
4. Under Modifications Since the Last Refresh, you can select the Generate Report check box to create a report for the
refresh process.
5. Click OK. The document is refreshed according to the selected options.
If you selected to generate a report, Atoll creates a text file in CSV (Comma Separated Values) format in the temporary files
system folder, and opens it. You can then rename the file and save it where you want. The report lists all the modifications
(deletions, additions, and updates) that were stored in the database since the last time you refreshed or opened your document.

2.2.2.5 Archiving the Modifications of an Atoll Document in the Database


When you are working on an Atoll document that is attached to a database, you should from time to time archive the modifications you have made to the data on the database. How frequently you should archive your document depends on several
factors: the amount and size of changes you make, the number of other users using the database who might benefit from your
modifications, etc. What you can archive depends on the user rights the database administrator has given to you. For example,
you can have read access to the antennas table, allowing you to create a new Atoll document with the given antennas.
However, because only the administrator can modify the properties of the antennas, you will not be able to archive any
changes you make to the antennas without write access to the table.
The Atoll archiving process is flexible. You can archive all your modifications or only the site-related modifications. As well,
when you are archiving, Atoll shows you all modifications that will be archived and, if you want, you can archive only some of
them or even undo modifications you have made locally. Occasionally, other users might have modified some of the same
data and, when you archive your changes, Atoll will inform you of the possible conflicts and help you resolve them.
In this section, the following are explained:

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"Archiving All Modifications in the Database" on page 101


"Archiving Only Site-Related Data in the Database" on page 101

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2.2.2.5.1

"Resolving Data Conflicts" on page 101.

Archiving All Modifications in the Database


To archive all your modifications in the database:
1. Select Document > Database > Archive. The Archive dialogue appears (see Figure 2.12).
2. In the Archive dialogue, you can do the following:
-

Click Run All to archive all your changes to the database.


Select one item under Pending changes and click Run to archive the selected modification to the database
Select one item under Pending changes and click Differences to view the differences between the local item and
the item on the database.
Select one item under Pending changes and click Undo to refresh the modification with the original data from the
database.

Figure 2.12: The Archive dialogue


3. If some of the data has been modified on the database since you last refreshed, Atoll stops the archiving process and
asks you to resolve the conflict. For information on managing conflicts, see "Resolving Data Conflicts" on page 101.
4. When you are finished archiving, click Close.

2.2.2.5.2

Archiving Only Site-Related Data in the Database


Atoll allows you to archive only site-related data if you want. Which data is archived depends on the radio technology you are
working with. For example, in a UMTS HSPA radio planning project, the site-related data are: sites, transmitters, cells, and
neighbours.
To archive only the site-related data in the database:
1. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Sites folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Archive. The Archive dialogue appears with only site-related data displayed.
4. In the Archive dialogue, you can do the following:
-

Click Run All to archive all your changes to the database.


Select one item under Pending Changes and click Run to archive the selected modification to the database
Select one item under Pending Changes and click Differences to view the differences between the local item and
the item on the database.
Select one item under Pending Changes and click Undo to refresh the modification with the original data from the
database.

5. If some of the data has been modified on the database since you last refreshed, Atoll stops the archiving process and
asks you to resolve the conflict. For information on managing conflicts, see "Resolving Data Conflicts" on page 101.
6. When you are finished archiving, click Close.

2.2.2.5.3

Resolving Data Conflicts


Atoll enables several users to use the same database by allowing user to load the data and then freeing the database for other
users. However, this also creates the possibility of two users modifying the same data. When the second user attempts to
archive his changes, Atoll warns him that the data have been changed since he last refreshed the data and that there is a
conflict.

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Atoll allows you to resolve data conflicts. When Atoll finds a conflict, it displays the warning shown in Figure 2.13.

Figure 2.13: Conflict warning


You have three options:

Ignore: If you click Ignore, Atoll ignores items causing conflicts in the table being archived, archives all other modifications in the table, and continues with the next table. You can resolve the conflicts after the archiving process has
ended. However, if conflicts are found in other tables, Atoll will warn you with the Database Transfer Error dialogue
again.
Ignore All: If you click Ignore All, Atoll ignores all items causing conflicts in all tables being archived, and archives all
other modifications. You can resolve the conflicts after the archiving process has ended.
Abort: If you click Abort, the archiving process stops. You can attempt to resolve conflicts before restarting the
archiving process.

Whether you abort the archive process to resolve the conflict immediately, or wait until the end of the archive process, the
procedure to resolve the conflict is the same.
To resolve data conflicts one by one:
1. In the Pending Changes pane of the Archive dialogue, select the conflict you want to resolve and click Resolve. There
are two different types of data conflicts:
-

On a modified record: You are in the process of archiving your modifications on the database and another user
has modified the same data since you last archived or refreshed your data. A conflict is caused only by differences
in the same field of the same record between the database and the current Atoll document.
The Conflict in Changes dialogue appears, with the fields in conflict highlighted (see Figure 2.14). In the Conflict
in Changes dialogue, you can see the value of the field in the database in the Database values column, as well as
the value of the same field in your document in the Current values column.

Figure 2.14: The Conflict in Changes dialogue

If you want to overwrite the database value with the value of the same field in your document, select the check
box next to the highlighted change and click Okay. Your modification will be written to the database, overwriting the value there.

If you want to accept the value of the field in the database, clear the check box next to the highlighted change
and click Okay. Your modification will be lost and the value in the database will remain unchanged.

On a deleted record: You are in the process of archiving your modifications on the database and another user has
deleted a record since you last archived or refreshed your data. For information, see "Resolving Data Conflicts" on
page 101.
Atoll displays a message explaining that the record you are trying to update has been deleted from the database
(see Figure 2.15). Select one of the following:

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Figure 2.15: Conflict on a deleted record


-

Yes: Select Yes to store your modifications in the database, thereby recreating the deleted record.
No: Select No to abandon your modifications to this record and delete this record from your document.
Cancel: Select Cancel to cancel.

2. Click Close to close the Archive dialogue.


To resolve all the data conflicts:
1. In the Pending Changes pane of the Archive dialogue, select any conflict and click Resolve All. Atoll displays a message
explaining how Resolve All works (see Figure 2.16). Select one of the following:

Figure 2.16: Resolving all the data conflicts simultaneously


-

Yes: Select Yes to accept all the modifications made by other users in the database and update your document
with values from the database.
No: Select No to overwrite the modifications made by other users in the database with the values from your document.
Cancel: Select Cancel to cancel.

2. Click Close to close the Archive dialogue.


You should only resolve all the data conflicts when you are certain about the
modifications.

2.3 Making a Backup of Your Document


Atoll can create and automatically update backups of documents you are working on. Once you have saved the document,
Atoll creates a backup of the original document and updates it at a defined interval. For example, for a document named
"filename.atl," Atoll will create a backup file called "filename.atl.bak" in the same folder as the original document. You can
define the update interval each time you start Atoll.
You can also configure Atoll to create automatic backups of external path loss matrices (LOS files) by setting an option in the
atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
When you have activated automatic backup, Atoll automatically creates a backup for every document open. Consequently, if
you have a lot of documents open, this operation can take a long time. However, you can optimise the process by opening
large documents in separate Atoll sessions, instead of in the same Atoll session. This also improves memory management
because each instance of Atoll has its own 2 GB (under 32-bit operating systems; 4 GB under 64-bit operating systems)
memory allocation. If you open two large documents in the same Atoll session, these documents will use the same 2 GB
memory pool. If you open them in two different Atoll sessions, each document will have its own 2 GB allocated memory.

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In this section, the following are explained:

"Configuring Automatic Backup" on page 104


"Recovering a Backup" on page 104.

2.3.1 Configuring Automatic Backup


You can set up automatic backup for each Atoll session.
To configure automatic backup:
1. Select Tools > Configure Auto Backup. The Auto Backup Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 2.17).

Figure 2.17: Auto Backup Configuration dialogue


2. Select the Activate Auto Backup check box.
3. Select the Prompt before starting Auto Backup check box if you want Atoll to ask you before saving the backup of
your file every time (see Figure 2.18).
4. Enter a time interval, in minutes, between consecutive backups in the Automatically save backups every text box.
It can take a long time to back up large documents. Therefore, you should set a correspondingly longer interval between backups when working with large documents in order
to optimise the process.
5. Click OK.
If you selected the Prompt before starting automatic backup check box, Atoll prompts you each time before backing up the
document. If you click OK, Atoll proceeds to back up all open documents. If you click Cancel, Atoll skips the backup once.

Figure 2.18: Automatic backup prompt


The automatic backup timer is stopped while the prompt is displayed. Atoll displays a message in the Event Viewer every time
a backup file is updated. If you are performing calculations, i.e., coverage predictions or simulations, the automatic backup is
delayed until the calculations have ended. The timer starts again once the calculations are over. If you save the original document manually, the timer is reset to 0.

2.3.2 Recovering a Backup


You can easily recover your backup document and open it in Atoll just like any other Atoll document.
To recover your backup document:
1. Using Windows Explorer, navigate to the folder containing your original Atoll document and its backup.
2. If the original document was named "filename.atl," the backup document will be in the same folder and will be called
"filename.atl.bak". Rename the document and remove the BAK extension. For example, you could change the name
to "filename-backup.atl."

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If you just remove the BAK extension, your backup file will have the same file name as
the original file and Windows will not allow you to rename the file. Therefore, it is safer
to give a new name to the backup file and keep the original file until you are sure which
version is most recent.
3. Open the renamed backup document in Atoll. You will be able to recover all the work up to the last time the backup
was saved.

2.4 Making and Sharing Portable Atoll Projects


You can create portable Atoll documents in two ways:

by embedding all the geographic data in the ATL file, or


by creating a compressed archive (ZIP file) containing the ATL file and all geographic data linked to the Atoll document.

In most working environments, geographic data files are stored on a common file server and are linked to the ATL documents
of different users over a network. Often these geographic data files are quite large, and it is not feasible to embed these files
in an ATL file for reasons related to file size, memory consumption, and performance. It is, therefore, more useful to make a
project portable by creating an archive that contains the ATL and all geographic data files.
Atoll lets you make an archive containing the ATL file and all geographic data directly from the File menu.
To make an archive containing the ATL file and all linked geographic data files:
1. Select File > Save to Zip. The Save As dialogue appears.
2. Select the folder where the created archive is to be stored, enter a File name for the archive to be created, and select
"Zip Files (*.zip)" from the Save as type list.
Atoll creates a ZIP file containing:
-

A copy of the ATL file with the same name as the name of the archive (ZIP file).
The ATL file added to the archive contains all the data that might be embedded in it (path loss matrices, geographic
data, coverage predictions, simulation results, measurement data, etc.).

A ".losses" folder containing a pathloss.dbf file and a LowRes subfolder which contains the pathloss.dbf file corresponding to the extended path loss matrices.
Externally stored path loss matrices are not added to the archive because they are not necessary for making a
portable document; they can be recalculated based on the network and geographic data in the ATL file. The pathloss.dbf files are stored in the archive because they are needed when reopening the archive in Atoll.

A "Geo" folder with all the linked geographic data available on the Geo tab of the Explorer window for the Atoll
document.
This folder contains subfolders with the same names as the folders on the Geo tab. Geographic data that are found
outside folders on the Geo tab are stored in files under the Geo folder, and data present within folders on the Geo
tab are stored inside their respective folders. If the geographic data files linked to the document are located on a
remote computer, such as a file server over a network, they are first copied to the local computer in the Windows
temporary files folder and then added to the archive.

Once the portable archive is created, you can open it directly from Atoll without first having to extract it using another tool.
To open an archive containing an ATL file and all linked geographic data files:
1. Select File > Open from Zip. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the ZIP file that contains the ATL file and linked geographic data files.
3. Click Open. The Browse For Folder dialogue appears.
4. Select the folder where you want to extract the contents of the ZIP file.
5. Click OK. Atoll extracts all the files from the archive to the selected folder. If necessary, it creates the subfolders
required for extracting the contents of the Geo folder. Once Atoll has finished extracting files from the archive, it
opens the extracted ATL file. Geographic data extracted from the archive are linked to the ATL file.

You do not need to have a compression utility, such as WinZip or WinRAR, installed
on the computer for this feature.
The highest compression level is used when creating the archive.

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Chapter 3
Geographic Data
This chapter provides information on working with
geographic data in an Atoll project.

In this chapter, the following are explained:

"Geographic Data Types" on page 109

"Supported Geographic Data Formats" on page 111

"Importing Geo Data Files" on page 111

"Digital Terrain Models" on page 118

"Clutter Classes" on page 118

"Clutter Heights" on page 122

"Contours, Lines, and Points" on page 122

"Scanned Images" on page 124

"Population Maps" on page 125

"Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 126

"Setting the Priority of Geo Data" on page 129

"Displaying Information About Geo Data" on page 132

"Geographic Data Sets" on page 132

"Editing Geographic Data" on page 134

"Saving Geographic Data" on page 136

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3 Geographic Data
Several different geographic data types are used in an Atoll document. For example: the digital terrain model (DTM), clutter
classes, clutter heights, scanned images, population maps, and traffic data maps are types of the geographic data that you can
import or create. Some data types, such as clutter classes, can be used to give more realistic calculations. Other types such as
scanned images, are used to create a more realistic display of the region under study.
You can import a wide variety of both vector and raster-format geo data files. When you import a geo data file into Atoll, you
can decide in which folder it goes. The Geo tab of the Atoll Explorer window has folders for the commonly used data types.
Therefore, choosing a folder is choosing what the file will be used for. You can also create your own data type by importing a
file and defining what data is to be used.
Once you have imported a file into the Atoll document, you can edit the data, define how the geo data will be displayed. Atoll
also allows you to manage multiple files for a single data type, deciding the priority of data files with different information or
different resolutions. You can also display geo data over items on the Network tab, either by transferring them to the Network
tab, or by importing them directly to the Network tab.
You can also create and edit geographic data. You can add a vector layer to certain data types to which you can add contours,
lines, or points, create new geographic data, or modify existing data. You can also create raster-based geographic data such
as traffic maps or clutter classes.
You can export most geo data objects (for example, DTM, clutter classes, clutter heights, raster polygons, or vector layers) for
use in other Atoll documents or in other applications. Atoll also allows you to save changes you make to geo data objects back
to the original files. This enables you to update the original files and, through the process of saving them, recompact the file.
This chapter explains the following topics:

"Geographic Data Types" on page 109


"Supported Geographic Data Formats" on page 111
"Importing Geo Data Files" on page 111
"Clutter Classes" on page 118
"Clutter Heights" on page 122
"Digital Terrain Models" on page 118
"Contours, Lines, and Points" on page 122
"Scanned Images" on page 124
"Population Maps" on page 125
"Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 126
"Setting the Priority of Geo Data" on page 129
"Editing Geographic Data" on page 134
"Saving Geographic Data" on page 136.

3.1 Geographic Data Types


An Atoll document can contain several different geographic data types. Atoll supports a wide range of file formats for
geographic data files. The different geographic data types play different roles in the Atoll document:

Geographic data used in propagation calculation:


-

Geographic data used in dimensioning:


-

Traffic maps

Geographic data used in statistics:


-

Digital terrain model


Clutter classes
Clutter heights

Population maps
Custom maps

Geographic data used for display purposes:


-

Scanned maps
Images from web map services (WMS)
Contours, lines, and points representing, for example, roads, railways, or regions.

In this section, the following data types are described:

"Digital Terrain Model" on page 110


"Clutter Classes" on page 110
"Clutter Heights" on page 110
"Contours, Lines, and Points" on page 110

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"Scanned Images" on page 110


"Population Maps" on page 110
"Traffic Data Maps" on page 110
"Custom Data Maps" on page 110.

Digital Terrain Model


The DTM describes the elevation of the ground over sea level. You can display the DTM in different ways: by single value,
discrete values, or by value intervals (see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23).
The DTM is automatically taken into account by the propagation model during computations.
Clutter Classes
The clutter class geo data file describes land cover or land use. Clutter classes are taken into account by the propagation model
during computations.
Each pixel in a clutter class file contains a code (from a maximum of 256 possible classes) which corresponds to a clutter class,
or in other words to a certain type of ground use or cover. The height per class can be defined as part of the clutter class,
however, the height will be defined as an average height for each clutter class. For information on defining the height per clutter class, see "Defining Clutter Class Properties" on page 119. Clutter heights can also be defined by a separate clutter heights
file (see "Clutter Heights" on page 110). A clutter height map can represent height much more accurately because it allows a
different height to be assigned for each pixel of the map.
Clutter Heights
Clutter height maps describe the altitude of clutter over the DTM with one altitude defined per pixel. Clutter height maps can
offer more precise information than defining an altitude per clutter class because, in a clutter height file, it is possible to have
different heights within a single clutter class.
When clutter altitude is defined both in clutter classes and in a clutter height map, clutter altitude is taken from the clutter
height map.
You can display the clutter height map in different ways: by single value, discrete values, or by value intervals (see "Display
Properties of Objects" on page 23).
The only propagation models that can take clutter heights into account in calculations are
the Standard Propagation Model and WLL model.

Contours, Lines, and Points


Atoll supports contours, lines, and points to represent polygons such as regions, or lines such as roads or coastlines, or points.
They are used for display only and have no effect on computations. Contours can also be used to create filtering polygons or
computation or focus zones.
Scanned Images
Scanned images are geographic data files which represent the actual physical surroundings, for example, road maps or satellite images. They are used to provide a precise background for other objects or for less precise maps and are used only for
display; they have no effect on calculations.
Population Maps
Population maps contain information on population density or on the total number of inhabitants. Population maps can be
used in prediction reports in order to display, for example, the absolute and relative numbers of the population covered.
Population maps have no effect on prediction and simulation results.
Traffic Data Maps
Traffic data maps contain information on capacity and service use per geographic area. Traffic data maps are used for network
capacity analyses.
Custom Data Maps
You can import many different types of files for, for example, revenue, rainfall, or socio-demographic data. You could use the
imported data in prediction reports. For example, you could display the predicted revenue for defined coverage.
These imported data have no effect on prediction and simulation results.

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3.2 Supported Geographic Data Formats


Atoll supports the following geographic data formats:

DTM files in the following formats: TIF (8 or 16-bit integer), BIL (8, 16 or 32-bit integer, 32-bit float), Planet (16-bit
integer), BMP (8-bit integer), GRD Vertical Mapper (16-bit integer), and Erdas Imagine (8, 16 or 32-bit integer, 32-bit
float)
Clutter height files in the following formats: TIF (8 or 16-bit integer), BIL (8, 16 or 32-bit integer, 32-bit float), Planet
(16-bit integer), BMP (8-bit integer), GRD Vertical Mapper (16-bit integer), and Erdas Imagine (8, 16 or 32-bit integer,
32-bit float)
Clutter class and traffic files in the following formats: TIF (8-bit), BIL (8-bit), IST (8-bit), BMP (8-bit), Planet, GRC Vertical
Mapper (8-bit), and Erdas Imagine (8-bit)
Vector data files in the following formats: AGD, DFX, Planet, SHP, MIF, and TAB.
Vector traffic files in the following formats: AGD, DFX, Planet, SHP, MIF, and TAB.
Scanned image files in the following formats: TIF (1 to 24-bit), JPEG 2000 (1 to 24-bit), BIL (1 to 24-bit), IST (1 to 24-bit),
BMP (1 to 24-bit), Planet, Erdas Imagine (1 to 24-bit), GRC Vertical Mapper (1 to 24-bit), and ECW (8 or 24-bit)
Population files in the following formats: TIF (16-bit), BIL (16-bit), IST (16-bit), Planet, BMP (16-bit), Erdas Imagine
(16-bit), GRD/GRC Vertical Mapper (16-bit), AGD, DXF, SHP, MIF, and TAB.
Other data in the following formats: TIF (16-bit), BIL (16-bit), IST (16-bit), Planet, BMP (16-bit), Erdas Imagine (16-bit),
GRD/GRC Vertical Mapper (16-bit), AGD, DXF, SHP, MIF, and TAB.
All raster maps imported must have the same projection coordinate system.

3.3 Importing Geo Data Files


You can import the geographic data you need into the current Atoll document. As explained in "Supported Geographic Data
Formats" on page 111, Atoll supports a variety of both raster and vector file formats. When you import a new geo data file,
Atoll recognises the file format and suggests the appropriate folder on the Geo tab of the Explorer window. You can embed
geo data files in the Atoll document while you are importing them or afterwards (see "Embedding Geographic Data" on
page 117).
You can share the paths of imported maps and display settings with other users by using Atolls user configuration files. For
information on exporting the paths of your documents files or to import the path from another document using user configuration files, see "Geographic Data Sets" on page 132.
The instructions in this section do not apply to custom geo data maps. For information on
importing or creating an custom geo data map, see "Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 126.

This section explains the following:

"Importing a Raster-format Geo Data File" on page 111


"Importing a Vector-format Geo Data File" on page 113
"Importing MSI Planet Data" on page 114
"Importing a WMS Raster-format Geo Data File" on page 115
"Grouping Geo Data Files in Folders" on page 117
"Embedding Geographic Data" on page 117.
You can use the drag-and-drop feature to import geo data files into a document. The
format is automatically recognized and Atoll presents you with the appropriate
dialogue.

3.3.1 Importing a Raster-format Geo Data File


All raster geo data files must be represented in the same projection coordinate system as the Atoll document itself.
To import a geographic data file in a raster format:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the geo data file you want to import.

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You can import more than one geo data file at the same time, providing that the geo data files are of the same type.
You can select contiguous files by clicking the first file, pressing SHIFT and clicking the last file you want to import. You
can select non-contiguous files by pressing CTRL and clicking each file.
3. Click Open. The File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1).
If the Vector Import dialogue appears, go to "Importing a Vector-format Geo Data File" on
page 113.

Depending on the type of geo data file you are importing, choose one of the following options:
-

DTM: Select Altitudes (DTM) from the Data Type list.


Clutter Classes: Select Clutter Classes from the Data Type list.
Clutter Heights: Select Clutter Heights from the Data Type list.
Scanned Images: Select Image or Scan from the Data Type list.
Population:
i.

Select Population from the Data Type list. The Use as list becomes available.

ii. Select from the Use as list whether the imported data are to be interpreted as a Density (number of inhabitants per square kilometre) or as a Value (number of inhabitants).
-

Custom Geo Data: See "Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 126.
Traffic Data Maps: Select Traffic Density from the Data Type list.

4. By default, the imported file is linked to the Atoll document. To embed the data file in the Atoll document, select the
Embed in Document check box. For information on embedding files, see "Embedding Geographic Data" on page 117.
5. Click Import. The geo data file is imported and listed in the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
When you import a traffic data map, the traffic maps Properties dialogue appears:
a. Under Terminals (%), enter the percentage of each type of terminal used in the map. The total percentages must
equal 100.
b. Under Mobilities (%), enter the percentage of each mobility type used in the map. The total percentages must
equal 100.
c. Under Services (%), enter the percentage of each service type used in the map. The total percentages must equal
100.
d. Under Clutter Distribution, enter for each clutter class the percentage of indoor users.
An additional loss will be counted for indoor users during the Monte-Carlo simulations. You do not have to define
a clutter weighting for traffic density maps because the traffic is provided in terms of user density per pixel.
e. For UMTS and CDMA, select whether the users are active in the Uplink/Downlink, only in the Downlink, or only
in the Uplink.
f. Click OK.

Figure 3.1: Importing a clutter class file

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3.3.2 Importing a Vector-format Geo Data File


When you import geo data files in vector format, their geographic system can be converted to the system used by the Atoll
document. When you import extremely large vector geo data files, for example, vector files that cover an entire country, you
must ensure that at least the centre of the bounding box defining the vector file is within the projection coordinate system
defined for the Atoll document.
To import a vector-format geographic data file:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the geo data file you want to import.
You can import more than one geo data file at the same time, providing that the geo data files are of the same type.
You can select contiguous files by clicking the first file, pressing SHIFT and clicking the last file you want to import. You
can select non-contiguous files by pressing CTRL and clicking each file.
3. Click Open. The Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).
If the File Import dialogue appears, go to "Importing a Raster-format Geo Data File" on
page 111.

Depending on the type of geo data file you are importing, choose one of the following options:
-

Vector Data:
-

Select Geo from the Import to list.

Population:
i.

Select Population from the Import to list.

ii. Under Fields to be imported, the first list contains the attributes of the population vector data file that you
are importing, and the second list lets you select whether the attribute corresponds to population density or
to a number of inhabitants.
iii. Select from the first list which field is to be imported and from the second list whether the imported field is a
Density (number of inhabitants per square kilometre for polygons, number of inhabitants per kilometre for
lines, or number of inhabitants for points) or a Value (number of inhabitants) (see Figure 3.2 and Figure 3.3).

Figure 3.2: Population density (number of inhabitants/km)

Figure 3.3: Population values (number of inhabitants per item polygon/road/point)


-

Custom Geo Data:


-

See "Custom Geo Data Maps" on page 126.

Traffic Data Maps: Select Traffic from the Import to list.

4. By default, the imported file is linked to the Atoll document. To embed the data file in the Atoll document, select the
Embed in Document check box. For information on embedding files, see "Embedding Geographic Data" on page 117.
5. Click Import. The geo data file is imported and listed in the Geo tab of the Explorer window.

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Figure 3.4: Vector Import dialogue

You can import ellipses and arcs from MapInfo files (MIF and TAB). Rectangles are
interpreted as polygons.
You can define mappings between the coordinate system used for the MapInfo/
ESRI vector files, defined in the corresponding MIF/PRJ files, and Atoll. This way,
when you import a vector file, Atoll can detect the correct coordinate system automatically. For more information about defining the mapping between coordinate
systems, please refer to the Administrator Manual.

3.3.3 Importing MSI Planet Data


MSI Planet data are contained in a series of files described in index files. The index file is in ASCII text format and contains
the information necessary to identify and properly interpret each data file. When you import MSI Planet data, you can import
each type of data separately, by importing the corresponding index file, or you can import several MSI Planet data files at
the same time, by importing several index files.
This section explains the following:

"Importing One MSI Planet Data Type" on page 114


"Importing a MSI Planet Database" on page 115.

3.3.3.1 Importing One MSI Planet Data Type


When you want to import a certain type of MSI Planet data, such as a DTM or clutter heights, you import the index file
containing the information necessary to import the set of files containing the data.
To import one type of MSI Planet data:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the index file you want to import and click Open. The Data Type dialogue appears (see Figure 3.5).

Figure 3.5: Importing an MSI Planet index file

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3. Select the type of data you are importing and select the Embed check box if you want to embed the data in the current
Atoll document.
4. Click OK to import the data into the current Atoll document.

3.3.3.2 Importing a MSI Planet Database


You can import all available MSI Planet data at the same time by importing all index files.
To import the MSI Planet database:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select "Planet database" from the Files of Type list. The Planet Data Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.6).

Figure 3.6: Importing an MSI Planet database


3. For each type of data that you want to import:
a. Select the corresponding check box.
b. If you want to embed the data, select the Embed check box.
c. To locate the MSI Planet index file, click

. The Open dialogue appears.

d. Select the MSI Planet index file and click Open. The path and name of the file appears in the corresponding field
of the Planet Data to Be Imported dialogue.
4. If you are also importing network data, select the network Technology.
5. When you have selected all the types of data you want to import, click OK. The data is imported into the current Atoll
document.

3.3.4 Importing a WMS Raster-format Geo Data File


You can import raster images from a Web Map Service (WMS) server into your Atoll document. The image must be in TIF
format. All images imported at the same time are imported as a single image. Before you import them, you can arrange them
by placing on top the image that is the most important, such as roads. Or, you can place the least transparent image towards
the bottom so that the other images imported at the same time remain visible.
The image will be referenced in the document; it can not be embedded. Only WMS data mapped with a projection system (for
example, the Lambert Conformal-Conic or the Universal Transverse Mercator projection) can be imported. Before importing
an image from a WMS server, you must ensure that the coordinate system used in your document is the same projection
system supported by the server. All raster geo data files must be represented in the same projection coordinate system as
that used by the Atoll document itself.

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To import a geographic data file from a web map service:


1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. From the Files of Type list, select Connection to a Web Map Services server. The Web Map Services Data Import dialogue appears.
3. Select the URL of the WMS server from the Server URL list or enter it directly.
The list of WMS servers that appears in the Server URL list are defined by entries in the
atoll.ini file. For information on defining these entries, see the Administrator Manual.

4. Click the Connect button. Atoll connects to the URL of the WMS server and displays the information available along
with a description of the service (Figure 3.7 on page 116).

Figure 3.7: The Web Map Services Data Import dialogue


5. In the left pane of the Web Map Services Data Import dialogue, navigate to the item you want to import by clicking
the Expand button ( ) to open each level.
6. Select either the image you want to import, or the image group, i.e., a group preceded by an Expand button ( ).
7. Click
for each image you want to import. The files you want to import appear in the right pane of the Web Map
Services Data Import dialogue.
You can remove an image or group of images from the images to be imported by selecting
it in the right pane and clicking

8. Arrange the order in which you want the images to appear by selecting each image in the right pane and clicking
to move it towards the top or
to move it toward the bottom. The images will be imported as a single object and
their appearance will depend on the order you define here.
9. The Web Map Import dialogue appears. The following information is given about the imported WMS data:
-

Data Types: "Image or Scan" is selected.


Geographic Coordinates: The geographic coordinates are the WMS data are given.

10. The Name suggested is the name of the lowest layer to be imported. If desired, you can modify this name.
11. Click Import. The image is imported by reference into the Atoll document. You can not embed a WMS image in your
document.
If you had selected more than one image or an image group, Atoll imports the group as a single object. You can not
modify this object. If you want to remove one of the images or add another one you will go through the import process
again.

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3.3.5 Grouping Geo Data Files in Folders


By default, when you import scanned images and contours, lines, and points, they appear directly on the Geo tab. Other data
files, such as clutter classes, are listed together in a single Clutter Classes folder. You can, however, group scanned images and
contours, lines, and points into folders as well.
Once grouped, these geo data files can be displayed or hidden and moved more easily. They retain, however, their own individual display settings; the display settings cannot be managed at the folder level.
You create the folder when you import the first geo data file that will be imported into it. When you import the next geo data
file, either raster or vector, you can import it directly into the new folder.
To create a new geo data folder when importing:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the geo data file and click Open. If the file to be imported is a raster file, the File Import dialogue appears (see
Figure 3.1). If the file to be imported is a vector file, the Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).
3. From the Data Type list (on the File Import dialogue) or the Import To list (on the Vector Import dialogue), select New
folder in Geo. The New Folder dialogue appears.
If you want to import your file to the Network tab, you can select New folder in Network.

4. Enter a name for the folder in Folder Name box and click OK.
5. Click Import. Your file is imported into the newly created folder.
You can now import other geo data files into this folder by selecting it from the Data Type list (on the File Import dialogue) or
the Import To list (on the Vector Import dialogue) when you import.
You can transfer geo data that has been imported from the Geo tab to the Network tab,
or vice versa. Right-click the data in the Explorer window and select Move to Network Tab
or Move to Geo Tab.

3.3.6 Embedding Geographic Data


By default, when you import a geo data file, Atoll creates a link to the file. You can, however, choose to embed the geo data
file in your Atoll document, either when you import it or later. When Atoll is linked to a geo data file, the geo data file remains
separate and modifying or saving the Atoll document has no effect on the geo data file. When the geo data file is embedded
in the Atoll document, it is saved as part of the document.
Both linking and embedding present advantages and disadvantages. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
If you are using distributed calculations, you must link your geo data files. Distributed
calculations will not work with embedded geo data files. For information, see the
Administrator Manual.
To embed a geo data file in the current Atoll document while you are importing:

Select the Embed in Document check box on the File Import or Vector Import dialogue box.

To embed a geo data file that is already linked to the current Atoll document:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the file you want to embed in the current document.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Click the General tab of the Properties dialogue.
5. Click Embed.
6. Click OK. The geo data file is now embedded in the current Atoll document.

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3.3.7 Repairing a Broken Link to a Geo Data File


By default, when you import a geo data file, Atoll creates a link to the file; the geo data file remains separate and modifying
or saving the Atoll document has no effect on the geo data file. If, however, the geo data file is moved, the link will be broken.
an AtollAtollAtollAtollTo repair a broken link from within the Atoll document:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
-

If the geo data file is in a folder, such as the Clutter Classes, Traffic Maps, or DTM folder, click
folder.

to expand the

2. Right-click on the geo data file whose link you want to repair. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. On the General tab of the Properties dialogue, click the Find button.
5. Browse to the geo data file, select it and click OK.

3.4 Digital Terrain Models


The Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a geographic data file representing the elevation of the ground over sea level.
To manage the properties of the DTM:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Digital Terrain Model folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Display tab to define the display properties for the DTM.
-

For information on Display tab settings, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.

5. Move the Relief slider towards Flat, if you want to display very few little relief or towards x6 if you want to emphasise
the differences in altitude.
6. Click OK to close the Properties dialogue.

3.5 Clutter Classes


The clutter class geo data file describes land cover or land use.
Each pixel of a clutter class file contains a code (from a maximum of 256 possible classes) which corresponds to a clutter class,
or in other words to a certain type of ground use or cover. The height per class can be defined as part of the clutter class,
however this height is only an average per class. A clutter height map can represent height much more accurately because it
allows a different height to be assigned for each bin of the map. For information on clutter height maps, see "Clutter Heights"
on page 122.
This section explains the following:

"Assigning Names to Clutter Classes" on page 118


"Defining Clutter Class Properties" on page 119
"Adding a Clutter Class" on page 121
"Refreshing the List of Clutter Classes" on page 121
"Displaying Total Surface Area per Clutter Class" on page 122.

3.5.1 Assigning Names to Clutter Classes


The clutter class file identifies each clutter class with a code. To make it easier to work with clutter classes, you can assign a
descriptive name to each clutter class name. When a clutter class has a descriptive name, it is the name that appears in tool
tips and reports.
When you import a clutter class file in BIL, TIF, JPEG 2000, or IMP format, Atoll can automatically assign names to clutter
classes if the clutter class file has a corresponding MNU file. The MNU file contains a list with the clutter class codes and their
corresponding names. For more information on the MNU file format and on creating an MNU file, see the Technical Reference
Guide.
To assign names to clutter classes:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.

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3. Select Properties from the context menu.


4. Click the Description tab of the Properties dialogue.
5. In the Name column, enter descriptive text for each class identified in the Code column.

3.5.2 Defining Clutter Class Properties


The parameters are applied in relation to the location of the receiver being studied and the clutter class of the receiver location. These parameters can be set on the Properties dialogue:
To define clutter class properties:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Click the Description tab of the Properties dialogue.
5. Enter a Name and average Height (m) for each code.
If the Height field is left blank, propagation models which use the height information of
clutter classes will assume a clutter height of "0" if there is no clutter height map.

6. Enter default values in the first row of the table on the Description tab. or information about each field, see the
descriptions in the following step.
The default values are used if no clutter map is available. Even if there is a clutter classes map, you can select the Use
default values only check box on the at the bottom of the Description tab to make Atoll use the values specified in
this row instead of the values defined per clutter class.
7. If desired, you can enter a value for each of the following fields applicable to the current document:
-

For all Atoll documents:


-

Model Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the path loss, as related to a user-defined
cell edge coverage probability.
Indoor Loss (dB): to be applied to the path loss and used in coverage predictions, point analysis, and Monte
Carlo simulations.
Indoor penetration losses depend on the clutter types as well as the operating frequency.
You can define an additional indoor loss per frequency band used in the Frequency bands
table in GSM GPRS EDGE, UMTS HSPA, CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO, and TD-SCDMA documents. This is an optional feature that must first be activated. For more information,
contact support.

For GSM GPRS EDGE documents:


-

C/I Standard Deviation (DL) (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the C/I values, as related to a user-defined
cell edge coverage probability.
Additional Diversity Gain (DL) (dB): to add to the 3 dB gain in case diversity is set at the subcell level.

For UMTS HSPA, and CDMA2000 1xRTT 1xEV-DO documents:


-

Ec/Io Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the Ec/Io values, as related to a user-defined
cell edge coverage probability.
DL Eb/Nt Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the Eb/Nt values, as related to a userdefined cell edge coverage probability.
UL Eb/Nt Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the Eb/Nt values, as related to a userdefined cell edge coverage probability.
% Pilot Finger: to be used in the Ec/Io calculations. This factor represents the percentage of energy received
by the mobile pilot finger. Mobile user equipment has one searcher finger for pilot. The searcher finger selects
one path and only energy from this path is considered as signal; energy from other multipaths is considered
as interference. For example, if 70% of the total energy is in one path and 30% of the energy is in other multipaths, then the signal energy is reduced to 70% of total energy).
Orthogonality Factor: to be used to evaluate DL Eb/Nt. This parameter indicates the remaining orthogonality
at the receiver; it can be modelled by a value from 0, indicating no remaining orthogonality because of multipath, to 1, indicating perfect orthogonality.
Spatial Multiplexing Gain Factor: to apply to the spatial multiplexing gain read from the Max Spatial Multiplexing Gain graphs in the MIMO tab of reception equipment.

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For TD-SCDMA documents:


-

C/I Standard Deviation (DL) (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the C/(I+N) values, as related to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
SU-MIMO Gain Factor: to apply to the spatial multiplexing gain read from the Max SU-MIMO Gain graphs in
the MIMO tab of reception equipment.
Additional Diversity Gain (DL) (dB): to add to the users downlink C/(I+N), if the user and its reference cell
supports transmit diversity.
Additional Diversity Gain (UL) (dB): to add to the users uplink C/(I+N), if the user and its reference cell
supports receive diversity.

For multi-RAT documents:


-

120

C/I Standard Deviation (DL) (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the C/(I+N) values, as related to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
SU-MIMO Gain Factor: to apply to the spatial multiplexing gain read from the Max SU-MIMO Gain graphs in
the MIMO tab of reception equipment.
Additional STTD/MRC Gain (DL) (dB): to add to the users downlink C/(I+N), if the user and its reference cell
supports STTD/MRC.
Additional STTD/MRC Gain (UL) (dB): to add to the users uplink C/(I+N), if the user and its reference cell
supports STTD/MRC.

For LTE documents:


-

P-CCPCH Eb/Nt or C/I Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the P-CCPCH Eb/Nt or C/I
values, as related to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
DL Eb/Nt or C/I Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the Eb/Nt or C/I values, as related
to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
UL Eb/Nt or C/I Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the Eb/Nt or C/I values, as related
to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
DL Orthogonality Factor: to be used to evaluate DL Eb/Nt or C/I. This parameter indicates the remaining
orthogonality at the receiver; it can be modelled by a value from 0, indicating no remaining orthogonality
because of multi-path, to 1, indicating perfect orthogonality.
UL Orthogonality Factor: to be used to evaluate UL Eb/Nt or C/I. This parameter indicates the remaining
orthogonality at the receiver; it can be modelled by a value from 0, indicating no remaining orthogonality
because of multi-path, to 1, indicating perfect orthogonality.
Spreading Angle (): to be used in determining the cumulative distribution of C/I gains for statistical smart
antenna modelling.

For WiMAX 802.16e documents:


-

Additional Diversity Gain (DL) (dB): to add to the users downlink HS-PDSCH Ec/Nt, if the user and its reference
cell supports transmit diversity.

GSM Model Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the path loss (from GSM transmitters
only), in relation to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
GSM Indoor Loss (dB): to be applied to the path loss (from GSM transmitters only) and used in coverage
predictions, point analysis, and Monte Carlo simulations.
GSM C/I Standard Deviation (DL) (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the C/I values (from GSM transmitters
only), in relation to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
GSM Additional Diversity Gain (DL) (dB): to add to the 3 dB gain if diversity is set at the subcell level (GSM
transmitters only).
UMTS Model Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the path loss (from UMTS cells only),
in relation to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
UMTS Indoor Loss (dB): to be applied to the path loss (from UMTS cells only) and used in coverage predictions,
point analysis, and Monte Carlo simulations.
UMTS Ec/Io Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the Ec/Io values (from UMTS cells
only), in relation to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
UMTS DL Eb/Nt Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the Eb/Nt values (from UMTS cells
only), in relation to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
UMTS UL Eb/Nt Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the Eb/Nt values (from UMTS cells
only), in relation to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
UMTS % Pilot Finger: to be used in the Ec/Io calculations (from UMTS cells only). This factor represents the
percentage of energy received by the mobile pilot finger. (Mobile user equipment has one searcher finger for
the pilot. The searcher finger selects one path and only energy from this path is considered as signal; energy
from other multipaths is considered as interference. For example, if 70% of the total energy is in one path and
30% of the energy is in other multipaths, then the signal energy is reduced to 70% of total energy).
UMTS Orthogonality Factor: to be used to evaluate DL Eb/Nt (from UMTS cells only). This parameter indicates
the remaining orthogonality at the receiver; it can be modelled by a value from 0, indicating no remaining
orthogonality because of multi-path, to 1, indicating perfect orthogonality.

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UMTS Spatial Multiplexing Gain Factor: to apply to the spatial multiplexing gain read from the Max Spatial
Multiplexing Gain graphs on the MIMO tab of UMTS reception equipment.
UMTS Additional Diversity Gain (DL) (dB): to add to the users downlink HS-PDSCH Ec/Nt, if the users mobile
and his reference UMTS cell support transmit diversity.
LTE Model Standard Deviation (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the path loss (from LTE cells only), in
relation to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
LTE Indoor Loss (dB): to be applied to the path loss (from LTE cells only) and used in coverage predictions,
point analysis, and Monte Carlo simulations.
LTE C/I Standard Deviation (DL) (dB): to calculate shadowing losses on the C/(I+N) values (from LTE cells only),
in relation to a user-defined cell edge coverage probability.
LTE SU-MIMO Gain Factor: to apply to the spatial multiplexing gain read from the Max SU-MIMO Gain graphs
in the MIMO tab of LTE reception equipment.
LTE Additional Diversity Gain (DL) (dB): to add to the users downlink C/(I+N), if the users mobile and his
reference LTE cell support transmit diversity.
LTE Additional Diversity Gain (UL) (dB): to add to the users uplink C/(I+N), if the users mobile and his reference LTE cell support receive diversity.

8. If you want to use default values for all clutter classes, select the Use only default values check box at the bottom of
the Description tab.
9. Click the Display tab to define the display properties for clutter classes. In addition to the Display tab options described
in "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23, each clutter class display type has a visibility check box. By selecting or
clearing the visibility check box, you can display or hide clutter class display types individually.
Selecting white as the colour for a clutter class value or value interval will cause that clutter
class value or value interval to be displayed as transparent.

10. Click OK.


You can copy the description table into a new Atoll document after importing the clutter
classes file. To copy the description table, select the entire table by clicking the cell in the
upper-left corner of the table and press CTRL+C. On the Description tab of the clutter
classes Properties dialogue in the new Atoll document, press CTRL+V to paste the values
in the table.

3.5.3 Adding a Clutter Class


You can add a new clutter class to your document.
To add a new clutter class to the your document:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the Description tab from the Properties dialogue.
5. In the blank row marked with
column.

at the bottom of the table, enter an unused number from 1 to 255 in the Code

6. Fill in the remainder of the fields as described in step 5. and step 7. of "Defining Clutter Class Properties" on page 119.
7. Click OK.
You can now use the new clutter class when modifying the clutter class map. For information on modifying the clutter class
map, see "Creating a Clutter Polygon" on page 134.

3.5.4 Refreshing the List of Clutter Classes


Under certain circumstances, it can happen that the list of clutter classes on the Description tab of the clutter classes Properties dialogue contains unused clutter classes. For example, if you have imported two clutter class files and then deleted one
of them, the list of clutter classes will still contain the clutter classes of the deleted file, even if they are not used in the remaining file. Whenever you want to ensure that the list of clutter classes is accurate and current, you can refresh the list.

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To refresh the list of the clutter classes:


1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu.
4. Select the Description tab from the Properties dialogue.
5. Click Refresh. Atoll removes the unused clutter classes from the list.
6. Click OK.

3.5.5 Displaying Total Surface Area per Clutter Class


You can display the total surface area covered by each clutter class in the document. Atoll displays the surface area covered
by each clutter class in the focus zone if there is one, in the computation zone if there is no focus zone and, if there is no focus
or computation zone, Atoll displays the total surface area covered by each clutter class in the entire document. This information is also available in prediction reports.
To display the surface area covered by each clutter class:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Statistics from the context menu.
The Statistics dialogue appears, displaying the surface area (Si in km) of each clutter class (i) and its percentage (% of
i) in the computation zone or focus zone, if one exists.
Si
% of I = -------------- 100
Sk

3.6 Clutter Heights


Clutter height maps describe the altitude of clutter over the DTM. Clutter height files allow for a higher degree of accuracy
because they allow more than one height per clutter class. In a clutter height file, a height is given for each point on the map.
If you define clutter height as a property of clutter classes, the height is given as an average per clutter class.
When a clutter height file is available, Atoll uses its clutter height information for calculations using certain propagation
models (the Standard Propagation Model and WLL model), for display (in tool tips and in the status line), and for CW measurements and test mobile data paths. If no clutter height file exists, Atoll uses the average clutter height per clutter class as
defined in the clutter classes properties (see "Defining Clutter Class Properties" on page 119).
To manage the properties of clutter heights:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Heights folder.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Display tab to define the display properties for clutter heights.
-

For information on Display tab settings, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.

