Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 196

Ingls

B2

Contenidos.-

Diseo de Portada

e impresin.impreso en

[info @ grupoeuroformac.com]
[stylo @ stylodigital.com]

Espaa/printed in Spain

Reservados

todos los derechos. El contenido de esta obra est protegido por la ley, que establece penas de

prisin y/o multas, adems de las correspondientes indemnizaciones por daos y perjuicios, para quienes
reprodujeren, plagiaren, distribuyeren o comunicasen pblicamente, en todo o en parte, una obra literaria,
artstica o cientfica, o su transformacin, interpretacin o ejecucin artstica fijada en cualquier medio, sin la
preceptiva autorizacin. Ninguna parte de esta publicacin, incluido el diseo de la cubierta, puede ser reproducida, almacenada o transmitida de ninguna forma, ni por ningn medio, sea ste electrnico, electro-ptico,
grabacin, fotocopia o cualquier otro, sin la previa autorizacin por parte del autor.

Ingls

NIVEL B2

INGLS B2
Grammar
Verb tenses review
Indefinite pronouns
Conditionals
Vocabulary
At the airport
Grammar
Lack of obligation
Make vs. Do
Emphatic
Indirect speech
Vocabulary
The human body
Illnesses
Activity
At the doctors
Grammar
Prepositions
Anaphoric 'to'
When to use and not to use the article 'the'
Vocabulary
Physical description. Appearence and personality(collocations)
Activities
Amelia Earhart

The Love Competition


Grammar
The 3rd conditional
Impersonal pronouns / verbs
Phrasal verbs
Vocabulary
Presentations
Meetings
Grammar
Uses of 'wish'
Emphasis
The passive voice
Vocabulary
Oooooops!!
Intensifiers
Newcomer. Comeback. Comedown. Come-on
Activitiy
Jobs
Grammar
Hardly / Scarcely
Exclamations: structures
Vocabulary
Job Interview adjectives and useful vocabulary
Grammar
On time vs. In time

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Begin and Start


Reciprocal pronouns
Vocabulary
Deadlines
Politeness
Grammar
One and ones
It and there
Vocabulary
Social Language
Grammar
Common problems with count /uncount nouns
Vocabulary
Situational language: fixed expressions

Unit 1
B2

Ingls

NIVEL B2

B2 UNIT 1

VERB TENSES REVIEW

The simple present


AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+V (infinitivo sin to )+C

S+Aux (do/does)+Neg+V ( base form )+C

want

You
We

He

She Studies
It

They

Wants
goes

You
We

Do
not/dont

He

Does not want

She

Study

want

It

go

They

INTERROGACIN
Aux (do/does)+S+V ( base form )+C+?
I
You

Do

We

want?

Does

They

He

Want?

She

study?

It

Go?

EXERCISE1
CONJUGATE THE VERBS
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

I (travel) . to London every week.


They (run) . in the park every Saturdays. l
My father mother (not clean use the complete form) . the house.
Mary (work) . in a bank.
John (walk). to his office.
You (study) . English at school.
The dog (break) . the fence.
The car (be) . in the garage.
My father (have) . a nice coat.

PARIS
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

We (live) . in Paris.
George (sell) . peaches and apples.
I always (visit) . my grandmother.
Alice (go) . to the church.
They (be) . my best friends.
You always (pay) . the tickets.
London (be) . a big and nice city.
My cousin (paint) . the house.
I (study) . and (work) . in Madrid.
Mike never (do) . the homework.

The present continuous

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ be (pres. Simpl.)+V
(ing)+C

S+ be (pres. Simpl.)+Neg+V
(ing)+C

I am walking

I am not
walking

He
You
We

are
walking

is
She
walking You
It
We

He
She
are not It
walking

is not
walking

They

They
INTERROGACIN

Be (pres. Simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+?


Am I walking?
He
You
Are

We

Is
walking?

They

She
It

walking?

Ingls

NIVEL B2

EXERCISE1
CONJUGATE THE VERBS

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
t.

She . give . me a gift.


My father and my brother . paint . the house.
Joe . climb . the mountain.
They . eat . at the shopping center.
My grandmother . wear . a coat.
Meg and Brian . wait . for you.
The pupils . explain . the lesson.
My sister . buy . a red dress.
The secretary . write . a letter.
The maid . clean . the house.
The tourists . take . photographs.
They . repair . the car.
The dog and the cat . play . in the garden.
Peter and Tom . work . in a pet shop.
I . invite . you to my birthday party.
The kids . wash . the hands.
The doctor . talk . to the nurse.
My friends . open . a new store.
Max . send . you an e-mail.
I . stay . at the hotel.

The future

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+Aux (will)+V ( base form


)+C

S+Aux (will)+Neg+V ( base


form )+C

You
We

He
Will
travel

She

Will
travel

It

They

You
We

Will
not
travel

They

He
She

Will not
travel

It

INTERROGACIN
Aux (will)+S+V ( base form )+C+?
I
Will

You
We

He
travel?

Will

She
It

They

travel?

EXERCISE1
CONJUGATE THE VERBS
1. You (earn)

a lot of money.

2. You (travel)

around the world.

3. You (meet)

lots of interesting people.

4. Everybody (adore)

you.

5. You (not / have)

any problems.

6. Many people (serve)

you.

7. They (anticipate)

your wishes.

8. There (not / be)

anything left to wish for.

9. Everything (be)

perfect.
if you marry me.

10. But all these things (happen / only)

James, 18 years old, asked an ugly fortune teller about his future. Here is what
she told him: (fill in the gaps)
1. You (be)

very happy.

2. You (get)

a lot of money.

3. You (buy)

a beautiful house.
you.

4. Your friends (envy)


5. You (meet)

a beautiful girl.

6. You (marry)

her.

7. You and your wife (travel)


8. People (serve)
9. They (not/refuse)

around the world.


you.
to make you happy.

10. But all this (happen / only)

when you are 70 years old.

Ingls

NIVEL B2

The future continuous

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux(will)+ be(base form)+V


(ing)+C

S+ Aux(will)+Neg+be(base
form)+V (ing)+C

I will be lending

I will not be
lending

He
She

You
We

will be It
lending

Will be
lending

will not
be
lending

She

You

will not
It
be
lending

We
They

They

He

INTERROGACIN
Aux (will)+S+be (base form)+V (ing)+C+?
Will I be lending?
He
You
Will

Be
lending?

We

Will

She

be lending?

It

They

1. Tomorrow morning we (work)

a party.

2. This time next week we (have)


3. At midnight I (sleep)

4. This evening we (watch)


5. They (not/do)
6. He (listen)
7. I (read) a book
8. (walk / you)
9. He (not/draw)
10. They (argue)

a talk show.
their homework this afternoon.
to music.
this evening.
home this afternoon?
tomorrow morning
again?

The simple past

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+V (pasado)+C

S+Aux (did)+Neg+V ( base


form )+C

I
You
We
They

-Studied

He -Studied

-Vb.irreg
(2
columna)

She -Vb.irreg
(2
It
columna)

He
You did not
did not
She
study
study
We
It
They

INTERROGACIN
Aux (did)+S+V ( base form )+C+?
I
Did

He

You

study?

We

Did

1. Last year I (go)

3. I (visit)
friends of mine .

to England on holiday.
fantastic.
lots of interesting places. I (be)

4. In the mornings we (walk)

in the streets of London.

5. In the evenings we (go)

to pubs.

6. The weather (be)

strangely fine.

7. It (not / rain)

a lot.

8. But we (see)

some beautiful rainbows.

9. Where (spend / you)

study?

It

They

2. It (be)

She

your last holiday?

10

with two

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Put the sentences into simple past.


1. We move to a new house.
2. They bring a sandwich.
3. He doesn't do the homework.
4. They sell cars.
5. Does he visit his friends?
Write sentences in simple past.
1. Janet / miss / the bus
2. she / tidy / her room
3. Nancy / watch / not / television
4. she / read / a book
Choose "Was or "Were:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The teacher ...............nice.


