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Conceptual Design of Buildings

(Course unit code 1C2)

Module A
Structural Analysis
Jean-Pierre Jaspart (University of Lige)

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards and Catastrophic Events
520121-1-2011-1-CZ-ERA MUNDUS-EMMC

Conceptual Design
of Buildings

Module A Structural Analysis

List of contents
Structural analysis Structural analysis Analytical process by which the response of
Elastic analysis
the structures (in terms stresses, internal forces and deformations) to
Plastic analysis
the acting loads is determined.
Examples
The structural analysis should take into account several effects, such as:
i)

deformability and stiffness of the structure and supports;

ii) strength and stiffness of joints;


iii) stability of the structure (global, members and local);
iv) behaviour of cross-sections (classification of sections);
v) imperfections (global and member imperfections).

The understanding of the influence of all these effects is fundamental


for the designer, to make a suitable choice of the method of analysis
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for a certain structure.


L2 Global analysis of steel structures - Elastic analysis and plastic analysis.

Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Structural analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

Global elastic (linear) analysis


Global plastic (non-linear) analysis

- Elastic global analysis should be based on the assumption that the stress-strain
behaviour of the material is linear. As a consequence, to perform a global elastic
analysis, the stresses applied in any cross section of any member, must be lower
than the yield strength of the material (fy in steel structures).
- Plastic global analysis allows the plastification of some cross-sections (in
general forming plastic hinges) and consequent redistribution of forces for other
sections (with less forces). In this type of analysis the material is modelled by
constitutive relationships non-linear: rigid-plastic; elastic-perfectly plastic (structural
steel), elastic-plastic.

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Steel behaviour
L2 Global analysis of steel structures - Elastic analysis and plastic analysis.

Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents

Structural analysis - Plastic hinge is formed when in a bending section, all fibers reach the yield
strength fy, in compression in one side of n.a. and in tension in the other side of
Elastic analysis
n.a.. The bending moment which can produce this stress diagram is called Plastic
Plastic analysis
Examples
Moment.
- The formation of a plastic hinge, and consequently the use of Structural Plastic
Analysis, require ductile materials and compact sections.

n.a.

fy

fy

fy

fy
M = Mel

fy
Mel < M < Mpl

fy
M = Mpl

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L2 Global analysis of steel structures - Elastic analysis and plastic analysis.

Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

Structural analysis

Load

Linear elastic analysis


Rigid-plastic analysis
Elasto-plastic analysis
Elasto-perfectly plastic

Displacement
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Load-displacement curve for elastic and plastic analysis


L2 Global analysis of steel structures - Elastic analysis and plastic analysis.

Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

In terms of number of support reactions (or internal restrictions), structures


may be classified in:

Isostatic structures
Hyperstatic structures
- Isostatic structure A structure with a number of external supports (or
internal restrictions) equal to the minimum necessary to be in equilibrium for
any set of acting loads (e.g. 2D structure with 3 supports). The distribution of
forces and moments can be obtained through conditions of static equilibrium
only.
Statically
determinated beam

Statically
determinate frame
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H1
V1
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V2
6

Conceptual Design
of Buildings

Module A Structural Analysis

List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

Isostatic structures

Global elastic analysis

Hyperstatic structures

Global plastic analysis

- Hyperstatic structure A structure with more than the minimum number of


external supports (or internal restrictions) necessary to be in equilibrium for
any set of acting loads. In these structures, beyond the static conditions, it
must be used conditions of compatibility of deformations.
Indeterminated
beam =1

2D indeterminate
frame =3
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H1
M1

H1
V1

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V2

M2
7

Conceptual Design
of Buildings

Module A Structural Analysis

List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

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- How to perform a global linear elastic analysis of a structure?


-

It is easy, even by hand calculation, in isostatic structures, because it is


needed only equilibrium equations.

In hyperstatic structures, it is needed more complex methods such as


the well-know force method, displacement method, among others.
However, in general we use automatic calculation. There are lots of
programs available in the market to perform elastic analysis of structures;
in this course we will use the software OSSA2D.

The bending stiffness is a fundamental parameter in the analysis of


hyperstatic framed structures (axial stiffness and shear stiffness are in
general neglected in this type of structures). This is defined by EI, being E
the modulus of elasticity of the material (E = 210 GPa for steel) and I the
second moment of area of cross section around the bending axis.