5. Click OK to close the Properties dialogue.


The clutter height of the current pointer position as given in the clutter height file or in the clutter classes is displayed in the
status bar.

3.7 Contours, Lines, and Points


In Atoll, you can import or create vector objects such as contours, lines, and points. The imported or created vectors are used
primarily for display purposes, but polygons can be used as filters, or computation or focus zones. Vector files can also be used
for traffic maps or for population maps. They can also be used as part of an custom geo data map (see "Custom Geo Data
Maps" on page 126).
In an Atoll document, vector objects such as contours, lines, and points are arranged in vector layers. When you import a
vector file, with, for example, roads, Atoll adds the file as a new vector layer containing all the vector objects in the file. The
vector object data can be managed in the vector layer table. For information on working with data tables, see "Working with
Data Tables" on page 47.

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In this section, the following are explained:

"Managing the Display of a Vector Layer" on page 123


"Managing the Properties of the Vector Layer" on page 123
"Moving a Vector Layer to the Network Tab" on page 124.

3.7.1 Managing the Display of a Vector Layer


Imported geographic vector files can have different attributes depending on their file formats. Atoll can use additional information related to vectors as display parameters. In addition, Atoll can read three-dimensional vector data.
To manage the display of a vector layer:
1. Click the Network or Geo tab in the Explorer window on which the vector layer is located.
2. Right-click the vector layer. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Select the Display tab of the Properties dialogue. For information on using the display tab, see "Display Properties of
Objects" on page 23.
You can manage the display of an individual vector object by right-clicking the vector
object in the vector layer folder and selecting Properties from the context menu.

3.7.2 Managing the Properties of the Vector Layer


The properties of the objects on the vector layer can be managed in two ways: either from a table containing all vectors and
their attributes or from the Properties dialogue.
Vector Layer Table
All the vector objects of a vector layer and their attributes are listed in the vector table.
To open the vector layer table:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu appears.
2. Select Open Table from the context menu. The vector table appears.
You can edit the contents of this table using the commands from the context menu or from the Edit, Format, and Records
menus. For more information on editing tables in Atoll, see "Working with Data Tables" on page 47.
Vector Layer Properties Dialogue
The vector layer Properties dialogue has three tabs: a General tab, a Table tab, and a Display tab.
To open the Properties dialogue of a vector layer:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu.
3. Click the General tab. The following options are available:
-

Name: The name of the vector layer. You can rename the vector layer using this field.
Source File: The complete path of the vector layer file if the file is linked to the Atoll document; otherwise the file
is described as embedded.
-

Find: Click the Find button to redefine the path when the files location has changed.
Embed: Click the Embed button to embed a linked vector layer file in the Atoll document.

Coordinate System: When a vector layer is linked, the coordinate system used is the files, as specified when the
file was imported. When the a vector layer is embedded, the coordinate system used is documents, as specified
when the file was embedded.
-

Change: Click the Change button to change the coordinate system of the vector layer.

Sort: Click the Sort button to sort the data contained in the vector layer. For information on sorting, see "Advanced
Sorting" on page 70.

Filter: Click the Filter button to filter the data contained in the vector layer. For information on filtering, see
"Advanced Data Filtering" on page 72.

4. Click the Table tab. You can use the Table tab to manage the vector layer table content. For information on the Table
tab, see "Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields" on page 47.

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5. Click the Display tab. You can use the Display tab to manage the vector layer display. For information on the Table tab,
see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.

3.7.3 Moving a Vector Layer to the Network Tab


In Atoll, all objects on the Network tab, such as transmitters, antennas, and predictions, are displayed over all objects on the
Geo tab. You may wish, however, to ensure that certain geo data, for example, major geographical features, roads, etc.,
remain visible in the map window. You can do this by transferring the geo data from the Geo tab to the Network tab and placing it above data such as predictions.
To transfer a vector layer to the Network tab of the Explorer window:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the vector layer you want to transfer. The context menu appears.
3. Select Move to Network Tab from the context menu. The vector layer is transferred to the Network tab.
You can transfer the vector layer back to the Geo tab by right-clicking it in the Network tab and selecting Move to Geo Tab
from the context menu. For more information about display priority in Atoll, see "Setting the Priority of Geo Data" on
page 129.

3.8 Scanned Images


Scanned images are geographic data files which represent the actual physical surroundings, for example, road maps or satellite images. They are used to provide a precise background for other objects or for less precise maps.They have no effect on
calculations.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Importing Several Scanned Images" on page 124


"Defining the Display Properties of Scanned Images" on page 124.

3.8.1 Importing Several Scanned Images


You can import scanned images into the current Atoll document one at a time, as explained in "Importing Geo Data Files" on
page 111, or you can import a group of images by importing an index file listing the individual image files. The index file is a
text file with the information for each image file on a separate line.
Each line contains the following information, with the information separated by a space:

File name: The name of the file, with its path relative to the current location of the index file.
XMIN: The beginning X coordinate of the file.
XMAX: The end X coordinate, calculated as XMIN + (number of horizontal bins x bin width).
YMIN: The beginning Y coordinate of the file.
YMAX: The end Y coordinate, calculated as YMIN + (number of horizontal bins x bin width).
0: The zero character ends the sequence.

nice1.tif 984660 995380 1860900 1872280 0


nice2.tif 996240 1004900 1860980 1870700 0
File name

XMIN

XMAX

YMIN

YMAX

To import an index
1. Select File > Import.
2. Select the index file and click Open. The File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1).
3. Select Image or Scan from the Data Type list.
4. Click Import. The image files imported and listed in the Geo tab of the Explorer window.

3.8.2 Defining the Display Properties of Scanned Images


Because imported images cannot be modified, they have fewer display parameters than other object types.
To define the display properties of a scanned image:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window
2. Right-click the scanned image. The context menu appears.

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3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears (see Figure 3.8).
4. Select the Display tab and set the following options:
-

Colour: Select either Automatic, Shades of gray, or Watermark from the list.
Transparent Colour: Select White from the list if you wish parts of the scanned image that are coloured white to
be transparent, allowing objects in lower layers to be visible.
Lightness: Move the slider to lighten or darken the scanned image.
Contrast: Move the slider to adjust the contrast.
Visibility Scale: Enter a visibility scale minimum in the between 1: text box and maximum in the and 1: text box.
When the displayed or printed scale is outside this range, the scanned image is not displayed.

5. Click OK.

Figure 3.8: Scanned image Properties dialogue

3.9 Population Maps


Population maps contain information on population density or on the total number of inhabitants.
Population maps can be used in prediction reports in order to display, for example, the absolute and relative numbers of the
population covered.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Managing the Display of Population Data" on page 125


"Displaying Population Statistics" on page 125.

3.9.1 Managing the Display of Population Data


You can manage the display of population data.
To manage the display of population data:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Population folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Select the Display tab of the Properties dialogue. For information on using the display tab, see "Display Properties of
Objects" on page 23.
Vector points added to a vector population map are not displayed if the map is displayed
by population density.

3.9.2 Displaying Population Statistics


You can display the relative and absolute distribution of population, according to the defined value intervals in the display
properties (for information on defining value intervals, see "Defining the Display Type" on page 24), as well as the total popu-

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lation. Atoll displays the statistics for the focus zone if there is one, for the computation zone if there is no focus zone and, if
there is no focus or computation zone, Atoll displays the statistics for the entire document.
To display the population distribution statistics:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Population folder.
3. Select Statistics from the context menu. The Statistics window appears with the distributions of each value interval
defined in the display properties.
Statistics are displayed only for visible data. See "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map
Using the Explorer" on page 18.

3.10 Custom Geo Data Maps


You can import maps other than the default maps that Atoll uses. For example, you can import files for the revenue, rainfall,
or socio-demographic data. Depending on the type of information displayed, you could use it in prediction reports. For example, you could display the predicted revenue for defined coverage.
These maps can be raster files of 8, 16, or 32 bits per pixel or vector-format files that you have either imported or created
using the Vector Editor toolbar "Editing Polygons, Lines, and Points" on page 39.
You create an custom data map by:
1. Importing an custom geo data file and creating the custom data map folder.
2. Importing other custom geo data files into the newly created custom data map folder, if more than one file will be
used for this custom geo data map.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Creating a Custom Geo Data Map" on page 126


"Adding a File to a Custom Geo Data Map" on page 127
"Managing the Properties of a Custom Geo Data Map" on page 128
"Displaying Statistics on Custom Geo Data" on page 128
"Integrable Versus Non Integrable Data" on page 129.

3.10.1 Creating a Custom Geo Data Map


The first step in creating a custom geo data map is importing the first file and creating the custom data map folder.
To create an custom geo data map:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the first geo data file that will be a part of the custom data map and click Open.
-

If the selected file is a raster file, the File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1).
If the selected file is a vector file, the Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).

3. Click the Advanced button. The New Type dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).
4. Enter a Name for the custom geo data map. Atoll creates a folder with this name on the Geo tab and all other files of
the new custom geo data map will go in here.
5. Under Supported Input Formats, select the check boxes corresponding to the formats of both the present file and all
other files that will constitute the new custom geo data map:
-

8-bit Raster
16-bit Raster
32-bit Raster
Vector.
If you do not select all the formats you need now, you will not be able to add a format
later.

6. Under Supported Input Formats, select the check box corresponding to the type of value of the present file and all
other files that will constitute the new custom geo data map:

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Classes (8 bits): to create a map of value classes (such as clutter classes) with classes from 0 to 255.
Short Integer (16 bits): to create a map with whole values.
Long Integer (32 bits): to create a map with whole values.
Float (32 bits): to create a map with decimal values.
Double (64 bits): to create a map with decimal values.

7. Select the Integrable check box if you want to be able to use imported data as a surface density value and show cumulative custom geo data in prediction reports.

To use imported data as a surface density value, you must select the Integrable
check box.
You can not change the integrable setting once you have created your custom geo
data map.

8. Click OK.
9. If the imported file is a raster file, the File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1 on page 112); if the imported file
is a vector file, the Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4 on page 114):
-

File Import dialogue: From the Use as list, select whether the new data is to be used a Density or as a Value.
Vector Import dialogue: Under Fields to be imported, select from the first list which field is to be imported and
from the second list whether the imported field is a Density or a Value (see Figure 3.2 on page 113 and Figure 3.3
on page 113).
If the file you first import when you create your custom geo data map is an 8-bit raster
map, the Use as and Fields to be imported boxes will not be available for any file that is
imported into your new custom geo data map. The values in 8-bit maps are codes and
not values such as densities.

10. .Click Import. A new folder is created on the Geo tab of the Explorer window containing the geo data file you
imported.

Figure 3.9: The New Type dialogue

3.10.2 Adding a File to a Custom Geo Data Map


Once you have created the custom geo data map by importing the first file, you can add more files that will be part of the
custom map.
To add a file to an custom geo data map:
1. Select File > Import. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Select the geo data file that you want to add to the custom data map and click Open.
-

If the selected file is a raster file, the File Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.1).
i.

From the File Type list, select the name of the custom geo data map.

ii. From the Use as list, select whether the new data is to be used a Density or as a Value.

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If the selected file is a vector file, the Vector Import dialogue appears (see Figure 3.4).
i.

From the Import To list, select the name of the custom geo data map.

ii. Under Fields to be imported, select from the first list which field is to be imported and from the second list
whether the imported field is a Density or a Value (see Figure 3.2 on page 113 and Figure 3.3 on page 113).

If the file you first imported when you created your custom geo data map was an
8-bit raster map, the Use as and Fields to be imported boxes will not be available
for any file that is imported into your new custom geo data map.
To use imported data as a surface density value, you must select the Integrable
check box.

3. Click Import. The file is added to the custom geo data file on the Geo tab of the Explorer window containing the geo
data file you imported.

3.10.3 Managing the Properties of a Custom Geo Data Map


To manage the properties of an custom geo data map:
1. Right-click the custom geo data map on the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Select Properties from the context menu:
3. Depending on the imported file types, the following tabs are available:
-

Description: The Description table lists the classes of all 8-bit raster files contained in the custom geo data map.
You must enter a different value for each class.
Table: The Table tab enables you to manage the contents of the class table presented on the Description tab. For
information on working with the Table tab, see "Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table Fields" on page 47.
Data Mapping: The Data Mapping tab enables you to select which value from each imported vector file is part of
the custom geo data map. The imported vector files are listed in the Name column, with the relevant data selected
in the Field column. You can change this value by selecting another value from the Field list. If the custom geo data
map is marked as integrable (see "Integrable Versus Non Integrable Data" on page 129), there is also a Density
check box. If the value in the Field column is to be considered as a density, select the Density check box.
Display: The Display tab enables you to define how the custom geo data map appears in the map window. Discrete
value and value interval are the available display types.
In the Field list, display by value is not permitted if the custom geo data map has:
-

different raster maps with different resolutions


both line and polygon vectors
both raster and vector maps.

In the Field list, display by density is not permitted if the custom geo data map consists of vector points or lines.
For information on using the display tab, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.

3.10.4 Displaying Statistics on Custom Geo Data


You can display the relative and absolute distribution of each value interval (for information on defining value intervals, see
"Defining the Display Type" on page 24) of an custom geo data map. Atoll displays the statistics for the focus zone if there is
one, for the computation zone if there is no focus zone and, if there is no focus or computation zone, Atoll displays the statistics for the entire document.
To display the statistics of an custom geo data map:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the custom geo data map.
3. Select Statistics from the context menu. The Statistics window appears with the distributions of each value interval.
Statistics are displayed only for visible data. See "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map
Using the Explorer" on page 18.

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3.10.5 Integrable Versus Non Integrable Data


Integrable data can be summed over the coverage area defined by the item in a prediction report (for example, by transmitter
or threshold). The data can be value data (revenue, number of customers, etc.) or density data (revenue/km, number of
customer/km, etc.). For example, if the integrable data comes from a revenue map, a prediction report would indicate:

The percentage of coverage for each revenue class for the entire focus zone, and for each single coverage area (transmitter, threshold, etc.),
The revenue of the focus zone and of each single coverage area,
The percentage of the revenue map covered for the entire focus zone and for each single coverage area.

Data is considered as non-integrable if the data given is per pixel or polygon and cannot be summed over areas, for example,
socio-demographic classes, etc.
In the example of a socio-demographic classes map, a prediction report would indicate:

The coverage of each socio-demographic class for the entire focus zone and for each single coverage area (transmitter,
threshold, etc.)

3.11 Setting the Priority of Geo Data


Atoll lists the imported DTM, clutter class or traffic objects in their respective folders and creates a separate folder for each
imported vector data file and scanned image. Each object is placed on a separate layer. Thus, there are as many layers as
imported objects. The layers are arranged from top to bottom in the map window as they appear on the Geo tab of the
Explorer window.
It is important to remember that all objects on the Network tab, such as transmitters, antennas, and predictions, are displayed
over all objects on the Geo tab.

3.11.1 Setting the Display Priority of Geo Data


There are several factors that influence the visibility of geo data:

The display check box: The check box immediately to the left of the object name in the Geo tab controls whether or
not the object is displayed on the map. If the check box is selected ( ), the object is displayed; if the check box is
cleared ( ), the object is not displayed. If the check box, is selected but shaded ( ), not all objects in the folder are
displayed. For more information, see "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 18.
The order of the layers: The layer at the top of the Geo tab is on top of all other layers in the map window. Data on
layers below is only visible where there is no data on the top layer or if you adjust the transparency of the objects on
the top layer. You can use drag and drop to change the order of layers by dragging a layer on the Geo tab of the
Explorer window towards the top or the bottom of the tab.
All objects on the Network tab, such as transmitters, antennas, and predictions, are
displayed over all objects on the Geo tab. Vector geo data, however, can be transferred to
the Network tab, where they can be placed over data such as predictions. In this way, you
can ensure that certain vector geo data, for example, major geographical features, roads,
etc., remain visible in the map window For more information, see "Moving a Vector Layer
to the Network Tab" on page 124.

The transparency of objects: You can change the transparency of some objects, such as predictions, and some object
types, such as clutter classes, to allow objects on lower layers to be visible on the map. For more information, see
"Defining the Transparency of Objects and Object Types" on page 25.
The visibility range of objects: You can define a visibility range for object types. An object is visible only in the map
window if the scale, as displayed on the zoom toolbar, is within this range. For more information, see "Defining the
Visibility Scale" on page 25.

In Figure 3.10, vector data (including the linear vectors HIGHWAYS, COASTLINE, RIVERLAKE, MAJORROADS, MAJORSTREETS,
RAILWAYS and AIRPORT), clutter classes, DTM and scanned image have been imported and a UMTS environment traffic map
has been edited inside the computation zone. In the map window, the linear objects (ROADS, RIVERLAKE, etc.) are visible both
inside and outside the computation zone. The clutter class layer is visible in the area where there is no traffic data (outside
the computation zone). On the other hand, the DTM layer which is beneath the clutter class layer and the scanned map which
is beneath the DTM layer, are not visible.

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Figure 3.10: Displaying Geo data layers

3.11.2 Setting the Priority of Geo Data in Calculations


The priority of geo data in calculations is determined in much the same way as it is for display.
When you make calculations in Atoll, the data taken into account in each folder (Clutter Classes, DTM, etc.) is the data from
the top down. In other words, Atoll takes the object on top and objects below only where there is no data in higher levels;
what is used is what is seen.
The visibility in the context of calculations must not be confused with the display check box
( ). Even if the display check box of an object is cleared ( ), so that the object is not
displayed on the map, it will still be taken into consideration for calculations. The only
cases where clearing the display check box means that the data will not be used are for
population data in reports, and for custom geo data maps.
Object folders, for example, the DTM, clutter classes, clutter heights, and traffic density folders, can contain more than one
data object. These objects can represent different areas of the map or the same parts of the map with the same or different
resolutions. Therefore for each folder, you should place the objects with the best data at the top. These are normally the
objects which cover the least area but have the highest resolution. For example, when calculating coverage in an urban area,
you might have two clutter class files: one with a higher resolution for the downtown core, where the density of users is
higher, and one with a lower resolution but covering the entire area. In this case, by placing the clutter class file for the downtown core over the file with the lower resolution, Atoll can base its calculations for the downtown core on the clutter class
file with the higher resolution, using the second file for all other calculations.
Population maps and custom geo data maps, both of which can be used in prediction reports follow the same rules of calculation priority.
The following sections give several examples to better illustrate how data are used in Atoll:

"Example 1: Two DTM Maps Representing Different Areas" on page 130


"Example 2: Clutter Classes and DTM Maps Representing the Same Area" on page 131
"Example 3: Two Clutter Class Maps Representing a Common Area" on page 131.

3.11.2.1 Example 1: Two DTM Maps Representing Different Areas


In this example, there are two imported DTM files:

"DTM 1 represents a given area and has a resolution of 50 m.


DTM 2 represents a different area and has a resolution of 20 m.

In this example, the file order of the DTM files in the Explorer window does not matter because they do not overlap; in both
Case 1 and Case 2, Atoll will take all the data from both "DTM 1 and "DTM 2 into account.

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Explorer window

Work space

Case 1
DTM

DTM 2 (20m)
DTM 1 (50m)

Case 2
DTM

DTM 1 (50m)
DTM 2 (20m)

Figure 3.11: Multi-layer management in calculations two DTM maps representing different areas

3.11.2.2 Example 2: Clutter Classes and DTM Maps Representing the Same Area
In this example, there are two imported maps:

A clutter class map called Clutter.


A DTM map called DTM.

Independently of the order of the two maps in the Explorer window, Atoll uses both the clutter and DTM data in calculations.
In Case 1, the clutter class map is on top of the DTM map. In Case 2, the DTM map is on top of the clutter class map. In both
Case 1 and Case 2, Atoll will use both the clutter and DTM data in calculations.
Explorer window

Work space

Case 1
Clutter classes

Clutter
DTM

DTM
Case 2
DTM

DTM
Clutter classes

Clutter
Figure 3.12: Multi-layer management in calculations Clutter and DTM maps representing the same area

3.11.2.3 Example 3: Two Clutter Class Maps Representing a Common Area


In this example, there are two imported clutter classes maps:

"Clutter 1" represents a large area with a resolution of 50 m.


"Clutter 2" represents a smaller area with a resolution of 20 m. This area is also covered by "Clutter 1"

In the case of two clutter class maps, Atoll uses the order of the maps in the Clutter Classes folder on the Geo tab of the
Explorer window to decide which data to use. In Case 1, "Clutter 2" is on top of "Clutter 1". Atoll will therefore use the data
in "Clutter 2" where it is available, and the data from "Clutter 1" everywhere that is covered by "Clutter 1" but not by
"Clutter 2." In Case 2, "Clutter 1" is on top and completely covers "Clutter 2." Therefore, Atoll will only use the data from
"Clutter 1."

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Explorer window

Work space

Case 1
Clutter classes

Clutter 2 (20m)

Clutter 1 (50m)

Case 2
Clutter classes

Clutter 2 (50m)

Clutter 1 (20m)

Figure 3.13: Multi-layer management in calculations two clutter maps representing the same area

3.12 Displaying Information About Geo Data


You can display information about a geo data map by using tooltips. For information on how to display information in tooltips,
see "Defining the Object Type Tip Text" on page 26.
To display information about the geo data in a tool tip:

Hold the pointer over the geo data until the tool tip appears. The surface area is only given for closed polygons.

Tool tips only appear when the Display Tips button (

) on the toolbar has been selected.

3.13 Geographic Data Sets


In Atoll, once you have imported geographic data and defined their parameters, you can save much of this information in a
user configuration file. Then, another user, working on a similar Atoll document, can import the user configuration file
containing the paths to the imported geographic data and many of the defined parameters.
When you save the geographic data set in a user configuration, you save:

the paths of imported geographic maps


map display settings (visibility scale, transparency, tips text, etc.)
clutter description (code, name, height, standard deviations, etc.)
raster or user profile traffic map description.

In this section, the following are explained:

"Exporting a Geo Data Set" on page 133


"Loading a Geo Data Set" on page 133.
You can save and load other types of information with user configuration files as well. For
information, see the Administrator Manual.

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3.13.1 Exporting a Geo Data Set


When you save a geo data set in a user configuration file, the information listed in "Geographic Data Sets" on page 132 is saved
into a file.
Vectors must be in the same coordinate system as the raster maps.

To save a geo data set in a user configuration file:


1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Save. The User Configuration dialogue appears (see Figure 3.14).
2. In the User Configuration dialogue, select the Geographic Data Set check box.

Figure 3.14: The User Configuration dialogue


3. Click OK, The Save As dialogue appears.
4. In the Save As dialogue, browse to the folder where you want to save the file and enter a File name.
5. Click OK.

3.13.2 Loading a Geo Data Set


When you load a user configuration file containing a geo data set, the information listed in "Geographic Data Sets" on
page 132 is loaded into your current Atoll document.
To load a user configuration file containing a geo data set into your current Atoll document:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Load. The Open dialogue appears.
2. Browse to the user configuration file, select it and click Open.
3. The User Configuration dialogue appears.
When you load a user configuration file including a geographic data set, Atoll checks if there are already geographic
data in the current Atoll document. If so, the option Delete existing geo data appears with other options in the User
Configuration dialogue.
4. In the User Configuration dialogue, select the check boxes of the items you want to load into your current Atoll document.
5. If you already have geographic data in your current Atoll document and would like to replace it with any data in the
user configuration file you are loading, select the Delete existing geo data check box.
If you do not want to replace existing geo data with imported data, clear the Delete existing geo data check box.
6. Click OK.
You can automatically start Atoll with a user configuration file by naming the file "atoll.cfg"
and placing it in the same folder as the Atoll executable. You can also edit the Windows
shortcut to Atoll and add "-cfg <.cfg_file>" where "<.cfg_file>" is the full path to the user
configuration file.

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3.14 Editing Geographic Data


In Atoll, you can edit geo data that you have imported or you can create geo data by, for example, adding a vector layer to
the Population folder and then adding polygons.
The following types of geographic data can be edited:

Clutter classes (for more information, "Editing Clutter Class Maps" on page 134)
Contours, lines, and points (for more information, "Editing Polygons, Lines, and Points" on page 39)
Population maps (if they are in vector format, i.e., Erdas Imagine (16-bit), AGD, DXF, SHP, MIF, or TAB format) (for
more information, "Editing Population or Custom Data Maps" on page 135)
Geoclimatic maps (for more information, "Editing Population or Custom Data Maps" on page 135)
Traffic data maps
Custom data maps (for more information, "Editing Population or Custom Data Maps" on page 135).

3.14.1 Editing Clutter Class Maps


Clutter class maps and certain traffic maps are raster maps. You can edit these maps by creating or modifying polygons.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Creating a Clutter Polygon" on page 134


"Editing Clutter Polygons" on page 134
"Displaying the Coordinates of Clutter Polygons" on page 135.
"Deleting Clutter Polygons" on page 135

3.14.1.1 Creating a Clutter Polygon


In Atoll, you can modify imported clutter class maps or create your own maps by adding data in the form of polygons. You can
later edit and export the polygons you have created. All modifications you make to clutter class maps are taken into account
by propagation model calculations.
To create a polygon:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Edit from the context menu. The Editor toolbar appears with a clutter or traffic list, a polygon drawing tool
a polygon deletion tool

, and a Close button (see Figure 3.15).

Figure 3.15: Editor toolbar


4. From the list, select the clutter class for the polygon you want to create.
Clutter classes are defined on the Descriptions tab of the clutter classes Properties
dialogue.

5. Click the polygon drawing button (

). The pointer changes to a pencil (

).

6. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the polygon.
7. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the polygon.
8. Double-click to close the polygon.
You can copy the exact coordinates of a closed polygon by right-clicking it on the map and
selecting Properties from the context menu.

3.14.1.2 Editing Clutter Polygons


You can edit clutter polygons by moving existing points of the polygon or by adding or deleting points.

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To edit clutter polygons:


1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Edit from the context menu. The Editor toolbar appears (see Figure 3.15).
4. Select the polygon. You can now edit the clutter polygon by:
-

Moving a point:
i.

Position the pointer over the point you want to move. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Drag the point to its new position.


-

Adding a point:
i.

Position the pointer over the polygon border where you want to add a point. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Right-click and select Insert Point from the context menu. A point is added to the border at the position of the
pointer.
-

Deleting a point:
i.

Position the pointer over the point you want to delete. The pointer changes (

).

ii. Right-click and select Delete Point from the context menu. The point is deleted.

3.14.1.3 Displaying the Coordinates of Clutter Polygons


To display the coordinates of the points defining the polygon area:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Edit from the context menu. The Editor toolbar appears (see Figure 3.15).
4. Right-click the polygon and select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears with the coordinates of the points defining the polygon and the total area.
You can select and copy the coordinates displayed in the Properties dialogue of the
polygon.

3.14.1.4 Deleting Clutter Polygons


You can delete clutter polygons.
To delete a clutter polygon:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Edit from the context menu. The Editor toolbar appears (see Figure 3.15).
4. Click the polygon deletion tool (

). The pointer changes (

).

5. Click the polygon you want to delete. The polygon is deleted.

3.14.2 Editing Population or Custom Data Maps


Some geographic data maps, for example, population maps, and custom data, are made up of individual vector objects. You
can modify and create these geo data maps by adding a vector layer and then adding vector objects (contours, lines, and
points) to this layer.
To create a vector layer and vector objects on a geo data map:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the geo data object, the Population, or the Custom Data folder, to which you want to add a vector layer.
3. Select Add Vector Layer from the context menu. A new data object called "Vectors" is created in the selected geo data
object folder.

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4. Right-click the new vector layer. The context menu appears.


5. Select Edit from the context menu. The vector tools on the Vector Editor toolbar are activated.
You can also activate the vector tools by selecting the vector layer to edit from the
Vector Editor toolbar list. Because Atoll names all new vector layers "Vectors" by
default, it might be difficult to know which Vectors folder you are selecting. By renaming
each vectors folder, you can ensure that you select the correct folder. For information on
renaming objects, see "Renaming an Object" on page 19.

6. To draw a polygon, click the New Polygon button (

) on the Vector Editor toolbar:

a. Click once on the map where you want to begin drawing the contour.
b. Click each time you change angles on the border defining the outside of the contour.
c. Double-click to close the contour.
7. To draw a rectangle, click the New Rectangle button (

) on the Vector Editor toolbar:

a. Click the point on the map that will be one corner of the rectangle.
b. Drag to the opposite corner of the rectangle.
c. Release the mouse to create the rectangle defined by the two corners.
8. Right-click the new polygon or rectangle and select Properties from the context menu.
9. Enter a value:
-

Population: Enter a value in the Population field to indicate the number of inhabitants or the population density.
Custom Data Map: The value you enter will depend on the type of custom data map you created.

10. Press ESC to deselect the New Polygon (

) or the New Rectangle (

) button on the Vector Editor toolbar.

11. For Atoll to consider the new vector layer as part of the data map, you must map the vector layer. Right-click the the
Population, or the Custom Data folder. The context menu appears.
12. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
13. Click the Data Mapping tab. For the following geo data:
-

Population Map:
i.

In the Field column, "Population" is selected by default.

ii. If the vector layer contains a population density, select the check box in the Density column. If the vector layer
indicates the number of inhabitants, and not the population density, clear the check box in the Density column.
-

Custom Data Map: The data you map will depend on the type of custom data map you created.

You can edit the vector objects as explained in "Editing Polygons, Lines, and Points" on page 39.

3.15 Saving Geographic Data


Atoll allows you to save your geographic data files separately from saving the Atoll document. Atoll supports a variety of both
raster and vector file formats (for more information, see "Supported Geographic Data Formats" on page 111). Saving a
geographic file separately from saving the Atoll document enables you to:

Save modifications you have made to an external file: If you have made modifications to geo data, you can export
them to a new external file.
Update the source file with modifications you have made: If you have made modifications to a geo data type in Atoll,
you can save these changes to the source file.
Combine several raster files into one file: If you have several small raster files in one folder of the Geo tab, you can
save them as one file.
Export an embedded file to be used in another Atoll document or in another application: You can save a file to an
external file, in the same format or in another one.
Create a new file from part of a larger one: You can select part of certain geo data types and then save the selected
part as a new file.

This section explains the following:

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"Combining Several Raster Files into One File" on page 138


"Exporting an Embedded File" on page 139
"Creating a New File from a Larger File" on page 140

3.15.1 Saving Modifications to an External File


In Atoll, you can save your modifications to an external file.
This section explains the following:

"Exporting an Edited Clutter Class Map in a Raster-Format File" on page 137


"Exporting an Edited Vector Layer in Vector-Format File" on page 138.

3.15.1.1 Exporting an Edited Clutter Class Map in a Raster-Format File


You can export clutter class modifications in a raster-format file, either in the same format as used in the current Atoll document, or in a different raster format. You can also choose to export the entire clutter class geo data, the part containing the
computation zone, or just your modifications to the geo data.
When you have made modifications to a raster-format geo data file, exporting either the entire geo data or just your modifications allows you to save those modifications to an external file.
To export clutter class modifications in a raster-format file:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Clutter Classes folder.
3. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. In the Save As dialogue, browse to the folder where you want to save the file, enter a name for the file, and select the
file format from the Save as type list. You can select from one of the following file formats:
-

BMP: When you select bitmap format, Atoll automatically creates the corresponding BPW file containing the
georeference information.
TXT: The ArcView text format is intended only for export; no corresponding geo-reference file is created.
TIF: When you select tagged image file format, Atoll automatically creates the corresponding TFW file containing
the georeference information.
BIL: When you select the BIL format, Atoll automatically creates the corresponding HDR file containing the georeference information. When exporting in BIL format, Atoll allows you to export files larger than 2 Gb.
JPEG 2000: When you select the JPEG 2000 format, no corresponding geo-reference file is created.
GRC or GRD: Files with the extension GRC or GRD are Vertical Mapper files. When exporting in GRD or GRC formats, Atoll allows you to export files larger than 2 Gb.

5. Click Save. The Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.16).

Figure 3.16: Export dialogue


6. Under Region, select one of the following:
-

The Entire Project Area: This option allows you to export the entire clutter class geo data file, including any modifications you have made to the geo data. The exported geo data file will replace the geo data file in the current
Atoll document.
Only Pending Changes: This option allows you to export a rectangle containing any modifications you have made
to the clutter classes. The exported geo data file will be added as a new object to the Clutter Classes geo data
folder.

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The Computation Zone: This option allows you to export the clutter class geo data contained by a rectangle
encompassing the computation zone, whether or not the computation zone is visible. The exported geo data file
will be added as a new object to the selected geo data folder.

7. Define a Resolution in Metres. The resolution must be an integer and the minimum resolution allowed is 1. The suggested resolution value is defined by the following criteria:
-

If one object has been modified, the suggested resolution is the resolution of the modified object.
If several objects have been modified, the suggested resolution is the highest resolution of the modified objects.
If there is no initial clutter class object, the resolution will equal the highest resolution of the DTM maps.
If the Atoll document in which you created the clutter class file has no DTM, no other clutter class geo data file,
or traffic objects, the suggested resolution is 100 m.

8. Click OK. The selected data is saved in an external file.

3.15.1.2 Exporting an Edited Vector Layer in Vector-Format File


You can export an edited vector layer as a vector format file. A vector layer can contain contours, lines, and points. Along with
vector layers you have added to the Geo tab, the following maps can be exported as vector format files:

Vector-format population maps


Vector-format geoclimatic maps
Vector-format custom maps.

Once you save a vector layer, the exported file replaces the vector layer as a linked file. You can embed the file afterwards
(see "Embedding Geographic Data" on page 117).
To export a vector layer:
1. On the Explorer window tab containing the vector layer, right-click the vector layer folder. The context menu appears.
2. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
3. In the Save As dialogue, browse to the folder where you want to save the file, enter a name for the file, and select the
file format from the Save as type list. You can select from one of the following file formats:
-

AGD: The Atoll Geographic Data format is an Atoll-specific format. As a format created for Atoll, Atoll can read
AGD files faster than the other supported vector formats.
SHP: The ArcView vector format should be used for vector layers containing only polygons; it cannot save vectors
made of lines or points. If you have a vector layer with vector lines or points, use either the AGD, the MIF or the
TAB format.
MIF and TAB: MapInfo formats.

4. Click Save in the Save As dialogue. The Vector Export dialogue appears, displaying the current coordinate system and
allowing you to change the coordinate system by clicking Change.
5. Click Export. The vector layer is saved in the format and with the name you specified and the exported file replaces
the vector layer in the current document as a linked file.

3.15.2 Updating the Source File


While working on an Atoll document, you may make changes to geo data. If the geo data file is embedded in the Atoll document, Atoll saves the changes automatically when you save the document. If the geo data file is linked, Atoll prompts you to
save the changes when you close the document.
To update the source file of a linked geo data file:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder containing geo data file whose source file you want to update. The context menu appears.
3. Select Save from the context menu. The linked file is updated.
You will not be warned that you are replacing the current file. Therefore, ensure that you
want to replace the current file before proceeding to the following step. If you do not
want to replace the current file, you can save your changes to an external file ("Exporting
an Edited Vector Layer in Vector-Format File" on page 138).

3.15.3 Combining Several Raster Files into One File


In certain circumstances, for example, after importing an MSI Planet index file, you may have several geo data files of the
same type. You can combine these separate files to create one single file. The files will be combined according to their order

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from the top down in the folder on the Geo tab of the Explorer window. If the files overlap on the map, the combined file will
show the file on the top.
You can create a one file from a section of the following geo data types:

Digital terrain model


Clutter classes
Clutter heights
Scanned maps

To combine individual files into a new file:


1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder of the geo data files you want to combine into one file. The context menu appears.
3. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name and select a file type from the Save as type list.
5. Click OK. The Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.17).
6. Under Region, select The Entire Project Area. This option allows you to save the entire area covered by the geo data
files, including any modifications you have made to the geo data.
7. Define a Resolution in Metres. The resolution must be an integer and the minimum resolution allowed is 1. The suggested resolution value is the highest resolution of all objects.
8. Click OK. The selected data is saved as a new file.

3.15.4 Exporting an Embedded File


You can export an embedded geo data file to be used in a different Atoll document, or in a different application. When you
export an embedded file, Atoll replaces the embedded file in the current Atoll document with the newly exported file.
To export an embedded geo data file:
1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder of the embedded geo data file you want to export. The context menu appears.
3. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name and select a file type from the Save as type list.
5. Click OK.
If the geo data file is a vector file, the Vector Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.17).

Figure 3.17: The Vector Export dialogue


a. The Vector Export dialogue displays the coordinate system of the file. To change the coordinate system used for
the exported file, click Change. The Coordinate Systems dialogue appears. For information on the Coordinate Systems dialogue, see "Setting a Coordinate System" on page 95.
b. Click Export. The geo data file is exported with the selected coordinate system.
If the geo data file is a raster file, the Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.18).

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Figure 3.18: Export dialogue


a. Under Region, select one of the following:
-

The Entire Project Area: This option allows you to export the entire raster-format geo data file, including any
modifications you have made to the geo data. The exported file will replace the embedded file in the Geo tab.
Only Pending Changes: This option allows you to export a rectangle containing any modifications you have
made to the geo data. The exported file will be added as an object in the geo data folder.
The Computation Zone: This option allows you to export the geo data contained by a rectangle encompassing
the computation zone, whether or not the computation zone is visible. The exported file will be added as an
object in the geo data folder.

b. Define a Resolution in Metres. The resolution must be an integer and the minimum resolution allowed is 1.
c. Click OK. The selected data is saved in an external file.

3.15.5 Creating a New File from a Larger File


You can create a new file from a section of a larger file. You can use this new file in the same Atoll document, or in a new Atoll
document. To create a new file, you must first define the area by creating a computation zone.
You can create a new file from a section of the following geo data types:

Digital terrain model


Clutter classes
Clutter heights
Scanned maps
Population
Geoclimatic maps

To create a new file from a section of a larger file:


1. Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the folder of the embedded geo data file you want to export. The context menu appears.
3. Select Save As from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name and select a file type from the Save as type list.
5. Click OK. The Export dialogue appears (see Figure 3.17).
6. Under Region, select The Computation Zone. This option allows you to export the geo data contained by a rectangle
encompassing the computation zone, whether or not the computation zone is visible. The exported geo data file will
be added as a new object to the selected geo data folder.
7. Define a Resolution in Metres. The resolution must be an integer and the minimum resolution allowed is 1.
8. Click OK. The selected data is saved as a new file.

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Chapter 4
Antennas and
Equipment
This chapter provides the information to work with
antennas and equipment in Atoll.

In this chapter, the following are explained:

"Working With Antennas" on page 143

"Working With Equipment" on page 147

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4 Antennas and Equipment


In Atoll, the equipment used to create a network is modelled, along with the characteristics which have a bearing on network
performance.
This chapter explains working with antennas as well as equipment such as tower-mounted amplifiers, feeder cables, base
transceiver station equipment:

"Working With Antennas" on page 143


"Working With Equipment" on page 147

4.1 Working With Antennas


Atoll enables you to work with antennas in many ways. To create a new antenna, you can import the data necessary from
external sources, such as from a spreadsheet or from a Planet-format file. Once you have created an antenna, you can improve
signal level prediction by smoothing the high-attenuation points of the vertical pattern.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Creating an Antenna" on page 143


"Importing Planet-Format Antennas" on page 144
"Importing 3-D Antenna Patterns" on page 145
"Smoothing an Antenna Pattern" on page 147.

4.1.1 Creating an Antenna


Each Atoll project template has antennas specific to the technology supported by the template. As well, Atoll allows you to
create antennas and set the parameters such as manufacturer, gain, horizontal pattern, and vertical pattern.
When you create a new antenna, you can copy the horizontal and vertical antenna
patterns from a spreadsheet or word processor.

To create an antenna:
1. Click the Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Radio Network Equipment folder.
3. Right-click on the Antennas folder. The context menu opens.
4. Select New from the context menu. The Antennas New Element Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the General tab. You can enter information in the following fields:
-

Name: Atoll automatically enters a default name for each new antenna. You can modify the name Atoll enters if
you want.
Manufacturer: The name of the antenna manufacturer.
Gain: The antennas isotropic gain.
Pattern Electrical Tilt: The antennas electrical tilt. This field is for information only; for an antennas electrical tilt
to be taken into consideration in calculations, it must be integrated into the horizontal and vertical patterns. Atoll
automatically calculates the pattern electrical tilt if the Pattern Electrical Tilt field is left blank or has a value of
"0." This field has to be correctly filled (i.e., consistent with the defined vertical pattern) if you want the antenna
to be available when selecting an antenna for a transmitter.
Physical antenna: The name of the physical antenna to which the antenna model belongs. A physical antenna may
have one or more antenna models (patterns), corresponding to different electrical downtilts. If you want to flag a
physical antenna as obsolete, add the word "obsolete" (not case sensitive) to the name of the physical antenna.
Physical antennas flagged as obsolete are not listed among available antennas in the Antenna Selector dialogue
It is strongly recommended to enter a name in the Physical antenna field. Atoll uses this
entry to group antenna models into physical antennas.

Comments: Any additional information on the antenna.

6. Click the Horizontal Pattern tab. The Horizontal Pattern tab has a table describing the horizontal antenna pattern in
terms of the attenuation in dB (Att.) per Angle and a graphical representation of the pattern. Atoll allows you to enter

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antenna pattern attenuations for as many as 720 angles. Therefore, attenuation values can also be defined for angles
other than integer values from 0 to 359. If you have the horizontal pattern in a spreadsheet or text document, you
can copy the data directly into the table:
a. Switch to the document containing the horizontal pattern.
b. Select the columns containing the angles and attenuation values of the horizontal pattern.
c. Copy the selected data.

Figure 4.1: Copying horizontal pattern values


d. Switch to Atoll.
e. Click the upper-left cell of the Co-polar Section table describing the horizontal pattern.
f. Press CTRL+V to paste the data in the table.
-

If there are some blank rows in your data sheet, Atoll will interpolate the values in order to obtain a complete
and realistic pattern.
When performing a calculation along an angle for which no data is available, Atoll calculates a linear interpolation from the existing pattern values.

g. Click Apply to display the pattern of the values you have pasted in.
7. Click the Vertical Pattern tab. The Vertical Pattern tab has a table describing the vertical antenna pattern in terms of
the attenuation in dB (Att.) per Angle and a graphical representation of the pattern. Atoll allows you to enter antenna
pattern attenuations for as many as 720 angles. Therefore, attenuation values can also be defined for angles other
than integer values from 0 to 359. If you have the vertical pattern in a spreadsheet or text document, you can copy
the data directly into the table as described in step 6.
8. Click the Other Properties tab. You can define the following fields (not used in any calculation):
-

Beamwidth: In a plane containing the direction of the maximum lobe of the antenna pattern, the angle between
the two directions in which the radiated power is one-half the maximum value of the lobe. In terms of dB, half
power corresponds to -3 dB. In this window, you can enter this angle in degrees. This field must be filled in correctly if you want to display transmitters using a symbol that indicates the beamwidth.
FMin: The minimum frequency that the antenna is capable of emitting.
FMax: The maximum frequency that the antenna is capable of emitting.

9. Click OK.
Atoll checks whether the vertical and horizontal patterns are correctly aligned at the extremities. The antenna patterns are
correctly aligned when:

the horizontal pattern attenuation at 0 is the same as the vertical pattern attenuation at the pattern electrical tilt
angle, and
the horizontal pattern attenuation at 180 is the same as the vertical pattern attenuation at the 180 less the pattern
electrical tilt angle.

4.1.2 Importing Planet-Format Antennas


In Atoll, you can import Planet-format antennas by importing an index file listing the individual antenna files to be imported.
Standard Atoll fields are directly imported. Other fields are imported for information only and are accessible on the Other
Properties tab of the Antenna Properties dialogue.
If you are working with a database, you will have to create the required fields before you import the Planet-format antennas.
For more details, see the relevant technical note.

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To import Planet-format antennas:


1. Select the Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Radio Network Equipment folder.
3. Right-click the Antennas folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Import from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
5. Select "Planet 2D Antenna Files (index)" from the Files of type list.
6. Select the index file you want to import and click Open. The antennas are imported.
Atoll checks whether the vertical and horizontal patterns are correctly aligned at the extremities. The antenna patterns are
correctly aligned when:

the horizontal pattern attenuation at 0 is the same as the vertical pattern attenuation at the pattern electrical tilt
angle, and
the horizontal pattern attenuation at 180 is the same as the vertical pattern attenuation at the 180 less the pattern
electrical tilt angle.

4.1.3 Importing 3-D Antenna Patterns


You can import three-dimensional antenna patterns in the form of text files. The three-dimensional antenna patterns you
import are saved in the Antennas table.
During calculations, Atoll interpolates the data of antennas for which only horizontal and vertical cross-sections are available
to create a three-dimensional pattern. When you import a three-dimensional antenna pattern, even though only horizontal
and vertical sections of the antenna pattern are displayed, Atoll conserves all the information and can use it directly; Atoll
does not therefore need to interpolate to recreate the three-dimensional antenna pattern.
The text file must have the following format:

Antenna description: Three separate values are necessary to describe the three-dimensional antenna pattern. The
columns containing the values can be in any order:
-

Azimuth: The range of values allowable is from 0 to 360, with the smallest allowable increment being 1.
Tilt angle: The range of values allowable is from -90 to 90, or from 0 to 180, with the smallest allowable increment being 1.
Attenuation: The attenuation (in dB).