The students .....................very clever.
But one student ..................in trouble.
We .................sorry for him.
He ...................nice though.

The past continuous

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ be (pasd. Simpl.)+V
(ing)+C

S+ be (pasd. Simpl.)+Neg+V
(ing)+C

I was driving

I was not driving


He

He
was
You
She
driving
were
We
We
driving It
They
They
You

INTERROGACIN

11

were
not
driving

She
It

was not
driving

Be (pasd. Simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+?


Was I driving?
He
You

Was

Were We

driving?

driving?

She
It

They

Put the verbs into the correct form (past progressive).


1. When I phoned my friends, they (play)

monopoly.
dinner.

2. Yesterday at six I (prepare)


3. The kids (play)

in the garden when it suddenly began to rain.

4. I (practice)

the guitar when he came home.

5. We (not / cycle)

all day.

6. While Alan (work)


the pool.

in his room, his friends (swim)

7. I tried to tell them the truth but they (not / listen )


8. What (you / do)

in the park.

to the radio while my sister (watch)

11. When I arrived, They (play)


12. We (study)

yesterday?

9. Most of the time we (sit)


10. I (listen)

in

cards.

English yesterday at 4:00 pm .

12

TV.

Ingls

NIVEL B2

The present perfect

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(have/has)+V (P.p)+C

S+ Aux.(have/has)+Neg+V (P.p)+C

I have bought

I have not bought


He

He
You
We

have
bought

They

(youve)

has
She bought
(hes)
It

You
We
They

have not
bought
(havent)

She
It

has not
bought
(hasnt)

INTERROGACIN
Aux.(have/has)+S+V (P.p)+C+?
Have I bought?
He
You
Have We

Has
bought?

She

bought?

It

They

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
t.

Sue (lose) the key of her car.


Peter (save) almost $7000 for a new motorcycle.
Jenny (finish) her homework.
Some boy (break) the windows.
My mother (buy) new glasses.
I (read) a hundred pages of the book.
My niece (find) a valuable necklace.
The town(suffer) terrible floods.
Martha (think) very carefully her situation.
The factories (contaminate) too many rivers.
Sofie (study) so hard for the final exam.
We (write) a lot of beautiful poems.
Margaret (travel) to Italy.
I (go) to the cinema.
They (bring) a lovely dog.
Sam (arrive) late to work.
Mark (visit) wonderful cities in Europe.
My mother (make) a nice dress for my sister.
Clare (invite) her boyfriend to the wedding.
Lia (want) to work in the fashion industry.

13

The past perfect

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(had)+V (P.p)+C

S+ Aux.(had)+Neg+V (P.p)+C

I had bought
(Id)

I had not
bought

You
We

had
bought

They

(youd)

He
She
It

had
bought You
(hed)
We

He
She

They

had not
bought It
(hadnt)

had not
bought
(hadnt)

INTERROGACIN
Aux.(had)+S+V (P.p)+C+?
Had I bought?
He
You
Had

We

Had
bought?

She

Bought?

It

They

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Astronauts (fly) through space for hours.


The boys (steal) the bicycles.
They (have) a long and uncomfortable trip.
The beggar (find) five bottles of beer.
He (show) me the content of the parcel.
My sister Ann (begin) her diet a week ago.
She (think) a good idea.
The postman (deliver) my letter.
He (retire) from political life.
Alice (leave) her bag on a chair.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

She (buy) a new pair of red shoes.


We (have) lunch at a village inn.
He (drink) whisky before dinner.
My sister (lose) U$S 50 in the street.
The children (kick) a ball very hard.
My mother (receive) a letter from Canada.
My father (give) me some money.
Jenny (finish) her job at the office.

14

Ingls
i.
j.

NIVEL B2

They (enjoy) Roys party.


Pupils (learn) the English lesson.

The future perfect


AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(will)+(have)+V (P.p)+C

S+ Aux.(will)+Neg+(have)+V
(P.p)+C

I will have
bought

I will not have


bought

He
You
We
They

will have She


bought
It
(youll
have)

will
have
bought You
(hell
have) We
They

He
will not She
have
bought It
(wont
have)

will not
have
bought
(wont
have)

INTERROGACIN
Aux.(will)+S+(have)+V (P.p)+C+?
Will I have bought?
He
You
Will

Will
have bought?

We

She

have
bought?

It

They

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Before her birthday, we (buy) the gifts.


By the end of December I (finish) the school.
Before 8 oclock, I (drink) two coffees.
By the end of spring she (get thin) . 2 pounds.
She (approve) the test before the holidays.
Before the weekend, we (travel) to Chicago.
They (not/study) the lesson by this afternoon.
They (understand) the translation before
tomorrow.
Susan and Brian (organize) .. a party, before Tom
gets home.
By the end of the week I (pay) .. all the debts.

15

a. By the end of April she (get marry) .. Tom.


b. By the end of the trial, the police (send) the man
to prison.
c. You (learn) the exercises before the term test.
d. By the time you left you (see) all the historic
places.
e. By the time we arrive to the concert, the play (start)
.
f. Before 12 oclock, he (sign) the contract.
g. Alice and Michael (find) . a new job by this
evening.
h. You (sell) your house by the time you have
moved to Seattle.
i. My mother (water) the plants by the time it begins
raining.
j. By the time they get home, we (drive) 100
kilometres.

The Present Perfect Continuous


AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+
S+
Aux.(have/has)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C Aux.(have/has)+Neg+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C
I have not been
selling

I have been
selling
He
You
We
They

have
been
selling

She
It

has
been
selling
(hes
been)

(youve
been)

He
You
We
They

have not She


been
It
selling
(havent
been)

have not
been
selling
(hasnt
been)

INTERROGACIN
Aux.(have/has)+S+be(P.p)+V(ing)+ C+?
Have I been selling?
He
You
Have

We

Has
been selling?

She
It

They

16

been selling?

Ingls

1) She

2) I

NIVEL B2

(work) here for five years.

(study) all day.

3) You

(eat) a lot recently.

4) We

(live) in London for six months

5) He

(play) football, so he's tired.

6) They

7) I

8) She

9) It

10) You

11) I

(learn) English for two years.

(cook) so I'm really hot.

(go) to the cinema every weekend for years.

(rain) the pavement is wet.

(sleep) for twelve hours.

(not/work) today.

17

12) You

(not/eat) well recently.

13) We

(not/exercise) enough.

14) She

(not/study).

15) They

16) It

(not/live) here for very long.

(not/snow).

17) He

(not/play) football for five years.

18) We

(not/drink) enough water - that's why we feel tired.

19) I

20) They

(not/sleep) I was reading.

(not/watch) TV much recently.

18

Ingls

NIVEL B2

The past perfect continuous

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+
Aux.(had)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C

S+
Aux.(had)+Neg+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C

I had been
selling

I had not been


selling
He

You
We

had
She
been
selling It

They (youd
been)

had
been
selling You
(hed
been) We
They

He
had not
been
selling
(hadnt
been)

She
It

had not
been
selling
(hadnt
been)

INTERROGACIN
Aux.(had)+S+be(P.p)+V(ing)+ C+?
Had I been selling?
He
You
Had

We

Had
been selling?

She

been selling?

It

They

Practice 1: Complete these sentences with the word(s) in brackets using the past
perfect continuous. Remember to use contractions ("I'd" not "I had") where possible.

1. He was sad because


2. I thought that
3. I knew that

all day. (it, rain)


English for years. (she, study)
my shampoo. (he, use)

4. We didn't know where to go because


5. Before the accident,

? (he, drink?)