In an elastic analysis the distribution of internal forces is


proportional to the stiffness (in general the bending stiffness) of the
members. So, stiffer members support higher forces.

L2 Global analysis of steel structures - Elastic analysis and plastic analysis.

Conceptual Design
of Buildings

Module A Structural Analysis

List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

- Influence of bending stiffness in the elastic analysis of a hyperstatic frame

Columns HEA 260 in both models (EI = 210x106x10450x10-8=21945 kN/m2)


Beams IPE 300

Beams IPE 600

(EI= 210x106x8356x10-8=17547.6 kN/m2)

(EI= 210x106x92080x10-8=193368 kN/m2)

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Bending moment diagram

Bending moment diagram

L2 Global analysis of steel structures - Elastic analysis and plastic analysis.

Conceptual Design
of Buildings

Module A Structural Analysis

List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

- How to perform an global plastic (non-linear) analysis of a structure?


- It is more complex. By hand calculation this is possible only for 2D
structures, with a low degree of indetermination. In more complex structures,
this type of analysis requires the use of sophisticated softwares.

- Global plastic analysis may be performed by one of the two


following methods:
Static method (also designated by incremental method) the load is
incremented stepwise until the collapse of the structure, which happen
(unless a partial mechanism is formed) when the number of sequential
plastic hinges reach +1, being the degree of indetermination of the
structure. This method is not suitable for perform plastic analysis by hand
calculations.

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Cinematic method (also designated by mechanism method) comprise three


conditions:
- Firstly, it is assumed a collapse mechanism which comprise +1 plastic
hinges (in general in beam-columns joints, mid-span sections of beams or
sections with point loads) mechanism condition;
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Conceptual Design
of Buildings

Module A Structural Analysis

List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

Cinematic method (continuation):


- Then, it is established the equilibrium equations, considering that in cross
sections where were assumed the formation of a plastic hinge, the bending
moment equals the plastic bending moment of the cross section
equilibrium condition, from which it is obtained the collapse load (if the
structure and consequently the plastic bending moment of cross section is
known) or the plastic bending moment for a given load (to be used in a predesign of a structure).
- Finally it must be necessary to check if the bending moments in all other
sections are lower than the plastic moment evaluated for the present
mechanism - plasticity condition.
If this condition is not verified, this means that the present mechanism is not
the correct and it must be necessary to repeat the analysis for others, until to
find the correct one (which correspond the highest plastic bending moment
or the minimum collapse load, depending of which one are being evaluated).

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Note: This type of analysis is valid provided that any significant decrease in the full
plastic moment due to axial forces are accounted for.
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Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

EXAMPLE 1
Pre-design a continuous beam (S 275).
a) global elastic analysis;
b) global plastic analysis.
42 kN/m

100 kN

100 kN

G
B

D
C

3m

Hyperstatic structure
= 2

3m

6m

3m

3m

a) Elastic global analysis


120.6 kNm

120.6 kNm

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D
C

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Pre-design bending moment


MEd = 120.6 kNm.
G

68.4 kNm
89.7 kNm

89.7 kNm

Elastic bending moment diagram


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Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

EXAMPLE 1

3
0
0
3 1

VA

l
p

l
p

VA6

t
f
e
l

MB

t
f
e
l

MC

M pl

G
B

VA

3m

VA 33.3 kN

M pl 100 kNm.

D
C

3m

6m

3m

3m

This is the correct mechanism as the


bending moments in other potential
sections (in this case section D) are
lower than Mpl = 100 kNm.

M pl

D
C

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100 kN

= 2, so it is required 3 plastic hinges


to form a collapse mechanism. It is
assumed a mechanism with plastic
hinges in sections B, C, E (and F due
to symmetry).

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42 kN/m

100 kN

<M pl
M pl

M pl

Pre-design bending moment


MEd = 100.0 kNm.

Plastic bending moment diagram


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Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

EXAMPLE 2
Pre-design of a frame (S 275).

280 kN

a) Elastic global analysis;

50 kN

b) Plastic global analysis.


4m

Hyperstatic structure
= 2

E
4m

4m

a) Elastic global analysis


247.0 kNm

189.9 kNm

C
B

Pre-design bending moment


MEd = 341.6 kNm.