The text file describing the the antenna can also contain a header with additional information. When you import the antenna
pattern you indicate where the header ends and where the antenna pattern itself begins.
To import three-dimensional antenna pattern files:
1. Select the Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Radio Network Equipment folder.
3. Right-click the Antennas folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Import from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
5. Select the file to import.
6. Click Open. The Setup dialogue appears (see Figure 4.2).

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Figure 4.2: Importing a 3-D antenna pattern


7. If you already have an import configuration defining the data structure of the imported file, you can select it from the
Configuration list. If you do not have an import configuration, continue with step 8.
a. Under Configuration, select an import configuration from the Configuration list.
b. Continue with step 11.
8. Under Name, you can define a name for the imported antenna pattern. This name will appear in the Antennas folder
on the Network tab. If no name is defined, Atoll will use the file name as the name of the antenna:
-

If the name of the antenna is in the file, check the Value read in the file check box and enter a Keyword identifying
the name value in the file.
If you want to enter a name for the antenna, clear the Value read in the file check box and enter a name.

9. Under Gain, you can define the antenna gain. If no gain is defined, Atoll will assume that the gain is "0."
-

If the gain of the antenna is in the file, check the Value read in the file check box and enter a Keyword identifying
the gain value in the file.
If you want to enter a gain for the antenna, clear the Value read in the file check box and enter a gain value.

10. Under Diagram, you define the structure of the antenna pattern file. As you modify the parameters, the results are
displayed in the table.
-

1st Pattern: Select the first row of the file containing data on the antenna pattern.
File Tilt Range: Select the tilt range in the file. The tilt range can be measured from top to bottom or from bottom
to top and from 0 to 180 or from -90 to 90.
Field Separator: Select the character that is used in the file to separate fields (" ", "<tab>", ";")
Decimal Symbol: Select the decimal symbol.

11. In the table under Diagram, click the title in each column in the table and select the data type: Azimuth, Tilt, Attenuation, or <Ignore>. As you modify the parameters, the results are displayed in the table.
You can save the choices you have made in the Setup dialogue as a configuration file by
clicking the Save button at the top of the dialogue and entering a name for the configuration. The next time you import a three-dimensional antenna pattern file, you can select the
same settings from the Configuration file list.
12. Click Import. The antenna patterns are imported into the current Atoll document.

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4.1.4 Smoothing an Antenna Pattern


Empirical propagation models, such as the Standard Propagation Model (SPM), require antenna pattern smoothing in the
vertical plane to better simulate the effects of reflection and diffraction, which, therefore, improves signal level prediction. In
Atoll, you can smooth antennas vertical as well as horizontal patterns.
You should make a copy of the antenna before smoothing its vertical pattern. You can
make a copy of the antenna by opening the Antennas table and copying and pasting the
antenna data into a new row. For information on data tables, see "Working with Data
Tables" on page 47.
To smooth the vertical or horizontal pattern of an antenna:
1. Select the Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Radio Network Equipment folder.
3. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Antennas folder.
4. Right-click the antenna whose pattern you want to smooth. The context menu appears.
5. Select Properties from the context menu.
6. Select the Vertical Pattern or the Horizontal Pattern tab.
7. Right-click the graphical representation of the pattern. The context menu appears.
8. Select Smooth from the context menu. The Smoothing Parameters dialogue appears.
9. Enter the following parameters and click OK to smooth the vertical pattern:
-

Max Angle: Enter the maximum angle. Smoothing will be applied to the section of the vertical pattern between 0
and the maximum angle (clock-wise).
Peak-to-Peak Deviation: Enter the attenuation values to which smoothing will be applied. Atoll will smooth all
attenuation values greater than or equal to the peak-to-peak deviation with the defined correction factor.
Correction: Enter the correction factor by which the attenuation values will be smoothed.

10. Click OK.

4.1.5 Printing an Antenna Pattern


You can print the horizontal or vertical pattern of an antenna.
To print an antenna pattern:
1. Select the Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Radio Network Equipment folder.
3. Right-click the Antennas folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Antennas table appears.
5. In the Antennas table, right-click the antenna whose pattern you want to print.
6. Select Record Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
7. Select the Horizontal Pattern tab or the Vertical Pattern tab to display the antenna pattern you want to print.
8. Right-click the antenna pattern and select Linear or Logarithmic from the context menu.
9. Right-click the antenna pattern again and select Print from the context menu.

4.2 Working With Equipment


Atoll can model the components of base station. You can define these components and modify their properties in their
respective tables. Atoll uses these properties to calculate the downlink and uplink losses and transmitter noise figure in UMTS,
CDMA2000, WiMAX, or LTE. In GSM, Atoll calculates the downlink losses only. These parameters can be automatically calculated by Atoll from the properties of the components or they can defined by the user.
Base station subsystems consist of the following components:

Tower-mounted amplifier: Tower-mounted amplifiers (TMAs, also referred to as masthead amplifiers) are used to
reduce the composite noise figure of the base station. TMAs are connected between the antenna and the feeder
cable. To define a TMA, see "Defining TMA Equipment" on page 148.

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Feeder cables: Feeder cables connect the TMA to the antenna. To define feeder cables, see "Defining Feeder Cables"
on page 148.
Transmitter equipment: To define transmitter equipment, see "Defining Transmitter Equipment" on page 148.

4.2.1 Defining TMA Equipment


The tower-mounted amplifier (TMA) is used to reduce the composite noise figure of the base station. Once you have defined
a TMA, you can assign it to individual transmitters.
To create a tower-mounted amplifier:
1. Select the Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Radio Network Equipment folder.
3. Right-click the TMA folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Open Table from the context menu. The TMA table appears.
5. In the table, create one TMA per row. For information on using data tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on
page 47. For each TMA, enter:
-

Name: Enter a name for the TMA. This name will appear in other dialogues when you select a TMA.
Noise Figure (dB): Enter a noise figure for the TMA.
Reception Gain (dB): Enter a reception (uplink) gain for the TMA. This must be a positive value.
Transmission Losses (dB): Enter transmission (downlink) losses for the TMA. This must be a positive value.

4.2.2 Defining Feeder Cables


Feeder cables connect the TMA to the antenna. Once you have defined feeder cables, you can assign them to individual transmitters.
To create feeder cables:
1. Select the Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Radio Network Equipment folder.
3. Right-click the Feeders folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Feeder table appears.
5. In the table, create one feeder per row. For information on data tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on page 47.
For each feeder, enter:
-

Name: Enter a name for the feeder cable. This name will appear in other dialogues when you select a feeder cable.
Loss per Length: Enter the loss per meter of cable. This must be a positive value.
Connector Reception Loss: Enter the connector reception loss. This must be a positive value.
Connector Transmission Loss: Enter the connector transmission loss. This must be a positive value.

4.2.3 Defining Transmitter Equipment


Transmitter equipment is modelled for UMTS, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX, and LTE. In GSM, only the downlink losses are
modelled.
Once you have defined transmitter equipment, it can be assigned to individual transmitters.
To create transmitter equipment:
1. Select the Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Radio Network Equipment folder.
3. Right-click the Transmitter Equipment folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Transmitter Equipment table appears.
5. In the table, create one entry per row. For information on data tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on page 47. For
each transmitter equipment entry, enter:
-

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Name: Enter a name for the transmitter equipment. This name will appear in other dialogues when you select
transmitter equipment.
Noise Figure (dB): Enter the noise figure for the transmitter equipment. This value is not used in GSM GPRS EDGE
documents.
Downlink Losses Due to the Configuration (dB): Enter the losses on downlink due to the transmitter equipment
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Uplink Losses Due to the Configuration (dB): Enter the losses on uplink due to the transmitter equipment configuration. This value is not used in GSM GPRS EDGE documents.
CDMA Rho Factor (%): Enter the CDMA Rho factor, as a percentage. The CDMA Rho factor enables Atoll to take
into account self-interference produced by the transmitter equipment. Because equipment is not perfect, an input
signal will experience some distortion, consequently the output signal will be not be identical. This factor defines
how much distortion the system generates. Entering 100% means the system is perfect (there is no distortion) and
the output signal will be 100% identical to the input signal. On the other hand, if you specify a value different from
100%, Atoll will consider that the transmitted signal is not 100% signal and that it contains a small percentage of
interference generated by the equipment ("self-interference"). Atoll uses this parameter to evaluate the signalto-noise ratio in the downlink.
This value is only used in CDMA-based technologies (CDMA2000, UMTS, and TD-SCDMA). It is not used in GSM,
WiMAX, and LTE documents.

4.2.4 Updating the Values for Total Losses and the Transmitter
Equipment Noise Figure
Once equipment is defined and assigned to a transmitter, Atoll can evaluate downlink and uplink total losses and the total
noise figure.
Atoll uses the entry of the transmitter equipment as the reference point when evaluating total losses and the total noise
figure. The transmitter equipment noise figure used by Atoll is the one specified in the transmitter equipment properties.
Transmitter reception losses include feeder reception losses, connector reception losses, miscellaneous reception losses,
antenna diversity gain, TMA benefit gain (as calculated using the Friis equation), and an additional loss modelling the noise
rise generated from repeaters (if any). Transmitter transmission losses include feeder transmission losses, connector transmission losses, miscellaneous transmission losses, and TMA transmission losses. For more information on the total noise
figure and on transmitter reception and transmission losses, see the Technical Reference Guide.
You can assign equipment to a transmitter:

Using the Equipment Specifications dialogue, available by clicking the Equipment button on the Transmitter tab of
the transmitters Properties dialogue, or
Using the Transmitters table, available by right-clicking the Transmitters folder on the Network tab of the Explorer
window and selecting Open Table from the context menu.

When you assign equipment to a transmitter using the Equipment Specifications dialogue, Atoll updates the real values when
you click OK and close the dialogue. When you assign equipment to a transmitter using the Transmitters table, Atoll does not
update the real values automatically.
To update the real values (total losses and transmitter equipment noise figure) with the calculated values of all transmitters:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Calculations > Update Losses and Noise Figures from the context menu.
To update the real values (total losses and transmitter equipment noise figure) with the calculated values of a group of transmitters:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Click Group by in the context menu and select the property by which you want to group the transmitters from the
Group by submenu. The objects in the folder are grouped by that property.
4. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Transmitters folder.
5. Right-click the group of transmitters whose real values you want to update. The context menu appears.
6. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Transmitters table appears with the transmitters from the selected
group.
7. In the Transmitters table, select the values you want to update in the following columns and press DEL:
-

Transmission Loss (dB)


Reception Loss (dB)
Noise Figure (dB)

Atoll automatically recalculates and updates these values.

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1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

4.2.5
11.
12. ()
-

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4.2.6 Creating or Modifying a Radio


1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
-

2.
a.
b.
c.
3.
4.
5.

4.2.7
6.

7.
a.

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1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
a.
b.
c.
3.

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Calculations in Atoll
This chapter provides the information to work with
calculations in Atoll.

In this chapter, the following are explained:

"Working with Propagation Models" on page 155

"Defining Calculation Parameters" on page 173

"Managing Path Loss Matrices" on page 175

"Predictions Available in Atoll" on page 186

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5 Working with Calculations in Atoll


Once you have created a network, you can make predictions. There are two types of predictions:

Point predictions using the Point Analysis tool: The Point Analysis tool allows you to predict, at any point on the map,
the profile between a reference transmitter and a receiver, the value of the signal levels of the surrounding transmitters, an active set analysis for UMTS, CDMA2000, and TD-SCDMA projects and an interference analysis for GSM/GPRS/
EDGE projects.
Coverage predictions: You can calculate standard coverage predictions, coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal
level and overlapping zones, and specific coverage predictions such as interference predictions for GSM/GPRS/EDGE
projects or handover, service availability, etc. for UMTS, CDMA2000 and TD-SCDMA projects. Many customisation features on coverage predictions are available in order to make their analysis easier.

Atoll facilitates the calculation of coverage predictions with support for multithreading and distributed calculating. The
progress of the calculations can be displayed in the Event Viewer window or in a log file.
Atoll also allows you to use polygonal zones to limit the amount of resources and time used for calculations. The polygonal
zones, such as the filtering zone and the computation zone, help you to restrict calculations to a defined set of transmitters,
and to limit calculations and coverage predictions.
Depending on the type of project you are working on, you can choose between the propagation models available in Atoll.

5.1 Working with Propagation Models


In the section, the following are explained:

"Propagation Model Characteristics: Overview" on page 155


"The Standard Propagation Model" on page 156
"The Okumura-Hata Propagation Model" on page 163
"The Cost-Hata Propagation Model" on page 164
"The ITU 529-3 Propagation Model" on page 166
"The ITU 370-7 Propagation Model" on page 167
"The Erceg-Greenstein Propagation Model" on page 167
"The ITU 526-5 Propagation Model" on page 169
"The WLL Propagation Model" on page 169
"The Longley-Rice Propagation Model" on page 170
"The ITU 1546 Propagation Model" on page 170
"The Sakagami Extended Propagation Model" on page 171
"CrossWave Model" on page 171
"Managing Propagation Models" on page 172.

5.1.1 Propagation Model Characteristics: Overview


Each propagation model available in Atoll is suited for certain conditions, frequencies and radio technologies. The following
table summarises the frequency band, necessary geo data, recommended use of each propagation model.
Model

Frequency Range

Geo Data Taken into Account

Recommended Use

ITU 370-7 Vienna 93

100 400 MHz

Terrain profile

d > 10 km
Low frequencies
Broadcast

ITU 1546

30 3000 MHz

Terrain profile

1 < d < 1000 km


Land and maritime mobile,
broadcast

ITU 526-5 (theoretical)

30 10000 MHz

Terrain profile

Fixed receivers
WLL

WLL

30 10000 MHz

Terrain profile
Deterministic clutter

Fixed receivers
WLL, Microwave links, WiMAX

150 1000 MHz

Terrain profile
Statistical clutter (at the receiver)

1 < d < 20 km
GSM 900, CDMA2000, LTE

Okumura-Hata
(Automatic calibration
available)

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Frequency Range

Geo Data Taken into Account

Recommended Use

1500 2000 MHz

Terrain profile
Statistical clutter (at the receiver)

1 < d < 20 km
GSM 1800, UMTS, CDMA2000,
LTE

300 1500 MHz

Terrain profile
Statistical clutter (at the receiver)

1 < d < 100 km


GSM 900, CDMA2000, LTE

150 3500 MHz

Terrain profile
Statistical clutter

1 < d < 20 km
GSM, UMTS, CDMA2000,
WiMAX, LTE

Terrain profile
Statistical clutter (at the receiver)

Urban and suburban areas


100 m < d < 8 km
Fixed WiMAX

3000 8000 MHz

Terrain profile
Statistical clutter

1 < d < 20 km
WiMAX

200 5000 MHz

Terrain profile
Statistical or deterministic clutter
3D building and line vectors
(optionnal)
Specific morphology, facets and
graphs data files (optionnal)

Any engineering (micro, mini,


small and macro cells)
GSM, UMTS, CDMA2000,
WiMAX, LTE

Cost-Hata
(Automatic calibration
available)
ITU 529-3
Standard Propagation
Model
(Automatic calibration
available)
Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) 1900 6000 MHz
Sakagami Extended
(Automatic calibration
available)

CrossWave Model

5.1.2 The Standard Propagation Model


The Standard Propagation Model is a propagation model based on the Hata formulas and is suited for predictions in the 150
to 3500 MHz band over long distances (from one to 20 km). It is best suited to GSM 900/1800, UMTS, and CDMA2000 radio
technologies.
The Standard Propagation Model is based on the following formula:
K 1 + K 2 Log ( d ) + K 3 Log ( H Txeff ) + K 4 DiffractionLoss + K 5 Log ( d ) Log ( H Txeff ) +
P R = P Tx

K 6 H Rx eff + K 7 Log ( H Rx eff ) + K clutter f ( clutter ) + K hill, LOS

where:

PR

received power (dBm)

PTx

transmitted power (EIRP) (dBm)

K1

constant offset (dB)

K2

multiplying factor for Log(d)

distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m)

K3

multiplying factor for Log(HTxeff)

H Tx

effective height of the transmitter antenna (m)

K4

multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. K4 must be a positive number


DiffractionLoss losses due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB)
K5
multiplying factor for Log(HTxeff) x Log(d)

K6

multiplying factor for HRxeff

K7

multiplying factor for Log(HRxeff)

H Rx

Kclutter

multiplying factor for f(clutter)

f(clutter)

average of weighted losses due to clutter

Khill, LOS

corrective factor for hilly regions (=0 in case of NLOS)

156

eff

eff

mobile antenna height (m)

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These parameters can be defined on the tabs (Parameters, and Clutter) of the Standard Propagation Model Properties
dialogue. You can also calibrate the Standard Propagation Model using a wizard. For information on the Automatic Calibration
Wizard, see the Measurements and Model Calibration Guide.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Recommendations for Working with the Standard Propagation Model" on page 157
"Calculating Diffraction With the SPM" on page 158
"Sample Values for SPM Formulas" on page 158
"Calculating f(clutter) with the Standard Propagation Model" on page 159
"Modelling Fixed Receivers" on page 160
"Defining the Parameters of the Standard Propagation Model" on page 160.

5.1.2.1 Recommendations for Working with the Standard Propagation Model


It is important to remember that clutter information can be taken into consideration in both diffraction loss and f(clutter). To
avoid taking clutter information into account twice, you should choose one of the following approaches:

Approach #1: If you specify losses per clutter class, do not consider clutter altitudes in diffraction loss over the transmitter-receiver profile. This approach is recommended if the clutter height information is statistical (i.e., where the
clutter is roughly defined and without a defined altitude).
Because the Standard Propagation Model is a statistical propagation model, using this
approach is recommended.

Approach #2: If you consider clutter altitudes, do not define any loss per clutter class. In this case, f(clutter) will be
"0;" losses due to clutter will only be taken into account in the calculated diffraction. This approach is recommended
if the clutter altitude information is semi-deterministic (i.e., where the clutter is roughly defined with an average altitude per clutter class) or deterministic (i.e., where the clutter is sharply defined with an average altitude per clutter
class or where there is a clutter height file).
If the clutter height information is an average height defined for each clutter class, you must specify a receiver clearance per clutter class. Both ground and clutter altitude are considered along the whole transmitter-receiver profile
except over a specific distance around the receiver (clearance), in which Atoll bases its calculations only on the DTM.
The clearance information is used to model streets because it is assumed that the receiver is in the street.
It is not necessary to define receiver clearance if the height information is from a clutter height file. In this case, the
clutter height information is accurate enough to be used without additional information such as clearance; Atoll calculates the path loss if the receiver is in the street (if the receiver height is higher than the clutter height). If the receiver
height is lower than the clutter height, the receiver is assumed to be inside a building. In this case, Atoll does not
consider any diffraction for the building (or any clearance) but takes into account the clutter class indoor loss as an
additional penetration loss. Nevertheless, Atoll does consider diffraction caused by surrounding buildings. In
Figure 5.1 on page 158 this diffraction is displayed with a green line.
In order to consider indoor losses inside a building when only using a deterministic
clutter map (i.e., a clutter height map), you must clear the Indoor Coverage check box
when creating a prediction or indoor losses will be added twice (once for the entire
reception clutter class and once as indoor losses).

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Figure 5.1: Diffraction caused by surrounding buildings when the receiver is indoors

5.1.2.2 Calculating Diffraction With the SPM


You can set the parameters used to calculate diffraction losses on the Parameters and Clutter tabs of the Standard Propagation Model Properties dialogue.
On the Parameters tab, you can define the calculation method used for diffraction and the K4 factor. The methods available
are:

Deygout
Epstein-Peterson
Deygout with correction
Millington

For detailed information on each method, see the Technical Reference Guide. The methods for calculating diffraction are
based on the general method for one or more obstacles described in the ITU 526-5 recommendations. The calculations take
the curvature of the earth into account. Along the transmitter-receiver profile, you can choose to take either the ground altitude only or both the ground altitude and the clutter height into account. If you choose to take clutter height into account,
Atoll uses the clutter height information in the clutter heights file. Otherwise, it uses average clutter height specified for each
clutter class in the clutter classes. When the clutter height information is statistical, Atoll also uses clearance values per clutter
class to model streets.
To take heights into account when calculating diffraction:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Standard Propagation Model. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Clutter tab.
6. Under Heights, select one of the following for Clutter taken into account in diffraction:
-

1 - Yes: Select "1 - Yes" if you want heights from the clutter heights to be taken into account on top of the DTM
when calculating diffraction.
0 - No: Select "0 - No" if you want diffraction to be calculated using only the DTM.

7. Click OK.

5.1.2.3 Sample Values for SPM Formulas


The following table gives some possible values for the constants used in the Standard Propagation Model formulas.

K1

158

Minimum

Typical

Maximum

Variable

Variable

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Typical

Maximum

K2

20

44.9

70

K3

-20

5.83

20

K4

0.5

0.8

K5

-10

-6.55

K6

-1

K7

-10

It is recommended to set K6 to 0, and use K7 instead of K6. K6 is a multiplicative coefficient to a value in dB, which means that
slight variations in K6 have considerable impact on the path loss.
K1 is a constant; its value depends on the radio frequency and on the radio technology. The following table gives some possible values for K1.
Project Type

Frequency (MHz)

K1

GSM 900

935

12.5

GSM 1800

1805

22

GSM 1900

1930

23

UMTS

2110

23.8

1xRTT

1900

23

2300

24.7

2500

25.4

2700

26.1

3300

27.8

3500

28.3

WiMAX

Its value is heavily influenced by the values given to losses per clutter class.

5.1.2.4 Calculating f(clutter) with the Standard Propagation Model


The average of weighted losses due to clutter, f(clutter), is defined as follows:
n

f ( clutter ) =

Li wi
i=1

where
L: loss due to clutter.
w: weight.
n: number of points taken into account over the profile.
The losses due to clutter are calculated for the maximum distance from the receiver, defined as Maximum Distance on the
Clutter tab of the Standard Propagation Model Properties dialogue. When the Maximum Distance is defined as "0", Atoll
only considers the losses on the pixel where the receiver is located. On the Clutter tab, each clutter class is assigned losses
and a weighting function, enabling Atoll to give a weight to each point. For more information, see the Technical Reference
Guide.
The losses per clutter class can be calculated using the Automatic Calibration Wizard. For
information on the Automatic Calibration Wizard, see the Measurements and Model Calibration Guide.

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The following table gives typical values for losses (in dB) per clutter class:
Clutter Class

Losses (dB)

Dense urban

from 4 to 5

Woodland

from 2 to 3

Urban

Suburban

from -5 to -3

Industrial

from -5 to -3

Open in urban

from -6 to -4

Open

from -12 to -10

Water

from -14 to -12

The Standard Propagation Model is based on Hata formulas, which are valid for an urban
environment. The values above are consistent with an urban environment because losses
of 0 dB are indicated for an urban clutter class, with positive values for more dense clutter
classes and negative values for less dense clutter classes.

5.1.2.5 Modelling Fixed Receivers


The following are suggestions for defining the height of fixed receivers:

You can model the receiver as always being above the clutter, by selecting "1 - Yes" for the Receiver on Top of Clutter
option on the Clutter tab of the Standard Propagation Model Properties dialogue. The receiver height will then be
sum of the clutter height and the receiver height. This option can be used to model receivers on top of buildings, for
example.
You can define a specific receiver height for each clutter class in the Rx Height column on the Clutter tab of the
Standard Propagation Model Properties dialogue. Or, you can select "(default)" for the receiver height. When creating a coverage prediction, Atoll will then read the receiver height on the Receiver tab of the Properties dialogue for
the Predictions folder.

5.1.2.6 Defining the Parameters of the Standard Propagation Model


You can define the parameters of the Standard Propagation Model using the Standard Propagation Model Properties
dialogue.
Default values have been assigned to the multiplying factors. The default values correspond to the rural (quasi-open) Okumura-Hata formula valid for a frequency of 935 MHz.
The values for K values can be calculated using an automatic or assisted calibration
method. For more information, see the Measurements and Model Calibration Guide.
To define the calculations parameters of the Standard Propagation Model:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Standard Propagation Model. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab (see Figure 5.2).

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Figure 5.2: Standard Propagation Model - Parameters tab


Under Near Transmitter, you can set the following parameters:
-

Maximum Distance: Set the maximum distance for a receiver to be considered near the transmitter. If the distance between the receiver and the transmitter is greater than the set distance, the receiver is considered far from
the transmitter.
K1 - los and K2 - los: Enter the K1 and K2 values that will be used for calculations when the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight.
K1 - nlos and K2 - nlos: Enter the K1 and K2 values that will be used for calculations when the receiver is not in the
transmitter line of sight.

Under Far from Transmitter, the values you set will be used for all receivers whose distance from the transmitter is
greater than the distance specified in Maximum Distance under Near Transmitter. You can set the following parameters:
-

K1 - los and K2 - los: Enter the K1 and K2 values that will be used for calculations when the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight.
K1 - nlos and K2 - nlos: Enter the K1 and K2 values that will be used for calculations when the receiver is not in the
transmitter line of sight.
The LOS is defined by no obstruction along the direct ray between the transmitter and the
receiver.

Under Effective Antenna Height, you can set the following parameters:
-

Method: Select the method that will be used to calculate HTxeff, the effective antenna height.
You can use the Automatic Calibration Wizard to select the best method for calculating
the effective Tx antenna height. For information on the Automatic Calibration Wizard, see
the Measurements and Model Calibration Guide.

Distance min. and Distance max.: The Distance min. and Distance max. are set to 3,000 m and 15,000 m
(according to ITU recommendations) for frequencies under 500 MHz and to 0 m and 15,000 m (according to ITU
recommendations) for high frequency mobile communications. These values are only used for the "Abs Spot Ht"
and the "Enhanced Slope at Receiver" methods. For more information on how these values are used, see the Technical Reference Guide.

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K3: Enter the K3 value.

Under Diffraction, you can set the following parameters:


-

Method: Select the method that will be used to calculate diffraction.


K4: Enter the K4 value.

Under Other Parameters, you can set the following parameters:


-

K5: Enter the K5 value.


K6: Enter the K6 value.
It is recommended to set K6 to 0, and use K7 instead of K6. K6 is a multiplicative coefficient to a value in dB, which
means that slight variations in K6 have considerable impact on the path loss.

K7: Enter the K7 value.


Kclutter: Enter the Kclutter value.
Hilly Terrain Correction Factor: Select "1 - Yes" to take the Hilly Terrain Correction Factor into account. Otherwise, select "0 - No". The Hilly Terrain Correction Factor corrects path loss for hilly regions when transmitter and
receiver are in LOS. For more information on the Hilly Terrain Correction Factor, see the Technical Reference
Guide.
Limitation to Free Space Loss: When using a Hata-based propagation model, it is possible to calculate a theoretical
path loss that ends up being lower than the free space loss. In Atoll, you can define any Hata-based propagation
model to never calculate a path loss that is lower than the calculated free space loss per pixel. Select "1 - Yes" if
you want the propagation model to limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.
Profiles: Select the method to be used to extract the profile. If you select "1 - Radial," Atoll establishes a profile
between each transmitter and each point located on its calculation perimeter (as defined by the calculation
radius) and then uses the nearest profile to make a prediction on a point inside the calculation perimeter. This
process is called radial optimisation. If you select "2 - Systematic," Atoll systematically determines a profile
between each transmitter and each point in its calculation area. This method requires a significantly longer calculation time, therefore, you should choose "1 - Radial" if you want a shorter calculation time.
Grid Calculation: Select "0 - Centred" if you want Atoll to perform the calculations at the centre of each pixel or
select "1 - Bottom left" if you want Atoll to perform the calculations at the lower left of each pixel.

6. Click the Clutter tab (see Figure 5.3).

Figure 5.3: Standard Propagation Model - Clutter tab


Under Clutter Taken into Account, you can set the following parameters under Heights:
-

162

Clutter taken into account in diffraction: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the clutter heights to be taken into account
when calculating diffraction.

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Receiver on top of clutter: Select "1 - Yes" if you want the receiver to be considered to be located on top of clutter.
This option can be used where fixed receivers are located on top of buildings.

Under Clutter Taken into Account, you can set the following parameters under Range:
-

Max. distance: Set the maximum distance from a receiver to be considered when calculating f(clutter).
Weighting function: Select a weighting function to be used when calculating f(clutter). It enables you to weight
losses for each pixel between a receiver and a maximum distance. For more information on weighting functions,
see the Technical Reference Guide.

Under Parameters per clutter class, you can set the following parameters for each clutter class:
-

Losses: Enter, if desired, losses for each clutter class to be considered when calculating f(clutter).
Clearance: Enter, if desired, a clearance around each receiver for each clutter class. The clearance information is
used to model streets because it is assumed that the receiver is in the street. The clearance is used when calculating diffraction when statistical clutter is taken into account.
Rx Height: Enter, if desired, a specific receiver height for each clutter class. Or, you can select "(default)" for the
receiver height. When creating a coverage prediction, Atoll will then read the receiver height on the Receiver tab
of the Properties dialogue for the Predictions folder.

7. Click OK.

5.1.3 The Okumura-Hata Propagation Model


The Okumura-Hata model is suited for predictions in the 150 to 1000 MHz band over long distances (from one to 20 km). It is
best suited to GSM 900 and CDMA 1xRTT radio technologies.
Hata models in general are well adapted to the urban environment. You can define several corrective formulas and associate
a formula with each clutter class to adapt the Hata model to a wide variety of environments. You can also define a default
formula to be used when no land use data is available. Additionally, you can consider diffraction losses based on the DTM.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Defining General Settings (Okumura-Hata)" on page 163


"Selecting an Environment Formula (Okumura-Hata)" on page 163
"Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Okumura-Hata)" on page 164.

5.1.3.1 Defining General Settings (Okumura-Hata)


To set general parameters on the Okumura-Hata propagation model:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Okumura-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab. You can modify the following settings:
-

Add diffraction loss: The Okumura-Hata propagation model can take into account losses due to diffraction, using
a 1-knife-edge Deygout method, and using the ground altitude given in the DTM. For detailed information on the
Deygout method, see the Technical Reference Guide. The calculations take the curvature of the earth into account.
Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to add losses due to diffraction. You can weight this diffraction
for each Hata environment formula (See "Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Okumura-Hata)" on
page 164)
Limitation to free space loss: When using a Hata-based propagation model, it is possible to calculate a theoretical
path loss that ends up being lower than the free space loss. In Atoll, you can define any Hata-based propagation
model to never calculate a path loss that is lower than the calculated free space loss per pixel. Select "1 - Yes" if
you want the propagation model to limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.

6. Click OK.

5.1.3.2 Selecting an Environment Formula (Okumura-Hata)


The Okumura-Hata propagation model can use an environment formula appropriate to each clutter class when calculating.
You can assign a default formula that Atoll can use for all clutter classes for which you have not assigned an environment
formula or if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document.
To select environment formulas:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Okumura-Hata. The context menu appears.

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4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Under Formulas assigned to clutter classes, select the Default formula row. Under this grid, choose the appropriate
formula in the formula scrolling list.
Atoll uses the default environment formula for calculations on any clutter class to which you have not assigned an
environment formula or if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document.
7. For each clutter class under Formulas assigned to clutter classes, select a formula from the list.
8. For each clutter class under Additional Losses per Clutter Class, enter an optional correction (in dB). This correction
acts as an additional loss on the loss calculated by the chosen formula.
For information on modifying the selected formula, see "Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (OkumuraHata)" on page 164.
9. Click OK.
Correction terms can be evaluated using the Automatic Calibration Wizard. For information on the Automatic Calibration Wizard, see the Measurements and Model Calibration
Guide.

5.1.3.3 Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Okumura-Hata)


Several environment formulas are available with the Okumura-Hata propagation model to model different environments. You
can modify existing environment formulas used by the Okumura-Hata propagation model or create new environmental
formulas.
To create or modify an environment formula:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Okumura-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Click the Formulas button. The Formulas dialogue appears. You can do the following:
-

Add: To create a new formula, click the Add button and modify the parameters of the formula.
Delete: To delete a formula, select the formula and click the Delete button.
Modify: To modify an existing formula, select the formula and modify the parameters.

7. Click OK to save your changes and close the Formulas dialogue.


8. Click OK.

You can weight the diffraction loss by setting the diffraction multiplying factor
within the range [0;1].
Constant values and diffraction multiplying factor can be evaluated using the Automatic Calibration Wizard for each environment formula. For information on the
Automatic Calibration Wizard, see the Measurements and Model Calibration
Guide.

5.1.4 The Cost-Hata Propagation Model


The Cost-Hata model is suited for coverage predictions in the 1500 to 2000 MHz band over long distances (from one to 20 km).
It is best suited to DCS 1800 and UMTS radio technologies.
Hata models in general are well adapted to the urban environment. You can define several corrective formulas and associate
a formula with each clutter class to adapt the Hata model to a wide variety of environments. You can also define a default
formula to be used when no land use data is available.
In this section, the following are explained:

164

"Defining General Settings (Cost-Hata)" on page 165


"Selecting an Environment Formula (Cost-Hata)" on page 165
"Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Cost-Hata)" on page 165.

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5.1.4.1 Defining General Settings (Cost-Hata)


To set general parameters on the Cost-Hata propagation model:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Cost-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab. You can modify the following settings:
-

Add diffraction loss: The Cost-Hata propagation model can take into account losses due to diffraction, using a 1knife-edge Deygout method, and using the ground altitude given in the DTM. For detailed information on the
Deygout method, see the Technical Reference Guide. The calculations take the curvature of the earth into account.
Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to add losses due to diffraction. You can weight this diffraction
for each Hata environment formula (See "Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Cost-Hata)" on page 165)
Limitation to free space loss: When using a Hata-based propagation model, it is possible to calculate a theoretical
path loss that ends up being lower than the free space loss. In Atoll, you can define any Hata-based propagation
model to never calculate a path loss that is lower than the calculated free space loss per pixel. Select "1 - Yes" if
you want the propagation model to limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.

6. Click OK.

5.1.4.2 Selecting an Environment Formula (Cost-Hata)


The Cost-Hata propagation model can use an environment formula appropriate to each clutter class when calculating. You can
assign a default formula that Atoll can use for all clutter classes for which you have not assigned an environment formula or
if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document.
To select environment formulas:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Cost-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Under Formulas assigned to clutter classes, select the Default formula row. Under this grid, choose the appropriate
formula in the formula scrolling list.
Atoll uses the default environment formula for calculations on any clutter class to which you have not assigned an
environment formula or if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document.
7. For each clutter class under Formulas assigned to clutter classes, select a formula from the list.
8. For each clutter class under Additional Losses per Clutter Class, enter an optional correction (in dB). This correction
acts as an additional loss on the loss calculated by the chosen formula.
9. Click OK.

5.1.4.3 Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Cost-Hata)


Several environment formulas are available with the Cost-Hata propagation model to model different environments. You can
modify existing environment formulas used by the Cost-Hata propagation model or create new environmental formulas.
To create or modify an environment formula:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Cost-Hata. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Click the Formulas button. The Formulas dialogue appears. You can do the following:
-

Add: To create a new formula, click the Add button and modify the parameters of the formula.
Delete: To delete a formula, select the formula and click the Delete button.
Modify: To modify an existing formula, select the formula and modify the parameters.

7. Click OK to save your changes and close the Formulas dialogue.

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8. Click OK.

You can weight the diffraction loss by setting the diffraction multiplying factor
within the range [0;1].
Constant values and diffraction multiplying factor can be evaluated using the Automatic Calibration Wizard for each environment formula. For information on the
Automatic Calibration Wizard, see the Measurements and Model Calibration
Guide.

5.1.5 The ITU 529-3 Propagation Model


The ITU 529-3 model is suited for predictions in the 300 to 1500 MHz band over long distances (from one to 100 km). It is best
suited to the GSM 900 radio technology.
Hata models in general are well adapted to the urban environment. You can define several corrective formulas and associate
a formula with each clutter class to adapt the Hata model to a wide variety of environments. You can also define a default
formula to be used when no land use data is available. In addition, for long distances 20km<d<100 km), the model uses automatically a corrective formula as defined in the recommendation.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Defining General Settings (ITU 529-3)" on page 166


"Selecting an Environment Formula (ITU 529-3)" on page 166
"Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (ITU 529-3)" on page 167.

5.1.5.1 Defining General Settings (ITU 529-3)


To set general parameters on the ITU 529-3 propagation model:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU529. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab. You can modify the following settings:
-

Add diffraction loss: The ITU 529-3 propagation model can take into account losses due to diffraction, using a 1knife-edge Deygout method, and using the ground altitude given in the DTM. For detailed information on the
Deygout method, see the Technical Reference Guide. The calculations take the curvature of the earth into account.
Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to add losses due to diffraction.
Limitation to free space loss: When using a Hata-based propagation model, it is possible to calculate a theoretical
path loss that ends up being lower than the free space loss. In Atoll, you can define any Hata-based propagation
model to never calculate a path loss that is lower than the calculated free space loss per pixel. Select "1 - Yes" if
you want the propagation model to limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated free space loss.

6. Click OK.

5.1.5.2 Selecting an Environment Formula (ITU 529-3)


The ITU 529-3 propagation model can use an environment formula appropriate to each clutter class when calculating. You can
assign a default formula that Atoll can use for all clutter classes for which you have not assigned an environment formula or
if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document.
To select environment formulas:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU529. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Under Formulas assigned to clutter classes, select a Default formula.
Atoll uses the default environment formula for calculations on any clutter class to which you have not assigned an
environment formula or if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document.
7. For each clutter class under Formulas assigned to clutter classes, select a formula from the list.

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For information on modifying the selected formula, see "Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (ITU 529-3)" on
page 167.
8. Click OK.

5.1.5.3 Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (ITU 529-3)


Several environment formulas are available with the ITU 529-3 propagation model to model different environments. You can
modify existing environment formulas used by the ITU 529-3 propagation model or create new environmental formulas.
To create or modify an environment formula:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU529. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Click the Formulas button. The Formulas dialogue appears. You can do the following:
-

Add: To create a new formula, click the Add button and modify the parameters of the formula.
Delete: To delete a formula, select the formula and click the Delete button.
Modify: To modify an existing formula, select the formula and modify the parameters.

7. Click OK to save your changes and close the Formulas dialogue.


8. Click OK.

5.1.6 The ITU 370-7 Propagation Model


The ITU 370-7 model is based on the recommendations of the Vienna 1993 international conference on telecommunications
network coordination. This model is suited for predictions in the 100 to 400 MHz band over long distances (over 10 km), such
as in broadcast predictions. It uses the terrain profile to calculate propagation.
The only parameter you can define with the ITU 370-7 (Vienna 93) model is the percentage of time during which the real field
is higher than the signal level calculated by the model (1%, 10%, or 50% of the time). The value 50% is usually used for coverage predictions, whereas 1% is usually used for interference predictions.
To set the percentage of time during which the real field is higher than the signal level:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU370. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab.
6. Under Calculate exceeded signal during, select one of the following:
-

50% of the time


10% of the time
1% of the time

7. Click OK.
When using the ITU 370-7 model, do not define the cell edge coverage probability in the
coverage prediction properties with a value other than 50%, or cell edge coverage probability will be considered twice.

5.1.7 The Erceg-Greenstein Propagation Model


The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model is suited for predictions in the 1900 and 6000 MHz range over distances
between 100 m and 8 km. The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model is suited for WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e).
The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model is well adapted for suburban environment. You can define several corrective
formulas and associate a formula with each clutter class to adapt the model to a wide range of environments. You can also
define a default formula to be used when no land use data is available. You can also set a default formula which is used when
no clutter data is available.

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In this section, the following are explained:

"Defining General Settings (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))" on page 168


"Selecting an Environment Formula (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))" on page 168
"Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))" on page 168.

5.1.7.1 Defining General Settings (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))


To set general parameters on the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Erceg-Greenstein (SUI). The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Click the Parameters tab. You can modify the following settings:
-

Add diffraction loss: The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model can take into account losses due to diffraction, using a 1-knife-edge Deygout method, and using the ground altitude given in the DTM. For detailed information on the Deygout method, see the Technical Reference Guide. The calculations take the curvature of the earth
into account. Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to add losses due to diffraction.
Limitation to free space loss: When using the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model, it is possible to calculate
a theoretical path loss that ends up being lower than the free space loss. In Atoll, you can define the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model to never calculate a path loss that is lower than the calculated free space loss per
pixel. Select "1 - Yes" if you want the propagation model to limit the path loss calculated per pixel to the calculated
free space loss.

7. Click OK.

5.1.7.2 Selecting an Environment Formula (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))


The Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model can use an environment formula appropriate to each clutter class when calculating. You can assign a default formula that Atoll can use for all clutter classes for which you have not assigned an environment formula or if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document.
To select environment formulas:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Erceg-Greenstein (SUI). The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.
6. Under Formulas assigned to clutter classes, select a Default formula.
Atoll uses the default environment formula for calculations on any clutter class to which you have not assigned an
environment formula or if you do not have clutter classes in your Atoll document.
7. For each clutter class under Formulas assigned to clutter classes, select a formula from the list.
For information on modifying the selected formula, see "Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))" on page 168.
8. Click OK.

5.1.7.3 Creating or Modifying Environment Formulas (Erceg-Greenstein (SUI))


Several environment formulas are available with the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model to model different environments. You can modify existing environment formulas used by the Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model or create new
environmental formulas.
To create or modify an environment formula:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Erceg-Greenstein (SUI). The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Configuration tab.

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6. Click the Formulas button. The Formulas dialogue appears. You can do the following:
-

Add: To create a new formula, click the Add button and modify the parameters of the formula.
Delete: To delete a formula, select the formula and click the Delete button.
Modify: To modify an existing formula, select the formula and modify the parameters.

7. Click OK to save your changes and close the Formulas dialogue.


8. Click OK.

5.1.8 The ITU 526-5 Propagation Model


The ITU 526-5 model is suitable for predictions in the 30 to 10,000 MHz band with fixed receivers.
According to the ITU 526-5 recommendations:

If there are no obstacles, propagation takes place in free space


If there is an obstacle, attenuation due to diffraction will be taken into account. The model uses the terrain profile and
a diffraction mechanism (3-knife-edge Deygout method), optionally with correction, to calculate path loss.

To set the parameters on the ITU 526-5 propagation model:


1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU526. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab.
6. If desired, select the Apply to empirical correction check box and enter a formula that will be used as a correction with
the Deygout method. Otherwise, the Deygout method will be used without correction.
7. Click OK.

5.1.9 The WLL Propagation Model


The WLL propagation model is designed for radio local loop applications in the 30-10,000 MHz band. The model is derived
from the ITU 526-5 model.
Along the Tx-Rx profile, both ground altitude and clutter height are considered to calculate diffraction losses. Atoll takes clutter height information in clutter heights file if available in the ATL document. Otherwise, it considers average clutter height
specified for each clutter class in the clutter classes file description. If the ATL document does not contain any clutter height
file and no average height per clutter class is specified, Atoll will consider ground altitude only.
To set the parameters on the WLL propagation model:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click WLL. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab. You can set the following parameters:
-

Free space loss: You can modify the parameters of the formula used to calculate path loss in free space.
Line of sight only: If the Line of sight only option is selected, Atoll checks for each pixel if the receiver is in the
transmitter line of sight. The receiver is considered to be in the transmitter line of sight if 100% of the Fresnel halfellipsoid is clear, in other words, if no obstacle is on the transmitter-receiver profile. If the receiver is not in the
transmitter line of sight, no results at all will be displayed. If the Line of sight only option is not selected, Atoll calculates the path loss for each pixel, using the formula defined in the dialogue.
If you select the Line of sight only option and the receiver is not in the transmitter line of
sight, no results at all will be displayed because Atoll will only show results for the line of
sight.

Transmitter clearance: You can set the clearance around the transmitter. This clearance can be used, for example,
to model streets in areas where the clutter class file does not show enough detail. It will be taken into consideration when calculating diffraction. The default value is 20 m.
Receiver default clearance: You can set the default clearance around the receiver. This default clearance will be
used for each clutter class where the receiver clearance is not specified. This clearance will be taken into consideration when calculating diffraction. The default value is 20 m.

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Diffraction multiplying factor: You can set the multiplying factor for the diffraction losses. The final diffraction
losses are determined by multiplying the diffraction losses calculated using the 3-obstacle Deygout method by the
Diffraction multiplying factor.
Receiver height per clutter class: You can set a height for the receiver for each clutter class. Because the WLL propagation model is designed for networks with immobile receivers, the receivers are often on top of buildings. This
option allows you to specify a height which will be added to the clutter class.
Receiver clearance per clutter class: You can set a clearance around the receiver for each clutter class. This clearance will be taken into consideration when calculating diffraction.

6. Click OK.

5.1.10 The Longley-Rice Propagation Model


Longley-Rice is a theoretical model suited for predictions in the 40-MHz band in flat areas. The Longley-Rice propagation
model uses the terrain profile to calculate propagation. However, the parameters of the Longley-Rice propagation model can
be set using distance and an additional loss value.
To set the parameters on the Longley-Rice propagation model:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click Longley-Rice. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab.
6. Under Add to propagation loss, enter the formula that will be used to calculate additional losses (in flat terrain, a
value of "0" means a signal decreasing in a linear fashion as a function of distance). "dkm" in the formula is the distance
in kilometres from the transmitter.
7. Click OK.