19

. (we, not, listen)

Practice 2: Past Perfect Simple or Continuous? Choose the best tense to complete the
following sentences. Again, remember to use contractions. And remember that simple
tenses are used for states or short, finished actions when we say how many.
Continuous is used for long, unfinished or repeated actions.
1. He was hungry because

anything all day. (he, not, eat)

2. Her hand started hurting because


play)

computer games all day. (she,

3. The milk smelt bad because


4.

to put it in the fridge. (I, forget)

TV for hours before he fell asleep. (he, watch)

5. She didn't know that

her. (I, always, love)

6. She was delighted because her wish

true. (come)

7.

for 40 years before he decided to stop. (he, smoke)

8.

down with a book when the phone rang. (I, just, sit)

Future Perfect Continuous

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+
S+
Aux.(will)+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C Aux.(will)+Neg+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C
I will not have been
selling

I will have been


selling

You
We
They

will have
been
selling

He
She
It

(youll have
been)

will
have
been
selling You
(hell
We
have
been) They

will not
have
been
selling
(wont
have
been)

He
She
It

will not
have
been
selling

INTERROGACIN
Aux.(will)+S+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C+?
Will I have been selling?
He
You
Will

We

Will
have been selling?

They

20

She
It

have been
selling?

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Future Simple, Continuous or Perfect?

Practice: Complete each sentence using the future continuous, future perfect simple,
or future perfect continuous.

Sarah has just finished her medical degree, and she starts her new job soon.
In September, she

as a doctor. (work)

By Christmas, she

a doctor for 5 months. (be)

I'm going on holiday four times this year. The first holiday is next week.
This time next week, I

dinner in a Spanish restaurant. (eat)


four holidays. (have)

By the end of the year, I

dinner. (make)

Don't phone me at 7 o'clock - I

my dinner by then. (finish)

Phone me at 8 o'clock - I

- How many exams

by the time you are 21? (you, take)

- Lots! But I'm not worried. I know I

them all! (pass)

to rise in the next 20 years?

- Do you think that the sea level


(continue)
- Yes, definitely. And maybe cities like London
(disappear)

21

by then.

- Really? So maybe in 2050 people


(live)

in underwater cities!!!

VERB TENSES REVIEW


You are going to watch a short film called Moments about the small moments that
make life extraordinary. After watching it, answer one of these questions below:

What is important to you in your own life right now?


What was important to you in your own life in the past?
What will be important to you in your own life in the future?

http://vimeo.com/8189067#at=0

And to finish with, how would you define a moment?

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
SOMEBODY/NOBODY/ ANYBODY/ EVERYBODY

Somebody (some-body)- Alguien


Se utiliza en frases positivas y tiene sentido positivo.

There was somedoby behind the tree.


(Haba alguien detrs del rbol).

Nobody (no-body)- Nadie


Se utiliza en frases positivas y tiene sentido negativo.

There was nobody behind the tree.


(No haba nadie detrs del rbol).

22

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Anybody (any-body) Alguien / Cualquier persona


Se utiliza en frases negativas con sentido negativo.

There wasnt anybody behind the tree.


(No haba nadie detrs del rbol).

Se utiliza en frases interrogativas con sentido positivo.

Was there anybody behind the tree?


(Haba alguien detrs del rbol?).

Everybody (every-body) Todos


Se utiliza en frases positivas con sentido positivo.
Es importante recordar que funciona como 3 persona del singular.

Everybody was hidden behind the tree.


(Todo el mundo estaba escondido detrs del rbol).
Lee ahora la siguiente historia, donde aparecen mezcladas las palabras anteriores:
Once upon a time, there were four people:
Their names were Everybody, Somebody, Nobody and Anybody.
Whenever there was an important job to be done, Everybody was sure that Somebody
would do it.
Anybody could have done it, but Nobody did it.
When Nobody did it, Somebody got angry because it was Everybody's job.
Everybody thought that Somebody would do it, but Nobody realized that Nobody would
do it.
So consequently Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could
have done in the first place.

23

Exercise7. Find extra words in these sentences. If there is an extra word just cross it
out, but if there isnt any extra word, write a tick next to the sentence.

1. Everybody all in my class is very excited about the trip.


2. Was there some anyone nice at the graduation party?
3. Jess didnt know anyone on his first day at school.
4. Do you know anything about La Runion?
5. There was nobody person at the bank at lunchtime.

Exercise8. Write SOMEBODY/ANYBODY/NOBODY/EVERYBODY in the following


sentences:

1. Music is something that likes.


2. Hes a very strange boy, he doesnt go out with.
3. I havent spoken toabout that.
4. I need ... to help me finish the report today.
5. told me Margaret got married last month, but I dont remember who.
6...would be able to paint this picture in only two hours, its impossible.

Excersice2. Find extra words in these sentences. If there is an extra word just cross it,
but if there isnt any extra word, write a tick next to the sentence.

1. Everybody all in my class is very excited about the trip.


2. Was there some anyone nice at the graduation party?
3. Jess didnt know anyone on his first day at school.

24

Ingls

NIVEL B2

4. Do you know anything about La Runion?


5. There was nobody person at the bank at lunchtime.

Exercise3. Write SOMEBODY/ANYBODY/NOBODY/EVERYBODY in the following


sentences:
1. Music is .............. that everybody likes.
2. Hes a very strange boy, he doesnt go out with ....................
3. I havent spoken to ................. about that.
4. I need ................ to help me finish the report today.
5. .............. told me Margaret got married last month, but I dont remember who.
6. .............. would be able to paint this picture in only two hours, its impossible

CONDITIONALS
The Zero Conditional: if + present simple + present simple
If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.
This conditional is used when the result will always happen. So, if water reaches 100
degrees, it always boils. It's a fact. I'm talking in general, not about one particular
situation. The result of the 'if clause' is always the main cluase.
The 'if' in this conditional can usually be replaced by 'when' without changing the
meaning.

1st conditional: if + Present Simple Future Simple


may + infinitive
can + infinitive
imperative

2nd conditional: if + Past Simple would / could / might + infinitive

25

Fill in the gaps with the right form of the verbs given to make the first
conditional.

to the party, you will see Mary. (go)

1. If you

2. The children

happy, if their mother allows them to go to the party. (be)

3. If i win the lottery,I

a big house. (buy)

4. My mother will be angry if i


5. If it

home late. (come)

, we can have a picnic. (not rain)


Tom, please tell him to call me. (see)

6. If you
7. If Jane

all her exams, her parents will be very pleased. (pass)

8.

if you ask her? (she come)

9. If Andrew

hard, he will meet the deadline. (work)


good. (be)

10. We may go to the beach, if the weather

Fill in the gaps with the right form of the verbs given to make the second
conditional.

1. If i

you, i would go to the doctor. (be)

2. If Mary had insurance, she


have to)
3. If Scott

pay for the damage to her car. (not

the answer, he would help me. (know)


more attractive. (look)

4. If Mary wore smarter clothes, she


5.
6. You
7. If you
8. If he
9. If we
10. Jesicca

to his party if he invited you? (you go)


fatter if you ate cuips every day. (get)
more time, would you exercise more? (have)
so carefully, i would trust him to give me a lift. (not drive)
tickets, we would go to the concert. (find)
angry if you told her the truth. (not be)

26

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Fill in the gaps with the right form of the verbs given to make either the first
or the second conditional.

1. Will she come if Jason

her? (call)

2. If Sarah were rich, she


3. If he
4. If Dad

in an expensive hotel. (stay)

, i will never speak to him again. (not apologise)


the TV set, we will be able to watch our favourite programme. (fix)

5. If i were you, i

to her more politely. (speak)

6. If Sue

her key, she would have to stay to her grandparents'. (lose)

7. I

meet you if i don't finish my homework. (meet)

8. If Zack
9. If you

harder, he will passhis driving test. (try)


so impolite, i would enjoy your company. (not be)

10. Tom will be amazed if you

him the picture you drew. (show

Make zero conditionals:


For example:
(not / rain / the flowers / die)
If it doesnt rain, the flowers die.