341.6 kNm
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142.9 kNm

Elastic bending moment diagram


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Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

EXAMPLE 2
b) Plastic global analysis

280 kN
B

= 2, so it is required 3 plastic hinges


to form a collapse mechanism. It is
assumed a mechanism with plastic
hinges in sections B, C, D.

50 kN

C
4m
A

280 kN
M pl

4m

l
p

m
N
k

0
8
2

L2 Global analysis of steel structures - Elastic analysis and plastic analysis.

l
p

correct mechanism
15

l
p

4
0

8
VE2

l
p

HE4 VE

E
4 H 8

4 HE

Pre-design
bending moment
MEd = 280.0 kNm.

N N
k k

0 0 M
2 4

1
1
m
N
HAVAk

0
0
2

0
.
0

4
0
5
4
0
8
2

0
.
0
0
8
2
0
4
1

0
.
0
0
7
0
5

HAVAVA
8

0 0
.
.
0
0
0
.
0

.
z
i

.
t
r r
o
eM
FHFV

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l
p

Plastic bending moment diagram


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l
p

VE

VA

M MpM

HE

m
N
k
0
8
2

MA

N
k
0
4
1

N
k
0
7

HA

l
HEVE p
M

Plastic hinges

t
h
g
i
r

Mpl

t
h
g
i
r

t
h
g
i
r

D C B
M M M

50 kN

Mpl

4m

Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

EXAMPLE 3
Calculate the collapse load (load multiplier p)
of the frame with = 2 (S 275).
Column 152x152 UC 37 (Mpl = 84.92 kNm);
Beam 305x165 UB 40 (Mpl = 171.35 kNm).

80 kN

40 kN
10 kN
4

5
5m

20 kN
2
5m

Hyperstatic structure
= 2
1
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6m

6m

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Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

EXAMPLE 3
Mechanism 1 Hinges in section 2, 3 and 4.
10 kN

p x 40

5m

H5

20 kN
2

V5

Mpl

M5

5m

Plastic hinges

p x 20

Mpl

6m

2
1
6
2
p
9
.
4
0 0
8
.
8
0
0
0
5
.
p
H51
0
3
.
0 1
p
7
V5 p
2 2 1
0 9
5
0 1
.
p1
4
5
5 8 H 1M
0
8 p p 1
H
0
x 0 V5
p2
1
0
2 5
6
0
4 H1
l l
0
l p p
V1 0
p
.
M M M
0
.
0

m
N
k

5
3
.
1
7
1

l
p

m
N
k

4
9
.
4
9
7

M5
;
N
k

3
4
.
9
5

H5
;
N
k

5
0
.
1
6
1

V5
;
N
k

0
.
0

M5

H5

t
h
g
i
r

0
1

t
f
e
l

V5

t
f
e
l

6m

9
5
.
4
4
1

V1
;
N
k

8
9
.
6
1

;
7
4
5
.
2

H1

Column (Mpl = 84.92 kNm);


Beam (Mpl = 171.35 kNm).


l
a
b
o
l
g

V1

FvFHM1 M 2M 3M 4

H1

M5

Mpl

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p x 80
p x 10

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80 kN

40 kN

So, this is not the correct mechanism


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17

Module A Structural Analysis

Conceptual Design
of Buildings
List of contents
Structural analysis
Elastic analysis
Plastic analysis
Examples

EXAMPLE 3
Mechanism 2 Hinges in section 3, 4 and 5.

80 kN

40 kN
10 kN
4

5
5m

p x 40
20 kN

p x 80
p x 10

Mpl
H5

Mpl

5m

Mpl

V5
Mpl

1
6m

p x 20

M2

6m

Plastic hinges

H1

Correct mechanism with p = 1.248

V1
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This lecture was prepared for the Edition 1 of SUSCOS


(2012/14) by RUI SIMES (UC) and FLOREA DINU (UPT).

Adaptations brought by J.P. Jaspart (Ulg)


for Edition 2 of SUSCOS

The SUSCOS powerpoints are covered by copyright and are for the exclusive
use by the SUSCOS teachers in the framework of this Erasmus Mundus Master.
They may be improved by the various teachers throughout the different editions.

Thank you
for your attention
http://steel.fsv.cvut.cz/suscos