5.1.11 The ITU 1546 Propagation Model


The ITU 1546 propagation model is based on the ITU-R P-1546-2 recommendations. This model is suited for predictions in the
30 to 3000 MHz band over distances from 1 to 1000 km. It is appropriate for point-to-area predictions such as broadcast and
land and maritime mobile services, and fixed services employing point-to-multipoint systems. It uses the terrain profile to
calculate propagation.
Because this propagation model is based on graphs giving the field strength as a function of distance provided in the ITU
recommendations for different operating frequencies, the only parameters you have to define for this model are:

the percentage of time during which the real field strength is higher than the signal level calculated by the model (1%,
10%, or 50% of the time), and
the type of path over which the signal level is to be predicted (land in urban or suburban zones, land other zones, or
sea).

To set the propagation model parameters:


1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click ITU1546. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Parameters tab.
6. Under Calculate Signal Level Exceeded During, select one of the following:
-

50% of the time


10% of the time
1% of the time

7. Under Type of Path, select one of the following:


-

Land (Urban or Suburban Zones)


Land (Other Zones)
Sea

8. Select Use clutter altitude if you want to take the height of the clutter into account in diffraction. The height of the
clutter will be taken from the Clutter Height folder, if clutter heights are available. Otherwise the average height of
each clutter class will be used when evaluating diffraction. If this box is unselected, the diffraction is evaluated using
only the DTM.

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9. Click OK.
For more information, see the Technical Reference Guide and the ITU-R P.1546 recommendation.

5.1.12 The Sakagami Extended Propagation Model


The Sakagami extended propagation model is based on a simplified version of the extended Sakagami-Kuboi propagation
model. The Sakagami extended propagation model is valid for frequencies above 3 GHz. Therefore, it is only available in
WiMAX 802.16e documents by default.
The Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model requires detailed information about the environment, such as the widths of the
streets where the receiver is located, the angles formed by the street axes and the directions of the incident waves, the
heights of the buildings close to the receiver, etc. The Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model is valid for frequencies below
2.2 GHz. Studies have shown that the Sakagami-Kuboi propagation model can be extended to frequencies higher than 3 GHz,
which also allows the input required by the model to be simplified. The same studies show that the path loss predicted by the
extended model is almost independent of the input parameters such as street widths and angles.
The path loss calculation formula of the Sakagami extended propagation model is similar to the formula of the Standard Propagation Model. In Atoll, this model is in fact a copy of the Standard Propagation Model with the following values assigned to
the K coefficients:
K Coefficient

Value Assigned

K1

65.4 (calculated for 3.5 GHz)

K2

40

K3

-30

K4

K5

K6

K7

-5

For more information on working with the Standard Propagation Model, see "The Standard Propagation Model" on page 156.

5.1.13 CrossWave Model


CrossWave is the Atoll version of the Orange Labs propagation model. This model is developed by Orange Labs and is distributed and supported by Forsk as an option to Atoll. This high performance universal propagation model is dedicated to any
wireless technologies, any propagation situations and environments. In addition, the model uses an automatic tuning using
CW measurements. Aven if automatic calibration can be run on it, the originally provided model has been statistically precalibrated using measurements from different countries and environment types where the Orange Group is present. As a
consequence, CrossWave benefits from Orange Labs experience in term of propagation modeling of basic components
(antenna and profile modelling) and automatic tuning process (multi-linear regression, neuronal networks, ...). Even with such
a complexity, several years of research focused not only on accurateness, but also on rapidity, versatility and robustness of
CrossWave model.
CrossWave models the three propagation phenomena which are:

Vertical diffraction
Horizontal guided propagation
Reflection on mountains

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Figure 5.4: Propagation phenomena in CrossWave


CrossWave supports and technology (GSM, UMTS, WiMAX, LTE) and any frequency range (from 200 MHz to 5GHz). It also
applies on any type of cells (micro, mini and macro cells). Its domains of appliance is various since it can be used over any
type of environment (dense urban, urban, suburban, rural.) without any restriction.
Crosswave supports the same type of geo data files than the other propgation models available in Atoll (DTM, clutter classes,
clutter heights), but any additional raster file might be used with it and optionnally, it may be even more accurate by the use
of specific geo data maps such as:

3D building vectors (TAB)


Line vectors (TAB) for railway track predictions

For more information on CrossWave propagation model, please refer to its specific user manual.

5.1.14 Managing Propagation Models


The propagation models available for the current Atoll document can be found in the Propagation Models folder on the
Parameters tab of the Explorer window. You can manage the propagation models with the commands available on the
context menu.
To manage the propagation models of the current Atoll document:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Models folder.
3. Right-click the propagation model you want to manage. The context menu appears.
4. Select one of the following commands from the context menu:
-

Properties: The Properties dialogue appears. You can view the general information about the propagation model
on the General tab:
-

Name: The name of the propagation model, as displayed in the Propagation Models folder
Signature: The signature is assigned to the propagation model by Atoll. Each time you modify the parameters
of the selected propagation model, Atoll changes the signature. The signature of the propagation model used
to calculate a set of path loss matrices is stored with the matrices. This enables Atoll to verify the validity of
the path loss matrices.
When path loss matrices are not embedded in the Atoll document but are stored externally, the signature is
found in the MODEL_SIG field of the Pathloss.dbf file. The name of the propagation model used is found in the
MODEL_NAME field of the Pathloss.dbf file.
Description: You can enter a description or comments in this field.

Duplicate: The selected propagation model is duplicated. It appears in the Propagation Models folder with the
same name, preceded by "Copy of."
Copy: The selected propagation model is copied. You can paste it, with its current settings into a new Atoll document by opening the document, clicking the Parameters tab of the Explorer window and pressing CTRL+V.
If there is already a propagation model in the Atoll document with the same name as the
one you are trying to paste, Atoll will display a warning and will not allow you to overwrite
the existing propagation model.

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Rename: You can enter a new name for the selected propagation model.

5.2 Defining Calculation Parameters


Atoll uses the propagation model defined for each transmitter to calculate losses along the transmitter-receiver path.
Depending on the type of prediction you make, Atoll either calculates the path loss at any point of the map in real time, or it
calculates a path loss matrix for each transmitter that will be considered in predictions. The path loss matrix contains a set of
path loss values calculated on each pixel over a specific area. It is calculated based on a set of three parameters defined for
the transmitter:

The propagation model


The calculation radius
The resolution.

By using a calculation radius, Atoll limits the scope of calculations to a defined area.
Atoll enables you to calculate two path loss matrices: a main and an extended one. By using two sets of calculation parameters, Atoll allows you to calculate high resolution path loss matrices closer to the transmitter with one propagation model,
while reducing calculation time and storage size by using an extended matrix with a lower resolution and another propagation
model. Atoll will calculate the extended matrix only if you define all three parameters: propagation model, calculation radius,
and resolution.
If you do not define a calculation radius for the main propagation model and if you do not assign an extended propagation
model, Atoll uses the prediction minimum threshold to define the calculation radius for each transmitter. However, this can
lead to lengthy calculation times. In that case, Atoll does not assign a calculation radius to transmitters.
This can be done if you let Atoll calculate the optimised main or extended calculation radii based on user-defined minimum
received signal levels. As an consequence, the storage of path loss matrices can drastically be reduced. See "Optimising Path
Loss Matrix Storage" on page 178 for more information.
When creating coverage predictions, you can define a coverage resolution that is different
from the resolution defined for the path loss matrices.

In this section, the following are explained:

"Defining Calculation Parameters for One Transmitter" on page 173


"Defining the Same Calculation Parameters for a Group of Transmitters" on page 174
"Defining the Same Calculation Parameters for All Transmitters" on page 174
"Defining a Default Propagation Model" on page 175
"Defining a Default Resolution" on page 175.

5.2.1 Defining Calculation Parameters for One Transmitter


In Atoll, you can define calculation parameters, in other words, the propagation model, resolution, and calculation radius, for
each transmitter.
To define main and extended calculation parameters for one transmitter:
1. Click the Parameters tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Transmitters folder.
3. Right-click the transmitter to which you want to assign main and extended calculation parameters. The context menu
appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Propagation tab.
6. Under Main Matrix:
-

Select a Propagation Model


Enter a Radius and Resolution.

7. If desired, under Extended Matrix:


-

Select a Propagation Model


Enter a Radius and Resolution.

8. Click OK. The selected calculation parameters will be used for the selected transmitter.

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5.2.2 Defining the Same Calculation Parameters for a Group of


Transmitters
Transmitters that share the same parameters and environment will usually use the same propagation model and settings. In
Atoll, you can defining the same calculation parameters for several transmitters by first grouping them by their common
parameters and then defining the calculation parameters.
To define main and extended calculation parameters for a defined group of transmitters:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select from the Group by submenu of the context menu the property by which you want to group the transmitters.
The objects in the folder are grouped by that property.
You can group transmitters by several properties by using the Group By button on the
Properties dialogue. For more information, see "Advanced Grouping" on page 66.

4. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Transmitters folder.


5. Right-click the group of transmitters for which you want to define main and extended calculation parameters. The context menu appears.
6. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Transmitters table appears with the transmitters from the selected
group.
For each transmitter, you can set the calculation parameters in the following columns:
-

Main Propagation Model


Main Calculation Radius
Main Resolution
Extended Propagation Model
Extended Calculation Radius
Extended Resolution

To enter the same values in one column for all transmitters in the table:
1. Enter the value in the first row in the column.
2. Select the entire column.
3. Right-click the selection and select Edit > Fill Down from the context menu or click the Fill Down button (
Table toolbar to copy the contents of the top cell of the selection into the other cells.
If you want to copy the contents of the last cell in the selection into all other cells, you can
right-click the selection and select Edit > Fill Up from the context menu or click the Fill Up
button (
) in the Table toolbar. For more information on working with tables in Atoll,
see "Working with Data Tables" on page 47.

5.2.3 Defining the Same Calculation Parameters for All


Transmitters
In Atoll, you can choose one set of calculation parameters and assign them to all transmitters.
To define the same calculation parameters for all transmitters:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Propagation tab.
5. Under Main Matrix:
-

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6. If desired, under Extended Matrix:


-

Select a Propagation Model


Enter a Radius and Resolution.

7. Click OK. The selected calculation parameters will be used for all transmitters.
Setting a different main or extended matrix on an individual transmitter as explained in
"Defining Calculation Parameters for One Transmitter" on page 173 will override this
entry. You can also optimise the path loss matrix radii as explained in "Optimising Path Loss
Matrix Storage" on page 178.

5.2.4 Defining a Default Propagation Model


When you assign a propagation model to a transmitter, you can choose "(Default Model)" from the list of the propagation
models available. Atoll will then calculate path loss using the default propagation model set for the project.
To define the default propagation model for the Atoll document:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Predictions tab.
5. Select a Default Propagation Model from the list.
6. Click OK. The selected propagation model will be used for predictions for all transmitters whose main propagation
model is "(Default model)."

5.2.5 Defining a Default Resolution


When the resolution of the path loss matrix is not defined in the transmitter properties, Atoll uses the default resolution set
for the Atoll document. Additionally, this resolution is used as the default coverage resolution when you create a new coverage prediction.
To define the default resolution of the Atoll document:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Predictions tab.
5. Enter a Default Resolution.
By setting an option in the atoll.ini file, you can set Atoll to use the currently defined
default resolution if you clear the value entered in the Resolution text box when you
create a coverage prediction. That way, if you have many coverage predictions, you can
change their resolution by changing the default resolution and recalculating the
coverage predictions. Atoll will then calculate them using the updated resolution. For
information on changing entries in the atoll.ini file, see the Administrator Manual.
6. Click OK.

5.3 Managing Path Loss Matrices


In this section, the following are explained:

"Calculating Path Loss Matrices" on page 176


"Stopping Path Loss Matrix Calculation" on page 176
"Setting the Storage Location of Path Loss Matrices" on page 176
"Using Centralised Path Loss Matrices" on page 177
"Checking the Validity of Path Loss Matrices" on page 177
"Optimising Path Loss Matrix Storage" on page 178
"Tuning Path Loss Matrices Using Measurement Data" on page 179
"Exporting Path Loss Matrices" on page 185.

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5.3.1 Calculating Path Loss Matrices


When you calculate a coverage prediction, Atoll automatically calculates non-existent and invalid path loss matrices before
calculating the prediction. This can take a lot of time if there are many path loss matrices that must be calculated. Consequently, you can calculate path loss matrices separately, when you have more time and computer resources available. In
multi-user environments, the administrator is responsible for shared path loss matrices and can calculate them separately.
Users can then base calculations on the updated shared path loss matrices.
When you calculate a coverage prediction, Atoll calculates only the non-existent and invalid path loss matrices that intersect
the rectangle containing the computation zone, whether or not the computation zone is visible. When you manually calculate
the path loss matrices as described in this section, Atoll does not take the computation zone into consideration; it calculates
all non-existent and invalid path loss matrices of active and filtered transmitters.
To calculate path loss matrices:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Calculations > Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the context menu. Atoll calculates all non-existent and invalid
path loss matrices of active and filtered transmitters.
You can calculate the non-existent and invalid path loss matrices for all transmitters, for a single transmitter, or for a defined
group of transmitters, by expanding the Transmitters folder right-clicking either the single transmitter or the defined group
of transmitters and selecting Calculations > Calculate Path Loss Matrices from the context menu.
You can prevent Atoll from calculating one or more path loss matrices by locking them. You
can lock path loss matrices using the Propagation tab of the Transmitters dialogue. You can
lock a single path loss matrix by selecting the check box in the Locked column, or more than
one by selecting several path loss matrices and then selecting Lock from the context menu.

5.3.2 Stopping Path Loss Matrix Calculation


Depending on the size of the path loss matrices, it can take a long time and a lot of computer resources to calculate them. If
necessary, you can stop calculation at any point.
To stop calculations:

Click the Stop Calculations button (


) in the toolbar. Atoll immediately stops all ongoing calculations. The results of
calculations that have already been completed, however, will be saved.

5.3.3 Setting the Storage Location of Path Loss Matrices


Path loss matrices can be stored internally, in the Atoll document, or they can be stored externally. Storing path loss matrices
in the Atoll document results in a more portable but significantly larger document. In the case of large radio-planning projects,
embedding the matrices can lead to large documents which use a great deal of memory. Therefore, in the case of large radioplanning projects, saving your path loss matrices externally will help reduce the size of the file and the use of computer
resources.
When you save the path loss matrices to an external directory, Atoll creates:

One file per transmitter with the extension LOS for its main path loss matrix
A DBF file with validity information for all the main matrices.
A folder called "LowRes" with LOS files and a DBF file for the extended path loss matrices.

To set the storage location of the path loss matrices:


1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. On the Predictions tab, under Path Loss Matrix Storage, you can set the location for your private path loss matrices:
-

Private Directory: The Private Directory is where you store path loss matrices you generate or, if you are loading
path loss matrices from a shared location, where you store your changes to shared path loss matrices.
Click the button beside Private Directory (
) and select Embedded to save the path loss matrices in the Atoll
document, or Browse to select a directory where Atoll can save the path loss matrices externally.

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When you save the path loss files externally, the external files are updated as soon as
calculations are performed and not only when you save the Atoll document. In order to
keep consistency between the Atoll document and the stored calculations, you should
save the Atoll document before closing it, if you have updated the path loss matrices.
5. Click OK.

5.3.4 Using Centralised Path Loss Matrices


Using centralised path loss matrices is recommended in a multi-user environment when several users are working on the same
radio-planning document. In this case, the radio data is stored in a database. An administrator responsible for calculations
calculates the path loss matrices of the entire project and saves them in an external folder accessible to all users. This folder
is shared by all users and read only. When the user changes his radio data and recalculates the path loss matrices, the changes
to the path loss matrices are stored locally; the common path loss matrices are not modified. In other words, the user can
read the information from the shared path loss matrices but any changes he makes will be stored locally, either in the ATL file
or in a private external folder. Centralised path loss matrices will be recalculated by the administrator and will take into consideration the changes made by all users to the radio data.

For information on calculating path loss matrices, see "Calculating Path Loss Matrices" on page 176.
For information on setting the storage location for local path loss matrices, see "Setting the Storage Location of Path
Loss Matrices" on page 176.
For information on working in a multi-user environment, see the Administrator Manual.

To use pre-calculated path loss matrices:


1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. On the Predictions tab, under Path Loss Matrix Storage, you can set the location for the shared path loss matrices:
-

Shared Directory: When you are working in a multi-user Atoll environment, the project data is stored in a database and the common path loss matrices are stored in a directory that is accessible to all users. Any changes you
make will not be saved to this directory; they will be saved in the location indicated in Private Directory. The path
loss matrices in the shared directory are updated by a user with administrator rights based on the updated information in the database. For more information on shared directories, see The Administrator Manual.
The shared path loss matrices must be unlocked in order for users to be able to work
with them. The administrator can check whether shared path loss matrices are unlocked
or not in the Propagation tab of the Transmitters folders Properties dialogue.

5. Click OK.

5.3.5 Checking the Validity of Path Loss Matrices


Atoll automatically checks the validity of the path loss matrices when calculating any coverage prediction. If you want, you
can check whether the path loss matrices are valid before calculating a coverage prediction.
To check whether the path loss matrices are valid:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Propagation tab. The path loss matrix information is listed in the Available Results table.
5. Select one of the following display options:
-

Display all the matrices: All path loss matrices are displayed.
Display only invalid matrices: Only invalid path loss matrices are displayed.

The Available Results table lists the following information for each displayed path loss matrix:
-

Transmitter: The name of the transmitter.


Locked: If the Locked check box is selected, the path loss matrix will not be updated even if the path loss matrices
are recalculated.
Valid: This is a boolean field indicating whether or not the path loss matrix is valid.

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Reason for Invalidity: If the path loss matrix is indicated as being invalid, the reason is given here.
Size: The size of the path loss matrix for the transmitter.
File: If the path loss matrix is not embedded, the location of the file is listed.
Tuned: If the Tuned check box has been selected, the initial path loss matrix obtained by the propagation model
has been tuned by the use of real measurement points. See "Tuning Path Loss Matrices Using Measurement Data"
on page 179 for more information.

6. Click the Statistics button to display the number of path loss matrices to be recalculated. The Statistics dialogue
appears (see Figure 5.5) with the total number of invalid path loss matrices and the reasons for invalidity, as well as a
summary of the reasons for invalidity.

Figure 5.5: Path loss matrix statistics

5.3.6 Optimising Path Loss Matrix Storage


As explained in "Defining Calculation Parameters" on page 173, you can assign calculation radii for main and extended matrices, either for each specific transmitter, for a group of transmitters or for all the transmitters contained in a project. The path
loss matrices are then evaluted from the transmitter up to these calculation radii. In some cases, considering the minimum
signal required from a receiver point of view, the calculation of large path losses is useless and definitely has bad consequences in term of computation time and storage.
In Atoll, you can re-evaluate the calculation radii of existing path loss matrices by truncating values which would drive to
unnecessary received signal levels.
To optimise the calculation radius of the main and/or extended path loss matrices:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Calculations > Optimise Path Loss Matrices from the context menu.
4. Select for which matrices (main and/or extended) you want to re-evaluate their calculation radius
5. For each selected matrix, enter the minimum signal level which must result from the matrix reduction. After calculation, Atoll will filter out the path losses driving to signal levels lower than these thresholds.
6. Click Calculate. Atoll begins the process of calculation radius evaluations. Atoll first checks to see whether the path
loss matrices are valid before optimising their radius. If the path loss matrices are not valid, Atoll do not optimise their
radius.
7. Information relative to the path loss matrix radius calculation are listed in the Available Results table.
8. Select one of the following display options:
-

Display all results: All path loss matrices, including the ones which do not need optimisation, are displayed.
Display modified raddi only: Only path loss matrices for which the radius have to be optimised are displayed.

The Available Results table lists the following information for each displayed transmiitter:
-

Transmitter: The name of the transmitter.


Main Radius: radius of the main path loss matrix before optimisation.
Optimised Main Radius: radius of the main path loss matrix after optimisation.
Extended Radius: radius of the extended path loss matrix before optimisation.
Optimised Extended Radius: radius of the extended path loss matrix after optimisation.

9. Select the Commit check box for each transmitter you want to commit the opitmised radius (or radii). You can select
one, several or all the results and right click in order to select or unselect them for committing the results.

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10. Click Commit. All the transmitters whose Commit check box is selected have their calculation radius (or radii) modified. For extended matrices, if the calculation radii are changed, these are deleted and need to be recalculated with
the new radius values.

Invalid matrices cannot be optimised and have to be calculated prior to the optimisation process (see "Calculating Path Loss Matrices" on page 176 for more information). Invalid (or inexistent) matrices are displayed in red in the available results
list.
Even if the radius can be evaluated (and committed to the transmitter properties),
path losses are not optimised for locked matrices or matrices in a shared directory
(see "Using Centralised Path Loss Matrices" on page 177 for more information). In
those cases, matrices are displayed in grey in the available results list.
You can also optimise path loss matrices using the context menu of a transmitter
or group of transmitters. Only the matrices belonging to that selection will be optimised.

5.3.7 Tuning Path Loss Matrices Using Measurement Data


In Atoll, the path loss matrices are calculated using the propagation model and parameters defined as explained in "Defining
Calculation Parameters" on page 173. However, the results calculated by a propagation model can vary from actual measurements. Atoll allows you to use available drive test data paths and CW measurements to increase the accuracy of calculated
path loss matrices. When Atoll applies measurement data to path loss matrices, it first strips the effect of the antenna pattern
from the data. Therefore, if the antenna parameters change, the same measurement data can be used to tune the path loss
matrices because the effect of the antenna pattern is not present in the data.
Atoll uses the selected measurement data to tune a user-defined elliptical area around each measurement point. The main
axis of the ellipse is oriented in the direction of the transmitter or repeater.
Atoll smoothes the differences between tuned path loss matrix points and uncorrected path loss matrix points using an average error calculated between each measured value and the corresponding value in the path loss matrices.
When you use measurement data to tune path loss matrices, the results are stored
locally. If you are using shared path loss matrices, these results will be automatically
deleted when you make a calculation if the FullResyncPrivShared option is set in the
atoll.ini file. If you are using shared path loss matrices, you should disable this option
before tuning path loss matrices using measurement data. For more information, see the
Administrator Manual.
When using measurement data to tune path loss matrices, you need to have valid path loss matrices (for more information
on path loss matrix validity, see "Managing Path Loss Matrices" on page 175):
1. Define the elliptical area around the measurement point as explained in "Defining the Area to be Tuned" on page 179.
2. Select the measurement data to be used to tune the path loss matrices:
-

CW Measurements: You select the CW measurements from the CW Measurements folder as explained in "Tuning
Path Loss Matrices Using CW Measurements" on page 181. The selected CW measurements will be used to tune
the path loss matrices calculated for the site on which the CW measurements were made.
Drive Test Data: You select the drive test data path from the Drive Test Data folder as explained in "Tuning Path
Loss Matrices Using Drive Test Data" on page 182. The selected measurements from drive test data path will be
used to tune the path loss matrices calculated for the selected transmitter.

Atoll replaces existing path loss matrices with the tuned matrices which remain valid as long as the radio configuration of the
network does not change. Atoll creates an external folder containing the catalogue of all the tuning paths as explained in
"Managing the Path Loss Tuning Points" on page 183. By activating or deactivating the tuning paths, you can select the tuning
path to be applied to the existing path loss matrices. Therefore, even if the path loss is recalculated, the path loss is automatically retuned using the active tuning paths.

5.3.7.1 Defining the Area to be Tuned


Atoll tunes the path loss matrices over an elliptical area around each measurement point. The main axis of the ellipse is
oriented in the direction of the transmitter.
To define the elliptical area around each measurement point:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the measurement type that you will use to tune the path loss matrices:

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CW Measurements: If you are going to use CW measurements to tune the path loss matrices, right-click the CW
Measurements folder. The context menu appears.
Drive Test Data: If you are going to use drive test data to tune the path loss matrices, right-click the Drive Test
Data folder. The context menu appears.

3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Select the Path Loss Tuning Parameters tab (see Figure 5.6).

Figure 5.6: Defining the ellipse for tuning path loss matrices
5. Under Path Loss Tuning Ellipse, set the following parameters:
-

Radius of the Axis Parallel to the Profile: Enter the radius of the ellipse axis oriented in the same direction as the
transmitter (or repeater).
Radius of the Axis Perpendicular to the Profile: Enter the radius of the ellipse axis perpendicular to the transmitter (or repeater).

6. Click OK.

5.3.7.2 Defining Maximum Corrections and Thresholds on Path Loss Tuning


Path loss tuning is done in two steps, as described in the Technical Reference Guide:
1. Correction of the entire path loss matrix:
A mean error is calculated between each measured value and the corresponding pixel in the path loss matrix. Mean
error is calculated for each path loss matrix (main and extended) of each transmitter. This mean error is then applied
to all the pixels in the matrix. This tuning is done to smooth local corrections (step 2) of measured values and not the
tuned pixels themselves.
2. Local correction for each measured value.
In Atoll, you can set a tuning range in order to limit the tuning in the case the difference between the measurements and the
predicted measurements is too great. In addition, you can define a level under which the measured signal strength is not used
forpath loss tuning.
To define the tuning range and the measurement threshold for path loss tuning:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the measurement type that you will use to tune the path loss matrices:
-

CW Measurements: If you are going to use CW measurements to tune the path loss matrices, right-click the CW
Measurements folder. The context menu appears.
Drive Test Data: If you are going to use drive test data to tune the path loss matrices, right-click the Drive Test
Data folder. The context menu appears.

3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Select the Path Loss Tuning Parameters tab (see Figure 5.6).
5. Under Tuning Range, set the following parameters:
-

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Maximum total correction (dB): Enter the maximum admissible mean error in step 1 of the path loss tuning
process.
Maximum local correction (dB): Enter the maximum admissible local error in step 2 of the path loss tuning
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Minimum measurement threshold (dBm): Enter the measured signal level under which measurements are not
taken into account for the path loss tuning.

6. Click OK.

5.3.7.3 Tuning Path Loss Matrices Using CW Measurements


Atoll allows you to use available CW measurements to increase the accuracy of calculated path loss matrices.
To use CW measurements to tune path loss matrices:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Select how you want to tune the path loss matrices:
To tune the path loss matrix for a single transmitter:
a. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurement folder.
b. In the CW Measurement folder, click the Expand button ( ) to expand the site folder containing the CW measurement path you want to use to tune the path loss matrices.
c. Right-click the CW measurement path in the site folder. The context menu appears.
d. Select Tune Path Loss Matrices from the context menu. Atoll immediately begins optimising the path loss matrices for the transmitter on which the CW measurement was made. The progress is displayed in the Event Viewer
window.
To tune the path loss matrices for all transmitters:
a. Right-click the CW Measurement folder. The context menu appears.
b. Select Tune Path Loss Matrices from the context menu. The Measurement Path Selection dialogue appears (see
Figure 5.7).

Figure 5.7: Selecting all CW measurement paths


c. Under Measurement Paths, select All.
d. Click OK. Atoll begins optimising the path loss matrices for all transmitters on which CW measurements are available. The progress is displayed in the Event Viewer window.
To tune the path loss matrices for selected transmitters using selected CW measurement paths:
a. Right-click the CW Measurement folder. The context menu appears.
b. Select Tune Path Loss Matrices from the context menu. The Measurement Path Selection dialogue appears (see
Figure 5.7).
c. Under Measurement Paths, select the option beside the list of CW measurements.
d. Select the check box corresponding to each transmitter for which you want to tune the path loss matrices.
For some transmitters, more than one CW measurement may exist. In this case, selecting the check box for the
transmitter will select all the CW measurements. If you do not want to use all CW measurements, click the Expand
button ( ) to expand the transmitter list and then select the single CW measurements you want to use.
e. Click OK. Atoll begins optimising the path loss matrices for all transmitters on which CW measurements are available. The progress is displayed in the Event Viewer window.

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For repeaters, Atoll also tunes the path loss matrix of both the donor transmitter and the
repeater. The contribution of the repeater and donor to the measured value is calculated
based on the ratio of calculated values between the repeater signal and the donor signal.
Each evaluated contribution is then used as input to tune the path loss matrix of each
element. For more information, please refer to the Technical Reference Guide.

5.3.7.4 Tuning Path Loss Matrices Using Drive Test Data


Atoll allows you to use available drive test data paths to increase the accuracy of calculated path loss matrices.
To use drive test data to tune path loss matrices:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Select how you want to tune the path loss matrices:
To tune the path loss matrix using a single drive test data path:
a. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Drive Test Data folder.
b. Right-click the drive test data path you want to use to tune the path loss matrices. The context menu appears.
c. Select Tune Path Loss Matrices from the context menu. The Path Loss Tuning dialogue appears (see Figure 5.8).

Figure 5.8: Path Loss Tuning dialogue


d. Click the For the following transmitters list. The list opens.
e. Select the check box for each transmitter whose path loss matrix you want to tune.
f. Click the Select the measured signal levels list. The list opens.
g. For each transmitter selected fromthe For the following transmitters list, select the check box for each measured
signal strength that will be used to tune the path loss matrices.
h. Click OK. Atoll begins optimising the path loss matrices for the transmitter on which the CW measurement was
made. The progress is displayed in the Event Viewer window.
To tune the path loss matrices using all drive test data paths:
a. Right-click the Drive Test Data folder. The context menu appears.
b. Select Tune Path Loss Matrices from the context menu. The Measurement Path Selection dialogue appears (see
Figure 5.9).

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Figure 5.9: Selecting all CW measurement paths


c. Under Measurement Paths, select All.
d. Click the For the following transmitters list. The list opens.
e. Select the check box for each transmitter whose path loss matrix you want to tune.
f.

Click the Select the measured signal levels list. The list opens.

g. For each transmitter selected fromthe For the following transmitters list, select the check box for each measured
signal strength that will be used to tune the path loss matrices.
h. Click OK. Atoll begins optimising the path loss matrices for the transmitter on which the CW measurement was
made. The progress is displayed in the Event Viewer window.
To tune the path loss matrices for selected transmitters using selected drive test data paths:
a. Right-click the Drive Test Data folder. The context menu appears.
b. Select Tune Path Loss Matrices from the context menu. The Measurement Path Selection dialogue appears (see
Figure 5.9).
c. Under Measurement Paths, select the option beside the list of drive test data paths.
d. Select the check box corresponding to the drive test data you want to use to tune the path loss matrices.
e. Click the For the following transmitters list. The list opens.
f.

Select the check box for each transmitter whose path loss matrix you want to tune.

g. Click the Select the measured signal levels list. The list opens.
h. For each transmitter selected fromthe For the following transmitters list, select the check box for each measured
signal strength that will be used to tune the path loss matrices.
i.

Click OK. Atoll begins optimising the path loss matrices for the transmitter on which the CW measurement was
made. The progress is displayed in the Event Viewer window.
For repeaters, Atoll also tunes the path loss matrix of both the donor transmitter and the
repeater. The contribution of the repeater and donor to the measured value is calculated
based on the ratio of calculated values between the repeater signal and the donor signal.
Each evaluated contribution is then used as input to tune the path loss matrix of each
element. For more information, please refer to the Technical Reference Guide.

5.3.7.5 Managing the Path Loss Tuning Points


After tuning the path loss matrices is complete, Atoll creates a tuning measurement file for each transmitter and stores it in
a folder with the extension ".tuning". The .pts tuning file contains a header and a list of points defining the measurement data
path excluding the antenna losses which means that the measurement data remains valid even if the antenna parameters
change. A tuning file can contain several measurement paths, so that several calibrations can be applied successively on a path

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loss matrix and stored in a single tuning file. All the tuning files are stored as a catalogue in the current project. Each single
tuning path can be activated or deactivated in order to be automatically applied to path loss matrices, even after recalculation.
Tuning files are stored in the same way as path loss matrices, as explained in "Setting the Storage Location of Path Loss Matrices" on page 176. They can be saved on a network and shared between users.
To manage the catalogue of the tuning path loss data:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Propagation tab. The path loss matrix information is listed in the Available Results table.
5. Select one of the following display options:
-

Display all the matrices: All path loss matrices are displayed.
Display only invalid matrices: Only invalid path loss matrices are displayed.

The Available Results table lists the following information for each displayed path loss matrix:
-

Transmitter: The name of the transmitter or repeater.


Locked: If the check box is selected, the path loss matrix will not be updated even if the path loss matrices are
recalculated.
Valid: This is a boolean field indicating whether or not the path loss matrix is valid.
Reason for Invalidity: If the path loss matrix is indicated as being invalid, the reason is given here.
Size: The size of the path loss matrix for the transmitter.
File: If the path loss matrix is not embedded, the location of the file is listed.
Tuned: If the check box is selected, the initial path loss matrix obtained by the propagation model has been tuned
by the use of real measurement data.

6. Select the tuning path loss matrices you want to manage using the available catalogue by holding CTRL and click the
corresponding line in the Available Results table and then right-clicking. The context menu appears.
7. Select Path Loss Tuning Points from the context menu. The Path Loss Tuning Points dialogue appears.

Figure 5.10: Path Loss Tuning Catalogue


8. Select one of the following display options:
-

All: All the tuning paths are displayed.


Active Only: Only the active tuning paths are displayed.

The Available Results table lists the following information for each displayed tuning path, assuming each transmitter
(or repeater) can have several ones coming from either the same or different measurement paths:
-

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Transmitter: The name of the transmitter or repeater.


File: The location of the tuning file.
Name: The name of the tuning entry. Each entry is automatically named by Atoll based on the source of the tuning
data. You can edit the name by right-clicking the line and selecting Properties from the context menu.
Active: You can set each tuning path as active by selecting the check box. Only active entries are used to tune the
path loss matrices. When several entries are active and therefore applied to the same transmitter (or repeater),
the applicable tunings on the path loss matrix are realised in turn from the top to the bottom of the catalogue.
No. points: Displays the number of measurement points on the tuning path.
X Radius (m): Displays the radius of the ellipse axis oriented in the same direction as the transmitter (or repeater)
during the tuning session.
Y Radius (m): Displays the radius of the ellipse axis perpendicular to the transmitter (or repeater) during the tuning
session.
Gain (dB): Displays the gain of the measurement receiver.
Max. total correction (dB): Displays the user-defined maximum admissible total correction.
Max. local correction (dB): Displays the user-defined maximum admissible local correction.
Min. Threshold (dBm): Displays the user-defined level under which measurement values are not taken into
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Total correction (dB): Displays the mean error between each measured value and its corresponding pixel in the
path loss matrix. This is the correction which is applied globally to all the matrices during the first step of path loss
tuning (For more information, please refer to the Technical Reference Guide).
Valid: This is a boolean field indicating whether or not the measurement path data (excluding the antenna information) are valid.
Reason for Invalidity: If the measurement path data is indicated as being invalid, the reason is given here.
Comments: Additional comments referring to the measurement entry are given in this field. You can edit the comment by right-clicking the line and selecting Properties from the context menu.
When path loss tuning entries are changed (e.g., activated or deleted) Atoll suggests deleting the corresponding path loss matrices.

You can import tuning files to replace an existing tuning or to benefit from a path loss tuning done by another user. The PTS
files are imported using a DBF file containing all the information relative to matrices and their tuning.
To import a path loss tuning catalogue:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Propagation tab. The path loss matrix information is listed in the Available Results table.
5. Select the tuning path loss matrices for which you want to import tuning files by holding CTRL and click the corresponding line in the Available Results table and then right-clicking. The context menu appears.
6. Select Import Path Loss Tuning Catalogue from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
7. Select the DBF path loss tuning catalogue file you want to import.
8. Click Open. The existing PTS files are replaced by the ones referenced in the catalogue file. Any additional files in the
DBF catalogue file are added. You can work with the imported PTS files with the same options as files from a tuning
carried out in the current project.

5.3.8 Exporting Path Loss Matrices


You can export path loss matrices if you want to use the data in another application.
To export an Atoll documents path loss matrices:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Propagation tab. The path loss matrix information is listed in the Available Results table.
5. Right-click the Available Results table and select Select All from the context menu.
6. Right-click the Available Results table and select Export from the context menu. The Calculation Results Export dialogue appears (see Figure 5.11).
7. Set the following export parameters:
-

Directory: Enter the directory you want to store the exported path loss matrices in or click the Browse button
(
) to navigate to it. The directory must already exist.
Exported Values: Select the values that are to be exported: Path Loss (dB), Signal Level (dBm), Signal Level (dBV),
or Signal Level (dBV/m).
Format: Select the format of the exported data: BIL Files (*.bil), TXT Files (*.txt) (Separator: tab), or CSV Files
(*.csv) (Separator: ";").

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Figure 5.11: Exporting path loss matrices


8. Click OK to export the path loss matrices.

5.4 Predictions Available in Atoll


There are two types of predictions available in Atoll:

Point predictions using the Point Analysis tool: It allows you to predict, at any point on the map, the profile between
a reference transmitter and a receiver, the value of the signal levels of the surrounding transmitters, quality and interference analysis for any technology, scrambling code (resp. PN Offset) collision analysis in UMTS/HSPA (resp.
CDMA2000) projects.
Coverage predictions: You can calculate standard coverage predictions, coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal
level and overlapping zones, and specific coverage predictions such as interference predictions for GSM/GPRS/EDGE
projects or handover, service availability, etc. for UMTS, CDMA2000 and TD-SCDMA projects. Many customisation features on coverage predictions are available in order to make their analysis easier.

In this section, the following are explained:

"Making Point Predictions" on page 186


"Making Coverage Predictions" on page 189.

5.4.1 Making Point Predictions


In this section, the following are explained:

"Starting a Point Analysis" on page 186


"The Views of the Point Analysis Tool" on page 186
"Moving the Receiver on the Map" on page 188
"Taking Indoor Losses into Account" on page 188
"Taking Shadowing into Account in Point Analyses" on page 188.

5.4.1.1 Starting a Point Analysis


When you start a point analysis, Atoll automatically opens the Point Analysis window.
To make a point analysis:
1. Select Tools > Point Analysis. The Point Analysis window appears and the pointer changes (
receiver. This receiver is placed at the centre of the active map.

) to represent the

If a transmitter was already selected on the map, a line appears connecting the selected transmitter and the receiver.
2. Select the view of the Point Analysis window corresponding to the type of point prediction you want to make. For
information on the views available in the Point Analysis window, see "The Views of the Point Analysis Tool" on
page 186.

5.4.1.2 The Views of the Point Analysis Tool


You can access several views from the Point Analysis tool. These views enable you to make several different point predictions
and depend on the radio technology of the current document. When opening the Point Analysis Tool, you can select the
appropriate window from the list located at the top left part of a window:

The Profile View:


The Profile view (
and LTE projects.

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) is available in the Point Analysis tool for GSM/GPRS/EDGE, CDMA, UMTS, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX,

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The Profile view of the Point Analysis tool displays the profile between a reference transmitter and the receiver. As
well, Atoll displays the signal level of the received signal from the selected transmitter. You can also display the path
loss or total losses from the selected transmitter. In this view, the results are calculated in real time.

The Reception View:


The Reception view (
) is available in the Point Analysis tool for GSM/GPRS/EDGE, CDMA, UMTS, TD-SCDMA,
WiMAX, and LTE projects. In Multi-RAT projects, there are as many Reception views as there are technologies.
The Reception view of the Point Analysis tool displays the predicted signal level from different transmitters in the
form of a bar chart, from the highest predicted signal level on the top to the lowest one on the bottom. The calculations are based on the path loss matrices. Each bar is displayed in the colour of the transmitter it represents.
In the map window, arrows from the pointer to each transmitter are displayed in the colour of the transmitters they
represent. The best server for the pointer is the transmitter from which the pointer receives the highest signal level.
If you let the pointer rest on an arrow, the signal level received from the corresponding transmitter at the pointer location is displayed in the tip text.

The AS Analysis View:


The AS Analysis view (

) is available in the Point Analysis tool for CDMA and UMTS projects.

The AS Analysis view displays informa on on the pilot quality (Ec I0), which is the main parameter used to define the
mobile active set, the connection status, and the active set of the probe mobile.

The Interference View:


The Interference view (
) is available in the Point Analysis window for GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, WiMAX, and LTE
projects. In a multi-RAT projects where GSM and LTE are present, there are one reception window for each of these
technologies.
The Interference view displays, in the form of a bar graph, the signal level of the selected transmitter, a black bar indicating the total interference experienced by the receiver, and bars representing the interference received from each
interferer.
In the map window, arrows from the receiver towards each transmitter are also displayed in the colour of the transmitters they represent. If you let the pointer rest on an arrow, the interference level received from the corresponding
transmitter at the receiver location will be displayed in the tip text along with information on the channel being interfered and the type of interference, i.e., co- or adjacent channel.

The PN Offset Collision View:


The PN Offset Collision view (

) is available in the Point Analysis tool for CDMA projects.

The PN Offset Collision view of the Point Analysis tool gives you information on the reception for any point on the
map where there is PN Offset collision.

The SC Collision View:


The SC Collision view (

) is available in the Point Analysis tool for UMTS projects.

The SC Collision view of the Point Analysis tool gives you information on reception for any point on the map where
there is scrambling code collision.

The Details View:


The Details view (
) is available in the Point Analysis tool for GSM/GPRS/EDGE, CDMA, UMTS, TD-SCDMA, WIMAX,
and LTE projects. In Multi-RAT projects, there are as many Results views as there are technologies.
The Details view displays the current position and height of the receiver, the clutter class it is situated on. In addition,
it also displays:
-

in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects, you can select to display the results on a specific HCS layer (or all). You can also evaluate either C/I or C/I+N values where the interferences are due to any combination between adjacent channels,
co-channels or external sources. Atoll displays for each transmitter its BCCH signal level, the BCCH C/I, the most
interfered mobile station allocation (TRX, MAL or MAL-MAIO depending on the hopping mode) and its corresponding C/I.

in CDMA projects, you can select to display the results for a specific terminal, service, mobility, carrier, DL rate,
and UL rate. Atoll displays for each transmitter its signal level (or RSCP), its path loss, Ec/Io, C/I, DL and UL Eb/Nt
values, PN offsets.

in UMTS/HSPA projects, you can select to display the results for a specific terminal, service, mobility, carrier. Atoll
displays for each transmitter its signal level, Ec/Io, DL and UL Eb/Nt values, scrambling codes.

in TD-SCDMA projects, Atoll displays for each transmitter its signal level.

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in WiMAX projects, you can select to display the results for a specific terminal, service, mobility. Atoll displays for
each transmitter its preamble index, its preamble signal C, C/N and I.

in LTE projects, you can select to display the results for a specific terminal, service, mobility. Atoll displays for each
transmitter its physical cell ID, its reference signal Level, its RSRP and its RS I.

5.4.1.3 Moving the Receiver on the Map


When you make a point analysis, the pointer (
of the receiver in several ways:

) represents the receiver in the map window. You can change the position

You can move the receiver manually


You can enter the coordinates of the new position
You can place the receiver on a selected site.

To change the position of the receiver manually:

Move the receiver to change the current position.


Click to place the receiver at the current position. You can move the receiver again by clicking it a second time.

To enter the coordinates of a position:


1. Right-click the receiver (

) in the map window. The context menu appears.

2. Select Coordinates from the context menu. The Receiver Position dialogue appears.
3. Enter or paste the X and Y coordinates of the position and click OK. The receiver moves to the specified position.
To place the receiver on a selected site:
1. Right-click the receiver (

) in the map window. The context menu appears.

2. Select Target Site from the context menu. The Target Site dialogue appears.
3. Select the site on which you want to place the receiver from the Name list and click OK. The receiver moves to the
specified position.

5.4.1.4 Taking Indoor Losses into Account


In Atoll you can calculate indoor predictions by taking indoor losses into consideration. You can define default indoor losses
for all clutter classes, or you can define different indoor losses for each clutter class so that the characteristics of each clutter
class are taken into consideration during calculations.
To take indoor losses into account when making a point analysis:
1. Click the option button (
dialogue appears.

) n the window you are using from the Point Analysis tool. The Calculation Options

2. Select the Indoor Coverage check box to add indoor losses to the total path loss.

5.4.1.5 Taking Shadowing into Account in Point Analyses


Shadowing, or slow fading, is signal loss along a path caused by obstructions not taken into consideration by the propagation
model. Even when a receiver remains in the same location or in the same clutter class, there are variations in reception due
to the surrounding environment.
Normally, the signal received at any given point is spread on a gaussian curve around an average value and a specific standard
deviation. If the propagation model is correctly calibrated, the average of the results it gives should be correct. In other words,
in 50% of the measured cases, the result will be greater and in 50% of the measured cases, the result will be worse.
Atoll uses a model standard deviation with the defined cell edge coverage probability to model the effect of shadowing and
thereby provide predictions that are reliable more than fifty percent of the time. The additional losses or gains caused by shadowing are known as the shadowing margin. The shadowing margin is added to the path losses calculated by the propagation
model.
For example, a properly calibrated propagation model calculates a loss leading to a signal level of -70 dBm. You have set a cell
edge coverage probability of 85%. If the calculated shadowing margin is 7 dB for a specific point, the target signal will be equal
to or greater than -77 dBm 85% of the time.
For informa on on se ng the model standard devia on and the C I standard devia ons for each clu er class or for all clutter
classes, see "Defining Clutter Class Properties" on page 119.
You can take shadowing into account when you are making a point analysis.