1. (I / wake up late / I / be late for work)


_______________________________________________________________
2. (my husband / cook / he / burn the food)
_______________________________________________________________
3. (Julie / not wear a hat / she / get sunstroke)
_______________________________________________________________
4. (children / not eat well / they / not be healthy)
_______________________________________________________________
5. (you / mix water and electricity / you / get a shock)
_______________________________________________________________
6. (people / eat / too many sweets / they / get fat)
_______________________________________________________________

27

7. (you / smoke / you / get yellow fingers)


_______________________________________________________________
8. (children / play outside / they / not get overweight)
_______________________________________________________________
9. (you / heat ice / it / melt)
_______________________________________________________________
10. (I / speak to John / he / get annoyed)

CONDITIONALS ACTIVITY

Moral dilemma second conditional practice with videos

You are going to watch a short film based on a moral dilemma. As you watch the film
you should answer the question:

What is the moral dilemma?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=QrKnhOJ-R80

What would you do in this situation?

What would you do with your life if money was no objec

28

Ingls

NIVEL B2

VOCABULARY
AT THE AIRPORT

WAITING ROO
TOILETS/RESTROOMS

SEATS

NEWSSTAND

29

TICKET OFFICE

LUGGAGE RACK

PLATFORM

TURNSTILES

CARRIAGE
LEFT LUGGAGE LOCKERS

30

Ingls

NIVEL B2

SLEEPER
TICKET COLLECTOR

INFORMATION OFFICE
GIFTSHOP

31

RESTAURANT / SELF SERVICE.


TRACK

LOST & FOUND

STEAM TRAIN

32

Ingls

NIVEL B2

LUGGAGE COMPARTMENT
COMPARTMENT

Compartment
Dining car/ Restaurant carriage

33

THE TERMINAL, PILLS SCENE


This is an excerpt from the movie The Terminal. Read the script or watch the video
and try to answer these questions.

1) What happens in this scene? Can you write some lines about it?
a. Viktor comes to the JFK Airport in New York from Krokozia, a fake
country that stops being recognised by the USA because its inner
conflicts. Therefore, he cannot enter the USA nor get back to Krakozia,
so he must stay in the airport until his countrys situation changes.
b. In this scene, Viktor translates a passengers words because they speak
a similar language. This passenger wants to carry some medicine to his
dying father but the customs agents tell him it is illegal.
2) Why is Viktor (Tom Hanks) required?
a. He is required as a translator and in exchange, he will get the
documents to leave the airport.
3) Why is this man so nervous?
a. Because he wants to give this medicine to his dying father and they tell
him its not allowed.
4) What information is contained in the blue immigration form?
a. The blue immigration form says that you cannot import and/or export
medicine to the USA except if it is for animals.
5) What happens to the goat?
a. There is no goat. Viktor knows about the blue immigration form and
makes the customs agents think the medicine is for his goat because it
is the only way he can leave the USA with the medicine for his dying
father.
6) Why does the agent get angry with Viktor?
a. Because he knows Viktor is lying.
7) Can you identify some Viktors language mistakes?

34

Ingls

NIVEL B2

a. E.g. I make mistake


b. He say he bring
8) What does MPL stand for?
a. MPL stands for Medicinal Purchase License

Video and script:

THE TERMINAL PILLS SCENE

http://youtu.be/3GtRJezhIbY
- Sir.
- Yeah.
- Sir, we have a situation upstairs.
- It'll have to wait.
- No. This won't wait.When the . from Toronto landed, they found four prescriptions
without an MPL. They tried to take the pills away and he went nuts. There he is. We
think they're for his father.
Sir, sir, calm down.
Put your weapons down.

Everybody keep your weapons...


All right. We're here to help you.

We're here to help you, sir.


All right. Give me the knife.

- Where's he from?
- Russia.

The only interpreter


we got is in Newark.

35

- We have to get someone to talk to him.


- I have an idea, sir.

- Viktor. Viktor.
- [Viktor speaks Bulgarian]
Oh... I need your help. His name is Milodragovich. He lives near you. He may not
speak your dialect, but I need you to translate and help me out.
- I help you? Why?
- I don't want anybody to get hurt. This guy's very upset. Just calm him down and I'll let
you back in the terminal.
- No. New York. No red stamp. Green. I green.
- New York.
- OK, yes.
- You say yes?
- Yes.
- OK. OK, OK, OK.
- Stay out!

- We have somebody here to talk to you. Somebody to talk to you. Go ahead.


- Stay out!
[speaks Bulgarian]
[speaks Russian]
- So? OK, tell him in order to export medicines from this country, he needs to have the
proper form, a Medicinal License.
- OK? You understand me, Viktor?
[speaks Bulgarian]
He say he bring the medicine for his father. This why he go to Canada. Medicine for
father.

- It doesn't matter.
His plane landed in the US. He needs to have the right form.
[speaks Bulgarian]
- He did not know he need this document. No one say to him he need document form.
-I'm saying it to him. He needs to have the form signed by the hospital who is treating
his father. These medicines have to stay in the United States. They have to stay here.

36

Ingls

NIVEL B2

[speaks Bulgarian]
- He... He's begging you.
- I know. I can see that he's begging. I'm sorry, sir. You'll have to take a flight in the
morning. The medicine stays here. I'm sorry.
[speaks Bulgarian]
[woman] Send him down!
[Milodragovich sobs]
- Thank you, Viktor. Good job. Let's go.
-Whoa. Goat.
- What?
- Goat. It medicine is for goat.
- Goat?
- Yes. Medicine is for goat. Goat.
[whimpers]
- He said that?
- Yes.
He say...We not understand. I not understand "goat".
-Why? What are you saying? You misunderstood him? It's not for his dying father?
- No. No.
The... Krakozhia...The name for "father"...sound like "goat". I make mistake.
[chuckles]
-Why are you doing this, Viktor?
-Medicine is for... goat.
- No, it's not.
- Yes.
- No.
- Yes.
-You read the blue immigration form.
- Blue?
- Yes. Blue.
- Blue?
- Blue. The blue form. The one that says if it's an animal, he doesn't need the license.
Then he can bring the drugs in. That's good, Viktor. That's very good. Why are you
doing this? Huh? You don't know him. You don't know the rules. Look at me. I was
going to help you. Now I want you to ask him...No, not you. I want you to ask him. I
want to hear him say it. I want to hear him say who the medicine is for. Please. Who
the medicine is for.
[speaks Bulgarian]
-Answer him, Mr. Milodragovich. Who are the pills for?... OK. The pills stay. He goes.
That's it.

37

-Goat.
-Please. For goat. Medicine for goat. Medicine for goat. Medicine for goat.
-Give him the pills.
-Medicine for goat. Medicine...
[Viktor speaks Bulgarian]
[man] Come on now, it's all over.
- He love that goat.
- Do you think I need an excuse to put you back in that cell to keep you there for five
years? You go to war with me, and you go to war with the United States. Then you'll
know why Krakozhians wait in line for cheap toilet paper while Uncle Sam wipes his
ass with Charmin two-ply.

LACK OF OBLIGATION
Need to + verbo en infinitivo:

Indica obligacin de una accin. Se debe conjugar el verbo need segn hablemos en
tiempo pasado, presente o futuro.

You need to do all the exercises before you leave.


(Tienes que hacer todos los ejercicios antes de irte).

Neednt + verbo en infinitivo


Dont need + TO + verbo infinitive*

Indica ausencia de obligacin, es decir, que algo no es necesario, en presente o


futuro.

38

Ingls

NIVEL B2

*Se debe conjugar el verbo need segn hablemos en tiempo pasado, presente o
futuro.

My husband has just bought some oil, so I neednt go to the shop.


(Mi marido acaba de comprar aceite, as que no hace falta que vaya a la tienda).

I dont have many things to do, so you dont need to come at 9am.
(No tengo muchas cosas que hacer, as que no es necesario que vengas a las
9h).

Neednt + present pefect (have + participio del verbo)

Indica ausencia de obligacin en una accin que ya se ha llevado a cabo.