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To take shadowing into account when making a point analysis:


1. Click the option button (
dialogue appears.

) n the window you are using from the Point Analysis tool. The Calculation Options

2. Select the Shadowing Taken into Account check box and enter a Cell Edge Coverage Probability. Atoll calculates the
shadowing using the appropriate standard deviation defined per clutter class.

5.4.2 Making Coverage Predictions


A coverage prediction displays the results of defined coverage conditions. It is calculated using the path loss matrices and is
based on coverage conditions and coverage resolutions. After calculation, Atoll displays the results as a graphical representation of the pixels for which the defined coverage conditions are satisfied.
Atoll offers the following general coverage predictions, available for all technologies:

Coverage by transmitter
Coverage by signal level
Coverage by overlapping zones.

Atoll also offers technology-specific coverage predictions, described in the technology-specific chapters, for example:

Interference predictions in GSM/GPRS/EDGE projects


Coding scheme and throughput predictions for GPRS/EDGE
UMTS or CDMA2000 coverage predictions.

Atoll gives you a large flexibility over how the results of your coverage prediction are displayed. You can select which
attributes should be displayed on the map and how they are displayed. As well, you can define information to be displayed in
the legend, in the label, or in tooltips. Furthermore, Atoll also allows you to filter, sort, or group results before displaying them.
Atoll offers several options and ways enabling you to create and work with coverage predictions. In this section, the following
are explained:

"Creating Coverage Predictions" on page 189


"Defining the Storage Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190
"Calculating Coverage Predictions" on page 191
"Saving Defined Coverage Predictions" on page 193.

5.4.2.1 Creating Coverage Predictions


In Atoll, you can create a coverage prediction using several different methods. Each method has its own advantages. For
example, you can create a new coverage prediction and set all of the parameters. Or you can base a new coverage prediction
on an existing one.
In this section, the following ways of creating a coverage prediction are explained:

5.4.2.1.1

"Creating a New Coverage Prediction" on page 189


"Duplicating a Coverage Prediction" on page 190
"Cloning a Coverage Prediction" on page 190.

Creating a New Coverage Prediction


When you create a new coverage prediction, you can select the type of coverage prediction and set all the parameters that
define it. The newly created coverage prediction is not automatically calculated.
To create a coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select a coverage prediction from the Prediction Types dialogue and click OK. The coverage prediction Properties dialogue appears.
The Properties dialogue for a coverage prediction common to all technologies has three tabs:
-

General tab: You can rename the coverage prediction, define the coverage resolution, add comments, and define
where the coverage prediction results are stored. For information on defining the storage location of the coverage
prediction results, see "Defining the Storage Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190.
You can also define group, sort, and filter criteria; these criteria will apply to the coverage display, not the results.

Condition tab: You can define the parameters of the coverage prediction.
Display tab: You can define how coverage prediction results will be displayed.

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5. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

For more information on calculating coverage predictions, see "Calculating Coverage Predictions" on page 191.

5.4.2.1.2

Duplicating a Coverage Prediction


You can create a new coverage prediction by duplicating an existing coverage prediction. When you duplicate an existing
coverage prediction, the coverage prediction you create will have the same coverage and display settings as the original one.
Duplicating a coverage prediction is a way to quickly create a new coverage prediction with the same settings as an original
one. The newly created coverage prediction is not automatically calculated.
To duplicate an existing coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the coverage prediction you want to duplicate. The context menu appears.
4. Select Duplicate from the context menu. A new coverage prediction appears in the Predictions folder with the same
name as the original coverage prediction, preceded by "Copy of." The duplicated coverage prediction has the same
coverage and display settings as the original one.
For information on calculating coverage predictions, see "Calculating Coverage Predictions" on page 191.

5.4.2.1.3

Cloning a Coverage Prediction


You can create a new coverage prediction by cloning an existing coverage prediction. When you clone an existing coverage
prediction, Atoll creates a copy of the coverage prediction with the calculated coverage. You can then change the display,
providing that the selected parameter does not invalidate the calculated coverage prediction. Cloning is useful if the existing
coverage prediction has a display by discrete values (e.g., coverage by transmitter with a display by transmitter) and if you
want a new coverage prediction with another display by discrete values (e.g., display by RNC or BSC). In this case, Atoll maps
the results to the selected field and you do not need to recalculate the coverage prediction. On the other hand, cloning is not
relevant if you change the display from a discrete field to value intervals, in which case, you must recalculate the coverage
prediction.
To clone an existing coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the coverage prediction you want to clone. The context menu appears.
4. Select Clone from the context menu. A new coverage prediction appears in the Predictions folder with the same name
as the original coverage prediction, preceded by "Clone of." The cloned coverage prediction not only has the same
coverage and display settings as the original one, but keeps the same results as well.
5. Right-click the cloned coverage prediction. The context menu appears.
6. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
7. Select the Display tab.
8. On the Display tab, keep the Display Type "Discrete Values" selected.
9. Select another value from the Field list to change the value displayed.
10. Click OK to apply the new display parameter.

5.4.2.2 Defining the Storage Location of Coverage Prediction Results


When you define and calculate a coverage prediction, Atoll stores the results in the Atoll document by default. You can,
however, choose to save the coverage prediction results externally. When you are working on extremely large projects, saving
results externally can help reduce the size of the Atoll document and the use of computer resources. These results can also
have been calculated on a server. You can also include in your document the results of coverage predictions that were calculated on a server. When the original coverage prediction is updated, the results displayed in the current document will also
be updated.
You can define the storage location of the results either before you calculate the coverage prediction or afterwards.

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You can not store externally the results of coverage predictions that are calculated by
transmitter instead of by level.

To define the storage location of coverage prediction results:


1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the coverage prediction for which you want to define the storage location of the results. The context menu
appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The coverage predictions Properties dialogue appears.
5. On the General tab, click the button beside Folder (
-

) and select the storage location of the results:

Saving in the Atoll document: To store the results in the document, select Embedded.
Saving externally: To store the results externally, select the external storage location. Atoll creates a folder for the
results in the same folder with the Atoll document and gives it the name of the document, with the extension
"studies."
Sharing the results of another coverage prediction: To display the results of a coverage prediction that was calculated in a different document, select Connect to Results to navigate to the XML file describing the coverage prediction results.

Externally stored coverage prediction results can be imported as customised coverage predictions. For more information on
importing customised coverage predictions, see "Saving Defined Coverage Predictions" on page 193. For a detailed description of the XML file, see Studies.XML in the Administrator Manual.

5.4.2.3 Calculating Coverage Predictions


After you have defined a coverage prediction, you can calculate it. Atoll allows you to define and calculate coverage predictions in two separate steps. This enables you to create one or several coverage predictions at one time, and then calculate
them later, when you do not need the computer resources.
Before calculating one or more coverage predictions, you can create a computation zone. The computation zone is used to
define the area where Atoll carries out calculations. When you create a computation zone, Atoll carries out the calculation
for all base stations that are active, filtered (i.e., that are selected by the current filter parameters), and whose propagation
zone intersects a rectangle containing the computation zone. Therefore, it takes into consideration base stations inside and
base stations outside the computation zone if they have an influence on the computation zone. In addition, the computation
zone defines the area within which the coverage prediction results will be displayed.
The computation zone is taken into account whether or not it is visible. In other words, if you have drawn a computation zone,
it will be taken into account whether or not its visibility check box in the Zones folder of the Geo tab in the Explorer window
is selected. You will have to delete the computation zone if you no longer want to define an area for calculations.
When working with a large network, the computation zone allows you to restrict your coverage predictions to the part of the
network you are currently working on. By allowing you to reduce the number of base stations studied, Atoll reduces both the
time and computer resources necessary for calculations. As well, by taking into consideration base stations within the computation zone and base stations outside the computation zone but which have an influence on the computation zone, Atoll gives
you realistic results for base stations that are close to the border of the computation zone.
If there is no computation zone defined, Atoll makes its calculations on all base stations that are active and filtered and for
the entire extent of the geographical data available.
For information on creating a computation zone, see "Creating a Computation Zone" on page 34.
In this section, the following are explained:

5.4.2.3.1

"Calculating Several Coverage Predictions" on page 191


"Calculating a Single Coverage Prediction" on page 192
"Forcing Calculations" on page 192
"Stopping Calculations" on page 192
"Locking Coverage Predictions" on page 192.

Calculating Several Coverage Predictions


When you have several defined coverage predictions, you can start calculation when you want and Atoll will calculate them
one after the other.
When you calculate coverage predictions, only unlocked coverage predictions are calculated. Unlocked coverage predictions
are displayed in the Predictions folder with the unlocked icon (
predictions, see "Locking Coverage Predictions" on page 192.

). For information on locking and unlocking coverage

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To calculate created coverage predictions:

Click the Calculate button (


) in the toolbar. When you click the Calculate button, Atoll first calculates non-existent
and invalid path loss matrices and then, unlocked coverage predictions in the Predictions folder.
The progress of the calculations is displayed in the Event Viewer window.
After calculation, the results are displayed in the map window, if the coverage predictions visibility check box has
been selected.

5.4.2.3.2

Calculating a Single Coverage Prediction


To calculate a single coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the coverage prediction you want to calculate. The context menu appears.
4. Select Calculate from the context menu.
Atoll first calculates non-existent and invalid path loss matrices and then, the coverage prediction even if this one has
been previously locked.
After calculation, the results are displayed in the map window, if the coverage predictions visibility check box has
been selected.

5.4.2.3.3

Forcing Calculations
When you have several defined coverage predictions, you can start calculation when you want and Atoll will calculate them
one after the other. Normally, Atoll only recalculates non-existent and invalid path loss matrices before calculating coverage
predictions. If you want, you can make Atoll recalculate all path loss matrices, including valid ones.
When you calculate coverage predictions, only unlocked coverage predictions are calculated. Unlocked coverage predictions
are displayed in the Predictions folder with the unlocked icon (
predictions, see "Locking Coverage Predictions" on page 192.

). For information on locking and unlocking coverage

To force Atoll to recalculate all path loss matrices before calculating coverage predictions:

Click the Force Calculate button (


) in the toolbar. When you click the Force Calculate button, Atoll first removes
existing path loss matrices, recalculates them and then calculates unlocked coverages predictions.
After calculation, the results are displayed in the map window, if the coverage predictions visibility check box has
been selected.

5.4.2.3.4

Stopping Calculations
When Atoll has begun to calculate coverage predictions, you can stop the calculation at any given point. This can be useful if,
for example, you want to change one of the coverage predictions or if you dont want to calculate the coverage predictions
at that time.
To stop calculations:

5.4.2.3.5

Click the Stop Calculations button (


) in the toolbar. Atoll immediately stops all ongoing calculations. The results of
calculations that have already been completed, however, will be saved.

Locking Coverage Predictions


Coverage predictions are locked by default as soon as they have been calculated. Then, when you calculate new coverage
predictions, only unlocked coverage predictions are calculated. Locking a coverage prediction retains the information as calculated under given conditions (e.g., before a new base station is created or before optimising the network). It also saves time
by limiting unnecessary recalculation.
To prevent Atoll from automatically locking coverage predictions after calculating them,
you can set an option in the atoll.ini file. For information on setting options in the atoll.ini
file, see the Administrator Manual.
To lock a coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the coverage prediction you want to lock. The context menu appears.

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Unlocked coverage predictions are displayed in the Predictions folder with the unlocked icon (

4. Select Prediction Locked from the context menu.


The icon changes to the locked icon (
) and the Prediction Locked item in the context menu now appears checked.
The coverage prediction is now locked and will not be calculated when the Calculate button in the toolbar is clicked.
However, if you select Calculate from the coverage predictions context menu, Atoll will first unlock the coverage
prediction and then calculate it.
You can lock all unlocked coverage predictions using the Predictions folders context menu.

5.4.2.3.6

Unlocking Coverage Predictions


Coverage predictions are locked by default as soon as they have been calculated. You can unlock a single coverage prediction.
To unlock a coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the coverage prediction you want to unlock. The context menu appears.
Locked coverage predictions are displayed in the Predictions folder with the locked icon (

).

4. Select Prediction Locked from the context menu.


The icon changes to the unlocked icon (

) and the Prediction Locked item in the context menu is no longer selected.

You can unlock all locked coverage predictions using the Predictions folders context menu.

5.4.2.4 Saving Defined Coverage Predictions


Once you have defined a coverage prediction, you can use it again in other Atoll documents, either by using the coverage
prediction to create a customised coverage prediction or by saving its coverage and display parameters in a user configuration.
In this section, the following are explained:

5.4.2.4.1

"Saving a Coverage Prediction as a Customised Coverage Prediction" on page 193


"Saving a Defined List of Predictions in a User Configuration File" on page 194.

Saving a Coverage Prediction as a Customised Coverage Prediction


Once you have defined a coverage prediction, you can use it as a customised coverage prediction. This coverage prediction
will be available to you in the Prediction Types dialogue the next time you want to create a new coverage prediction. The
initial parameters of the coverage prediction will be the same as the coverage prediction it is based on but, when you select
it in the Prediction Types dialogue, Atoll allows you to modify them.
To save a coverage prediction as a customised coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the coverage prediction you want to save as a customised coverage prediction. The context menu appears.
4. Select Save as Customised Prediction from the context menu. The Save As dialogue appears.
In the Save As dialogue, Atoll proposes a name and location for the XML file that will contain the customised coverage
prediction. You can accept the default values or you can change the name and save the XML file in any folder you have
write access to.
5. Click Save. Atoll saves the coverage prediction in the selected XML file.
The next time you create a new coverage prediction, the customised coverage prediction will be available at the bottom of
the list, under the full path and file name of the XML file (see Figure 5.12). If you have other XML template files, you can click
the Customised Predictions button and select it in the Open dialogue.

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Figure 5.12: Prediction Types dialogue


Coverage predictions stored in the XML template files are also directly available in the Calculations menu of the context
menus of the Transmitters folder, of a group of transmitters, and of a single transmitter.
In a multi-user environment, the administrator can make customised predictions available for all the users by saving the XML
file in the Atoll installation directory. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.

5.4.2.4.2

Saving a Defined List of Predictions in a User Configuration File


You can save the defined coverage predictions in the Predictions folder in a user configuration file. You can then import this
user configuration file into another Atoll document. All the coverage predictions in the user configuration will then be available in the Predictions folder of the new Atoll document and can be calculated.
To export a user configuration with the coverage predictions in the Predictions folder:
1. Select Tools > User Configuration > Save. The User Configuration dialogue appears.
2. Select the Prediction List check box, as well as the check box of any other information you want to save as part of the
user configuration.
3. Click OK. The Save As dialogue appears.
4. Enter a File name for the user configuration file and click Save. The folder configuration is saved.
For information on loading the user configuration into another Atoll document, see "Loading a User Configuration" on
page 77.

5.4.2.5 Calculating Indoor Coverage


In Atoll you can calculate indoor coverage by taking the indoor losses into consideration. Indoor losses are defined per clutter
class. You can define a default indoor losses value for all clutter classes. Or, you can define a different indoor losses value for
each clutter classes, to take the characteristics of each clutter class into consideration.
To calculate indoor coverage when making a coverage prediction:

When creating the coverage prediction, select the Indoor Coverage check box on the Condition tab of the coverage
predictions Properties dialogue. The indoor losses defined for the clutter classes will be added to the total path loss
for each pixel.

5.4.2.6 Taking Shadowing into Account


Shadowing, or slow fading, is signal loss along a path that is caused by obstructions not taken into consideration by the propagation model. Even when a receiver remains in the same location or in the same clutter class, there are variations in reception due to the surrounding environment.
Normally, the signal received at any given point is spread on a gaussian curve around an average value and a specific standard
deviation. If the propagation model is correctly calibrated, the average of the results it gives should be correct. In other words,
in 50% of the measured cases, the result will be greater and in 50% of the measured cases, the result will be worse.
Atoll uses a model standard deviation with the defined cell edge coverage probability to model the effect of shadowing and
thereby create coverage predictions that are reliable more than fifty percent of the time. The additional losses or gains caused
by shadowing are known as the shadowing margin. The shadowing margin is added to the path losses calculated by the propagation model.
For example, a properly calibrated propagation model calculates a loss leading to a signal level of -70 dBm. You have set a cell
edge coverage probability of 85%. If the calculated shadowing margin is 7 dB for a specific point, the target signal will be equal
to or greater than -77 dBm 85% of the time.

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For informa on on se ng the model standard devia on and the C I standard devia ons for each clu er class or for all clutter
classes, see "Defining Clutter Class Properties" on page 119.
-

When creating the coverage prediction, select the Shadowing Taken into Account check box. Then, you can define
the Cell Edge Coverage Probability.

5.

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Chapter 6
LTE Networks
This chapter provides the information to use Atoll to
design, analyse, and optimise an LTE network.

In this chapter, the following are explained:

"Designing an LTE Network" on page 199

"Planning and Optimising LTE Base Stations" on


page 200

"Configuring Network Parameters Using the AFP" on


page 278

"Studying Network Capacity" on page 285

"Optimising Network Parameters Using the ACP" on


page 315

"Verifying Network Capacity" on page 363

"Co-planning LTE Networks with Other Networks" on


page 372

"Advanced Configuration" on page 391

"Tips and Tricks" on page 406

"Glossary of LTE Terms" on page 410

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6 LTE Networks
LTE (Long Term Evolution) refers to the set of 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) Release 8 and Release 9 specifications which describe the next steps, or evolution, of the existing GERAN (GSM EDGE Radio Access Networks) and UTRAN
(UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Networks) specifications. The 3GPP LTE specifications describe the building blocks of E-UTRA
(Evolved UTRA) networks.
LTE uses SOFDMA (Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) and SC-FDMA (Single-Carrier Frequency Division
Multiple Access) technologies in the downlink and the uplink, respectively. The aim of LTE is to provide mobile broadband
wireless access that supports handovers between LTE cells as well as between LTE and UMTS/GSM cells at high user speeds.
Atoll enables you to design LTE broadband wireless access networks. Atoll can be used to predict radio coverage, manage
mobile and fixed subscriber data, and evaluate network capacity. Atoll LTE also supports smart antennas and MIMO.
Atoll enables you to model fixed and mobile users in LTE environments. The data input corresponding to mobile users and
fixed subscribers is modelled through comprehensive support of mobile user traffic maps and subscriber databases. You can
carry out calculations on fixed subscriber locations as well as base your calculations on mobile user scenarios during Monte
Carlo simulations. You can also perform interference predictions, resource allocation, and other calculations on mobile users.
Atoll uses Monte Carlo simulations to generate realistic network scenarios (snapshots) using a Monte Carlo statistical engine
for scheduling and resource allocation. Realistic user distributions can be generated using different types of traffic maps or
subscriber data. Atoll uses these user distributions as input for the simulations.
You can create coverage predictions to analyse the following and other parameters for LTE channels in downlink and in uplink:

Signal levels
The carrier-to-interference-and-noise ratio
Service areas and radio bearer coverage
Cell capacity and aggregate throughput per cell

Coverage predictions that depend on the networks traffic loads can be created from either Monte Carlo simulation results or
from a user-defined network load configuration (uplink and downlink traffic loads, and uplink noise rise). GSM GPRS EDGE,
UMTS HSPA, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA, and WiMAX networks can be planned in the same Atoll session.
Before working with the Atoll LTE module for the first time, it is highly recommended to
go through the "Glossary of LTE Terms" on page 410. This will help you get accustomed
to the terminology used by the 3GPP and in Atoll.

6.1 Designing an LTE Network


Figure 6.19 depicts the process of creating and planning an LTE network. The steps involved in planning an LTE network are
described below. The numbers refer to Figure 6.19.
1. Open an existing radio-planning document or create a new one ( 1 ).
-

You can open an existing Atoll document by selecting File > Open.
You can create a new Atoll document as explained in Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project.

2. Configure the network by adding network elements and changing parameters ( 2 ).


You can add and modify the following elements of base stations:
-

"Creating or Modifying a Site" on page 208.


"Creating or Modifying a Transmitter" on page 208.
"Creating or Modifying a Cell" on page 209.

You can also add base stations using a base station template (see "Placing a New Base Station Using a Station
Template" on page 209).
3. Carry out basic coverage predictions ( 3 ).
-

"Making a Point Analysis to Study the Profile" on page 225.


"Studying Signal Level Coverage" on page 226 and "Signal Level Coverage Predictions" on page 234.

4. Allocate neighbours ( 4 ).
-

"Planning Neighbours" on page 266.

5. Allocate frequencies ( 5 ).
-

"Planning Frequencies" on page 280.

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6. Allocate physical cell IDs ( 6 ).


-

"Planning Physical Cell IDs" on page 281.

7. Before making more advanced coverage predictions, you need to define cell load conditions ( 7 ).
You can define cell load conditions in the following ways:
-

You can generate realistic cell load conditions by creating a simulation based on traffic maps and subscriber lists

( 7a , 7b , and 7c ) (see "Studying Network Capacity" on page 285).


You can define cell load conditions manually either on the Cells tab of each transmitters Properties dialogue or
in the Cells table (see "Creating or Modifying a Cell" on page 209) ( 7d ).

8. Make LTE-specific signal quality coverage predictions using the defined cell load conditions ( 8 ).
-

"LTE Coverage Predictions" on page 248.

9. If necessary, modify network parameters to study the network with a different frequency plan ( 10 ). After modifying
the networks frequency plan, you must perform steps 7 and 8 again.
1

6
7a

7d

7c

7b
7

10

Figure 6.19: Planning an LTE network - workflow

6.2 Planning and Optimising LTE Base Stations


As described in Chapter 2: Starting an Atoll Project, you can create an Atoll document from a template, with no base stations,
or from a database with an existing set of base stations. As you work on your Atoll document, you will still need to create base
stations and modify existing ones.
In Atoll, a site is defined as a geographical point where one or more transmitters are located. Once you have created a site,
you can add transmitters. In Atoll, a transmitter is defined as the antenna and any other additional equipment, such as the
TMA, feeder cables, etc. In an LTE project, you must also add cells to each transmitter. A cell refers to the characteristics of an
RF channel on a transmitter.

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Atoll lets you create one site, transmitter, or cell at a time, or create several at once using station templates. In Atoll, a base
station refers to a site and a transmitter with its antennas, equipment, and cells.
In Atoll, you can study a single base station or a group of base stations using coverage predictions. Atoll allows you to make
a variety of coverage predictions, such as signal level or signal quality coverage predictions. The results of calculated coverage
predictions can be displayed on the map, compared, and studied.
Atoll enables you to model network traffic by creating services, users, user profiles, traffic environments, and terminals. This
data can be then used to make coverage predictions that depend on network load, such as C/(I+N), service area, radio bearer,
and throughput coverage predictions.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Creating an LTE Base Station" on page 201.


"Creating a Group of Base Stations" on page 216.
"Modifying Sites and Transmitters Directly on the Map" on page 216.
"Display Tips for Base Stations" on page 217.
"Creating a Multi-band LTE Network" on page 217.
"Creating a Repeater" on page 217.
"Creating a Remote Antenna" on page 221.
"Setting the Working Area of an Atoll Document" on page 224.
"Studying a Single Base Station" on page 224.
"Studying Base Stations" on page 228.
"Planning Neighbours" on page 266.
"Planning Frequencies" on page 280.
"Planning Physical Cell IDs" on page 281.

6.2.1 Creating an LTE Base Station


When you create a site, you create only the geographical point; you must add the transmitters and cells afterwards. The site
with a transmitter and its antennas, equipment, and cells is called a base station.
In this section, each element of a base station is described. If you want to add a new base station, see "Placing a New Base
Station Using a Station Template" on page 209. If you want to create or modify one of the elements of a base station, see
"Creating or Modifying a Base Station Element" on page 208. If you need to create a large number of base stations, Atoll
allows you to import them from another Atoll document or from an external source. For information, see "Creating a Group
of Base Stations" on page 216.
This section explains the various parts of the base station creation process:

"Definition of a Base Station" on page 201.


"Creating or Modifying a Base Station Element" on page 208.
"Placing a New Base Station Using a Station Template" on page 209.
"Managing Station Templates" on page 210.
"Duplicating an Existing Base Station" on page 215.

6.2.1.1 Definition of a Base Station


A base station consists of the site, one or more transmitters, various pieces of equipment, and radio settings such as, for example, cells. You will usually create a new base station using a station template, as described in "Placing a New Base Station Using
a Station Template" on page 209. This section describes the following elements of a base station and their parameters:

6.2.1.1.1

"Site Description" on page 201


"Transmitter Description" on page 202
"Cell Description" on page 205.

Site Description
The parameters of a site can be found in the sites Properties dialogue. The Properties dialogue has the following tab:

The General tab (see Figure 6.20):


-

Name: Atoll automatically enters a default name for each new site. You can modify the default name here. If you
want to change the default name that Atoll gives to new sites, see the Administrator Manual.
Position: By default, Atoll places the new site at the centre of the map window. You can modify the location of
the site here.
While this method allows you to place a site with precision, you can also place sites using
the mouse and then position them precisely with this dialogue afterwards. For
information on placing sites using the mouse, see "Moving a Site Using the Mouse" on
page 21.

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Altitude: The altitude, as defined by the DTM for the location specified under Position, is given here. You can
specify the actual altitude under Real, if you want. If an altitude is specified here, Atoll will use this value for calculations.
Comments: You can enter comments in this field if you want.

Figure 6.20: New Site dialogue

6.2.1.1.2

Transmitter Description
The parameters of a transmitter can be found in the transmitters Properties dialogue. When you create a transmitter, the
Properties dialogue has two tabs: the General tab and the Transmitter tab. Once you have created a transmitter, its Properties dialogue has three additional tabs: the Cells tab (see "Cell Description" on page 205), the Propagation tab (see Chapter
5: Working with Calculations in Atoll), and the Display tab (see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23).

The General tab:


-

Name: By default, Atoll names the transmitter after the site it is on, adding an underscore and a number. You can
enter a name for the transmitter, but for the sake of consistency, it is better to let Atoll assign a name. If you want
to change the way Atoll names transmitters, see the Administrator Manual.
Site: You can select the Site on which the transmitter will be located. Once you have selected the site, you can
click the Browse button (
) to access the properties of the site. For information on the site Properties dialogue,
see "Site Description" on page 201. You can click the New button to create a new site for the transmitter.
Shared antenna: This flag is used to identify the transmitters of different technologies, located at the same site,
that share antennas. These transmitters may be other technology transmitters in a 3GPP Multi-RAT document or
in a linked co-planning document. The flag must be the same for all such transmitters. Shared antennas have the
same position relative to the site (Dx, Dy), height, azimuth, and mechanical tilt, for all the transmitters that use
them. Atoll automatically synchronises changes made to these parameters for one transmitter to all other transmitters that share the antenna. For more information on co-planning, see "Co-planning LTE Networks with Other
Networks" on page 372.
Under Antenna position, you can modify the position of the antennas (main and secondary):
-

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Relative to site: Select Relative to site if you want to enter the antenna positions as offsets from the site location, and enter the x-axis and y-axis offsets, Dx and Dy, respectively.
Coordinates: Select this option if you want to enter the coordinates of the antenna, and then enter the x-axis
and y-axis coordinates of the antenna, X and Y, respectively.

The Transmitter tab (see Figure 6.21):

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Figure 6.21: Transmitter dialogue - Transmitter tab


-

Active: If this transmitter is to be active, you must select the Active check box. Active transmitters are displayed
in red in the LTE Transmitters folder of the Network tab.
Only active transmitters are taken into consideration during calculations.

Transmitter type: If you want Atoll to consider the transmitter as a potential server as well as an interferer, set
the transmitter type to Intra-network (Server and interferer). If you want Atoll to consider the transmitter only
as an interferer, set the type to Inter-network (Interferer only). No coverage for an interferer only transmitter will
be calculated for coverage predictions and it will not serve any mobile in Monte Carlo simulations.
This feature enables you to model the co-existence of different networks in the same geographic area. For more
information on how to study interference between co-existing networks, see "Modelling the Co-existence of Networks" on page 409.

Transmission/Reception: Under Transmission/Reception, you can see the total losses and the noise figure of the
transmitter. Atoll calculates losses and noise according to the characteristics of the equipment assigned to the
transmitter. Equipment can be assigned using the Equipment Specifications dialogue which appears when you
click the Equipment button.
In the Equipment Specifications dialogue (see Figure 6.22), the equipment you select and the gains and losses you
define are used to initialise total transmitter losses in the uplink and downlink:
-

TMA: You can select a tower-mounted amplifier (TMA) from the list. You can click the Browse button (
) to
access the properties of the TMA. For information on creating a TMA, see "Defining TMA Equipment" on
page 148.

Feeder: You can select a feeder cable from the list. You can click the Browse button (
) to access the properties of the feeder. For information on creating a feeder cable, see "Defining Feeder Cables" on page 148.
Transmitter: You can select transmitter equipment from the Transmitter list. You can click the Browse button

(
) to access the properties of the transmitter equipment. For information on creating transmitter equipment, see "Defining Transmitter Equipment" on page 148.
Feeder length: You can enter the feeder length at transmission and reception.
Miscellaneous losses: You can enter miscellaneous losses at transmission and reception. The value you enter
must be positive.

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Figure 6.22: The Equipment Specifications dialogue


Any loss related to the noise due to a transmitters repeater is included in the calculated
losses. Atoll always considers the values in the Real boxes in coverage predictions even if
they are different from the values in the Computed boxes. The information in the real
Noise figure box is calculated from the information you entered in the Equipment Specifications dialogue. You can modify the real Total losses at transmission and reception and
the real Noise figure at reception. Any value you enter must be positive.
-

Antennas:
-

Height/ground: The Height/ground box gives the height of the antenna above the ground. This is added to
the altitude of the site as given by the DTM. If the transmitter is situated on a building, the height entered must
include the height of building.
AAS power combining gain: The AAS power combining gain is calculated automatically depending on the
number of antenna elements of the smart antenna equipment, if any, assigned to the transmitter. This gain is
applied to the downlink transmission power for reference signals and other control channels transmitted
using the main antenna.
Main antenna: Under Main antenna, the type of antenna is visible in the Model list. You can click the Browse
button (
) to access the properties of the antenna. Clicking the Select button opens a dialogue displaying
all the possible antennas based on the same physical antenna as the currently selected one. Selecting the Electrical tilt of the antenna model displays the appropriate antennas under Available antennas. Selecting the
antenna under Available antennas and clicking OK assigns the antenna to the transmitter. The other fields,
Azimuth, Mechanical downtilt, and Additional electrical downtilt, display additional antenna parameters.

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The Additional electrical downtilt may be made accessible through an option in


the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
For more information on the effect of additional electrical downtilt on antenna
patterns, see the Technical Reference Guide.
The mechanical and additional electrical downtilts defined for the main antenna
are also used for the calculations of smart antennas.

Smart antenna: Under Smart antenna, the smart antenna equipment is available in the Equipment list. You
can click the Browse button (
) to access the properties of the smart antenna equipment. When you select
a smart antenna equipment, you can choose whether to keep the current main antenna model or to replace
it with the main antenna model defined for the selected smart antenna equipment, if any. For more information on smart antenna equipment, see "Defining Smart Antenna Equipment" on page 401.
Number of antenna ports: Select the number of antenna ports used for MIMO in the Transmission and Reception fields. For more information on how the number of antenna ports are used, see "Multiple Input Multiple
Output Systems" on page 402.
Under Secondary antennas, you can select one or more secondary antennas in the Antenna column and enter
their Azimuth, Mechanical downtilt, and % Power, which is the percentage of power reserved for this particular antenna. For example, for a transmitter with one secondary antenna, if you reserve 40% of the total
power for the secondary antenna, 60% is available for the main antenna.

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The Additional electrical downtilt may be made accessible through an option in


the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
For more information on the effect of additional electrical downtilt on antenna
patterns, see the Technical Reference Guide.
For information on working with data tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on
page 47.

The main antenna is used to transmit the control channels. Coverage predictions based on the reference signals are
performed using the main antenna. The main antenna is also used for traffic if there is no smart antenna equipment
selected for the transmitter, or if the cells do not support AAS.
If a smart antenna equipment is assigned to the transmitter and the cells support AAS, traffic data are transmitted and
received using the smart antenna, whereas the control channels are transmitted using the main antenna.

6.2.1.1.3

Cell Description
In Atoll, a cell is defined as an RF channel, with all its characteristics, on a transmitter; the cell is the mechanism by which you
can configure a multi-carrier LTE network.
When you create a transmitter, Atoll automatically creates a cell for the transmitter using the properties of the currently
selected station template. The following explains the parameters of an LTE cell. You can, if you want, modify these values.
The properties of an LTE cell are found on Cells tab of the Properties dialogue of the transmitter to which it belongs.
The Cells tab has the following options:

Name: By default, Atoll names the cell after its transmitter, adding a suffix in parentheses. If you change transmitter
name, Atoll does not update the cell name. You can enter a name for the cell, but for the sake of consistency, it is
better to let Atoll assign a name. If you want to change the way Atoll names cells, see the Administrator Manual.
Active: If this cell is to be active, you must select the Active check box.
Layer: The number of the coverage layer to which the cell belongs. This value is automatically assigned when you
create a new cell, but you can modify it afterwards. The layer is used during calculations to select the serving cell. For
more information on the cell layer selection options, see "The Global Network Settings" on page 392.
Frequency band: The cells frequency band from the frequency band list.
Channel number: The number of the channel from the list of available channels.
Channel allocation status: The status of the current channel allocated to the cell:
- Not allocated: The current channel has neither been allocated automatically nor manually. The AFP considers that
a Not allocated channel is modifiable without cost.
- Allocated: The current channel has been allocated automatically or manually. The AFP considers that an Allocated
channel is modifiable but only if absolutely necessary.
- Locked: The current channel has been allocated automatically or manually. The AFP considers that a Locked
channel is not modifiable.
For more information on the AFP, see "Configuring Network Parameters Using the AFP" on page 278.

Physical cell ID: The physical cell ID of the cell. It is an integer value from 0 to 503. The physical cell IDs are defined in
the 3GPP specifications. There are 504 unique physical-layer cell identities. The physical cell IDs are grouped into 168
unique cell ID groups (called SSS IDs in Atoll), with each group containing 3 unique identities (called PSS IDs in Atoll).
An SSS ID is thus uniquely defined by a number from 0 to 167, and a PSS ID is defined by a number from 0 to 2. Each
cells reference signals transmit a pseudo-random sequence corresponding to the physical cell ID of the cell.
PSS ID: The PSS ID corresponding to the current physical cell ID. This value is determined automatically from the physical cell ID.
SSS ID: The SSS ID corresponding to the current physical cell ID. This value is determined automatically from the physical cell ID.
Physical cell ID status: The status of the physical cell ID currently assigned to the cell:
- Not allocated: The current physical cell ID has neither been allocated automatically nor manually. The AFP considers that a Not allocated physical cell ID is modifiable without cost.
- Allocated: The current physical cell ID has been allocated automatically or manually. The AFP considers that an
Allocated physical cell ID is modifiable but only if absolutely necessary.
- Locked: The current physical cell ID has been allocated automatically or manually. The AFP considers that a Locked
physical cell ID is not modifiable.
For more information on the AFP, see "Configuring Network Parameters Using the AFP" on page 278.

Min reuse distance: The minimum reuse distance after which the channel or physical cell ID assigned to this cell can
be assigned to another cell by the AFP.
Max power (dBm): The cells maximum transmission power. If the Reference signal EPRE is set to Calculated from
Max power and EPRE offsets in the Global Parameters, the transmission powers corresponding to different channels
are calculated using this value, the energy per resource element offsets defined for the SS, PBCH, PDSCH, and PDCCH,
and the number of resource elements corresponding to each channel, all of which are also calculated by Atoll. If the

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Reference signal EPRE is set to User-defined, this field is not used, and you can directly enter the RS EPRE in the corresponding field.
RS EPRE (dBm): The reference signal EPRE. If the Reference signal EPRE is set to Calculated from Max power and EPRE
offsets in the Global Parameters, this value is calculated by Atoll. If the Reference signal EPRE is set to User-defined,
you can enter the RS EPRE.
SS EPRE Offset/RS (dB): The difference in the energy of a resource element belonging to the synchronisation signals
with respect to the energy of a reference signal resource element. This value is used to calculate the transmission
power corresponding to the primary and secondary synchronisation signals (PSS, SSS).
PBCH EPRE Offset/RS (dB): The difference in the energy of a resource element belonging to the PBCH with respect to
the energy of a reference signal resource element. This value is used to calculate the transmission power corresponding to the physical broadcast channel (PBCH).
PDCCH EPRE Offset/RS (dB): The difference in the energy of a resource element belonging to the PDCCH with respect
to the energy of a reference signal resource element. This value is used to calculate the transmission power corresponding to the physical downlink control channel (PDCCH).
PDSCH EPRE Offset/RS (dB): The difference in the energy of a resource element belonging to the PDSCH with respect
to the energy of a reference signal resource element. This value is used to calculate the transmission power corresponding to the physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH).
Atoll first calculates the energy per resource element corresponding to the reference signal resource elements, the
SS, PBCH, PDSCH, and PDCCH. Once the energies available for each of these resource element types are known, they
are converted into transmission powers for further calculations. In the offset fields above, you have to enter the
offsets, i.e., the difference in the energy levels, for one resource element of each type. For example, if a resource
element belonging to the SS has 3 dB less energy than a resource element of the downlink reference signals, you
should enter -3 dB in the SS EPRE Offset. Atoll will then calculate the actual transmission power of the SS, i.e., all the
resource elements of the SS, from this offset and the number of SS resource elements per frame.

Instantaneous RS power (dBm): The instantaneous reference signal transmission power calculated from the maximum power or RS EPRE and the EPRE offsets.
Instantaneous SS power (dBm): The instantaneous SS transmission power calculated from the maximum power or RS
EPRE and the EPRE offsets.
Instantaneous PBCH power (dBm): The instantaneous PBCH transmission power calculated from the maximum
power or RS EPRE and the EPRE offsets.
Average PDCCH power (dBm): The average PDCCH transmission power calculated from the maximum power or RS
EPRE and the EPRE offsets.
Average PDSCH power (dBm): The average PDSCH transmission power calculated from the maximum power or RS
EPRE and the EPRE offsets.
If the cells transmitter has a smart antenna equipment assigned, the transmission powers of cell increase by
10 Log ( n ) (in dB), where n is the number of antenna elements of the smart antenna. This gain in the transmission
powers is referred to as the AAS power combining gain.

Min RSRP (dBm): The minimum RSRP required for a user to be connected to the cell. The RSRP is compared with this
threshold to determine whether or not a user is within the cells coverage or not.
Reception equipment: You can select the cells reception equipment from the reception equipment list. For more
information, see "Defining LTE Reception Equipment" on page 396.
Scheduler: The scheduler used by the cell for bearer selection and resource allocation. You can select the scheduler
from the list of schedulers available in the Schedulers table. For more information see "Defining LTE Schedulers" on
page 399.
Max number of users: The maximum number of simultaneous connected users supported by the cell.
No. of users (DL): The number of users connected to the cell in the downlink. This can be user-defined or an output
of Monte Carlo simulations.
No. of users (UL): The number of users connected to the cell in the uplink. This can be user-defined or an output of
Monte Carlo simulations.
TDD frame configuration: The frame configuration used by the cell when the cells frequency band is TDD. If the networks switching point periodicity is set to "Half Frame", you can select a frame configuration of type DSUUU-DSUUU,
DSUUD-DSUUD, DSUDD-DSUDD, or DSUUU-DSUUD. If the networks switching point periodicity is set to "Frame", you
can select a frame configuration of type DSUUU-DDDDD, DSUUD-DDDDD, or DSUDD-DDDDD. For more information
on TDD switching point periodicity, see "The Global Network Settings" on page 392.
TDD frame configuration is hidden when there is no TDD frequency band defined in the
Frequency Bands table (see "Defining Frequency Bands" on page 391.

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Diversity support (DL): The type of antenna diversity technique (Transmit diversity, SU-MIMO, AMS, or AAS) supported by the cell in downlink. You cannot select more than one type of MIMO technique (diversity, SU-MIMO, or
AMS) at a time.
Diversity support (UL): The type of antenna diversity technique (None, Receive diversity, SU-MIMO, AMS, or
MU-MIMO) supported by the cell in uplink.

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Specific calculations are performed (and gains applied) for terminals supporting AAS and MIMO.

AMS & MU-MIMO threshold (dB): For AMS, it is the reference signal C/N or C/(I+N) threshold, according to the option
set in the Advanced parameters ("The Global Network Settings" on page 392), for switching from SU-MIMO to
Transmit or receive diversity. For MU-MIMO, it is the minimum required reference signal CNR for using MU-MIMO.
For more information on Adaptive MIMO switching, see "Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems" on page 402.
MU-MIMO capacity gain (UL): The uplink capacity gain due to multi-user (collaborative) MIMO. This can be userdefined or an output of Monte Carlo simulations. In uplink throughput coverage predictions, the cell capacity will be
multiplied by this gain on pixels where MU-MIMO is used.
Fractional power control factor: This factor is used for path loss compensation when performing fractional power
control on the uplink. For example, if this factor is set to 0.8, only 80% of the actual path loss will be considered when
estimating the received power. Therefore, the received power from any mobile on the uplink will be estimated to be
higher than it would actually be (using 100% of the path loss), which will be interpreted by the mobile as a need to
reduce its transmission power. This factor is represented by in 3GPP specifications. This factor represents the influence of the serving cell on the fractional power of any mobile.
Max PUSCH C/(I+N) (dB): This value is used for power control on the uplink. The difference between the Max PUSCH
C/(I+N) and the uplink noise rise of the cell corresponds to the nominal PUSCH power for the cell. The nominal PUSCH
power is a cell-specific parameter from which a limit on the uplink transmission powers of mobiles in the cell can be
extracted. This factor is represented by P O_PUSCH in 3GPP specifications. Max PUSCH C/(I+N) is updated during uplink
noise rise control in Monte Carlo simulations based on the maximum noise rise constraints of the neighbouring cells.
Interference coordination support: The type of inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) technique supported by the
cell. You can select Static DL or Static UL. With ICIC, a cell uses a third of the channel bandwidth in its ICIC part of the
frame. Which third of the channel bandwidth is used by the cell depends on its PSS ID. Therefore, fractional frequency
planning can be performed by the AFP by allocating physical cell IDs. For more information, see "Planning Physical Cell
IDs" on page 281.
ICIC configuration: The inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) configuration used by the cell in downlink and
uplink. ICIC configuration defines the numbers of frequency blocks available in the ICIC parts of the frames when the
cell supports Static DL or Static UL inter-cell interference coordination. For more information, see "Defining ICIC Configurations" on page 403.
ICIC delta path loss threshold (dB): The maximum difference between the path loss of the second best server and the
path loss of the best server to be considered at cell edge. Cell edge mobiles are served by the ICIC part of the LTE
frame, i.e., the part of the frame that uses a fraction of the channel bandwidth.
Max traffic load (DL) (%): The downlink traffic load not to be exceeded. This limit can be taken into account during
Monte Carlo simulations. If the cell traffic load is limited by this value, the cell will not be allowed to have a downlink
traffic load greater than this maximum.
Traffic load (DL) (%): The downlink traffic load percentage. This can be user-defined or an output of Monte Carlo simulations.
ICIC ratio (DL) (%): You can set the percentage of the total downlink traffic load that corresponds to the ICIC part of
the frame. For example, if the downlink traffic load is 80%, and you set the ICIC ratio to 50%, it means that 40% of the
downlink traffic load is on the ICIC part of the frame while the other 40% is on the non-ICIC part. This can be userdefined or an output of Monte Carlo simulations.
Max traffic load (UL) (%): The uplink traffic load not to be exceeded. This limit can be taken into account during Monte
Carlo simulations. If the cell traffic load is limited by this value, the cell will not be allowed to have an uplink traffic
load greater than this maximum.
Traffic load (UL) (%): The uplink traffic load percentage. This can be user-defined or an output of Monte Carlo simulations.
UL noise rise (dB): The uplink noise rise in dB. This can be user-defined or an output of Monte Carlo simulations. This
is the global value of uplink noise rise including the inter-technology uplink noise rise.
ICIC UL noise rise (dB): The uplink noise rise of the part of the LTE frame that uses a fraction of the channel bandwidth.
This noise rise is only used when the ICIC support for the cell includes Static UL. This can be user-defined or an output
of Monte Carlo simulations.
Max UL noise rise (dB): The upper limit on both uplink noise rise values, i.e., the UL noise rise and the ICIC UL noise
rise. It is used for uplink noise rise control during Monte Carlo simulations. This parameter represents the maximum
interference that a cell can tolerate on the uplink.
Angular distributions of interference (AAS): This field stores the Monte Carlo simulation results generated for transmitters using a smart antenna. These results are the angular distributions of the downlink traffic power spectral density.
AAS usage (DL) (%): This is the percentage of the total downlink traffic load that corresponds to the traffic loads of the
users supported by the smart antenna. For example, if the downlink traffic load is 80%, and you set the AAS usage to
50%, it means that 40% downlink traffic load is supported by the smart antenna equipment while the other 40% is
supported by the main antenna. AAS usage is calculated during Monte Carlo simulations, and cannot be modified
manually because the AAS usage values correspond to the angular distributions of interference.
Inter-technology UL noise rise: This noise rise represents the interference created by mobiles and base stations of an
external network on this cell on the uplink. This noise rise will be taken into account in all uplink interference-based
calculations involving this cell in the simulation. It is not used in predictions where Atoll calculates the uplink total
interference from the uplink noise rise which includes inter-technology uplink interference. For more information on
inter-technology interference, see "Modelling Inter-technology Interference" on page 405.

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Inter-technology DL noise rise: This noise rise represents the interference created by mobiles of an external network
on the mobiles served by this cell on the downlink. This noise rise will be taken into account in all downlink interference-based calculations involving this cell. For more information on inter-technology interference, see "Modelling
Inter-technology Interference" on page 405.
Max number of intra-technology neighbours: The maximum number of LTE neighbours that the cell can have.
Max number of inter-technology neighbours: The maximum number of other technology neighbours that the cell can
have.
Neighbours: You can access a dialogue in which you can set both intra-technology and inter-technology neighbours
by clicking the Browse button (

). For information on defining neighbours, see "Planning Neighbours" on page 266.

The Browse button (


) might not be visible in the Neighbours box if this is a new cell.
You can make the Browse button appear by clicking Apply.

6.2.1.2 Creating or Modifying a Base Station Element


A base station consists of the site, one or more transmitters, various pieces of equipment, and radio settings such as, for example, cells. This section describes how to create or modify the following elements of a base station:

6.2.1.2.1

"Creating or Modifying a Site" on page 208


"Creating or Modifying a Transmitter" on page 208
"Creating or Modifying a Cell" on page 209

Creating or Modifying a Site


You can modify an existing site or you can create a new site. You can access the properties of a site, described in "Site Description" on page 201, through the sites Properties dialogue. How you access the Properties dialogue depends on whether you
are creating a new site or modifying an existing site.
To create a new site:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Sites folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Sites: New Element Properties dialogue appears (see Figure 6.20 on
page 202).
4. Modify the parameters described in "Site Description" on page 201.
5. Click OK.
To modify the properties of an existing site:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Sites folder.
3. Right-click the site you want to modify. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The sites Properties dialogue appears.
5. Modify the parameters described in "Site Description" on page 201.
6. Click OK.
If you are creating several sites at the same time, or modifying several existing sites, you
can do it quickly by editing or pasting the data directly in the Sites table. You can open
the Sites table by right-clicking the Sites folder on the Network tab of the Explorer
window and selecting Open Table from the context menu. For information on copying
and pasting data, see "Copying and Pasting in Tables" on page 54.

6.2.1.2.2

Creating or Modifying a Transmitter


You can modify an existing transmitter or you can create a new transmitter. When you create a new transmitter, its initial
settings are based on the default station template displayed in the Radio Planning toolbar. You can access the properties of
a transmitter, described in "Transmitter Description" on page 202, through the transmitters Properties dialogue. How you
access the Properties dialogue depends on whether you are creating a new transmitter or modifying an existing transmitter.

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To create a new transmitter:


1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Transmitters: New Element Properties dialogue appears (see Figure 6.21).
4. Modify the parameters described in "Transmitter Description" on page 202.
5. Click OK. When you create a new transmitter, Atoll automatically creates a cell based on the default station template.
For information on creating a cell, see "Creating or Modifying a Cell" on page 209.
To modify the properties of an existing transmitter:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Transmitters folder.
3. Right-click the transmitter you want to modify. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The transmitters Properties dialogue appears.
5. Modify the parameters described in "Transmitter Description" on page 202.
6. Click OK.

6.2.1.2.3

If you are creating several transmitters at the same time, or modifying several
existing transmitters, you can do it more quickly by editing or pasting the data
directly in the Transmitters table. You can open the Transmitters table by rightclicking the LTE Transmitters folder on the Network tab of the Explorer window
and selecting Open Table from the context menu. For information on copying and
pasting data, see "Copying and Pasting in Tables" on page 54.
If you want to add a transmitter to an existing site on the map, you can add the
transmitter by right-clicking the site and selecting New Transmitter from the context menu.

Creating or Modifying a Cell


You can modify an existing cell or you can create a new cell. You can access the properties of a cell, described in "Cell Description" on page 205, through the Properties dialogue of the transmitter where the cell is located. How you access the Properties
dialogue depends on whether you are creating a new cell or modifying an existing cell.
To create or modify a cell:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Transmitters folder.
3. Right-click the transmitter on which you want to create a cell or whose cell you want to modify. The context menu
appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The transmitters Properties dialogue appears.
5. Select the Cells tab.
6. Modify the parameters described in "Cell Description" on page 205.
7. Click OK.

If you are creating or modifying several cells at the same time, you can do it more
quickly by editing the data directly in the Cells table. You can open the Cells table
by right-clicking the LTE Transmitters folder on the Network tab of the Explorer
window and selecting Cells > Open Table from the context menu. You can either
edit the data in the table, paste data into the table (see "Copying and Pasting in
Tables" on page 54), or import data into the table (see "Importing Tables from Text
Files" on page 58).
If you want to add a cell to an existing transmitter on the map, you can add the cell
by right-clicking the transmitter and selecting New Cell from the context menu.

6.2.1.3 Placing a New Base Station Using a Station Template


In Atoll, a base station is defined as a site with one or more transmitters sharing the same properties. With Atoll, you can
create a network by placing base stations based on station templates. This allows you to build your network quickly with
consistent parameters, instead of building the network by first creating the site, then the transmitters, and finally by adding
the cells.

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To place a new station using a station template:


1. In the Radio Planning toolbar, select a template from the list.

2. Click the New Transmitter or Station button (

) in the Radio Planning toolbar.

3. In the map window, move the pointer over the map to where you would like to
place the new station. The exact coordinates of the pointers current location are
visible in the Status bar.

4. Click to place the station.

To place the base station more accurately, you can zoom in on the map before you
click the New Transmitter or Station button. For information on using the zooming
tools, see "Changing the Map Scale" on page 29.
If you let the pointer rest over the base station you have placed, Atoll displays its
tip text with its exact coordinates, allowing you to verify that the location is correct.

You can also place a series of base stations using a station template. You do this by defining an area on the map where you
want to place the base stations. Atoll calculates the placement of each base station according to the defined hexagonal cell
radius in the station template. For information on defining the cell radius, see "Modifying a Station Template" on page 211.
To place a series of base stations within a defined area:
1. In the Radio Planning toolbar, select a template from the list (see Figure 6.23).
2. Click the Hexagonal Design button ( ) to the right of the station template list. A hexagonal design is a group of base
stations created from the same station template.
3. Draw a zone delimiting the area where you want to place the series of base stations:
a. Click once on the map to start drawing the zone.
b. Click once on the map to define each point on the map where the border of the zone changes direction.
c. Click twice to finish drawing and close the zone.
Atoll fills the delimited zone with new base stations and their hexagonal shapes. Base station objects such as sites and
transmitters are also created and placed into their respective folders.
You can work with the sites and transmitters in these base stations as you work with any base station object, adding, for example, another antenna to a transmitter.
Placing a Station on an Existing Site
When you place a new station using a station template as explained in "Placing a New Base Station Using a Station Template"
on page 209, the site is created at the same time as the station. However, you can also place a new station on an existing site.
To place a base station on an existing site:
1. On the Network tab, clear the display check box beside the Hexagonal Design folder.
2. In the Radio Planning toolbar, select a template from the list.
3. Click the New Transmitter or Station button (

) in the Radio Planning toolbar.

4. Move the pointer to the site on the map. When the frame appears around the site, indicating it is selected, click to
place the station.

6.2.1.4 Managing Station Templates


Atoll comes with LTE station templates, but you can also create and modify station templates. The tools for working with
station templates are on the Radio Planning toolbar (see Figure 6.23).

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Figure 6.23: The Radio Planning toolbar


In this section, the following are explained:

6.2.1.4.1

"Creating a Station Template" on page 211


"Modifying a Station Template" on page 211
"Copying Properties from One Station Template to Another" on page 214
"Modifying a Field in a Station Template" on page 215
"Deleting a Station Template" on page 215.

Creating a Station Template


When you create a station template, you can do so by selecting an existing station template that most closely resembles the
station template you want to create and making a copy. Then you can modify the parameters that differ.To create a station
template:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Network Settings folder.
3. Right-click the Station Templates folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Station Templates table appears.
5. In the Station Templates table, right-click the station template that most closely resembles the station template you
want to create. The context menu appears.
6. Select Copy from the context menu.
7. Right-click the row marked with the New row icon (

). The context menu appears.

8. Select Paste from the context menu. The station template you copied in step 5. is pasted in the new row, with the
Name of the new station template given as the same as the template copied but preceded by "Copy of".
9. Edit the parameters of the new station template in the table or as explained in "Modifying a Station Template" on
page 211.

6.2.1.4.2

Modifying a Station Template


You can modify a station template directly in the Station Templates table, or you can open the Properties dialogue for that
station template and modify the parameters in the dialogue.
To modify a station template:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Network Settings folder.
3. Right-click the Station Templates folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Station Templates table appears.
5. Right-click the station template you want to modify. The context menu appears.
6. Select Record Properties from the context menu. The station templates Properties dialogue appears.
7. Click the General tab of the Properties dialogue. On this tab (see Figure 6.24), you can modify the following:
-

The Name of the station template, the number of Sectors, each with a transmitter, the Hexagon radius, i.e., the
theoretical radius of the hexagonal area covered by each sector, and the Transmitter type, i.e., whether the transmitter belongs to your network or to an external network.
Under Antennas, you can modify the following: 1st sector azimuth, from which the azimuth of the other sectors
are offset to offer complete coverage of the area, the Height/ground of the antennas from the ground (i.e., the
height over the DTM; if the transmitter is situated on a building, the height entered must include the height of the
building), the Mechanical downtilt, and the Additional electrical downtilt for the antennas.

The Additional electrical downtilt may be made accessible through an option in


the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
For more information on the effect of additional electrical downtilt on antenna
patterns, see the Technical Reference Guide.

Under Main antenna, you can select the the main antenna Model, under Smart antenna, you can select the smart
antenna Equipment used by the transmitter, and under Number of antenna ports, you can enter the number of
antennas used for Transmission and for Reception for MIMO.

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Under Path loss matrices, you can modify the following: the Main propagation model, the Main radius, and the
Main resolution, and the Extended propagation model, the Extended radius, and the Extended resolution. For
information on propagation models, see Chapter 5: Working with Calculations in Atoll.
Under Comments, you can add additional information. The information you enter will be the default information
in the Comments field of any transmitter created using this station template.

Figure 6.24: Station Template Properties dialogue General tab


8. Click the Transmitter tab. On this tab (see Figure 6.25), if the Active check box is selected, you can modify the following under Transmission/Reception: you can click the Equipment button to open the Equipment Specifications
dialogue and modify the tower-mounted amplifier (TMA), feeder cables, or transmitter equipment. For information
on the Equipment Specifications dialogue, see "Transmitter Description" on page 202.
The information in the computed Total losses in transmission and reception boxes is calculated from the information
you entered in the Equipment Specifications dialogue (see Figure 6.22 on page 204). Any loss related to the noise due
to a transmitters repeater is included in the calculated losses. Atoll always considers the values in the Real boxes in
coverage predictions even if they are different from the values in the Computed boxes. You can modify the real Total
losses at transmission and reception if you want. Any value you enter must be positive.
The information in the computed Noise figure box is calculated from the information you entered in the Equipment
Specifications dialogue. You can modify the real Noise figure at reception if you want. Any value you enter must be
positive.

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Figure 6.25: Station Template Properties dialogue Transmitter tab


9. Click the LTE tab. On this tab (see Figure 6.26), you can modify the following:
-

Under Power and EPRE offsets relative to the reference signals EPRE, you can modify the Max power or RS EPRE,
and the EPRE offsets for the SS, PBCH, PDSCH, and PDCCH in SS offset, PBCH offset, PDCCH offset, and PDSCH
offset.
You can assign channel and physical cell ID per cell per sector, by clicking the Cell definition per sector button. The
Cell Definition per Sector dialogue appears.
i.

Click the Cell definition per sector button. The Cell Definition per Sector dialogue appears.

ii. Select the Sector for which you want to define cell parameters, i.e., channel number and physical cell ID.
iii. Enter the Number of cell layers that the selected sector will have. The number of rows in the grid below depends on the number of cell layers that you enter.
iv. In the Cell layer - Channel/Physical cell ID grid, assign a channel number and a physical cell ID to each cell.
v. Carry out the steps above to assign a channel and physical cell ID to each sector.
vi. Click OK.
-

Frequency band, Min reuse distance, Reception equipment, Scheduler, Max number of users, TDD frame configuration, and Min RSRP.
Under Antenna diversity, you can select the Diversity support in downlink and in uplink, enter the AMS &
MU-MIMO threshold, and define the default MU-MIMO capacity gain.
Under Default loads, you can enter the default values for DL traffic load, UL traffic load, UL noise rise, and the
Max DL traffic load and Max UL traffic load.
Under Inter-technology interference, you can set the DL noise rise and the UL noise rise. For more information
on inter-technology interference, see "Modelling Inter-technology Interference" on page 405.

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Figure 6.26: Station Template Properties dialogue LTE tab


10. Click the Neighbours tab. On this tab (see Figure 6.27), you can modify the following:
-

Under Max number of neighbours, you can set the maximum numbers of Intra-technology and Inter-technology
neighbours.

Figure 6.27: Station Template Properties dialogue Neighbours tab


11. Click the Other Properties tab. The Other Properties tab will only appear if you have defined additional fields in the
Sites table, or if you have defined an additional field in the Station Template Properties dialogue.
12. When you have finished setting the parameters for the station template, click OK to close the dialogue and save your
changes.

6.2.1.4.3

Copying Properties from One Station Template to Another


You can copy properties from one template to another template by using the Station Templates table.
To copy properties from one template to another template:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Network Settings folder.
3. Right-click the Station Templates folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Station Templates table appears.

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5. In the Stations Templates table, copy the settings in the row corresponding to the station template you want to copy
from and paste them into the row corresponding to the station template you want to modify.

6.2.1.4.4

Modifying a Field in a Station Template


You can add, delete, and edit user-defiend data table fields in the Station Templates table. If you want to add a user-defined
field to the station templates, you must have already added it to the Sites table for it to appear as an option in the station
template properties
To access the station templates data table field defintion dialogue:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Network Settings folder.
3. Right-click the Station Templates folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Station Template Properties dialogue appears.
5. Select the Table tab.
6. For information on adding, deleting, and editing user-defined fields, see "Adding, Deleting, and Editing Data Table
Fields" on page 47).
7. When you have finished, Click OK.

6.2.1.4.5

Deleting a Station Template


To delete a station template:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Network Settings folder.
3. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Station Templates folder.
4. In the Station Templates folder, right-click the station template you want to delete. The context menu appears.
5. Select Delete from the context menu. The template is deleted.

6.2.1.5 Duplicating an Existing Base Station


You can create new base stations by duplicating an existing base station. When you duplicate an existing base station, the base
station you create will have the same site, transmitter, and cell parameter values as the original one. Duplicating a base station
allows you to:

Quickly create a new base station with the same settings as an original one in order to study the effect of a new station
on the coverage and capacity of the network, and
Quickly create a new homogeneous network with base stations that have the same characteristics.

To duplicate an existing base station:


1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Sites folder.
3. Right-click the site you want to duplicate. The context menu appears.
4. From the context menu, select one of the following:
-

Select Duplicate > Without Neighbours from the context menu, if you want to duplicate the base station without
the intra- and inter-technology neighbours of its transmitters.
Select Duplicate > With Outward Neighbours from the context menu, if you want to duplicate the base station
along with the lists of intra- and inter-technology neighbours of its transmitters.

You can now place the new base station on the map using the mouse.
5. In the map window, move the pointer over the map to where you would like to place the new base station. The exact
coordinates of the pointers current location are visible in the status bar.

Figure 6.28: Placing a new base station

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To place the station more accurately, you can zoom in on the map before you select
Duplicate from the context menu. For information on using the zooming tools, see
"Changing the Map Scale" on page 29.
If you let the pointer rest over the station you have placed, Atoll displays tip text
with its exact coordinates, allowing you to verify that the location is correct.

6. Click to place the duplicate base station.


A new base station is placed on the map. The site, transmitters, and cells of the new base station have the same names
as the site, transmitters, and cells of the original base station with each name marked as "Copy of." The site, transmitters, and cells of the duplicate base station have the same settings as those of the original base station. All the remote
antennas and repeaters of any transmitter on the original site are also duplicated.
You can also place a series of duplicate base stations by pressing and holding Ctrl in step 6. and clicking to place each
duplicate station.
For more information on the site, transmitter, and cell properties, see "Definition of a Base Station" on page 201.

6.2.2 Creating a Group of Base Stations


You can create base stations individually as explained in "Creating an LTE Base Station" on page 201, or you can create one or
several base stations by using station templates as explained in "Placing a New Base Station Using a Station Template" on
page 209. However, if you have a large project and you already have existing data, you can import this data into your current
Atoll document and create a group of base stations.
When you import data into your current Atoll document, the coordinate system of the
imported data must be the same as the display coordinate system used in the document.
If you cannot change the coordinate system of your source data, you can temporarily
change the display coordinate system of the Atoll document to match the source data. For
information on changing the coordinate system, see "Setting a Coordinate System" on
page 95.
You can import base station data in the following ways:

Copying and pasting data: If you have data in table form, either in another Atoll document or in a spreadsheet, you
can copy this data and paste it into the tables in your current Atoll document. When you create a group of base stations by copying and pasting data, you must copy and paste site data in the Sites table, transmitter data in the Transmitters table, and cell data in the Cells table, in that order.
The table you copy from must have the same column layout as the table you are pasting
data into.

For information on copying and pasting data, see "Copying and Pasting in Tables" on page 54.

Importing data: If you have base station data in text or comma-separated value (CSV) format, you can import it into
the tables in the current document. If the data is in another Atoll document, you can first export it in text or CSV
format and then import it into the tables of your current Atoll document. When you are importing, Atoll allows you
to select what values you import into which columns of the table.
When you create a group of base stations by importing data, you must import site data in the Sites table, transmitter
data in the Transmitters table, and cell data in the Cells table, in that order.
For information on exporting table data, see "Exporting Tables to Text Files" on page 57. For information on importing
table data, see "Importing Tables from Text Files" on page 58.

6.2.3 Modifying Sites and Transmitters Directly on the Map


In Atoll, you can access the Properties dialogue of a site or transmitter using the context menu on the Network tab of the
Explorer window. However, in a complex radio-planning project, it can be difficult to find the data object in the Network tab,
although it might be visible in the map window. Atoll lets you access the Properties dialogue of sites and transmitters directly
from the map. If there is more than one transmitter with the same azimuth, clicking the transmitters in the map window opens
a context menu allowing you to select the transmitter. You can also change the position of the station by dragging it, or by
letting Atoll find a higher location for it.
Modifying sites and transmitters directly on the map is explained in detail in Chapter 1: The Working Environment:

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"Moving a Site Using the Mouse" on page 21.


"Moving a Site to a Higher Location" on page 21.
"Changing the Azimuth of the Antenna Using the Mouse" on page 22.
"Changing the Antenna Position Relative to the Site Using the Mouse" on page 22.

6.2.4 Display Tips for Base Stations


Atoll allows to you to display information about base stations in a number of ways. This enables you not only to display
selected information, but also to distinguish base stations at a glance.
The following tools can be used to display information about base stations:

Label: You can display information about each object, such as each site or transmitter, in the form of a label that is
displayed with the object. You can display information from every field in that object types data table, including from
fields that you add. The label is always displayed, so you should choose information that you would want to always be
visible; too much information in the label will make it harder to distinguish the information you are looking for. For
information on defining the label, see "Defining the Object Type Label" on page 26.
Tip text: You can display information about each object, such as each site or transmitter, in the form of tip text that is
only visible when you move the pointer over the object. You can choose to display more information than in the label,
because the information is only displayed when you move the pointer over the object. You can display information
from any field in that object types data table, including from fields that you add. For information on defining the tip
text, see "Defining the Object Type Tip Text" on page 26.
Transmitter colour: You can set the transmitter colour to display information about the transmitter. For example, you
can select "Discrete Values" to distinguish transmitters by antenna type, or to distinguish inactive from active transmitters. You can also define the display type for transmitters as "Automatic." Atoll then automatically assigns a colour
to each transmitter, ensuring that each transmitter has a different colour than the transmitters surrounding it. For
information on defining the transmitter colour, see "Defining the Display Type" on page 24.
Transmitter symbol: You can select one of several symbols to represent transmitters. For example, you can select a
symbol that graphically represents the antenna half-power beamwidth (

). If you have two transmitters on the

same site with the same azimuth, you can differentiate them by selecting different symbols for each (
For information on defining the transmitter symbol, see "Defining the Display Type" on page 24.

and

).

6.2.5 Creating a Multi-band LTE Network


In Atoll, you can model a multi-band LTE network, for example, a network consisting of 900 MHz and 2.1 GHz, in one document. Creating a multi-band LTE network consists of the following steps:
1. Defining the frequency bands in the document (see "Defining Frequency Bands" on page 391).
2. Selecting and calibrating a propagation model for each frequency band (see Chapter 5: Working with Calculations in
Atoll).
3. Assigning a frequency band to each cell and a relevant propagation model to each transmitter (see "Creating or Modifying a Cell" on page 209 and "Creating or Modifying a Transmitter" on page 208).

6.2.6 Creating a Repeater


A repeater receives, amplifies, and re-transmits the radiated or conducted RF carrier both in downlink and uplink. It has a
donor side and a server side. The donor side receives the signal from a donor transmitter, repeater, or remote antenna. This
signal may be carried by different types of links such as radio link or microwave link. The server side re-transmits the received
signal.
Atoll models RF repeaters and microwave repeaters. The modelling focuses on:

The additional coverage these systems provide to transmitters in the downlink.


The UL total gain value and the noise rise generated at the donor transmitter by the repeater.

In this section, the following are explained:

"Opening the Repeaters Table" on page 218


"Creating and Modifying Repeater Equipment" on page 218
"Placing a Repeater on the Map Using the Mouse" on page 218
"Creating Several Repeaters" on page 219
"Defining the Properties of a Repeater" on page 219
"Tips for Updating Repeater Parameters" on page 221.

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Atoll assumes that all carriers from the LTE donor transmitter are amplified.

6.2.6.1 Opening the Repeaters Table


Repeaters and their defining parameters are stored in the Repeaters table.
To open the Repeaters table:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Repeaters > Open Table from the context menu. The Repeaters table appears.

6.2.6.2 Creating and Modifying Repeater Equipment


You can define repeater equipment to be assigned to each repeater in the network.
To create or modify repeater equipment:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Radio Network Equipment folder.
3. In the Radio Network Equipment folder, right-click Repeater Equipment. The context menu appears.
4. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Repeater Equipment table appears.
5. Define the following in an existing record or in the row marked with the New row icon (

):

a. Enter a Name and Manufacturer for the new equipment.


b. Enter a Noise figure (dB). The repeater causes a rise in noise at the donor transmitter, so the noise figure is used
to calculate the UL loss to be added to the donor transmitter UL losses. The noise figure must be a positive value.
c. Enter minimum and maximum repeater amplification gains in the Min. gain and Max gain columns. These parameters enable Atoll to ensure that the user-defined amplifier gain is consistent with the limits of the equipment if
there are any.
d. Enter a Gain increment. Atoll uses the increment value when you increase or decrease the repeater amplifier gain
using the buttons to the right of the Amplifier gain box (
logue.

) on the General tab of the repeater Properties dia-

e. Enter the maximum power that the equipment can transmit on the downlink in the Max downlink power column.
This parameter enables Atoll to ensure that the downlink power after amplification does not exceed the limit of
the equipment.
f. If desired, enter a Max uplink power, an Internal delay and Comments. These fields are for information only and
are not used in calculations.

6.2.6.3 Placing a Repeater on the Map Using the Mouse


In Atoll, you can create a repeater and place it using the mouse. When you create a repeater, you can add it to an existing site,
or have Atoll automatically create a new site. Atoll supports cascading repeaters, in other words, repeaters that extend the
coverage of another repeater or of a remote antenna.
To create a repeater and place it using the mouse:
1. Select the donor transmitter, repeater, or remote antenna. You can select it from the LTE Transmitters folder of the
Explorer windows Network tab, or directly on the map.
2. Click the arrow next to New Repeater or Remote Antenna button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

3. Select Repeater from the menu.


4. Click the map to place the repeater. The repeater is placed on the map, represented by a symbol (
) in the same
colour as the donor transmitter, repeater, or remote antenna. If the repeater is inactive, it is displayed by an empty
icon. By default, the repeater has the same azimuth as the donor. Its tip text and label display the same information
as displayed for the donor. As well, its tip text identifies the repeater and the donor. In the Explorer window, the
repeater is found in the LTE Transmitters folder of the Network tab under its donor transmitter, repeater, or remote
antenna.
For information on defining the properties of the new repeater, see "Defining the Properties of a Repeater" on
page 219.

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You can see to which base station the repeater is connected by clicking it; Atoll displays a
link to the donor transmitter, repeater, or remote antenna.

6.2.6.4 Creating Several Repeaters


In Atoll, the characteristics of each repeater are stored in the Repeaters table. If you have data in table form, either in another
Atoll document or in a spreadsheet, you can copy this data and paste it into the Repeaters table in your current Atoll document.
To paste the information into the Repeaters table:
1. Open the Repeaters table as explained in "Opening the Repeaters Table" on page 218.
2. Copy the data from the source document and paste it into the Repeaters table.
The table you copy data from must have the same column layout as the table you are
pasting data into.

For information on copying and pasting data, see "Copying and Pasting in Tables" on page 54.

6.2.6.5 Defining the Properties of a Repeater


To define the properties of a repeater:
1. Right-click the repeater either directly on the map, or in the Repeaters table (for information on opening the Repeaters table, see "Opening the Repeaters Table" on page 218). The context menu appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
3. Click the General tab. You can modify the following parameters:
-

You can change the Name of the repeater. By default, repeaters are named "RepeaterN" where "N" is a number
assigned as the repeater is created.
You can change the Donor by selecting it from the Donor list. The Donor can be a transmitter, another repeater,
or a remote antenna. Clicking the Browse button (

You can change the Site on which the repeater is located. Clicking the Browse button (
) opens the Properties
dialogue of the site.
You can enter the Shared antenna (coverage side) flag for the repeater. This flag is used to identify the repeaters
of different technologies, located at the same site, that share antennas. These repeaters may be other technology
repeaters in a 3GPP Multi-RAT document or in a linked co-planning document. The flag must be the same for all
such repeaters. Shared antennas have the same position relative to the site (Dx, Dy), height, azimuth, and mechanical tilt, for all the repeaters that use them. Atoll automatically synchronises changes made to these parameters
for one repeater to all other repeaters that share the antenna. For more information on co-planning, see "Co-planning LTE Networks with Other Networks" on page 372.
Under Antenna position, you can define the position of the repeater, if it is not located on the site itself:
-

) opens the Properties dialogue of the donor.

Relative to site: Select Relative to site, if you want to define the position of the repeater relative to the site
itself and then enter the XY offsets.
Coordinates: Select Coordinates, if you want to define the position of the repeater by its XY coordinates.

You can select equipment from the Equipment list. Clicking the Browse button (
) opens the Properties dialogue of the equipment.
You can change the Amplifier Gain. The amplifier gain is used in the link budget to evaluate the repeater total gain.

4. Click the Donor Side tab. You can modify the following parameters:
-

Under Donor-repeater link, select a Link type.


-

If you select Microwave link, enter the Propagation losses and continue with step 5.
If you select Air, select a Propagation model and enter the Propagation losses or click Calculate to determine
the actual propagation losses between the donor and the repeater. If you do not select a propagation model,
the propagation losses between the donor transmitter and the repeater are calculated using the ITU 526-5
propagation model.
When you create an off-air repeater, it is assumed that the link between the donor transmitter and the repeater has the same frequency as the network.

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If you want to create a remote antenna, you must select Optical Fibre Link.

If you selected Air under Donor-repeater link, enter the following information under Antenna:
-

Model: The type of antenna is visible in the Model list. You can click the Browse button (
) to access the
properties of the antenna. Clicking the Select button opens a dialogue displaying all the possible antennas
based on the same physical antenna as the currently selected one. Selecting the Electrical tilt of the antenna
model displays the appropriate antennas under Available antennas. Selecting the antenna under Available
antennas and clicking OK assigns the antenna to the repeater.
Height/ground: The Height/ground box gives the height of the antenna above the ground. This is added to
the altitude of the site as given by the DTM. If the repeater is situated on a building, the height entered must
include the height of building.
Enter the Azimuth and the Mechanical downtilt.
You can click the Calculate button to update azimuth and downtilt values after changing
the repeater donor side antenna height or the repeater location. If you choose another site
or change site coordinates in the General tab, click Apply before clicking the Calculate
button.

If you selected Air under Donor-repeater link, enter the following information under Feeders:
-

Type: The type of feeder is visible in the Type list. You can click the Browse button (
erties of the feeder.
Length: Enter the Length of the feeder cable at Transmission and at Reception.

) to access the prop-

5. Click the Coverage Side tab. You can modify the following parameters:
-

Select the Active check box. Only active repeaters (displayed in red in the LTE Transmitters folder in the Network
tab of the Explorer window) are calculated.
Under Total gains, enter the gains in the Downlink and Uplink or click Calculate to determine the actual gains. If
you have modified any parameter in the General, Donor Side, or Coverage Side tabs, click Apply before clicking
the Calculate button. Atoll uses the total gain values to calculate the signal level received from and at the
repeater.
The DL total gain is applied to RS, SS, PBCH, PDCCH, and PDSCH powers and EPREs. The UL total gain is applied to
the PUCCH and PUSCH powers. The total gains take into account losses between the donor transmitter and the
repeater, donor characteristics (donor antenna gain, reception feeder losses), amplifier gain, and coverage characteristics (coverage antenna gain and transmission feeder losses).

Under Antennas, you can modify the following parameters:


-

Height/ground: The Height/ground box gives the height of the antenna above the ground. This is added to
the altitude of the site as given by the DTM. If the repeater is situated on a building, the height entered must
include the height of building.
Main antenna: Under Main antenna, the type of antenna is visible in the Model list. You can click the Browse
button (
) to access the properties of the antenna. Clicking the Select button opens a dialogue displaying
all the possible antennas based on the same physical antenna as the currently selected one. Selecting the Electrical tilt of the antenna model displays the appropriate antennas under Available antennas. Selecting the
antenna under Available antennas and clicking OK assigns the antenna to the transmitter. The other fields,
Azimuth, Mechanical downtilt, and Additional electrical downtilt, display additional antenna parameters.
Under Secondary antennas, you can select one or more secondary antennas in the Antenna column and enter
their Azimuth, Mechanical downtilt, Additional electrical downtilt, and % Power.

Under Feeders, you can modify the following information:


i.

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The Additional electrical downtilt may be made accessible through an option in


the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
For more information on the effect of additional electrical downtilt on antenna
patterns, see the Technical Reference Guide.
For information on working with data tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on
page 47.

Select a Type of feeder from the list. You can click the Browse button (
feeder.

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ii. Enter the Length of the feeder cable at Transmission and at Reception.
-

Under Losses, Atoll displays the Loss related to repeater noise rise.

6. Click the Propagation tab. Since repeaters are taken into account during calculations, you must set the propagation
parameters. On the Propagation tab, you can modify the following: the Propagation model, Radius, and Resolution
for both the Main matrix and the Extended matrix. By default, the propagation characteristics of the repeater (model,
calculation radius, and grid resolution) are the same as those of the donor transmitter. For information on propagation
models, see Chapter 5: Working with Calculations in Atoll.

6.2.6.6 Tips for Updating Repeater Parameters


Atoll provides you with a few shortcuts that you can use to change certain repeater parameters:

You can update the calculated azimuth and downtilt of the donor-side antennas of all repeaters by selecting
Repeaters > Calculate Donor Side Azimuths and Tilts from the Transmitters context menu.
You can update the UL and DL total gains of all repeaters by selecting Repeaters > Calculate Gains from the Transmitters context menu.
You can prevent Atoll from updating the UL and DL total gains of selected repeaters by
creating a custom Boolean field named "FreezeTotalGain" in the Repeaters table and
setting the value of the field to "True." Afterwards, when you select Repeaters > Calculate
Gains from the Transmitters context menu, Atoll will only update the UL and DL total gains
for repeaters with the custom field "FreezeTotalGain" set to "False."

You can update the propagation losses of all off-air repeaters by selecting Repeaters > Calculate Donor Side Propagation Losses from the Transmitters context menu.
You can select a repeater on the map and change its azimuth (see "Changing the Azimuth of the Antenna Using the
Mouse" on page 22) or its position relative to the site (see "Changing the Antenna Position Relative to the Site Using
the Mouse" on page 22).

6.2.7 Creating a Remote Antenna


Atoll allows you to create remote antennas to position antennas at locations that would normally require long runs of feeder
cable. A remote antenna is connected to the base station with an optic fibre. Remote antennas allow you to ensure radio
coverage in an area without a new base station.
In Atoll, the remote antenna should be connected to a base station that does not have any antennas. It is assumed that a
remote antenna, as opposed to a repeater, does not have any equipment and generates no amplification gain nor noise. In
certain cases, you may want to model a remote antenna with equipment or a remote antenna connected to a base station
that has antennas. This can be done by modelling a repeater. For information on creating a repeater, see "Creating a
Repeater" on page 217.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Opening the Remote Antennas Table" on page 221


"Placing a Remote Antenna on the Map Using the Mouse" on page 222
"Creating Several Remote Antennas" on page 222
"Defining the Properties of a Remote Antenna" on page 222
"Tips for Updating Remote Antenna Parameters" on page 224.

6.2.7.1 Opening the Remote Antennas Table


The remote antennas and their defining parameters are stored in the Remote Antennas table.
To open the Remote Antennas table:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Remote Antennas > Open Table from the context menu. The Remote Antennas table appears.

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6.2.7.2 Placing a Remote Antenna on the Map Using the Mouse


In Atoll, you can create a remote antenna and place it using the mouse. When you create a remote antenna, you can add it
to an existing base station without antennas, or have Atoll automatically create a new site.
To create a remote antenna and place it using the mouse:
1. Select the donor transmitter. You can select it from the LTE Transmitters folder of the Explorer windows Network
tab, or directly on the map.
Ensure that the remote antennas donor transmitter does not have any antennas.

2. Click the arrow next to New Repeater or Remote Antenna button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

3. Select Remote Antenna from the menu.


4. Click the map to place the remote antenna. The remote antenna is placed on the map, represented by the same
symbol and colour as the donor transmitter. If the remote antenna is inactive, it is displayed by an empty icon. By
default, the remote antenna has the same azimuth as the donor transmitter. Its tip text and label display the same
information as displayed for the donor transmitter. As well, its tip text identifies the remote antenna and the donor
transmitter.
For information on defining the properties of the new remote antenna, see "Defining the Properties of a Remote
Antenna" on page 222.
You can see to which base station the remote antenna is connected by clicking it; Atoll
displays a link to the donor transmitter.

6.2.7.3 Creating Several Remote Antennas


In Atoll, the characteristics of each remote antenna are stored in the Remote Antennas table. If you have data in table form,
either in another Atoll document or in a spreadsheet, you can copy this data and paste it into the Remote Antennas table in
your current Atoll document.
To paste the information into the Remote Antennas table:
1. Open the Remote Antennas table as explained in "Opening the Remote Antennas Table" on page 221.
2. Copy the data from the source document and paste it into the Remote Antennas table.
The table you copy data from must have the same column layout as the table you are
pasting data into.

For information on copying and pasting data, see "Copying and Pasting in Tables" on page 54.

6.2.7.4 Defining the Properties of a Remote Antenna


To define the properties of a remote antenna:
1. Right-click the remote antenna either directly on the map, or in the Remote Antennas table (for information on opening the Remote Antennas table, see "Opening the Remote Antennas Table" on page 221). The context menu appears.
2. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
3. Click the General tab. You can modify the following parameters:
-

You can change the Name of the remote antenna. By default, remote antennas are named "RemoteAntennaN"
where "N" is a number assigned as the remote antenna is created.

You can change the Donor transmitter by selecting it from the Donor list. Clicking the Browse button (
the Properties dialogue of the donor transmitter.

You can change the Site on which the remote antenna is located. Clicking the Browse button (
) opens the
Properties dialogue of the site.
You can enter the Shared antenna (coverage side) flag for the remote antenna. This flag is used to identify the
remote antennas of different technologies, located at the same site, that share antennas. These remote antennas
may be other technology remote antennas in a 3GPP Multi-RAT document or in a linked co-planning document.

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The flag must be the same for all such remote antennas. Shared antennas have the same position relative to the
site (Dx, Dy), height, azimuth, and mechanical tilt, for all the remote antennas that use them. Atoll automatically
synchronises changes made to these parameters for one remote antenna to all other remote antennas that share
the antenna. For more information on co-planning, see "Co-planning LTE Networks with Other Networks" on
page 372.
Under Antenna position, you can define the position of the remote antenna, if it is not located on the site itself:
-

Relative to site: Select Relative to site, if you want to define the position of the remote antenna relative to
the site itself and then enter the XY offsets.
Coordinates: Select Coordinates, if you want to define the position of the remote antenna by its XY coordinates.
A remote antenna does not have equipment.

4. Click the Donor Side tab. You can modify the following parameters:
-

Under Donor-repeater link, select Optical fibre link and enter the Fibre losses.

5. Click the Coverage Side tab. You can modify the following parameters:
-

Select the Active check box. Only active remote antennas (displayed in red in the LTE Transmitters folder in the
Network tab of the Explorer window) are calculated.
Under Total gains, enter the gains in the Downlink and Uplink or click Calculate to determine the actual gains. If
you have modified any parameter in the General, Donor Side, or Coverage Side tabs, click Apply before clicking
the Calculate button. Atoll uses the total gain values to calculate the signal level received from and at the remote
antenna.
The DL total gain is applied to RS, SS, PBCH, PDCCH, and PDSCH powers and EPREs. The UL total gain is applied to
the PUCCH and PUSCH powers. The total gains take into account losses between the donor transmitter and the
remote antenna.

Under Antennas, you can modify the following parameters:


-

Height/ground: The Height/ground box gives the height of the antenna above the ground. This is added to
the altitude of the site as given by the DTM. If the remote antenna is situated on a building, the height entered
must include the height of building.
Main antenna: Under Main antenna, the type of antenna is visible in the Model list. You can click the Browse
button (
) to access the properties of the antenna. Clicking the Select button opens a dialogue displaying
all the possible antennas based on the same physical antenna as the currently selected one. Selecting the Electrical tilt of the antenna model displays the appropriate antennas under Available antennas. Selecting the
antenna under Available antennas and clicking OK assigns the antenna to the transmitter. The other fields,
Azimuth, Mechanical downtilt, and Additional electrical downtilt, display additional antenna parameters.

Under Secondary antennas, you can select one or more secondary antennas in the Antenna column and enter
their Azimuth, Mechanical downtilt, Additional electrical downtilt, and % Power.

The Additional electrical downtilt may be made accessible through an option in


the atoll.ini file. For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
For more information on the effect of additional electrical downtilt on antenna
patterns, see the Technical Reference Guide.
For information on working with data tables, see "Working with Data Tables" on
page 47.

Under Feeders, you can modify the following information:


i.

Select a Type of feeder from the list. You can click the Browse button (
feeder.

) to access the properties of the

ii. Enter the Length of the feeder cable at Transmission and at Reception.
6. Click the Propagation tab. Since remote antennas are taken into account during calculations, you must set propagation parameters, as with transmitters. On the Propagation tab, you can modify the following: the Propagation model,
Radius, and Resolution for both the Main matrix and the Extended matrix. By default, the propagation characteristics
of the remote antenna (model, calculation radius, and grid resolution) are the same as those of the donor transmitter.
For information on propagation models, see Chapter 5: Working with Calculations in Atoll.

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6.2.7.5 Tips for Updating Remote Antenna Parameters


Atoll provides you with a few shortcuts that you can use to change certain remote antenna parameters:

You can update the UL and DL total gains of all remote antennas by selecting Remote Antennas > Calculate Gains from
the Transmitters context menu.
You can prevent Atoll from updating the UL and DL total gains of selected remote antennas
by creating a custom Boolean field named "FreezeTotalGain" in the Remote Antennas
table and setting the value of the field to "True." Afterwards, when you select Remote
Antennas > Calculate Gains from the Transmitters context menu, Atoll will only update
the UL and DL total gains for remote antennas with the custom field "FreezeTotalGain" set
to "False."

You can select a remote antenna on the map and change its azimuth (see "Changing the Azimuth of the Antenna Using
the Mouse" on page 22) or its position relative to the site (see "Changing the Antenna Position Relative to the Site
Using the Mouse" on page 22).

6.2.8 Setting the Working Area of an Atoll Document


When you load project data from a database, you will probably only modify the data in the region for which you are responsible. For example, a complex radio-planning project might cover an entire region or even an entire country. You, however,
might be responsible for the radio planning for only one city. In such a situation, doing a coverage prediction that calculates
the entire network would not only take a lot of time, it is not necessary. Consequently, you can restrict a coverage prediction
to the base stations that you are interested in and generate only the results you need.
In Atoll, there are two ways of restricting the number of base stations covered by a coverage prediction, each with its own
advantages:

Filtering the desired base stations


You can simplify the selection of base stations to be studied by using a filter. You can filter base stations according to
one or more fields, or you can create an advanced filter by combining several criteria in several fields. You can create
a graphic filter by either using an existing vector polygon or creating a new vector polygon. For information on graphic
filters, see "Filtering Data Using a Filtering Zone" on page 82. This enables you to keep only the base stations with the
characteristics you want for your calculations. The filtering zone is taken into account whether or not it is visible.
For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71.

Setting a computation zone


Drawing a computation zone to encompass the sites to be studied limits the number of sites to be calculated, which
in turn reduces the time necessary for calculations. In a smaller project, the time savings may not be significant. In a
larger project, especially when you are making repeated predictions in order to see the effects of small changes in site
configuration, the savings in time is considerable. Limiting the number of sites by drawing a computation zone also
limits the resulting calculated coverage. The computation zone is taken into account whether or not it is visible.
It is important not to confuse the computation zone and the focus zone or hot spot. The computation zone defines
the area where Atoll calculates path loss matrices, coverage predictions, Monte Carlo simulations, etc., while the
focus zone or hot spot is the area taken into consideration when generating reports and results.
For information on the computation zone, see "Creating a Computation Zone" on page 233.

You can combine a computation zone and a filter, in order to create a very precise selection of the base stations to be studied.

6.2.9 Studying a Single Base Station


As you create a base station, you can study it to test the effectiveness of the set parameters. Coverage predictions on groups
of base stations can take a large amount of time and consume a lot of computer resources. Restricting your coverage prediction to the base station you are currently working on allows you get the results quickly. You can expand your coverage prediction to a number of base stations once you have optimised the settings for each individual base station.
Before studying a base station, you must assign a propagation model. The propagation model takes the radio and geographic
data into account and calculates propagation losses along the transmitter-receiver path. This allows you to predict the
received signal level at any given point. Any coverage prediction you make on a base station uses the propagation model to
calculate its results.
In this section, the following are explained:

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"Making a Point Analysis to Study the Profile" on page 225.


"Studying Signal Level Coverage" on page 226.

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6.2.9.1 Making a Point Analysis to Study the Profile


In Atoll, you can make a point analysis to study reception along a profile between a reference transmitter and a user. Before
studying a base station, you must assign a propagation model. The propagation model takes the radio and geographic data
into account and calculates losses along the transmitter-receiver path. The profile is calculated in real time, using the propagation model, allowing you to study the profile and get a prediction on the selected point. For information on assigning a propagation model, see "Assigning a Propagation Model" on page 230.
You can make a point analysis to:
You can make a point analysis to:

study the reception in real time along a profile between a reference transmitter and an LTE user,
study the interference along a profile between a reference transmitter and a user, and
evaluate the signal levels coming from the surrounding transmitters at a given point (using existing path loss matrices).

To make a point analysis:


1. In the map window, select the transmitter from which you want to make a point analysis.
2. Click the Point Analysis button (
pointer changes (

) in the Radio Planning toolbar. The Point Analysis window appears and the

) to represent the receiver.

3. A line appears on the map connecting the selected transmitter and the current position. You can now do the following:
-

Move the receiver to change the current position.


Click to place the receiver at the current position. You can move the receiver again by clicking it a second time.
Right-click the receiver to choose one of the following commands from the context menu:
- Coordinates: Select Coordinates to change the receiver position by entering new XY coordinates.
- Target Site: Select a site from the list to place the receiver directly on a site.