I went to the shop and I bought some oil. When I got home, I found that my
husband had already bought some, so I neednt have gone.
(Fui a la tienda y compr aceite. Cuando llegu a casa, vi que mi marido ya
haba comprado, as que yo no tena porqu haber ido).

You neednt have brought him a present.


(No tendras porqu haberle trado un regalo).

Ejercicio 8. Fill in the gaps with need to / dont need to / neednt / neednt have:

1. She __________ (go) by bike. I would have given her a lift in my car.
2. You __________ (wait), as real VIPs, you can use the back entrance.
3. I __________ (cleaned) the entire house; our cleaning lady just phone to say she
is coming tomorrow.
4. Im afraid you __________ (work) overtime tomorrow Mr.Smith, were very busy.
5. I __________ (write) her phone number in my diary, otherwise Ill forget.

39

6. I __________ (write) her phone number in my diary; I have such a good memory!
7. You __________ (buy) me a present, but I do appreciate the gesture.
8. I __________ (tell) her what I felt for her; it was written all over my face.

Ejercicio9. Translate into English:

1. No tienes que traer mi equipaje, puedo traerlo yo sola.


2. No era necesario que vosotros reservarais la habitacin de hotel y el vuelo.
3. Ser necesario que le cuentes a Mary tu problema, si no lo haces, no entender
muchas cosas.
4. Robert tena que quedarse en el restaurante hasta que su jefe llegara.

4. MAKE vs. DO

El verbo hacer puede traducirse en ingls como to make o to do. Es necesario


saber en qu situaciones utilizamos uno u otro, as como la traduccin de
diversas expresiones.

Utilizamos do cuando hablamos de hacer en una situacin general, as como la


realizacin de una accin, actividad o tarea.

I dont know what to do. (No s qu hacer).

He would do anything for his mother. (Lo hara todo por su madre).

40

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Do the homework. (Hacer los deberes).

Do the laundry. (Hacer la colada).

Expresiones importantes con DO:


. do business (hacer negocios)
do a favour (hacer un favor)
do well (hacer algo bien)
do harm (hacer dao)
do the housework (hacer tareas del hogar)
do ones best (hacer lo major de uno)
do your nails (hacerse las uas)
do a test (hacer un test)
do an experiment (hacer un experimento)
do the shopping (hacer la compra)

Utilizamos make para hablar de acciones de las cuales resulta un objeto fsico.

Make a cup of coffee. (Preparar una taza de caf).


Make a dress. (Hacer un vestido)
Expresiones importantes con MAKE: make a decision (tomar una decisin)
make a difference (diferenciar)
make an effort (hacer un esfuerzo)
make your bed (hacer tu cama)
make an excuse (poner una excusa)
make time (hacer tiempo)
make a suggestion (hacer una sugerencia)
make a promise (hacer una promesa)

41

make a fortune (hacer una fortuna)


make a profit (obtener beneficios)
make friends (hacer amigos)
make a point (hacer un inciso)
make a fuss (armar un lo)
make a plan (hacer un plan)
make a journey (hacer un viaje)
make a phone call (hacer una llamada)
make love (hacer el amor)
make a noise (hacer un ruido)
make a mistake (cometer un error)
make a move (hacer un movimiento)
make money (ganar mucho dinero)
make a speech (hacer un discurso)

Exercise. Complete the sentences using DO or MAKE in the appropriate tense:


1. Dont do it, I think youre __________ a big mistake.
2. We need to __________ a plan as soon as possible.
3. She is bringing something to drink and Im __________ a chocolate cake.
4. I dont like him; hes more likely to __________ harm than good.
5. Excuse me, can I __________ a suggestion?
6. I admit Im lazy; I dont like __________ the ironing.
7. My son never __________ his bed.
8. In this case, I think we should __________ an exception.
9. Can you __________ me a favour, please?
10. Your brother is not the sort of person you cant __________ business
with.
11. Please, be quiet and dont __________ a noise!
12. They __________ an experiment with rats last week, how disgusting.

42

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Choose the correct answer (make or do)


Escriba la respuesta correcta en cada entrada de texto1.I need to
decision.
2.Can you

me a favour?

3.When we got married, we

each other a promise.


the shopping.

4.Next Sunday, I need to


5.My neighbours dog

a lot of noise last night and I could not sleep.

6.I am a bit nervous because my boss asked me to


the company.

lots of mistakes.

7.He is afraid he wont pass the exam. He


8.They say its not such a good idea to

business with your friends.


with her English exam. She had no time

9.My sister did not know what to


to study.
10.After dinner we normally

a speech on behalf of

the dishes, but my husband always

an excuse and goes out for a walk.

43

DO ENFTICO

El verbo to do, adems de verbo hacer y auxiliar, podemos usarlo para dar nfasis a
la forma afirmativa de verbos en presente, pasado e imperativo. Lo colocamos entre el
sujeto y el verbo; excepto en el caso de las oraciones imperativas, donde no hay
sujeto, el do va delante del verbo.

I do like fruit. (Claro que me gusta la fruta).


Do rest. (Descansa) [Con insistencia].
You dont like flamenco music, do you? I do like it

Para las oraciones en pasado, usamos did y el verbo va en presente.

I did read this book. (Naturalmente que me le este libro).

Recuerda que para la tercera persona del singular (he, she, it) usamos does y no le
aadimos al verbo la s final como marca de tercera persona.
He does live with her. (Claro que vive con ella)

Exercise1. Change these sentences into emphatic form:

1. I hate watching a film on my own.


2. I came on time to the meeting.
3. Your bedroom is a mess; clean it!
4. I bought a nice present for her.
5. Sit down, please.
6. My sister knows the answer.

44

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Exercise 2. Answer these questions in an affirmative way using emphatic do:


Example:
Maggie doesnt like Daniel, does she?
She does like Daniel / She does like him.

1. Lawrence doesnt clean his house very often, does he?


2. Ellen doesnt eat too much chocolate, does she?
3. Audrey doesnt eat any fruit, does she?
4. Tony didnt have many girlfriends, did he?

REPORTED SPEECH

El Reported Speech o Indirect Speech se usa para decir lo que alguien ha dicho
anteriormente, y lo hacemos con una frase subordinada:

She told me: you are working too much. > Direct Speech
(Ella me dijo: ests trabajando demasiado)

She told me that I was working too much. > Indirect Speech
(Ella me dijo que yo estaba trabajando demasiado).

Cuando pasamos de estilo directo a indirecto, debemos tener en cuenta los cambios
que sufre el tiempo verbal. Los sealamos en negrita en el ejemplo anterior. Y a
continuacin mostramos un cuadro que resume estos cambios de tiempo:

45

DIRECT

SPEECH

INDIRECT

SPEECH

Simple Present

Simple Past

I go

I went

Voy

Fui/ Iba

Present Progressive

Past Progressive

I am going

I was going

Voy

Fu/ Iba

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

I have gone

I had gone

He ido

Haba ido

Simple Past

Past Perfect

I went

I had gone

Fu/ Iba

Haba ido

Past Progressive

Past Progressive/ Past Perfect

I was going
Estaba yendo

Progressive
I was going/ I had been going
Estaba yendo/ Haba estado yendo

Present Perfect Progressive

Past Perfect Progressive

I have been going

I had been going

He estado yendo

Haba estado yendo

Future

Conditional

I am going to go

I would go

Voy a ir

Ira

46

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Can

Could

I can go

I could go

Puedo ir

Podra ir

May

Might

I may go

I might go

Puedo ir

Podra ir

Must

Must/ Had to

I must go

I must go/ I had to go

Debo ir

Debo ir/ Tena que ir

Will

Would

I will go

I would go

Ir

Ira

Shall

Should/ Would

I shall go

I should go/ I would go

Ir

Ira

Para pasar de estilo directo a indirecto, tambin debemos tener en cuenta los
cambios de pronombre o adverbios. A continuacin mostramos un cuadro con
algunos de estos cambios:

I went to the cinema yesterday > Direct Speech (Fu al cine ayer)
She told me that she had gone to the cinema the day before. > Indirect Speech
(Me dijo que haba ido al cine el da anterior)

47

DIRECT SPEECH
Pronoun

Time

Place

INDIRECT SPEECH

He/ She

Me

Him/ Her

Mine

His/ Her

We

They

Us

Them

Our

Their

Ours

Theirs

Now

Then

Today

That day

Tonight

That night

Yesterday

The day before

Tomorrow

The next/ following day

Next week, month,

The following week, month,

Last week, month,

The previous week, month,

Ago

Before

Here

There

This/ These

That/ Those/ The

Podemos clasificar las oraciones de Reported Speech en cuatro grupos:

Enunciativas > En estas oraciones, tanto en las afirmativas como en las negativas,
usamos un that-clause. Aunque podemos omitir el that. El verbo ms comn para
introducir la oracin subordinada es to say o to tell (decir):

48

Ingls
She said: I love fruit

NIVEL B2

She said (that) she loved fruit.