4. Select the Profile view.


The profile analysis appears in the Profile view of the Point Analysis window. The altitude is reported on the vertical
axis and the receiver-transmitter distance on the horizontal axis. A blue ellipsoid indicates the Fresnel zone between
the transmitter and the receiver, with a green line indicating the line of sight (LOS). Atoll displays the angle of the LOS
read from the vertical antenna pattern. Along the profile, if the signal meets an obstacle, this causes attenuation with
diffraction displayed by a red vertical line (if the propagation model used takes diffraction mechanisms into account).
The main peak is the one that intersects the most with the Fresnel ellipsoid. With some propagation models using a 3
knife-edge Deygout diffraction method, the results may display two additional attenuations peaks. The total attenuation is displayed above the main peak.
The results of the analysis are displayed at the top of the Profile view:
-

The received signal strength from the selected transmitter for the cell with the highest reference signal power
The propagation model used
The shadowing margin and the indoor loss (if selected)
The distance between the transmitter and the receiver.

You can change the following options from the Profile view toolbar:
-

Transmitter: Select the transmitter from the list. You can click the Properties button to open the transmitter properties dialogue.
Options: Click the Options button to display the Calculation Options dialogue. In this dialogue, you can:
- Change the X and Y coordinates to change the current position of the receiver.
- Select the Shadowing taken into account check box and enter a Cell edge coverage probability.
- Select Signal level, Path loss, or Total losses from the Result type list.
- You can select the Indoor coverage check box to add indoor losses.
Geographic Profile: Click the Geographic Profile button if you want to view the geographic profile between the
transmitter and the receiver. Atoll displays the profile between the transmitter and the receiver with clutter
heights. An ellipsoid indicating the Fresnel zone is also displayed. Atoll does not calculate or display signal levels
and losses.
Link Budget: Click the Link Budget button to display a dialogue with the link budget.
Detailed Report: Click Detailed Report button to display a text document with details on the displayed profile
analysis. The detailed report is only available for the Standard Propagation Model.

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You can select a different transmitter.

Displays data,
including
received signal,
shadowing
margin, cell
edge coverage
probability,
propagation
model used,
and transmitter-receiver
distance.

Fresnel ellipsoid

Line of sight

Attenuation with diffraction

Figure 6.29: Point analysis - profile tab


5. To end the point analysis, click the Point Analysis button (

) in the Radio Planning toolbar again.

6.2.9.2 Studying Signal Level Coverage


While you are building your radio-planning project, you might want to check the coverage of a new base station without
having to calculate the entire project. You can do this by selecting the site with its transmitters and then creating a new coverage prediction.
This section explains how to calculate the signal level coverage of a single base station. A signal level coverage prediction
displays the signal of the best server for each pixel of the area studied. For a transmitter with more than one cell, the signal
level is calculated for the cell with the highest reference signal power.
You can use the same procedure to study the signal level coverage of several base stations
by grouping the transmitters. For information on grouping transmitters, see "Grouping
Data Objects by a Selected Property" on page 65.
To study the signal level coverage of a single base station:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder and select Group By > Sites from the context menu. The transmitters are now
displayed in the LTE Transmitters folder by the site on which they are situated.
If you want to study only sites by their status, you could group them by status.

3. Select the propagation parameters to be used in the coverage prediction:


a. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Transmitters folder.
b. Right-click the group of transmitters you want to study. The context menu appears.
c. Select Open Table from the context menu. A table appears with the properties of the selected group of transmitters.
d. In the table, you can configure two propagation models: one for the main matrix, with a shorter radius and a higher resolution, and another for the extended matrix, with a longer radius and a lower resolution. By calculating two
matrices you can reduce the time of calculation by using a lower resolution for the extended matrix and you can
obtain more accurate results by using propagation models best suited for the main and extended matrices.
e. In the Main matrix column:
-

Select a Propagation model.


Enter a Radius and Resolution.

f. If desired, in the Extended matrix column:


-

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g. Close the table.


4. In the LTE Transmitters folder, right-click the group of transmitters you want to study and select Calculations > Create
a New Prediction from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
The Prediction Types dialogue lists the coverage prediction types available. They are divided into Standard Predictions, supplied with Atoll, and Customised Prediction. Unless you have already created some customised predictions,
the Customised Prediction list will be empty.
5. Select Coverage by Signal Level and click OK. The Coverage by Signal Level Properties dialogue appears.
6. You can configure the following parameters in the Properties dialogue:
-

General tab: You can change the assigned Name of the coverage prediction, the Resolution, and the storage
Folder for the coverage prediction, and add some Comments. The resolution you set is the display resolution, not
the calculation resolution.
To improve memory consumption and optimise the calculation times, you should set the display resolutions of
coverage predictions according to the precision required. The following table lists the levels of precision that are
usually sufficient:

Size of the Coverage Prediction

Display Resolution

City Centre

5m

City

20 m

County

50 m

State

100 m

Country

According to the size of the


country

Condition tab: The coverage prediction parameters on the Condition tab allow you to define the signals that will
be considered for each pixel (see Figure 6.30).
-

At the top of the Condition tab, you can set the signal level range to be considered.
Under Server, select "All" to consider all servers. Selecting "All" or "Best Signal Level" will give you the same
results because Atoll displays the results of the best server in either case. Selecting "Best Signal Level" necessitates, however, a longer time for calculation.
When you select "Best Signal Level" or "Second Best Signal Level," you can also define a Margin that Atoll will
take into consideration.

If you select the Shadowing taken into account check box, you can change the Cell edge coverage probability.
You can select the Indoor coverage check box to add indoor losses.

Figure 6.30: Condition settings for a coverage prediction by signal level


-

Display tab: You can modify how the results of the coverage prediction will be displayed.
-

Under Display type, select "Value intervals."


Under Field, select "Best Signal Level."
You can change the value intervals and their displayed colour. For information on changing display properties,
see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.

You can create tip text with information about the coverage prediction by clicking the Browse button (
next to the Tip text box and selecting the fields you want to display in the tip text.

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You can select the Add to legend check box to add the displayed value intervals to the legend.
If you change the display properties of a coverage prediction after you have calculated it,
you may make the coverage prediction invalid. You will then have to recalculate the coverage prediction to obtain valid results.

7. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately.
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.
Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window. The signal level
coverage prediction can be found in the Predictions folder on the Network tab. Atoll automatically locks the results of a coverage prediction as soon as it is calculated, as indicated by the icon (
folder. When you click the Calculate button (

) beside the coverage prediction in the Predictions

), Atoll only calculates unlocked coverage predictions (

).

6.2.10 Studying Base Stations


When you make a coverage prediction, Atoll calculates all base stations that are active, filtered (i.e., that are selected by the
current filter parameters), and whose propagation zone intersects the rectangle containing the computation zone.
Figure 6.31 gives an example of a computation zone. In Figure 6.31, the computation zone is displayed in red, as it is in the
Atoll map window. The propagation zone of each active site is indicated by a blue square. Each propagation zone that intersects the rectangle (indicated by the green dashed line) containing the computation zone will be taken into consideration
when Atoll calculates the coverage prediction. Sites 78 and 95, for example, are not in the computation zone. However, their
propagation zones intersect the rectangle containing the computation zone and, therefore, they will be taken into consideration in the coverage prediction. On the other hand, the coverage zones of three other sites do not intersect the green rectangle. Therefore, they will not be taken into account in the coverage prediction. Site 130 is within the coverage zone but has no
active transmitters. Therefore, it will not be taken into consideration either.

Figure 6.31: An example of a computation zone


Before calculating a coverage prediction, Atoll must have valid path loss matrices. Atoll calculates the path loss matrices using
the assigned propagation model. Atoll can use two different propagation models for each transmitter: a main propagation
model with a shorter radius (displayed with a blue square in Figure 6.31) and a higher resolution and an extended propagation
model with a longer radius and a lower resolution. Atoll will use the main propagation model to calculate higher resolution
path loss matrices close to the transmitter and the extended propagation model to calculate lower resolution path loss matrices outside the area covered by the main propagation model.

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In this section, the following are explained:

"Path Loss Matrices" on page 229.


"Assigning a Propagation Model" on page 230.
"The Calculation Process" on page 232.
"Creating a Computation Zone" on page 233.
"Setting Transmitters or Cells as Active" on page 233.
"Signal Level Coverage Predictions" on page 234.
"Analysing a Coverage Prediction" on page 239.
"LTE Coverage Predictions" on page 248.
"Printing and Exporting Coverage Prediction Results" on page 266.

6.2.10.1 Path Loss Matrices


In addition to the distance between the transmitter and the receiver, path loss is caused by objects in the transmitter-receiver
path. In Atoll, the path loss matrices must be calculated before predictions and simulations can be made.
Storing Path Loss Matrices
Path loss matrices can be stored internally, in the Atoll document, or they can be stored externally. Storing path loss matrices
in the Atoll document results in a more portable but significantly larger document. In the case of large radio-planning projects,
embedding the matrices can lead to large documents which use a great deal of memory. Therefore, in the case of large radioplanning projects, saving your path loss matrices externally will help reduce the size of the file and the use of computer
resources.
The path loss matrices are also stored externally in a multi-user environment, when several users are working on the same
radio-planning project. In this case, the radio data is stored in a database and the path loss matrices are read-only and are
stored in a location accessible to all users. When the user changes his radio data and recalculates the path loss matrices, the
calculated changes to the path loss matrices are stored locally; the common path loss matrices are not modified. These will
be recalculated by the administrator taking into consideration the changes to radio data made by all users. For more information on working in a multi-user environment, see the Administrator Manual.
When you save the path loss matrices to an external directory, Atoll creates:

One file per transmitter with the extension LOS for its main path loss matrix.
A DBF file with validity information for all the main matrices.
A folder called "LowRes" with LOS files and a DBF file for the extended path loss matrices.

To set the storage location of the path loss matrices:


1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Predictions Properties dialogue appears.
4. On the Predictions tab, under Path loss matrix storage, you can set the location for your private path loss matrices
and the location for the shared path loss matrices:
-

Private directory: The Private directory is where you store path loss matrices you generate or, if you are loading
path loss matrices from a shared location, where you store your changes to shared path loss matrices.
Click the button beside Private directory (
) and select Embedded to save the path loss matrices in the Atoll
document, or Browse to select a directory where Atoll can save the path loss matrices externally.
Path loss matrices you calculate locally are not stored in the same directory as shared path
loss matrices. Shared path loss matrices are stored in a read-only directory. In other words,
you can read the information from the shared path loss matrices but any changes you
make will be stored locally, either embedded in the ATL file or in a private external folder,
depending on what you have selected in Private directory.

When you save the path loss files externally, the external files are updated as soon as
calculations are performed. In order to keep consistency between the Atoll document
and the stored calculations, you should save the Atoll document before closing it if you
have updated the path loss matrices.
-

Shared directory: When you are working in a multi-user Atoll environment, the project data is stored in a database
and the path loss matrices are stored in a directory that is accessible to all users. Any changes you make will not
be saved to this directory; they will be saved in the location indicated in Private directory. The path loss matrices

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in the shared directory are updated by a user with administrator rights based on the updated information in the
database. For more information on shared directories, see the Administrator Manual.
5. Click OK.
Checking the Validity of Path Loss Matrices
Atoll automatically checks the validity of the path loss matrices before calculating any coverage prediction. If you want, you
can check whether the path loss matrices are valid without creating a coverage prediction.
To check whether the path loss matrices are valid:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Propagation tab. The path loss matrix information is listed in the Available results table. You have the following display options:
-

Display all matrices: All path loss matrices are displayed.


Display only invalid matrices: Only invalid path loss matrices are displayed.

The Available results table lists the following information for each displayed path loss matrix:
-

Transmitter: The name of the transmitter.


Locked: If the check box is selected, the path loss matrix will not be updated even if the path loss matrices are
recalculated.
Valid: This is a Boolean field indicating whether or not the path loss matrix is valid.
Reason for invalidity: If the path loss matrix is indicated as being invalid, the reason is given here.
Size: The size of the path loss matrix for the transmitter.
File: If the path loss matrix is not embedded, the location of the file is listed.

5. Click the Statistics button to display the number of path loss matrices to be recalculated. The Statistics dialogue
appears (see Figure 6.32) with the total number of invalid path loss matrices and the reasons for invalidity, as well as
a summary of the reasons for invalidity.

Figure 6.32: Path loss matrices statistics

6.2.10.2 Assigning a Propagation Model


In Atoll, you can assign a propagation model globally to all transmitters, to a defined group of transmitters, or a single transmitter. As well, you can assign a default propagation model for coverage predictions. This propagation model is used for all
transmitters where the main propagation model selected is "(Default model)."
Because you can assign a propagation model in several different ways, it is important to understand which propagation model
Atoll will use:
1. If you have assigned a propagation model to a single transmitter, as explained in "Assigning a Propagation Model to
One Transmitter" on page 232, or to a group of transmitters, as explained in "Assigning a Propagation Model to a
Group of Transmitters" on page 231, this is the propagation model that will be used.
The propagation model assigned to an individual transmitter or to a group of transmitters will always have precedence
over any other assigned propagation model.
2. If you have assigned a propagation model globally to all transmitters, as explained in "Assigning a Propagation Model
to All Transmitters" on page 231, this is the propagation model that will be used for all transmitters, except for those
to which you will later assign a propagation model either individually or as part of a group.

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When you assign a propagation model globally, you override any selection you might
have made to an individual transmitter or to a group of transmitters.

3. If you have assigned a default propagation model for coverage predictions, as described in "Defining a Default Propagation Model" on page 175, this is the propagation model that will be used for all transmitters whose main propagation model is "(Default model)." If a transmitter has any other propagation model chosen as the main propagation
model, that is the propagation model that will be used.
In this section, the following are explained:

"Assigning a Propagation Model to All Transmitters" on page 231.


"Assigning a Propagation Model to a Group of Transmitters" on page 231.
"Assigning a Propagation Model to One Transmitter" on page 232.

For more information about the available propagation models, see Chapter 5: Working with Calculations in Atoll.
Assigning a Propagation Model to All Transmitters
In Atoll, you can assign a propagation model per transmitter or globally.
To define a main and extended propagation model for all transmitters:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
4. Click the Propagation tab.
5. Under Main matrix:
-

Select a Propagation model


Enter a Radius and Resolution.

6. If desired, under Extended matrix:


-

Select a Propagation model


Enter a Radius and Resolution.

7. Click OK. The selected propagation models will be used for all transmitters.
Setting a different main or extended matrix on an individual transmitter as explained in
"Assigning a Propagation Model to One Transmitter" on page 232 will override this entry.

Assigning a Propagation Model to a Group of Transmitters


Transmitters that share the same parameters and environment will usually use the same propagation model and settings. In
Atoll, you can assign the same propagation model to several transmitters by first grouping them by their common parameters
and then assigning the propagation model.
To define a main and extended propagation model for a defined group of transmitters:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. From the Group By submenu of the context menu, select the property by which you want to group the transmitters.
The objects in the folder are grouped by that property.
You can group transmitters by several properties by using the Group By button on the
Properties dialogue. For more information, see "Advanced Grouping" on page 66.

4. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Transmitters folder.


5. Right-click the group of transmitters to which you want to assign a main and extended propagation model. The context
menu appears.
6. Select Open Table from the context menu. The Transmitters table appears with the transmitters from the selected
group.

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For each transmitter, you can set the propagation model parameters in the following columns:
-

Main propagation model


Main calculation radius
Main resolution
Extended propagation model
Extended calculation radius
Extended resolution

To enter the same values in one column for all transmitters in the table:
1. Enter the value in the first row in the column.
2. Select the entire column.
3. Right-click the selection and select Edit > Fill Down from the context menu or click the Fill Down button (
Table toolbar to copy the contents of the top cell of the selection into the other cells.

) in the

If you want to copy the contents of the last cell in the selection into all other cells, you can
right-click the selection and select Edit > Fill Up from the context menu or click the Fill Up
button (
) in the Table toolbar. For more information on working with tables in Atoll,
see "Working with Data Tables" on page 47.
Assigning a Propagation Model to One Transmitter
If you have added a single transmitter, you can assign it a propagation model. You can also assign a propagation model to a
single transmitter after you have assigned a main and extended propagation model globally or to a group of transmitters.
When you assign a main and extended propagation model to a single transmitter, it overrides any changes you have previously
made globally.
To define a main and extended propagation model for all transmitters:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Transmitters folder.
3. Right-click the transmitter to which you want to assign a main and extended propagation model. The context menu
appears.
4. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the Propagation tab.
6. Under Main matrix:
-

Select a Propagation model.


Enter a Radius and Resolution.

7. If desired, under Extended matrix:


-

Select a Propagation model.


Enter a Radius and Resolution.

8. Click OK. The selected propagation models will be used for the selected transmitter.
You can also define the propagation models for a transmitter by right-clicking it in the map
window and selecting Properties from the context menu.

6.2.10.3 The Calculation Process


When you create a coverage prediction and click the Calculate button (

), Atoll follows the following process:

1. Atoll first checks to see whether the path loss matrices exist and, if so, whether they are valid. There must be valid
path loss matrices for each active and filtered transmitter whose propagation radius intersects the rectangle containing the computation zone.
2. If the path loss matrices do not exist or are not valid, Atoll calculates them. There has to be at least one unlocked coverage prediction in the Predictions folder. If not Atoll will not calculate the path loss matrices when you click the Calculate button (

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3. Atoll calculates all unlocked coverage predictions in the Predictions folder. Atoll automatically locks the results of a
coverage prediction as soon as it is calculated, as indicated by the icon (
Predictions folder.

You can stop any calculations in progress by clicking the Stop Calculations button
(

) beside the coverage prediction in the

) in the toolbar.

When you click the Force Calculation button (


) instead of the Calculate button,
Atoll calculates all path loss matrices, unlocked coverages, and pending simulations.

6.2.10.4 Creating a Computation Zone


To create a computation zone:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Zones folder.
3. Right-click the Computation Zone. The context menu appears.
4. Select Draw from the context menu.
5. Draw the computation zone:
a. Click once on the map to start drawing the zone.
b. Click once on the map to define each point on the map where the border of the zone changes direction.
c. Click twice to finish drawing and close the zone.
The computation zone is delimited by a red line. If you clear the computation zones visibility check box in the Zones
folder of the Geo tab of the Explorer window, it will no longer be displayed but will still be taken into account.
You can also create a computation zone with one of the following methods:

Vector Editor toolbar: You can use the New Polygon (


) and New Rectangle (
) buttons available in the Vector
Editor toolbar to draw the computation zone.
Existing polygon: You can use any existing polygon on the map as a computation zone by right-clicking it and selecting
Use As > Computation Zone from the context menu. You can also combine an existing computation zone with any
existing polygon by right-clicking it on the map or in the Explorer window and selecting Add To > Computation Zone
from the context menu.
Importing a polygon: If you have a file with an existing polygon, for example, a polygon describing an administrative
area, you can import it and use it as a computation zone. You can import it by right-clicking the Computation Zone on
the Geo tab and selecting Import from the context menu.
Fit to Map Window: You can create a computation zone the size of the map window by right-clicking the Computation
Zone on the Geo tab and selecting Fit to Map Window from the context menu.
You can save the computation zone, so that you can use it in a different Atoll document,
in the following ways:

Saving the computation zone in the user configuration: For information on saving
the computation zone in the user configuration, see "Saving a User Configuration"
on page 76.
Exporting the computation zone: You can export the computation zone by rightclicking the Computation Zone folder on the Geo tab of the Explorer window and
selecting Export from the context menu.

6.2.10.5 Setting Transmitters or Cells as Active


When you make a coverage prediction, Atoll considers all base stations that are active, filtered (i.e., that are selected by the
current filter parameters), and whose propagation zone intersects a rectangle containing the computation zone. Therefore,
before you define a coverage prediction, you must ensure that all the transmitters on the base stations you wish to study have
been activated. In the Explorer window, active transmitters are indicated with an on icon (

) in the LTE Transmitters folder

and with the defined colour on the map and inactive transmitters are indicated with an off icon (
folder and empty symbol on the map.

)in the LTE Transmitters

In Atoll, you can also set the cell on a transmitter as active or inactive.

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You can set an individual transmitter as active from its context menu or you can set more than one transmitter as active by
activating them from the Transmitters context menu, by activating the transmitters cells from the Cells table, or by selecting
the transmitters with a zone and activating them from the zones context menu.
To set an individual transmitter as active:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Transmitters folder.
3. Right-click the transmitter you want to activate. The context menu appears.
4. Select Active Transmitter from the context menu. The transmitter is now active.
To set more than one transmitter as active using the Transmitters context menu:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Select the transmitters you want to set as active:
-

To set all transmitters as active, right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
To set a group of transmitters as active, click the Expand button ( ) to expand the LTE Transmitters folder and
right-click the group of transmitters you want to set as active. The context menu appears.

3. Select Activate Transmitters from the context menu. The selected transmitters are set as active.
To set more than one transmitter as active using the Transmitters table:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Open Table. The Transmitters table appears with each transmitters parameters in a row.
4. For each transmitter that you want to set as active, select the check box in the Active column.
To set more than one cell as active using the Cells table:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Cells > Open Table. The Cells table appears with each cells parameters in a row.
4. For each cell that you want to set as active, select the check box in the Active column.
To set transmitters as active using a zone:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to the left of Zones folder to expand the folder.
3. Right-click the folder of the zone you will use to select the transmitters. The context menu appears.
If you do not yet have a zone containing the transmitters you want to set as active, you can
draw a zone as explained in "Using Zones in the Map Window" on page 33.

4. Select Activate Transmitters from the context menu. The selected transmitters are set as active.
Once you have ensured that all transmitters are active, you can set the propagation model parameters. For information on
choosing and configuring a propagation model, see Chapter 5: Working with Calculations in Atoll.
Calculating path loss matrices can be time and resource intensive when you are working on larger projects. Consequently,
Atoll offers you the possibility of distributing path loss calculations on several computers. You can install the distributed calculation server application on other workstations or on servers. Once the distributed calculation server application is installed
on a workstation or server, the computer is available for distributed path loss calculation to other computers on the network.
For information on setting up the distributed calculation server application, see The Administrator Manual.

6.2.10.6 Signal Level Coverage Predictions


Atoll offers a series of standard coverage predictions based on the measured signal level at each pixel; other factors, such as
interference, are not taken into consideration. Coverage predictions specific to LTE are covered in "LTE Coverage Predictions"
on page 248.
Once you have created and calculated a coverage prediction, you can use the coverage predictions context menu to make
the coverage prediction into a customised prediction which will appear in the Prediction Types dialogue. You can also select
Duplicate from the coverage predictions context menu to create a copy. By duplicating an existing prediction that has the
parameters you want to study, you can create a new coverage prediction more quickly than by creating a new coverage
prediction. If you clone a coverage prediction, by selecting Clone from the context menu, you can create a copy of the cover-

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age prediction with the calculated coverage. You can then change the display, providing that the selected parameter does not
invalidate the calculated coverage prediction.
You can also save the list of all defined coverage predictions in a user configuration, allowing you or other users to load it into
a new Atoll document. When you save the list in a user configuration, the parameters of all existing coverage predictions are
saved; not just the parameters of calculated or displayed ones. For information on exporting user configurations, see "Saving
a User Configuration" on page 76.
The following standard coverage predictions are explained in this section:

6.2.10.6.1

"Making a Coverage Prediction by Signal Level" on page 235


"Making a Coverage Prediction by Transmitter" on page 236
"Making a Coverage Prediction on Overlapping Zones" on page 237.

Making a Coverage Prediction by Signal Level


A coverage prediction by signal level allows you to predict coverage zones by the transmitter signal strength at each pixel. You
can base the coverage on the signal level, path loss, or total losses within a defined range. For a transmitter with more than
one cell, the coverage is calculated for the cell with the highest reference signal power.
To make a coverage prediction by signal level:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select Coverage by Signal Level and click OK. The Coverage by Signal Level Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the General tab.
On the General tab, you can change the default Name, Resolution, and the storage Folder for the coverage prediction,
and add some Comments. For more information on the storage of coverage predictions, see "Defining the Storage
Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190. Under Display configuration, you can create a Filter to select
which sites to display in the results. For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71. The Group by and
Sort buttons are not available when making a so-called "global" coverage prediction (e.g., signal level coverage prediction).
6. Click the Condition tab (see Figure 6.33). On the Condition tab, you can define the signals that will be considered for
each pixel.
-

At the top of the Condition tab, you can set the range of signal level to be considered.
Under Server, select "All" to consider all servers. Selecting "All" or "Best Signal Level" will give you the same results
because Atoll displays the results of the best server in either case. Selecting "Best Signal Level" necessitates, however, a longer time for calculation.
When you select "Best Signal Level" or "Second Best Signal Level," you can also define a Margin that Atoll will take
into consideration.

If you select the Shadowing taken into account check box, you can change the Cell edge coverage probability.
You can select the Indoor coverage check box to add indoor losses.

Figure 6.33: Condition settings for a coverage prediction by signal level


7. Click the Display tab.
If you choose to display the results by best signal level, the coverage prediction results will be in the form of thresholds. If you choose to display the results by signal level, the coverage prediction results will be arranged according to
transmitter. For information on adjusting the display, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.

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8. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.
Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window (see Figure 6.34).

Figure 6.34: Coverage prediction by signal level

6.2.10.6.2

Making a Coverage Prediction by Transmitter


A coverage prediction by transmitter allows the user to predict coverage zones by transmitter at each pixel. You can base the
coverage on the signal level, path loss, or total losses within a defined range. For a transmitter with more than one cell, the
coverage is calculated for the cell with the highest reference signal power.
To make a coverage prediction by transmitter:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select Coverage by Transmitter and click OK. The Coverage by Transmitter Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the General tab.
On the General tab, you can change the default Name, Resolution, and the storage Folder for the coverage prediction,
and add some Comments. For more information on the storage of coverage predictions, see "Defining the Storage
Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190. Under Display configuration, you can create a Filter to select
which sites to display in the results. You can also display the results grouped on the Network tab by one or more characteristics by clicking the Group by button, or you can display the results sorted by clicking the Sort button. For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71; for information on grouping, see "Advanced Grouping" on
page 66; for information on sorting, see "Advanced Sorting" on page 70.
6. Click the Condition tab (see Figure 6.35). On the Condition tab, you can define the signals that will be considered for
each pixel.
-

At the top of the Condition tab, you can set the range of signal level to be considered.
Under Server, select "All" to consider all servers. Selecting "All" or "Best Signal Level" will give you the same results
because Atoll displays the results of the best server in either case. Selecting "Best Signal Level" necessitates, however, the longest time for calculation.
When you select "Best Signal Level" or "Second Best Signal Level," you can also define a Margin that Atoll will take
into consideration.

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If you select the Shadowing taken into account check box, you can change the Cell edge coverage probability.
You can select the Indoor coverage check box to add indoor losses.

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Figure 6.35: Condition settings for a coverage prediction by transmitter


7. Click the Display tab.
For a coverage prediction by transmitter, the Display type "Discrete values" based on the Field "Transmitter" is
selected by default. Each coverage zone will then be displayed with the same colour as that defined for each transmitter. For information on defining transmitter colours, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
8. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.
Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window (see Figure 6.36).

Figure 6.36: Coverage prediction by transmitter

6.2.10.6.3

Making a Coverage Prediction on Overlapping Zones


Overlapping zones are composed of pixels that are, for a defined condition, covered by the signal of at least two transmitters.
You can base a coverage prediction on overlapping zones on the signal level, path loss, or total losses within a defined range.
For a transmitter with more than one cell, the coverage is calculated for the cell with the highest reference signal power.
To make a coverage prediction on overlapping zones:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select Overlapping Zones and click OK. The Overlapping Zones Properties dialogue appears.

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5. Click the General tab.


On the General tab, you can change the default Name, Resolution, and the storage Folder for the coverage prediction,
and add some Comments. For more information on the storage of coverage predictions, see "Defining the Storage
Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190. Under Display configuration, you can create a Filter to select
which sites to display in the results. For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71. The Group by and
Sort buttons are not available when making a so-called "global" coverage prediction (e.g., signal level coverage prediction).
6. Click the Condition tab (see Figure 6.37). On the Condition tab, you can define the signals that will be considered for
each pixel.
-

At the top of the Condition tab, you can set the range of signal level to be considered.
Under Server, select "All" to consider all servers. Selecting "All" or "Best Signal Level" will give you the same results
because Atoll displays the results of the best server in either case. Selecting "Best Signal Level" necessitates, however, the longest time for calculation.
When you select "Best Signal Level" or "Second Best Signal Level," you can also define a Margin that Atoll will take
into consideration.

If you select the Shadowing taken into account check box, you can change the Cell edge coverage probability.
You can select the Indoor coverage check box to add indoor losses.

Figure 6.37: Condition settings for a coverage prediction on overlapping zones


7. Click the Display tab.
For a coverage prediction on overlapping zones, the Display type "Value intervals" based on the Field "Number of
servers" is selected by default. Each overlapping zone will then be displayed in a colour corresponding to the number
of servers received per pixel. For information on defining display properties, see "Display Properties of Objects" on
page 23.
8. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.
Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window (see Figure 6.38).

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Figure 6.38: Coverage prediction on overlapping zones

6.2.10.7 Analysing a Coverage Prediction


Once you have completed a prediction, you can analyse the results with the tools that Atoll provides.
The results are displayed graphically in the map window according to the settings you made on the Display tab when you
created the coverage prediction (step 5. of "Studying Signal Level Coverage" on page 226). If several coverage predictions are
visible on the map, it may be difficult to clearly see the results of the coverage prediction you wish to analyse. You can select
which predictions to display or to hide by selecting or clearing the display check box. For information on managing the display,
see "Displaying or Hiding Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 18.
In this section, the following tools are explained:

6.2.10.7.1

"Displaying the Legend Window" on page 239.


"Displaying Coverage Prediction Results Using the Tip Text" on page 239.
"Using the Point Analysis Reception View" on page 240.
"Creating a Focus Zone or Hot Spot for a Coverage Prediction Report" on page 241.
"Displaying a Coverage Prediction Report" on page 242.
"Viewing Coverage Prediction Statistics" on page 244.
"Comparing Coverage Predictions: Examples" on page 244.

Displaying the Legend Window


When you create a coverage prediction, you can add the displayed values of the coverage prediction to a legend by selecting
the Add to legend check box on the Display tab.
To display the Legend window:

6.2.10.7.2

Select View > Legend Window. The Legend window is displayed, with the values for each displayed coverage prediction identified by the name of the coverage prediction.

Displaying Coverage Prediction Results Using the Tip Text


You can get information by placing the pointer over an area of the coverage prediction to read the information displayed in
the tip text. The information displayed is defined by the settings you made on the Display tab when you created the coverage
prediction (step 5. of "Studying Signal Level Coverage" on page 226).
To get coverage prediction results in the form of tip text:

In the map window, place the pointer over the area of the coverage prediction that you want more information on.
After a brief pause, the tip text appears with the information defined in the Display tab of the coverage prediction
properties (see Figure 6.39).

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Figure 6.39: Displaying coverage prediction results using tip text

6.2.10.7.3

Using the Point Analysis Reception View


Once you have calculated the coverage prediction, you can use the Point Analysis tool. At any point on the map, the Reception
view gives you information on the reference signal, SS, PBCH, PDSCH, PDCCH, and PUSCH and PUCCH signal levels, C/(I+N),
bearers, and throughputs, etc. The analysis is provided for a user-definable probe receiver which has a terminal, a mobility,
and a service.
The analysis is based on:

The reference signal levels, used to determine the best server for the pixel. The best serving transmitter is determined
according to the received reference signal level from the cell with the highest reference signal power. If more than
one cell cover the pixel, the one with the lowest layer is selected as the serving (reference) cell.
The reference signal C/N or C/(I+N), used to determine whether SU-MIMO or transmit or receive diversity is used in
case of AMS, and whether MU-MIMO can be used in uplink or not.
The PDSCH signal levels, downlink traffic loads, ICIC ratios, angular distributions of interference, and AAS usage, for
determining the PDSCH C/(I+N), bearer, and throughputs.
The PUSCH & PUCCH signal levels and uplink noise rise for determining the PUSCH & PUCCH C/(I+N), bearer, and
throughputs.

The downlink and uplink load conditions can be taken from the Cells table or from Monte Carlo simulations.
You can make a reception analysis to verify a coverage prediction. In this case, before you make the point analysis, ensure the
coverage prediction you want to verify is displayed on the map.
To make a reception analysis:
1. Click the Point Analysis button (
Figure 6.40) and the pointer changes (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar. The Point Analysis window appears (see
) to represent the receiver.

2. Select the Reception view.


3. At the top of the Reception view, select "Cells table" from Load.
4. Select the signal to be displayed from the Display list.
5. If you are making a reception analysis to verify a coverage prediction, you can recreate the conditions of the coverage
prediction:
a. Select the same Terminal, Mobility, and Service studied in the coverage prediction.
b. Click the Options button in the Reception view toolbar. The Calculation Options dialogue appears.
-

Edit the X and Y coordinates to change the present position of the receiver.
Select the Shadowing taken into account check box and enter a Cell edge coverage probability.
Select the Indoor coverage check box to add indoor losses. Indoor losses are defined per clutter class.

c. Click OK to close the Calculation Options dialogue.


6. Move the pointer over the map to make a reception analysis for the current location of the pointer.
In the map window, arrows from the pointer to each transmitter are displayed in the colour of the transmitters they
represent. The line from the pointer to its best server is slightly thicker than the other lines. The best server of the
pointer is the transmitter from which the pointer receives the highest reference signal level.
7. Click the map to leave the point analysis pointer at its current position.
To move the pointer again, click the point analysis pointer on the map and drag it to a new position.

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Select the load conditions to use in this analysis


from simulations or from the Cells table.

The RSRP from the best server (top-most


bar) and all interfering cells. Solid bars
indicate RSRP above the minimum RSRP.

The connection
status for the
current point.
: Successful
: Failed

Select the parameters of the probe user to be


studied.
Figure 6.40: Point analysis tool: Reception view
The bar graph displays the following information:
-

The RS, SS, or PDSCH signal levels, or the RSRP (depending on the selection made from the Display list) from different transmitters (the colour of the bar corresponds to the colour of the transmitter on the map).
The minimum RSRP: The empty portion of the bar indicates signal levels below the minimum RSRP.
The availability of reference signal coverage, and service in downlink and uplink.

If there is at least one successful connection (for reference signals, downlink, or uplink), double-clicking the icons in
the right-hand frame opens a dialogue with additional information with respect to the best server:
-

Reference Signals: Azimuth and tilt of the receiver, total losses, received reference signal power, reference signal
C/(I+N), RSRP, RSRQ, RSSI.
Downlink: Diversity mode, received powers of the downlink channels, received total noise on the downlink channels, C/(I+N) of the downlink channels, bearer, channel throughputs, cell capacities, and average user throughputs.
Uplink: Diversity mode, received powers of the uplink channels, transmission power, allocated bandwidth, total
noise on the uplink channels, C/(I+N) of the uplink channels, bearer, channel throughputs, cell capacities, allocated
bandwidth throughputs, and average user throughputs.

To get all the above information in a single report:


-

Click the Report button in the Reception view toolbar. The Analysis Report dialogue appears.

8. Click the Point Analysis button (

6.2.10.7.4

) on the Radio Planning toolbar again to end the point analysis.

Creating a Focus Zone or Hot Spot for a Coverage Prediction Report


The focus and hot spots define the area on which statistics can be drawn and on which reports are made. While you can only
have one focus zone, you can define several hot spots in addition to the focus zone.
It is important not to confuse the computation zone and the focus and hot spots. The computation zone defines the area
where Atoll calculates path loss matrices, coverage predictions, Monte Carlo simulations, etc., while the focus and hot spots
are the areas taken into consideration when generating reports and results. When you create a coverage prediction report, it
gives the results for the focus zone and for each of the defined hot spots.
To define a focus zone or hot spot:
1. Click the Geo tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Zones folder.
3. Right-click the Focus Zone or Hot Spots folder, depending on whether you want to create a focus zone or a hot spot.
The context menu appears.
4. Select Draw from the context menu.
5. Draw the focus or hot spot:
a. Click once on the map to start drawing the zone.
b. Click once on the map to define each point on the map where the border of the zone changes direction.
c. Click twice to finish drawing and close the zone.
A focus zone is delimited by a green line; a hot spot is delimited by a heavy black line. If you clear the zones visibility
check box in the Zones folder of the Geo tab of the Explorer window, it will no longer be displayed but will still be
taken into account.

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You can also create a focus or hot spot as follows:

Vector Editor toolbar: You can use the New Polygon (


) and New Rectangle (
) buttons available in the Vector
Editor toolbar to draw the computation zone.
Existing polygon: You can use any existing polygon on the map as a focus or hot spot by right-clicking it and selecting
Use As > Focus Zone or Use As > Hot Spot from the context menu. You can also combine an existing focus zone or hot
spot with any existing polygon by right-clicking it on the map or in the Explorer window and selecting Add To > Focus
Zone or Add To > Hot Spot from the context menu.
Importing a polygon: If you have a file with an existing polygon, for example, a polygon describing an administrative
area, you can import it and use it as a focus or hot spot. You can import it by right-clicking the Focus Zone or Hot Spots
folder on the Geo tab and selecting Import from the context menu. When you import hot spots, you can import the
name given to each zone as well.
Fit to Map Window: You can create a focus or hot spot the size of the map window by selecting Fit to Map Window
from the context menu.

You can save the focus zone or hot spots, so that you can use it in a different Atoll
document, in the following ways:
-

6.2.10.7.5

Saving the focus zone in the user configuration: For information on saving the
focus zone in the user configuration, see "Saving a User Configuration" on
page 76.
- Exporting the focus zone or hot spots: You can export the focus zone or hot
spots by right-clicking the Focus Zone or the Hot Spots folder on the Geo tab
of the Explorer window and selecting Export from the context menu.
You can include population statistics in the focus or hot spot by importing a population map. For information on importing maps, see "Importing a Raster-format
Geo Data File" on page 111.

Displaying a Coverage Prediction Report


Atoll can generate a report for any coverage prediction whose display check box is selected ( ). The report displays the
covered surface and percentage for each threshold value defined in the Display tab of the coverage predictions Properties
dialogue.
The coverage prediction report is displayed in a table. By default, the report table only displays the name and coverage area
columns. You can edit the table to select which columns to display or to hide. For information on displaying and hiding
columns, see "Displaying or Hiding a Column" on page 52.
Atoll bases the report on the area covered by the focus zone and hot spots; if no focus zone is defined, Atoll will use the
computation zone. However, by using a focus zone for the report, you can create a report for a specific number of sites,
instead of creating a report for every site that has been calculated.
The focus zone or hot spot must be defined before you display a report; it is not necessary to define it before calculating coverage. The focus zone or hot spot does not, however, need to be visible; even if it is not displayed, Atoll will take it into account
when generating the report. For information on defining a focus zone or hot spot, see "Creating a Focus Zone or Hot Spot for
a Coverage Prediction Report" on page 241.
Atoll can generate a report for a single prediction, or for all displayed predictions.
To display a report on a single coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the coverage prediction for which you want to generate a report. The context menu appears.
4. Select Generate Report from the context menu. The Columns to Be Displayed dialogue appears.
5. Define the format and content of the report:
You can select the columns that will be displayed in the report and define the order they are in:
a. Select the check box for each column you want to have displayed.
b. Define the order of the columns by selecting each column you want to move and clicking
to move it down.

to move it up or

You can load a configuration that you have saved previously and apply it to the current report:
a. Under Configuration, click the Load button. The Open dialogue appears.
b. Select the configuration you want to load and click Open. The loaded report configuration is applied.

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You can save the current report format in a configuration:


a. Under Configuration, click the Save button. The Save As dialogue appears.
b. In the Save As dialogue, browse to the folder where you want to save the configuration and enter a File name.
6. When you have finished defining the format and content of the report, click OK in the Columns to Be Displayed dialogue. The coverage prediction report table appears. The report is based on the hot spots and on the focus zone if
available or on the hot spots and computation zone if there is no focus zone.
To display a report on all coverage predictions:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Generate Report from the context menu. The Columns to Be Displayed dialogue appears.
4. Define the format and content of the report:
You can select the columns that will be displayed in the report and define the order they are in:
a. Select the check box for each column you want to have displayed.
b. Define the order of the columns by selecting each column you want to move and clicking
to move it down.

to move it up or

You can save the current report format in a configuration:


a. Under Configuration, click the Save button. The Save As dialogue appears.
b. In the Save As dialogue, browse to the folder where you want to save the configuration and enter a File name.
You can load a configuration that you have saved previously and apply it to the current report:
a. Under Configuration, click the Load button. The Open dialogue appears.
b. Select the configuration you want to load and click Open. The loaded report configuration is applied.
5. When you have finished defining the format and content of the report, click OK in the Columns to Be Displayed dialogue. The coverage prediction report table appears. The report shows all displayed coverage predictions in the same
order as in the Predictions folder. The report is based on the focus zone if available or on the calculation zone if there
is no focus zone.
You can include population statistics in the focus zone or hot spots by importing a population map. For information on importing maps, see "Importing a Raster-format Geo Data File" on page 111. Normally, Atoll takes all geo data into consideration,
whether it is displayed or not. However, for the population statistics to be used in a report, the population map has to be
displayed.
To include population statistics in the focus zone or hot spots:
1. Ensure that the population geo data is visible. For information on displaying geo data, see "Displaying or Hiding
Objects on the Map Using the Explorer" on page 18.
2. Click the Network tab in the Explorer window.
3. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select Generate Report from the context menu. The Columns to Be Displayed dialogue appears.
5. Select the following columns, where "Population" is the name of the folder on the Geo tab containing the population
map:
-

"Population" (Population): The number of inhabitants covered.


"Population" (% Population): The percentage of inhabitants covered.
"Population" (Population [total]): The total number of inhabitants inside the zone.

6. Click OK.
Atoll saves the names of the columns you select and will automatically select them the next time you create a coverage prediction report.
If you have created a custom data map with integrable data, the data can be used in prediction reports. The data will be
summed over the coverage area for each item in the report (for example, by transmitter or threshold). The data can be value
data (revenue, number of customers, etc.) or density data (revenue/km, number of customer/km, etc.). Data is considered
as non-integrable if the data given is per pixel or polygon and cannot be summed over areas, for example, socio-demographic
classes, rain zones, etc. For information on integrable data in custom data maps, see "Integrable Versus Non Integrable Data"
on page 129.

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Viewing Coverage Prediction Statistics


Atoll can display statistics for any coverage prediction whose display check box is selected ( ). By default, Atoll displays a
histogram using the coverage prediction colours, interval steps, and shading as defined on the Display tab of the coverage
predictions Properties dialogue. You can also display a cumulative distribution function (CDF) or an inverse CDF (1 - CDF). For
a CDF or an inverse CDF, the resulting values are combined and shown along a curve. You can also display the histogram or
the CDFs as percentages of the covered area.
Atoll bases the statistics on the area covered by the focus zone; if no focus zone is defined, Atoll will use the computation
zone. However, by using a focus zone for the report, you can display the statistics for a specific number of sites, instead of
displaying statistics for every site that has been calculated. Hot spots are not taken into consideration when displaying statistics.
The focus zone must be defined before you display statistics; it is not necessary to define it before calculating coverage. For
information on defining a focus zone, see "Creating a Focus Zone or Hot Spot for a Coverage Prediction Report" on page 241.
To display the statistics on a coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Predictions folder.
3. Right-click the coverage prediction whose statistics you want to display. The context menu appears.
4. Select Histogram from the context menu. The Statistics dialogue appears with a histogram of the area defined by the
focus zone (see Figure 6.41).
-

Under Histogram based on covered areas, you can select to view a histogram, CDF, or inverse CDF based on area
or percentage.
The Detailed results section displays the covered area values, or the percentage of the covered area, along the yaxis against the coverage criterion along the x-axis.
You can copy the graph by clicking the Copy button.
You can print the graph by clicking the Print button.
Under Statistics based on prediction conditions, you can view the mean and standard deviation of the coverage
criterion calculated during the coverage calculations, if available.

Figure 6.41: Histogram of a coverage prediction by signal level

6.2.10.7.7

Comparing Coverage Predictions: Examples


Atoll allows you to compare two similar predictions to see the differences between them. This enables you to quickly see how
changes you make affect the network.
In this section, there are two examples to explain how you can compare two similar predictions. You can display the results
of the comparison in one of the following ways:

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Intersection: This display shows the area where both prediction coverages overlap (for example, pixels covered by
both predictions are displayed in red).
Union: This display shows all pixels covered by both coverage predictions in one colour and pixels covered by only one
coverage prediction in a different colour (for example, pixels covered by both predictions are red and pixels covered
by only one prediction are blue).

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Difference: This display shows all pixels covered by both coverage predictions in one colour, pixels covered by only
the first prediction with another colour and pixels covered only by the second prediction with a third colour (for
example, pixels covered by both predictions are red, pixels covered only by the first prediction are green, and pixels
covered only by the second prediction are blue).

To compare two similar coverage predictions:


1. Create and calculate a coverage prediction of the existing network.
2. Examine the coverage prediction to see where coverage can be improved.
3. Make the changes to the network to improve coverage.
4. Duplicate the original coverage prediction (in order to leave the first coverage prediction unchanged).
5. Calculate the duplicated coverage prediction.
6. Compare the original coverage prediction with the new coverage prediction. Atoll displays differences in coverage
between them.
In this section, the following examples are explained:

"Example 1: Studying the Effect of a New Base Station" on page 245


"Example 2: Studying the Effect of a Change in Transmitter Tilt" on page 247.