(Ella dijo: Me encanta la fruta


He said: I dont like honey
(l dijo: No me gusta la miel

Ella dijo que le encantaba la fruta).


He said (that) he didnt like honey.
l dijo que no le gustaba la miel).

Interrogativas > Aqu encontramos tres tipos diferentes de oracin y el verbo ms


usado para introducir la oracin subordinada es to ask (preguntar):

Yes- no questions son las que se responden con yes o no y en la oracin indirecta
van introducidas por if o whether. Ambas significan si pero el uso de if es ms
comn:

He asked: Did you sleep?

He asked if/ whether I had slept.

(l pregunto: Has dormido?

l pregunt si haba dormido).

He asked: Are you coming with me?


(l pregunto: Vienes conmigo?

He asked if I was coming with him.


l pregunt si iba con l).

Wh- questions son las formadas con una partcula interrogativa y que requieren
informacin especfica. En la forma indirecta, la oracin subordinada que sigue a la
partcula interrogativa se forma con la estructura de una oracin afirmativa, y no
interrogativa, es decir, sujeto + verbo:

She asked: What are you eating?

She asked what I was

(Ella pregunt: Qu ests comiendo?

eating.

Ella pregunt que qu estaba


comiendo).

He asked: How is that woman?

She asked who that woman was.

(l pregunt: Quin es esa mujer?

Ella pregunt que quin era


esa mujer).

49

Preguntas alternativas que van introducidas por whether:

He asked: Are you sleeping or not?


(l pregunt: Ests durmiendo o no?)
He asked me whether I was sleeping or not.
(l pregunt si estaba durmiendo o no).

She asked: Do you want to drive or to walk?


(Ella pregunt: Quieres conducir o andar?)
She asked me whether I wanted to drive or to walk.
(Ella pregunt si quera conducir o andar).

Imperativas > En estas oraciones usamos el to- infinitive. Si la oracin es negativa


colocaremos not delante de to + verbo. El verbo ms comn para introducir oraciones
subordinadas es to tell (decir):

She told me: Close the window


(Ella me dijo: Cierra la ventana.
He told me: Dont cry
(l me dijo: No llores

She told me to close the window.


Ella me dijo que cerrara la ventana).

He told me not to cry.


l me dijo que no llorara).

Exclamativas > En estas oraciones usamos that-clause para introducir la oracin


subordinada o bien, la misma partcula exclamativa. Los verbos ms comn para
introducir dicha oracin es to exclaim, to insist, to suggest, to declare,

He said: What a bad film!

He exclaimed that it was a bad film.


He exclaimed what a bad film it was.

50

Ingls

NIVEL B2

(l dijo: Qu pelcula ms mala!

l dijo que era una mala pelcula).


l dijo que qu pelcula ms mala).

Exercise 4. Yesterday you ran into a friend of yours, Helen. She told you a lot of
things. Here are some of the things Helen said to you:

1. I'm thinking of going to live in France.


2. My father is in the hospital.
3. Sue and Jim are getting married next month.
4. I haven't seen Bill for a while.
5. I've been playing tennis a lot lately.
6. Barbara has had a baby.
7. I don't know what Fred is doing.
8. I hardly ever go out these days.
9. I work 14 hours a day.
10. I'll tell Jim I saw you.
11. You can come and stay with me if you are ever in Toronto.
12. Tom had an accident last week, but he wasn't injured.
13. I saw Jack at a party a few months ago, and he seemed fine.

Later that day, you tell another friend what Helen said. Use reported speech.
Exercise 5. Write what you would say in these situations .Example:
Ann says, "I'm tired." Five minutes later she says, "Let's play tennis."
What do you say? You said you were tired..
1. Your friend says, "I'm hungry," so you go to a restaurant. When you get there he
says, "I don't want to eat." What do you say?
"You said ."

51

2.Tom tells you, "Ann has gone away." Later that day you meet her. What do you say?
"Tom told ."

3. George said, "I don't smoke." A few days later you see him smoking a cigarette.
What do you say to him?
"You said ."
4. You arranged to meet Jack. He said, "I won't be late." At last he arrives - 20 minutes
late. What do you say?
"You said.. .
5. Sue said, "I can't come to the party tonight." That night you see her at the party.
What do you say to her?
6. Ann says, "I'm working tomorrow evening." Later that day she says, "Let's go out
tomorrow evening." What do you say?
"You said"

52

Ingls

NIVEL B2

VOCABULARY
THE HUMAN BODY AND ITS ILLNESSES

53

54

Ingls

NIVEL B2

INTERNAL ORGANS

55

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

56

Ingls

NIVEL B2

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

57

THE HUMAN BONES

58

Ingls

NIVEL B2

COMMON ILLNESSES AND SYMPTOMS:

Temperature (fiebre)
Headache (dolor de cabeza)
Toothache (dolor de muelas)
Stomach age (dolor de estmago)

To feel sick (sentirse mareado, con nauseas)


To feel dizzy (sentirse mareado, con prdida de equilibrio)
To feel faint (estar a punto de desmayarse)

Cold (resfriado)
To have a cold (estar resfriado)
To catch a cold (coger un resfriado)
I dont want you to catch my cold (no quiero contagiarte el resfriado)

Flu (gripe, viene de influenza)


To have (the) flu (tener la gripe o estar con la gripe)

Measels (sarampin)
Your son/daughter has measles (su hijo/hija tiene sarampin)

Rubella or German measles (rubeola)

Mumps (paperas)
Your son/daughter has mumps (su hijo/hija tiene paperas)

Chickenpox (varicela)
Your son/daughter has chickenpox (su hijo/hija tiene varicela)

59

CHRONIC DISEASES:

Allergy (alergia)

Diabetes (diabetes)

Obesity (obesidad)
My uncle is obese (mi to es obeso)

High blood pressure, hipertensin (hipertensin)


Low blood pressure, hypotension (hipotensin)

Coeliac disease (or celiac disease in North America)

Cancer (cancer)

Tumor (tumor)
She has lung/breast cancer ((Ella) tiene (un) tumor de pulmn/mama)

AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or Aids (SIDA, syndrome de


inmunodeficiencia adquirida)

HIV,Human Immunodeficiency Virus, (VHI, virus de inmunodeficiencia humana)

HPV, Human papillomavirus (VPH, virus del papiloma humano)

60

Ingls

NIVEL B2

ACTIONS AND TESTS:

To take somebody's blood pressure: tomarle la tension a alguien.

I will take your blood pressure (le voy a tomar la tension)

To take someones temperature (poner el termmetro)

General Practice (GP)

Mdico de Familia

Instrucciones
Breathe in

(Inspire)

Hold your breath

(Aguante la respiracin)

Lay on the couch/stretcher

(Tmbese en el asiento/camilla)

Lay on your (right/left) side

(Tmbese sobre de lado (derecho/izquierdo))

Get up

(Levntese)

Sit down

(Sintese)

Relax

(Reljese)

Lift your.(leg, arm, hand)


You have to take these tablets

(Levante (la pierna, el brazo, la mano)


(Tome estas pastillas cada 8 horas)

every eight hours.

Vocabulary
Altitude sickness

mal de altura

Allergy

alergia

Illness

enfermedad en general

Sickness

enfermedad especfica, mareo

61

Disease

enfermedad especfica, i.e. heart disease

Ache // Pain

dolor

To hurt

hacer dao, herir

Health

salud

Side effects

efectos secundarios

Damaging

perjudicial

Information
Are you allergic?

Padece usted de alguna alergia?

Have you got any allergies?

Tiene algn tipo de alergia?

Are you ok?

Se encuentra bien?

Are you taking any medication?

Est tomando alguna medicacin?

Do you have any pain?

Tiene algn dolor?

Ask your doctor

Pregunte a su doctor

Your doctor will contact you

Su doctor se pondr en contacto con usted

Well send you the results

Le enviaremos los resultados

Treatments (tratamientos) and Tests (pruebas)

Prescription

receta (mdica)

Diagnosis

(Diagnstico)

Cough syrup

jarabe para la tos

Pills// tablets

comprimido // pastillas

Blood test

anlisis de sangre

Urine test

anlisis de orina

x-ray

rayos x

Stool

muestra de eces

62

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Professions
Doctor

mdico

Nurse

enfermera/-o

Hospital attendant

celador/celadora

Cleaner

personal de limpieza

63

Activities:

Make questions for these answers

-.

.?

.?

- .Yes, I am. I am allergic to aspirins.

-.

-No, I am not. I have a terrible headache and I think I have a temperature.

-.

.?

.?

.?

-Yes I do. I have a pain in my right arm.

-.

-Yes, I have. I have had an open heart surgery.

-.

- I feel sick and thirsty, what can it be?

64

Ingls

NIVEL B2

PREPOSITIONS

Las preposiciones nos sirven para unir distintos elemento en la misma oracin:

I live in Malaga with some friends since September.


(Vivo en Mlaga con unos amigos desde septiembre).

Normalmente la preposicin acompaa a un nombre o un grupo nominal, pero a


veces sirve para unir el verbo con su complemento. En este caso el verbo va delante
de la preposicin y el significado puede variar:

(to look = mirar) Look at me. (Mrame) - Look after me. (Cudame)

Si el verbo va detrs de la preposicin tenemos que aadir ing al verbo, es decir, la


forma en gerundio.

Please, pick me up before going to the beach.


(Por favor, recgeme antes de ir a la playa).

Por regla general, las preposiciones van delante del sustantivo al que afectan:

The bakery is behind the school. (La panadera est detrs de la escuela).

Pero hay excepciones donde la preposicin va al final de la oracin:

65

Con el pronombre relativo, cuando va seguido de preposicin, sta puede ir al final


de la oracin:

The girl I was living with. (La chica con la que estaba viviendo).
En lugar de: [The girl with whom I was living]

En oraciones interrogativas que empiezan por un pronombre interrogativo:

Who is this laptop for? (Para quin es este ordenador porttil?)


En lugar de: [For whom is this laptop?]

Con preposiciones que acompaan al relativo that:

The topic that you are talking about annoys me.


(El tema del que estis hablando me molesta).

A continuacin, podemos ver un cuadro con las principales preposiciones y sus


usos:

66

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Preposiciones de Tiempo:

USOS
on

in

EJEMPLOS

days of the week

on Monday

months / seasons

in August / in winter

time of day

in the morning

year

in 2006

after a certain period of time

in an hour

(when?)

at

for night

at night

for weekend

at the weekend

a certain point of time

at half past nine

(when?)
since

from a certain point of time

since 1980

(past till now)


for

over a certain period of time

for 2 years

(past till now)


ago

a certain time in the past

2 years ago

before

earlier than a certain point of

before 2004

time
to

telling the time

ten to six (5:50)

past

telling the time

ten past six (6:10)

to / till /

marking the beginning and

from Monday to/till Friday

until
till / until

end of a period of time


in the sense of how long

He is on holiday until Friday.

something is going to last

by

in the sense of at the latest

I will be back by 6 oclock.

up to a certain time

By 11 o'clock, I had read five


pages.

67

Preposiciones de Lugar:

USOS

in

EJEMPLOS

room, building, street, town,

in the kitchen, in London

country

in the book

book, paper etc.

in the car, in a taxi

car, taxi

in the picture, in the world

picture, world

at

meaning next to, by an

at the door, at the station

object

at the table

for table

at a concert, at the party

for events

at the cinema, at school, at

place where you are to do

work

something typical (watch a


film, study, work)
attached

the picture on the wall

for a place with a river

London lies on the Thames.

being on a surface

on the table

for a certain side (left, right)

on the left

for a floor in a house

on the first floor

for public transport

on the bus, on a plane

for television, radio

on TV, on the radio

by, next to,

left or right of somebody or

Jane is standing by / next to /

reside

something

under

on the ground, lower than (or

on

beside the car.

covered by) something else

68

the bag is under the table

Ingls

NIVEL B2

USOS
below

EJEMPLOS

lower than something else

the fish are below the surface

but above ground

over

covered by something else

put a jacket over your shirt

meaning more than

over 16 years of age

getting to the other side (also

walk over the bridge

across)

climb over the wall

overcoming an obstacle
above

higher than something else,

a path above the lake

but not directly over it

across

getting to the other side (also

walk across the bridge

over)

swim across the lake

getting to the other side


through

something with limits on top,

drive through the tunnel

bottom and the sides


to

movement to person or

go to the cinema

building

go to London / Ireland

movement to a place or

go to bed

country
for bed
into

enter a room / a building

go into the kitchen / the


house

towards

movement in the direction of

go 5 steps towards the house

something (but not directly to


it)
onto

movement to the top of

jump onto the table

something
from

in the sense of where from

69

a flower from the garden

Otras Preposiciones:

USOS

EJEMPLO

who gave it

a present from Jane

who/what does it belong to

a page of the book

of

what does it show

the picture of a palace

by

who made it

a book by Mark Twain

walking or riding on

on foot, on horseback

from

on

horseback

get on the bus

entering a public transport


vehicle
in

entering a car / Taxi

get in the car

off

leaving a public transport

get off the train

vehicle
out of

by

leaving a car / Taxi

get out of the taxi

rise or fall of something

prices have risen by 10

travelling (other than walking

percent

or horseriding)

by car, by bus

at

for age

she learned Russian at 45

about

for topics, meaning what

we were talking about you

about

Exercise 6. Fill in with the correct preposition; choose among the following:
On-by-in-off-above- over of-onto-below-from

1. He lives in a house .

the sea

2. You have to get ..

the bus opposite the Town Hall.

70

Ingls
3. The picture is

NIVEL B2

the wall.

4. The Everest is the highest mountain ..


5. Ill put the new table ..
6. He's French. He's ..
7. There were ..

that lamp
France.

800 people at the concert last night.

8. I can see the sky .

our heads.

9. Suddenly I woke up, the cat jumped


10. The aim .

the world.

my bed.

this course is to help students.

Exercise 7. Translate into English:

1. Con quin fuiste a la fiesta ?


2. Me fui a dormir despus de repasar todas las lecciones.
3. Sobre qu trata la nueva novela de Tom Fielding?
4. No entres en mi habitacin ahora! No quiero hablarte hasta maana!
5. Las chicas que estaba esperando no llegaron a las siete.

71

ANAPHORIC TO

Los principales usos de la partcula to junto a un verbo son:

Formar el infinitivo de un verbo.


to wrap (envolver), to spoil (estropear, consentir), to lend (prestar).

Actuar como preposicin.


Ill go to the meeting. (Ir a la reunin.)

Sustituir un verbo o una oracin este uso es conocido como to anafrico y


presenta caractersticas detalladas a continuacin .