Example 1: Studying the Effect of a New Base Station


If you have an area in a network that is poorly covered by current transmitters, you have several options for increasing coverage. In this example, you can verify if a newly added base station improves coverage.
A signal level coverage prediction of the current network is made as described in "Making a Coverage Prediction by Signal
Level" on page 235. The results are displayed in Figure 6.42. An area with poor coverage is visible on the right side of the
figure.

Figure 6.42: Signal level coverage prediction of existing network


A new base station is added, either by creating the base station and adding the transmitters, as explained in "Creating an LTE
Base Station" on page 201, or by placing a station template, as explained in "Placing a New Base Station Using a Station
Template" on page 209. Once the new site has been added, the original coverage prediction can be recalculated, but then it
would be impossible to compare the results. Instead, the original signal level coverage prediction can be copied by selecting
Duplicate from its context menu. The copy is then calculated to show the effect of the new base station (see Figure 6.43).

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Figure 6.43: Signal level coverage prediction of network with new base station
Now you can compare the two coverage predictions.
To compare two coverage predictions:
1. Right-click one of the two predictions. The context menu appears.
2. From the context menu, select Compare with and, from the menu that opens, select the coverage prediction you want
to compare with the first. The Comparison Properties dialogue appears.
3. Click the General tab. You can change the Name of the comparison and add Comments.
The General tab contains information about the coverage predictions being compared, including their names and
resolutions.
4. Click the Display tab. On the Display tab, you can choose how you want the results of the comparison to be displayed.
You can choose among:
-

Intersection
Union
Difference

In order to see what changes adding a new base station made, you should choose Difference.
5. Click OK to create the comparison. The comparison in Figure 6.44, shows clearly the area covered only by the new
base station.

Figure 6.44: Comparison of both signal level coverage predictions

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Example 2: Studying the Effect of a Change in Transmitter Tilt


If you have an area in a network that is poorly covered by current transmitters, you have several options for increasing coverage. In this example, you can see how modifying transmitter tilt can improve coverage.
A coverage prediction by transmitter of the current network is made as described in "Making a Coverage Prediction by Transmitter" on page 236. The results are displayed in Figure 6.45. The coverage prediction shows that one transmitter is covering
its area poorly. The area is indicated by a red oval in Figure 6.45.

Figure 6.45: Coverage prediction by transmitter of existing network


You can try modifying the tilt on the transmitter to improve the coverage. The properties of the transmitter can be accessed
by right-clicking the transmitter in the map window and selecting Properties from the context menu. The mechanical and electrical tilt of the antenna are defined on the Transmitter tab of the Properties dialogue.
Once the tilt of the antenna has been modified, the original coverage prediction can be recalculated, but then it would be
impossible to compare the results. Instead, the original coverage prediction can be copied by selecting Duplicate from its
context menu. The copy is then calculated, to show how modifying the antenna tilt has affected coverage (see Figure 6.46).

Figure 6.46: Coverage prediction by transmitter of network after modifications


As you can see, modifying the antenna tilt increased the coverage of the transmitter. However, to see exactly the change in
coverage, you can compare the two predictions.
To compare two predictions:
1. Right-click one of the two predictions. The context menu appears.
2. From the context menu, select Compare with and, from the menu that opens, select the prediction you want to compare with the first. The Comparison Properties dialogue appears.
3. Click the General tab. You can change the Name of the comparison and add Comments.
The General tab contains information about the coverage predictions being compared, including their names and
resolutions.

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4. Click the Display tab. On the Display tab, you can choose how you want the results of the comparison to be displayed.
You can choose among:
-

Intersection
Union
Difference

In order to see what changes modifying the antenna tilt made, you can choose Union. This will display all pixels
covered by both predictions in one colour and all pixels covered by only one prediction in another colour. The increase
in coverage, seen in only the second coverage prediction, will be immediately clear.
5. Click OK to create the comparison. The comparison in Figure 6.47, shows clearly the increase in coverage due at the
change in antenna tilt.

Figure 6.47: Comparison of both transmitter coverage predictions

6.2.10.8 LTE Coverage Predictions


Two types of LTE coverage predictions are available in Atoll: coverage predictions used to analyse the effective signal levels,
and coverage predictions used to analyse the signal quality.
Effective signal analysis coverage predictions can be used to analyse different signals (reference signals, SS, PBCH, PDSCH, and
PDCCH) in the downlink as well as in the uplink once the user-end gains and losses have been considered. These coverage
predictions do not depend on the network load conditions. The cell coverage areas for these predictions are only limited by
the cell minimum RSRP.
Using signal quality coverage predictions you can study the effective service coverage area and capacity of each cell in the
network. These coverage predictions depend on the interference in the network and the cell load conditions. For this reason,
the network load must be defined in order to calculate these coverage predictions. The cell coverage areas for RS, SS, PBCH,
and PDCCH signal quality predictions are only limited by the cell minimum RSRP. However, the cell coverage areas for PDSCH
signal quality predictions, service area, throughput, and quality indicator predictions are limited by the cell minimum RSRP
and the bearer selection thresholds of the lowest available bearer.
For the purposes of these coverage predictions, each pixel is considered a non-interfering user with a defined service, mobility
type, and terminal. The following are explained in the following sections:

"Service and User Modelling" on page 248.

This section explains the coverage predictions available for analysing the effective signal level and signal quality. The following
are explained:

"Analysing the Effective Signal Levels" on page 251.


"Analysing the Signal Quality" on page 253.

You can export the results of some signal quality coverage predictions as explained in:

"Exporting Signal Quality Coverage Prediction Results" on page 264.

You can also use the Point Analysis window to study the interference level at a point. Load conditions can be selected for the
analysis as well as the characteristics of the user-definable probe receiver, i.e., a terminal, a mobility, and a service:

6.2.10.8.1

"Analysing Interference Areas Using a Point Analysis" on page 265.

Service and User Modelling


Atoll can base its signal quality predictions on the DL traffic loads and the UL noise rise entered in the Cells table (for more
information, see "Setting the Traffic Loads and the UL Noise Rise" on page 253). Before you can model services, you must
define LTE radio bearers. For more information on LTE radio bearers, see "Defining LTE Radio Bearers" on page 395.

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In this section, the following are explained:

"Modelling Services" on page 249.


"Modelling Mobility Types" on page 249.
"Modelling Terminals" on page 250.

Modelling Services
Services are the various services available to users. These services can be either voice or data type services. This section
explains how to create a service. The following parameters are used in predictions:

Highest bearer
Lowest bearerThroughput scaling factor
Throughput offset
Body loss

To create or modify a service:


1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Traffic Parameters folder.
3. Right-click the Services folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select New from the context menu. The Services: New Element Properties dialogue appears.
You can modify the properties of an existing service by right-clicking the service in the Services folder and selecting Properties from the context menu.

5. Click the General tab. On the General tab, you can change the following parameters:
-

Name: Atoll proposes a name for the new service, but you can set a more descriptive name.
Activity factor: The uplink and downlink activity factors are used to determine the probability of activity for users
accessing the service during Monte Carlo simulations. For Voice services, this parameter is used when working
with sector traffic maps and user density traffic maps. For Data services, Atoll distributes the users according to
the activity factors when importing user density traffic maps for all activity statuses.
Average requested rate: Enter the average requested throughput for uplink and downlink. The average requested
throughput is used in a simulation during user distribution generation in order to calculate the number of users
attempting a connection.

6. Click the LTE tab. On the LTE tab, you can change the following parameters:
-

Type: You can select either Voice or Data as the service type.
Priority: Enter a priority for this service. "0" is the lowest priority.
Highest bearer: Select the highest bearer that the service can use in the uplink and downlink. This is considered
as an upper limit during bearer determination.
Lowest bearer: Select the lowest bearer that the service can use in the uplink and downlink. This is considered as
a lower limit during bearer determination.
Max throughput demand: Enter the highest throughput that the service can demand in the uplink and downlink.
Min throughput demand: Enter the minimum required throughput that the service should have in order to be
available in the uplink and downlink.
Application throughput: Under Application throughput, you can set a Scaling factor between the application
throughput and the RLC (Radio Link Control) throughput and a throughput Offset. These parameters model the
header information and other supplementary data that does not appear at the application level.
The application throughput parameters are used in throughput coverage predictions and for application throughput calculation.

Body loss: Enter a body loss for the service. The body loss is the loss due to the body of the user. For example, in
a voice connection the body loss, due to the proximity of the users head, is estimated to be 3 dB.

7. Click OK.
Modelling Mobility Types
In LTE, information about the receiver mobility is required for determining which bearer selection threshold and quality graph
to use from the reception equipment referred to in the terminal or cell. Mobiles used at high speeds and at walking speeds
do not have the same quality characteristics. C/(I+N) requirements for different radio bearers are largely dependent on mobile
speed.

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To create or modify a mobility type:


1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Traffic Parameters folder.
3. Right-click the Mobility Types folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select New from the context menu. The Mobility Types: New Element Properties dialogue appears.
You can modify the properties of an existing mobility type by right-clicking the mobility
type in the Mobility Types folder and selecting Properties from the context menu.

5. You can enter or modify the following parameters in the Mobility Types: New Element Properties dialogue:
-

Name: Enter a descriptive name for the mobility type.


Average speed: Enter an average speed for the mobility type. This field is for information only; the average speed
is not used by any calculation.

6. Click OK.
Modelling Terminals
In LTE, a terminal is the user equipment that is used in the network, for example, a mobile phone, a PDA, or a cars on-board
navigation device.
To create or modify a terminal:
1. Click the Parameters tab of the Explorer window.
2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Traffic Parameters folder.
3. Right-click the Terminals folder. The context menu appears.
4. Select New from the context menu. The Terminals: New Element Properties dialogue appears.
You can modify the properties of an existing terminal by right-clicking the terminal in the
Terminals folder and selecting Properties from the context menu.

5. Click the General tab. On the General tab, you can change the following parameters:
-

Name: Enter a descriptive name for the terminal.

6. Click the LTE tab. On the LTE tab, you can change the following parameters:
-

Under Transmission/Reception,
-

Min power: Enter the minimum transmission power of the terminal.


Max power: Enter the maximum transmission power of the terminal.
Noise figure: Enter the noise figure of the terminal (used to calculate the downlink total noise).
Losses: Enter the losses of the terminal.
Reception equipment: Select an equipment from the list of available reception equipment. For more information on reception equipment, see "Defining LTE Reception Equipment" on page 396.
- UE category: Select a UE category from the list of available UE categories. For more information on UE categories, see "Defining LTE UE Categories" on page 400.
Under Antenna,
-

Model: Select an antenna model from the list of available antennas. If you do not select an antenna for the
terminal, Atoll uses an isotropic antenna in calculations.
In case you do not select an antenna, Atoll uses an isotropic antenna, not an omni-directional antenna, in calculations. An isotropic antenna has spherical radiation patterns in the
horizontal as well as vertical planes.

250

Gain: Enter the terminal antenna gain if you have not selected an antenna model in the Model field. If you
have selected an antenna, the Gain field is disabled and shows the gain of the selected antenna.
Diversity support: Select the type of antenna diversity techniques supported by the terminal. Antenna diversity gains will be applied to the users using any terminal type depending on the supported antenna diversity
techniques, i.e., AAS, MIMO, or AAS+MIMO. If a terminal that supports AAS+MIMO is connected to a cell that
supports both antenna diversity techniques, both AAS and MIMO gains will be applied.

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Under MIMO, enter the Number of transmission antenna ports and the Number of reception antenna ports
available in the terminal.

7. Click OK.

6.2.10.8.2

Analysing the Effective Signal Levels


Atoll offers a couple of LTE coverage predictions which can be based on the predicted signal level from the best server and
the thermal background noise at each pixel, i.e., received carrier power (C) and the carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N). This section
explains the coverage predictions available for analysing the effective signal levels.
Downlink and uplink effective signal analysis coverage predictions predict the effective signal levels of different types of LTE
signals, such as reference signals, SS, PBCH, PDSCH including the PDCCH and the downlink traffic channel, and PUSCH, in the
part of the network being studied.
Atoll calculates the serving transmitter for each pixel depending on the downlink reference signal level. The serving transmitter is determined according to the received reference signal level from the cell with the highest reference signal power. In a
prediction for the "Best" layer, if more than one cell cover the pixel, the one with the lowest layer is selected as the serving
(reference) cell. Then, depending on the prediction definition, it calculates the effective signal (C or C/N for reference signals,
SS, etc.). Pixels are coloured if the display threshold condition is fulfilled (in other words, if the C or C/N is higher than the C
or C/N threshold).
To make an effective signal analysis coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select Effective Signal Analysis (DL) or Effective Signal Analysis (UL) and click OK. The coverage predictions Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the General tab.
On the General tab, you can change the default Name, Resolution, and the storage Folder for the coverage prediction,
and add some Comments. For more information on the storage of coverage predictions, see "Defining the Storage
Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190. Under Display configuration, you can create a Filter to select
which sites to display in the results. For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71. The Group By and
Sort buttons are not available when making a so-called "global" coverage prediction (e.g., signal level coverage
prediction).
6. Click the Condition tab (see Figure 6.48).
On the Condition tab, you can select a Terminal, a Mobility type, and a Service. You can also select a cell Layer, or
carry out the prediction for the "Best" layer. The effective signal analysis coverage prediction is always a best server
coverage prediction. The Noise figure defined in the terminal types properties dialogue is used in the coverage
prediction to determine the total noise in the downlink, and the Noise figure of the transmitter is used to determine
the total noise in the uplink.
For more information on services, terminals, mobility types, and reception equipment, see "Modelling Services" on
page 249, "Modelling Terminals" on page 250, "Modelling Mobility Types" on page 249, and "Defining LTE Reception
Equipment" on page 396, respectively.
If you want the coverage prediction to consider shadowing, you can select the Shadowing taken into account check
box and enter a percentage in the Cell edge coverage probability text box. The shadowing margin for the effective
signal analysis calculations is based on the C/I standard deviation.
You can also have the coverage prediction take Indoor coverage into consideration.

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Figure 6.48: Condition settings for an effective signal analysis coverage prediction
7. Click the Display tab.
8. From the Display type list, select "Value intervals" to display the coverage prediction by RSRP, signal levels, or C/N
levels.
For information on adjusting the display, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
9. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.
Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window (see Figure 6.49 and
Figure 6.50).

Figure 6.49: PDSCH C/N coverage prediction

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Figure 6.50: PUSCH & PUCCH C/N coverage prediction

6.2.10.8.3

Analysing the Signal Quality


In LTE, the capacity and the effective service coverage areas of cells are influenced by network loads. As the network load
increases, the area where a cell provides service decreases. For this reason, network loads must be defined in order to calculate these coverage predictions.
Atoll offers a series of coverage predictions which are based on the predicted signal level from the best server and the
predicted signal levels from other cells (interference) at each pixel, i.e., carrier-to-interference-and-noise ratio, or C/(I+N).
The downlink interference received from different cells of the network is weighted by their respective downlink traffic loads.
The measure of uplink interference for each cell is provided by the uplink noise rise.
If you have traffic maps, you can do a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the downlink traffic loads and the uplink noise rise
values for a generated user distribution. If you do not have traffic maps, Atoll can calculate these coverage predictions using
the downlink traffic loads and the uplink noise rise values defined for each cell.
In this section, these coverage predictions will be calculated using downlink traffic loads and the uplink noise rise values
defined at the cell level. Before making a prediction, you will have to set the downlink traffic loads and the uplink noise rise,
and the parameters that define the services and users. These are explained in the following sections:

"Setting the Traffic Loads and the UL Noise Rise" on page 253.

Several signal quality coverage predictions are explained in this section. The following predictions are explained:

"Making a Coverage by C/(I+N) Level" on page 254.


"Making a Downlink or Uplink Service Area Analysis" on page 256.
"Studying the Effective Service Area" on page 258.
"Making a Coverage Prediction by Throughput" on page 259.
"Making an Aggregate Throughput Coverage Prediction Using Simulation Results" on page 262.
"Making a Coverage Prediction by Quality Indicator" on page 262.
"Analysing Interference Areas Using a Point Analysis" on page 265.

Setting the Traffic Loads and the UL Noise Rise


If you are setting the traffic loads and the uplink noise rise for a single transmitter, you can set these parameters on the Cells
tab of the transmitters Properties dialogue. However, you can set the traffic loads and the uplink noise rise for all the cells
using the Cells table.
To set the traffic loads and the uplink noise rise using the Cells table:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Cells > Open Table from the context menu. The Cells table appears.
4. Enter a value in the following columns:
-

Traffic load (DL) (%)


ICIC ratio (DL) (%)

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UL noise rise (dB)


ICIC UL noise rise (dB)

Although, you can also set a value for the Traffic load (UL) (%) column as an indication of cells uplink loads, this parameter is not used in the coverage prediction calculations. The measure of interference in the uplink is given by the uplink
noise rise values. For a definition of the values, see "Cell Description" on page 205.
To enter the same values in one column for all cells in the table:
1. Enter the value in the first row in the column.
2. Select the entire column.
3. Right-click the selection and select Edit > Fill Down from the context menu or click the Fill Down button (
Table toolbar to copy the contents of the top cell of the selection into the other cells.

) in the

If you want to copy the contents of the last cell in the selection into all other cells, you can
right-click the selection and select Edit > Fill Up from the context menu or click the Fill Up
button (
) in the Table toolbar. For more information on working with tables in Atoll,
see "Working with Data Tables" on page 47.
Making a Coverage by C/(I+N) Level
Downlink and uplink coverage predictions by C/(I+N) level predict the interference levels and signal-to-interference levels in
the part of the network being studied.
Atoll calculates the serving transmitter for each pixel depending on the downlink reference signal level. The serving transmitter is determined according to the received reference signal level from the cell with the highest reference signal power. In a
prediction for the "Best" layer, if more than one cell cover the pixel, the one with the lowest layer is selected as the serving
(reference) cell. Then, depending on the prediction definition, it calculates the interference from other cells, and finally calculates the C/(I+N). The pixel is coloured if the display threshold condition is fulfilled (in other words, if the C/(I+N) is higher than
C/(I+N) threshold).
Coverage prediction by C/(I+N) level calculates the co-channel interference as well as the adjacent channel interference,
which is reduced by the adjacent channel suppression factor defined in the Frequency Bands table. For more information on
frequency bands, see "Defining Frequency Bands" on page 391.
C/(I+N) in the downlink is calculated for different channels using their respective transmission powers and by calculating the
interference received by the resource elements corresponding to these channels from interfering cells. Downlink C/(I+N)
calculations are made using the main antenna except for PDSCH C/(I+N) which may be calculated using the smart antenna
equipment. C/(I+N) in the uplink is calculated using the terminal power calculated after power control and the uplink noise
rise values stored either in the cell properties or in the selected simulation results.
To make a coverage prediction by C/(I+N) level:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select Coverage by C/(I+N) Level (DL) or Coverage by C/(I+N) Level (UL) and click OK. The coverage predictions Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the General tab.
On the General tab, you can change the default Name, Resolution, and the storage Folder for the coverage prediction,
and add some Comments. For more information on the storage of coverage predictions, see "Defining the Storage
Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190. Under Display configuration, you can create a Filter to select
which sites to display in the results. For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71. The Group by and
Sort buttons are not available when making a so-called "global" coverage prediction (e.g., signal level coverage prediction).
6. Click the Condition tab (see Figure 6.51).
Select "(Cells table)" from Load conditions. In this case, the coverage prediction is not going to be based on load conditions taken from a simulation. Atoll will calculate the coverage prediction using the cell loads stored in the cell properties.
When you base a coverage prediction on simulations, you would select the simulations on
which you would be basing the coverage prediction from the Load conditions list.

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You must select a Terminal, a Mobility type, and a Service. You can also select a cell Layer, or carry out the prediction
for the "Best" layer. The C/(I+N) coverage prediction is a best server coverage prediction. The Noise figure defined in
the terminal types properties dialogue is used in the coverage prediction to determine the total noise in the downlink,
and the Noise figure of the transmitter is used to determine the total noise in the uplink.
For more information on services, terminals, mobility types, and reception equipment, see "Modelling Services" on
page 249, "Modelling Terminals" on page 250, "Modelling Mobility Types" on page 249, and "Defining LTE Reception
Equipment" on page 396, respectively.
If you want the coverage prediction to consider shadowing, you can select the Shadowing taken into account check
box and enter a percentage in the Cell edge coverage probability text box. The shadowing margin for C (I+N) calculations is based on the C/I standard deviation.
You can also have the coverage prediction take Indoor Coverage into consideration.

Figure 6.51: Condition settings for a coverage prediction by C/(I+N) level


7. Click the Display tab.
8. From the Display type list, select "Value intervals" to display the coverage prediction by RSRQ, RSSI, C/(I+N) levels, or
total noise (I+N) levels.
For information on adjusting the display, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
You can also display the uplink C/(I+N) for all frequency blocks, i.e., without uplink bandwidth reduction, by setting
the Uplink bandwidth allocation target to Full bandwidth for the scheduler being used and then selecting the display
option PUSCH & PUCCH C/(I+N) Level (UL). For more information on schedulers, see "Defining LTE Schedulers" on
page 399.
9. If you wish to export the coverage prediction results to a text file, click the Result Export tab and see "Exporting Signal
Quality Coverage Prediction Results" on page 264 for more information.
10. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.
Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window (see Figure 6.52 and
Figure 6.53).

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Figure 6.52: Coverage prediction by PDSCH C/(I+N)

Figure 6.53: Coverage prediction by PUSCH & PUCCH C/(I+N)


Making a Downlink or Uplink Service Area Analysis
Downlink and uplink service area analysis coverage predictions calculate and display the best LTE radio bearers based on
C (I+N) for each pixel. In the coverage predic ons, the downlink or uplink service areas are limited by the bearer selec on
thresholds of the highest and lowest bearers of the selected service.
To make a coverage prediction on service area:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select Service Area Analysis (DL) or Service Area Analysis (UL) and click OK. The coverage predictions Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the General tab.
On the General tab, you can change the default Name, Resolution, and the storage Folder for the coverage prediction,
and add some Comments. For more information on the storage of coverage predictions, see "Defining the Storage

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Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190. Under Display configuration, you can create a Filter to select
which sites to display in the results. For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71. The Group by and
Sort buttons are not available when making a so-called "global" coverage prediction (e.g., signal level coverage prediction).
6. Click the Condition tab (see Figure 6.54).
Select "(Cells table)" from Load conditions. In this case, the coverage prediction is not going to be based on load conditions taken from a simulation. Atoll will calculate the coverage prediction using the cell loads stored in the cell properties.
When you base a coverage prediction on simulations, you would select the simulations on
which you would be basing the coverage prediction from the Load conditions list.

You must select a Terminal, a Mobility type, and a Service. You can also select a cell Layer, or carry out the prediction
for the "Best" layer. The best bearer coverage prediction is always based on the best server. The Noise figure defined
in the terminal types properties dialogue is used in the coverage prediction to determine the total noise in the downlink, and the Noise figure of the transmitter is used to determine the total noise in the uplink. As well, the bearer selecon for each pixel according to the PDSCH C (I+N) level is performed using the bearer selec on thresholds defined in
the reception equipment. This reception equipment is the one defined in the selected terminal for the downlink coverage predictions, and the one defined in the cell properties of the serving transmitter for the uplink coverage predictions. Mobility is used to index the bearer selection threshold graph to use.
You can make Atoll use only the bearers for which selection thresholds are defined in both
the terminals and the cells reception equipment by adding an option in the atoll.ini file.
For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
For more information on services, terminals, mobility types, and reception equipment, see "Modelling Services" on
page 249, "Modelling Terminals" on page 250, "Modelling Mobility Types" on page 249, and "Defining LTE Reception
Equipment" on page 396, respectively.
If you want the coverage prediction to consider shadowing, you can select the Shadowing taken into account check
box and enter a percentage in the Cell edge coverage probability text box. The shadowing margin for C (I+N) calculations is based on the C/I standard deviation.
You can also have the coverage prediction take Indoor coverage into consideration.

Figure 6.54: Condition settings for a coverage prediction on LTE bearers


7. Click the Display tab.
8. From the Display type list, select display by best bearer or modulation.
For information on adjusting the display, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
9. If you wish to export the coverage prediction results to a text file, click the Result Export tab and see "Exporting Signal
Quality Coverage Prediction Results" on page 264 for more information.
10. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately

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OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.
Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window (see Figure 6.55 and
Figure 6.56).

Figure 6.55: Downlink service area analysis display by bearer

Figure 6.56: Uplink service area analysis display by bearer


Studying the Effective Service Area
The effective service area is the intersection zone between the uplink and downlink service areas. In other words, the effective
service area prediction calculates where a service actually is available in both downlink and uplink. The service availability
depends upon the bearer selection thresholds of the highest and lowest bearers defined in the properties of the service
selected for the prediction.
To make an effective service area coverage prediction:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.

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3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select Effective Service Area Analysis (DL+UL) and click OK. The coverage predictions Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the General tab.
On the General tab, you can change the default Name, Resolution, and the storage Folder for the coverage prediction,
and add some Comments. For more information on the storage of coverage predictions, see "Defining the Storage
Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190. Under Display configuration, you can create a Filter to select
which sites to display in the results. For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71. The Group by and
Sort buttons are not available when making a so-called "global" coverage prediction (e.g., signal level coverage prediction).
6. Click the Condition tab.
Select "(Cells table)" from Load conditions. In this case, the coverage prediction is not going to be based on load conditions taken from a simulation. Atoll will calculate the coverage prediction using the cell loads stored in the cell properties.
When you base a coverage prediction on simulations, you would select the simulations on
which you would be basing the coverage prediction from the Load conditions list.

You must select a Terminal, a Mobility type, and a Service. You can also select a cell Layer, or carry out the prediction
for the "Best" layer. The best bearer coverage prediction is always based on the best server. For more information on
services, terminals, mobility types, and reception equipment, see "Modelling Services" on page 249, "Modelling
Terminals" on page 250, "Modelling Mobility Types" on page 249, and "Defining LTE Reception Equipment" on
page 396, respectively.
If you want the coverage prediction to consider shadowing, you can select the Shadowing taken into account check
box and enter a percentage in the Cell edge coverage probability text box. The shadowing margin for C (I+N) calculations is based on the C/I standard deviation.
You can also have the coverage prediction take Indoor coverage into consideration.
7. Click the Display tab.
For an effective service area prediction, the Display type "Unique" is selected by default. The coverage prediction will
display where a service is available in both downlink and uplink. For information on defining display properties, see
"Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
8. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.
Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window.
Making a Coverage Prediction by Throughput
Downlink and uplink throughput coverage predictions calculate and display the channel throughputs and cell capacities based
on C (I+N) and bearer calcula ons for each pixel. These coverage predic ons can also display aggregate cell throughputs if
Monte Carlo simulation results are available. For more information on making aggregate cell throughput coverage predictions
using simulation results, see "Making an Aggregate Throughput Coverage Prediction Using Simulation Results" on page 262.
To make a coverage prediction by throughput:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select Coverage by Throughput (DL) or Coverage by Throughput (UL) and click OK. The coverage predictions Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the General tab.
On the General tab, you can change the default Name, Resolution, and the storage Folder for the coverage prediction,
and add some Comments. For more information on the storage of coverage predictions, see "Defining the Storage
Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190. Under Display configuration, you can create a Filter to select
which sites to display in the results. For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71. The Group by and

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Sort buttons are not available when making a so-called "global" coverage prediction (e.g., signal level coverage prediction).
6. Click the Condition tab (see Figure 6.57).
Select "(Cells table)" from Load conditions. In this case, the coverage prediction is not going to be based on load conditions taken from a simulation. Atoll will calculate the coverage prediction using the cell loads stored in the cell properties.
When you base a coverage prediction on simulations, you would select the simulations on
which you would be basing the coverage prediction from the Load conditions list.

You must select a Terminal, a Mobility type, and a Service. You can also select a cell Layer, or carry out the prediction
for the "Best" layer. The throughput coverage prediction is always based on the best server. The Noise figure defined
in the terminal types Properties dialogue is used in the coverage prediction to determine the total noise in the downlink, and the Noise figure of the transmitter is used to determine the total noise in the uplink. As well, the bearer selecon for each pixel according to the PDSCH C (I+N) level is performed using the bearer selec on thresholds defined in
the reception equipment. This reception equipment is the one defined in the selected terminal for the downlink coverage predictions, and the one defined in the cell properties of the serving transmitter for the uplink coverage predictions. The mobility is used to indicate the bearer selection threshold graph to use. The service is used for the
application throughput parameters defined in the service Properties dialogue.
You can make Atoll use only the bearers for which selection thresholds are defined in both
the terminals and the cells reception equipment by adding an option in the atoll.ini file.
For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
For more information on services, terminals, mobility types, and reception equipment, see "Modelling Services" on
page 249, "Modelling Terminals" on page 250, "Modelling Mobility Types" on page 249, and "Defining LTE Reception
Equipment" on page 396, respectively.
If you want the coverage prediction to consider shadowing, you can select the Shadowing taken into account check
box and enter a percentage in the Cell edge coverage probability text box. The shadowing margin for C (I+N) calculations is based on the C/I standard deviation.
You can also have the coverage prediction take Indoor coverage into consideration.

Figure 6.57: Condition settings for a throughput coverage prediction


7. Click the Display tab.
8. From the Display type list, select "Value intervals" to display the coverage prediction by peak MAC, effective MAC, or
application throughputs.
For information on adjusting the display, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
9. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.

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Atoll determines the total number of symbols in the downlink and the uplink frames from the information in the global transmitter parameters and the frequency bands assigned to cells. Then, Atoll determines the bearer at each pixel and multiplies
the bearer efficiency by the number of symbols in the frame to determine the peak RLC channel throughputs.
The effective RLC throughputs are the peak RLC throughputs reduced by retransmission due to errors, or the Block Error Rate
(BLER). Atoll uses the block error rate graphs of the reception equipment defined in the selected terminal for downlink or the
reception equipment of the cell of the serving transmitter for uplink .
The application throughput is the effective RLC throughput reduced by the overheads of the different layers between the RLC
and the Application layers.
The cell capacity display types let you calculate and display the throughputs available at each pixel of the coverage area taking
into account the maximum traffic load limits set for each cell. In other words, the cell capacity is equal to channel throughput
when the maximum traffic load is set to 100 %, and is equal to a throughput limited by the maximum allowed traffic loads
otherwise. Cell capacities are, therefore, channel throughputs scaled down to respect the maximum traffic load limits.
The average user throughput in downlink is calculated by dividing the downlink cell capacity by the number of downlink users
of the serving cell. In uplink, the average user throughput is calculated by dividing the allocated bandwidth throughput by the
number of uplink users of the serving cell.
The allocated bandwidth throughputs are the throughputs corresponding to the number of frequency blocks allocated to the
terminal at different locations. Users located far from the base stations use less numbers of frequency blocks than users
located near so that they can concentrate their transmission power over a bandwidth narrower than the channel bandwidth
in order to maintain the connection in uplink.
For more information on throughput calculation, see the Technical Reference Guide. For more information on the Global
Parameters, see "The Global Network Settings" on page 392.
Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window.

Figure 6.58: Coverage prediction by downlink channel throughput

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Figure 6.59: Coverage prediction by uplink channel throughput


Making an Aggregate Throughput Coverage Prediction Using Simulation Results
Atoll calculates the aggregate peak RLC, effective RLC, and application cell throughputs during Monte Carlo simulations. The
aggregate cell throughputs are the sums of the cells user throughputs. You can create a coverage prediction that calculates
and displays the surface area covered by each cell, and colours the coverage area of each cell according to its aggregate
throughput.
To create an aggregate throughput coverage prediction:
1. Create and calculate a Monte Carlo simulation. For more information on creating Monte Carlo simulations, see "Calculating and Displaying Traffic Simulations" on page 301.
2. Create a coverage prediction by throughput as explained in "Making a Coverage Prediction by Throughput" on
page 259, with the following exceptions:
a. On the Condition tab, select a simulation or group of simulations from the Load conditions list. The coverage prediction will display the results based on the selected simulation or on the average results of the selected group of
simulations.
b. On the Display tab, you can display results by Peak RLC aggregate throughput, Effective RLC aggregate throughput, or Aggregate application throughput. The coverage prediction results will be in the form of thresholds. For
information on defining the display, see "Display Properties of Objects" on page 23.
This coverage prediction displays the surface area covered by each cell and colours it according to its aggregate throughput.
For more information on using simulation results in coverage predictions, see "Making Coverage Predictions Using Simulation
Results" on page 315.
Making a Coverage Prediction by Quality Indicator
Downlink and uplink quality indicator coverage predictions calculate and display the values of different quality indicators
(BLER, BER, etc.) based on the best LTE radio bearers and on C (I+N) for each pixel.
To make a coverage prediction by quality indicator:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the Predictions folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select New from the context menu. The Prediction Types dialogue appears.
4. Select Coverage by Quality Indicator (DL) or Coverage by Quality Indicator (UL) and click OK. The coverage predictions Properties dialogue appears.
5. Click the General tab.
On the General tab, you can change the default Name, Resolution, and the storage Folder for the coverage prediction,
and add some Comments. For more information on the storage of coverage predictions, see "Defining the Storage
Location of Coverage Prediction Results" on page 190. Under Display configuration, you can create a Filter to select
which sites to display in the results. For information on filtering, see "Filtering Data" on page 71. The Group by and

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Sort buttons are not available when making a so-called "global" coverage prediction (e.g., signal level coverage prediction).
6. Click the Condition tab (see Figure 6.54).
Select "(Cells table)" from Load conditions. In this case, the coverage prediction is not going to be based on load conditions taken from a simulation. Atoll will calculate the coverage prediction using the cell loads stored in the cell properties.
When you base a coverage prediction on simulations, you would select the simulations on
which you would be basing the coverage prediction from the Load conditions list.

You must select a Terminal, a Mobility type, and a Service. You can also select a cell Layer, or carry out the prediction
for the "Best" layer. The quality indicator coverage prediction is always based on the best server. The Noise figure
defined in the terminal types properties dialogue is used in the coverage prediction to determine the total noise in
the downlink, and the Noise figure of the transmitter is used to determine the total noise in the uplink. As well, the
bearer selec on for each pixel according to the PDSCH C (I+N) level is performed using the bearer selec on thresholds
defined in the reception equipment, and the quality indicator graphs from the reception equipment are used to determine the values of the selected quality indicator on each pixel. This reception equipment is the one defined in the
selected terminal for the downlink coverage predictions, and the one defined in the cell properties of the serving
transmitter for the uplink coverage predictions. Mobility is used to index the bearer selection threshold graph to use.
You can make Atoll use only the bearers for which selection thresholds are defined in both
the terminals and the cells reception equipment by adding an option in the atoll.ini file.
For more information, see the Administrator Manual.
For more information on services, terminals, mobility types, and reception equipment, see "Modelling Services" on
page 249, "Modelling Terminals" on page 250, "Modelling Mobility Types" on page 249, and "Defining LTE Reception
Equipment" on page 396, respectively.
If you want the coverage prediction to consider shadowing, you can select the Shadowing taken into account check
box and enter a percentage in the Cell edge coverage probability text box. The shadowing margin for C (I+N) calculations is based on the C/I standard deviation.
You can also have the coverage prediction take Indoor coverage into consideration.

Figure 6.60: Condition settings for a coverage prediction by quality indicators


7. Click the Display tab.
You can choose between displaying results by BER, BLER, FER, or any other quality indicator that you might have
added to the document. For more information, see "Defining LTE Quality Indicators" on page 396. The coverage
prediction results will be in the form of thresholds. For information on adjusting the display, see "Display Properties
of Objects" on page 23.
8. Once you have created the coverage prediction, you can calculate it immediately or you can save it and calculate it
later:
-

Calculate: Click Calculate to save the defined coverage prediction and calculate it immediately
OK: Click OK to save the defined coverage prediction without calculating it. You can calculate it later clicking the
Calculate button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar.

The progress of the calculation, as well as any error messages, is displayed in the Event Viewer.

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Once Atoll has finished calculating the coverage prediction, the results are displayed in the map window (see Figure 6.61 and
Figure 6.62).

Figure 6.61: Coverage prediction by downlink BLER

Figure 6.62: Coverage prediction by uplink BLER

6.2.10.8.4

Exporting Signal Quality Coverage Prediction Results


Signal quality coverage prediction results can be exported to text (TXT) files for the following coverage predictions:

Coverage by C/(I+N) (DL)


Coverage by C/(I+N) (UL)
Service Area Analysis (DL)
Service Area Analysis (UL)

To export coverage prediction results:


1. Create a new coverage prediction of one of the above types or open the Properties dialogue of an exiting one.
2. Click the Result Export tab.
3. Select the Export calculated values check box.
4. Click the Browse button (

) beside the File box. The Save As dialogue appears.

5. Enter a file name for the text file in which the results will be saved.

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6. Click Save.
7. In Decimal places, enter the number of digits after the decimal point for the exported numeric values.
8. Select a Separator. You can choose from tab, comma, semicolon, and space.
9. Click Calculate. The coverage prediction is calculated and the results exported to the selected text file.
The exported results are actual calculated values of the studied parameters not the display levels defined in the
Display tab of the coverage prediction properties dialogue.

6.2.10.8.5

Analysing Interference Areas Using a Point Analysis


In Atoll, you can study the interferers of a transmitter using the Point Analysis tool. At any point on the map, the Interference
view gives you information on interference received on any downlink channel. The analysis is provided for a user-definable
probe receiver which has a terminal, a mobility, and a service.
The downlink and uplink load conditions can be taken from the Cells table or from Monte Carlo simulations.
You can make a reception analysis to verify a coverage prediction. In this case, before you make the point analysis, ensure the
coverage prediction you want to verify is displayed on the map.
To make an interference analysis:
1. Click the Point Analysis button (
Figure 6.63) and the pointer changes (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar. The Point Analysis window appears (see
) to represent the receiver.

2. Select the Interference view.


3. At the top of the Interference view, select "Cells table" from Load.
4. Select the channel on which you wish to study the interference from the Display list.
5. If you are making an interference analysis to verify a coverage prediction, you can recreate the conditions of the coverage prediction:
a. Select the same Terminal, Mobility, and Service studied in the coverage prediction.
b. Click the Options button in the Interference view toolbar. The Calculation Options dialogue appears.
-

Edit the X and Y coordinates to change the present position of the receiver.
Select the Shadowing taken into account check box and enter a Cell edge coverage probability.
Select the Indoor coverage check box to add indoor losses. Indoor losses are defined per clutter class.

c. Click OK to close the Calculation Options dialogue.


6. Move the pointer over the map to make an interference analysis for the current location of the pointer.
In the map window, an think line arrow from the pointer to its best server is displayed. Thinner arrows are also
displayed from the interfering cells towards the pointer. The best server of the pointer is the transmitter from which
the pointer receives the highest reference signal level. If you let the pointer rest on an arrow, the interference level
received from the corresponding transmitter at the receiver location will be displayed in the tip text.
7. Click the map to leave the point analysis pointer at its current position.
To move the pointer again, click the point analysis pointer on the map and drag it to a new position.
Select the load conditions to use in this analysis
from simulations or from the Cells table.

The best server signal level (top-most bar),


total noise (black bar), and interference
from other cells.

Select the parameters of the probe user to be


studied.
Figure 6.63: Point analysis tool: Interference view
The Interference view displays, in the form of a bar graph, the signal level from the best server, a black bar indicating
the total noise (I+N) received by the receiver, and bars representing the interference received from each interferer.

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You can change the following options in the Interference view:


-

Sort by interference: You can select the Sort by interference check box if you want Atoll to display the interfers
by the effective interference received.
Intra-technology: You can select the Intra-technology check box if you want Atoll to display the intra-technology
interference.

To get the details about the best server and all the interferers in the form of a report:
-

Click the Report button in the Interference view toolbar. The Analysis Report dialogue appears.

8. Click the Details view.


The Details view displays, for each cell received, the cells name, its distance from the receiver, its physical cell ID
status, as well as the received signal and received signal interference and the RSRP for all cells. Additionally, the interference is displayed for all cells except the best server.
9. Click the Point Analysis button (

) on the Radio Planning toolbar again to end the point analysis.

6.2.10.9 Printing and Exporting Coverage Prediction Results


Once you have made a coverage prediction, you can print the results displayed on the map or save them in an external format.
You can also export a selected area of the coverage as a bitmap.

Printing coverage prediction results: Atoll offers several options allowing you to customise and optimise the printed
coverage prediction results. Atoll supports printing to a variety of paper sizes, including A4 and A0. For more information on printing coverage prediction results, see "Printing a Map" on page 60.
Defining a geographic export zone: If you want to export part of the coverage prediction as a bitmap, you can define
a geographic export zone. After you have defined a geographic export zone, when you export a coverage prediction
as a raster image, Atoll offers you the option of exporting only the area covered by the zone. For more information on
defining a geographic export zone, see "Using a Geographic Export Zone" on page 38.
Exporting coverage prediction results: In Atoll, you can export the coverage areas of a coverage prediction in raster
or vector formats. In raster formats, you can export in BMP, TIF, JPEG 2000, ArcView grid, or Vertical Mapper (GRD
and GRC) formats. When exporting in GRD or GRC formats, Atoll allows you to export files larger than 2 GB. In vector
formats, you can export in ArcView, MapInfo, or AGD formats. For more information on exporting coverage prediction results, see "Exporting Coverage Prediction Results" on page 42.

6.2.11 Planning Neighbours


You can set neighbours for each cell manually, or you can let Atoll automatically allocate neighbours, based on the parameters
that you define. When allocating neighbours, the cell to which you are allocating neighbours is referred to as the reference
cell. The cells that fulfil the requirements to be neighbours are referred to as possible neighbours. When allocating neighbours
to all active and filtered transmitters, Atoll allocates neighbours only to the cells within the focus zone and considers as possible neighbours all the active and filtered cells whose propagation zone intersects the rectangle containing the computation
zone. If there is no focus zone, Atoll allocates neighbours only to the cells within the computation zone.
The focus and computation zones are taken into account whether or not they are visible. In other words, the focus and computation zones will be taken into account whether or not their visibility check box in the Zones folder of the Geo tab of the
Explorer window is selected.
Usually, you will allocate neighbours globally during the beginning of a radio planning project. Afterwards, you will allocate
neighbours to base stations or transmitters as you add them. You can use automatic allocation on all cells in the document,
or you can define a group of cells either by using a focus zone or by grouping transmitters in the Explorer window. For information on creating a focus zone, see "Using a Focus Zone or Hot Spots" on page 35. For information on grouping transmitters
in the Explorer window, see "Grouping Data Objects" on page 65.
Atoll supports the following neighbour types in an LTE network:

Intra-technology neighbours: Intra-technology neighbours are cells defined as neighbours that also use LTE.
Inter-technology neighbours: Inter-technology neighbours are cells defined as neighbours that use a technology
other than LTE.

In this section, the following are explained:

266

"Importing Neighbours" on page 267


"Defining Exceptional Pairs" on page 267
"Configuring Importance Factors for Neighbours" on page 267
"Allocating Neighbours Automatically" on page 268
"Checking Automatic Allocation Results" on page 270
"Allocating and Deleting Neighbours per Cell" on page 273
"Calculating the Importance of Existing Neighbours" on page 275
"Checking the Consistency of the Neighbour Plan" on page 276
"Exporting Neighbours" on page 277.

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6.2.11.1 Importing Neighbours


You can import neighbour data in the form of ASCII text files (in TXT and CSV formats) into the current Atoll document using
the Neighbours table.
To import neighbours using the Neighbours table:
1. Open the Neighbours table:
a. Select the Network tab of the Explorer window.
b. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
c. Select Neighbours > Intra-technology > Open Table from the context menu. The Neighbours table appears.
2. Import the ASCII text file as explained in "Importing Tables from Text Files" on page 58.

6.2.11.2 Defining Exceptional Pairs


In Atoll, you can define neighbour constraints that will be taken into consideration during the automatic allocation of neighbours. Exceptional pairs can be taken into consideration when you manually allocate neighbours.
To define exceptional pairs of neighbours:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Cells > Open Table from the context menu. The Cells table appears.
4. Right-click the cell for which you want to define neighbour constraints. The context menu appears.
5. Select Record Properties from the context menu. The cells Properties dialogue appears.
6. Click the Intra-technology Neighbours tab.
7. Under Exceptional Pairs, create a new exceptional pair in the row marked with the New row icon (

):

a. Select the cell from the list in the Neighbours column.


b. In the Status column, select one of the following:
-

Forced: The selected cell will always be a neighbour of the reference cell.
Forbidden: The selected cell will never be a neighbour of the reference cell.

8. Click elsewhere in the table when you have finished creating the new exceptional pair.
9. Click OK.
You can also create exceptional pairs using the Intra-technology Exceptional Pairs table.
You can open this table by right-clicking the LTE Transmitters folder and selecting
Neighbours > Intra-technology > Exceptional Pairs from the context menu.

6.2.11.3 Configuring Importance Factors for Neighbours


You can define the relative importance of the factors that Atoll uses to evaluate possible intra-technology neighbours (for
information on how Atoll calculates importance, see the Technical Reference Guide).
To configure the importance factors for neighbours:
1. Click the Network tab of the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the LTE Transmitters folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Neighbours > Intra-technology > Confi