El to anafrico recibe este nombre porque su uso implica referencias a elementos,


aspectos, situaciones o personajes ya mencionados previamente.
La anfora producida por to se da en tres ocasiones principalmente:

a. Cuando usamos un verbo seguido de un infinitivo.

I dont know whether hes going to Lisbon, but I think hes planning to.
(to = to go to Lisbon)

Dont worry about passing the test; I know youll manage to.
(to = to pass the test)

Recuerda que hay una lista de verbos que van seguidos de un verbo en
infinitivo con to, entre los cuales destacan:

72

Ingls

NIVEL B2

afford learn expect pretend agree manage fail forget propose


attempt refuse be able hope plan decide seem prepare want.

b. Cuando usamos una oracin de infinitivo (subject + to + verb)

Can you tell the teacher to send me more examples? Yes, Ill tell him to.
(to = to send you more examples).

- Are you sure you would like her to tell you the truth?
- Of course Id like her to!
(to = to tell me the truth)

c. Cuando usamos los siguientes auxiliares:

- Used to.

Imagine that Charles used to smoke a packet of cigarettes a day last year.
This year, he smokes 10 cigarettes per day. We can say:

Charles doesnt smoke as he used to. (to = to smoke)

- Ought to.

73

Now imagine that Charles girlfriend always asks him to give up smoking.
However, he refuses to do so. We can say:

Charles doesnt want to give up smoking, but his girlfriend thinks that he
ought to. (to = to give up smoking)

- Have to.

Eventually, Charles goes to the doctors. He tells Charles that he must give
up smoking in order not to have serious health problems. We can say:

Charles doesnt want to give up smoking; nevertheless, the doctor tells


him that he has to. (to = to give up smoking)

Exercise1. Complete the sentences using the anaphoric to:

a. Nancy says that you dont need to buy her anything for her birthday. However,
she is your friend and I think you should get her something.

Nancy says that you dont need to buy her anything, but I

b. Frank felt like going out on Sunday night and he did so. On Monday, his alarm
clock rings at 7 a.m. but he doesnt want to go to work.

Frank doesnt want to go to work, but

c. Sam would like his sister to call him. He wont see her until next week, so he
asks his mother to tell her.

74

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Mum! Could you tell my sister to call me? Yes,

USO Y OMISIN DEL ARTCULO THE

El artculo determinado (el, la, los, las the) no se usa en los mismos casos en
ingls y en espaol. A continuacin encontramos dos listados donde se describe el
uso y la omisin de dicho artculo.
En cuanto a su pronunciacin (/d/), recuerda que vara (/di/) si va seguido de una
palabra que empieza por vocal (The elephant we saw was huge).

El artculo the se usa delante de:

a. Sustantivos referidos a algo/alguien especfico.

The receptionist of the hotel where I work is very kind.

b. Sustantivos nicos y nombres geogrficos.

the Sun, the sky, the sea, the mountain, the universe, the
countryside

c. Sustantivos mencionados por segunda vez.

I went to a Greek restaurant yesterday. The restaurant is called


Dimitris.

75

d. Lugares pblicos en los que se realiza una actividad concreta.

the theatre, the bank, the post office, the bakers, the city centre

e. Instrumentos musicales.

the guitar, the piano, the drums, the keyboard, the saxophone

f.

Gentilicios, especialmente los acabados en /s/, /z/, -ese, y -ish.

the Japanese, the Irish, the Swiss, the Scottish, the Chinese

g. Palabras que forman la construccin de comparativo cuanto ms ms.


the more he eats, the fatter he gets.
h. Nombres propios de mares, ros, cordilleras, archipilagos y desiertos.
the Mediterranean, the Thames, the Alps, the Bermudas, the Sahara

i.

Pases con el nombre en plural o que incluyan republic, kingdom o federation.


the Netherlands, the Dominican Republic, the United States

El artculo the se omite delante de:

a. Animales o personas referidas en sentido general.

Odio las araas. = I hate the spiders.


Los nios son inocentes. = The children are innocent.

76

Ingls

NIVEL B2

b. Sustantivos incontables usados en sentido general.

Prefiero el t al caf. = I prefer the tea to the coffee.

c. Nombres abstractos en sentido general.

La paz en Gaza es posible. = the Peace in Gaza is possible.

d. Nombres de deportes.

My deporte favorito es el tennis. = My favourite sport is the tennis.

e. Nombres de idiomas.

El ruso es ms fcil que el chino = the Russian is easier than the


Chinese.

f.

Las palabras bed, church, hospital, prison, school, college y university cuando
nos referimos a su funcin y no al aspecto fsico.

Yo era muy travieso en la escuela. = I was very naughty at the school.


Mi hijo se va a la cama a las 22h. = My son goes to the bed at 10pm.

Cuando nos referimos a esas palabras en sentido fsico s usamos el artculo:

Voy a hacerle una foto a la iglesia. = Ill take a picture of the church.
La cama roja es la ms barata. = The red bed is the cheapest one.

77

g. Expresiones con last y next (anterior/siguiente al momento en que se habla).

Fui a Marruecos el ao pasado = I went to Morocco the last year.

h. Las direcciones postales y otras expresiones con nmeros y letras.

Vivo en el 6 de la calle Coronation = I live in the 6, Coronation Street.

i.

Porcentajes.

El 70% del planeta es agua = Water covers the 70% of the Earth.

Exercise2. Circle the definite article the where its use becomes necessary:

Nowadays, [-] [the] Internet users have access to information from all around
[-] [the] world. [-] [the] messages can be sent almost instantaneously
through [-] [the] Web system, which poses [-] [the] problem of controlling
authorised access to [-] [the] information in order to protect [-] [the] children.

Exercise3. Complete the sentences with the article the if needed:

a. They are going to ______ beach ______ next week.


b. ______ more make-up she puts on ______ her face, ______ uglier she looks.
c. Do you like ______ olives? Yes, specially ______ olives from Jan.
d. ______ happiness is the most important thing in ______ life.
e. ______ last year I visited ______ Sahara desert and ______ Russian
Federation.

78

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Exercise4. Circle the definite article the where its use becomes necessary:

According to [-] [the] results obtained after a very comprehensive survey,


many companies need [-] [the] foreign currencies to pay [-] [the] producers
in other countries due to [-] [the] growth of [-] [the] global trade. [-] [the]
different countries in the world are involved in such a complex field. Londonbased International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) is an
independent group of [-] [the] professional accounting organisations from 85
countries. It was formed in [-] [the] 1973 with [-] [the] objective of achieving
[-] [the] uniformity in [-] [the] accounting standards.

Exercise5. Translate the following sentences into English:

a. El 50% de los estudiantes de ingeniera de Mlaga abandona sus estudios.


b. Venga, nios, es hora de ir a la cama.
c. La reunin tendr lugar en la habitacin n32
d. Me encanta ir al campo cuando los rboles florecen.
e. A Anne le gusta mucho la msica y toca el violn de maravilla.

79

VOCABULARY

Appearance and personality

Describing how people look and behave


Note the collocations in these interviews where famous people discuss their
own or other people's personality traits (or personal characteristics).
Film star Jerry Bowen
Interviewer: You seem to have had such a special relationship with Kara Hanson
over many years. What is it about working with her?
Bowen: Kara's wonderful. She just seems to have boundless energy1 and she's
always been able to boost people's confidence2, especially new young actors. She
has a wonderful, bubbly3 personality and she's got a dazzling smile. She bears
a striking resemblance to4 Ingrid Bergman, one of the great cinema beauties.
She has some wonderful personal qualities that are so rare in stars nowadays:
1.lots of energy
2

make more confident

lively

looks very like

Ex-rock star Eddie Stewart


Interviewer: You always had a troubled relationship with your drummer, Kaz
Porter, in the days of your band, The Loop. Kaz died in 1987. How do you
remember him now?

80

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Stewart: Well, Kaz was not an easy person to work with. He had a very thinly
disguised5 dislike of the music industry and the people in it. Politeness wasn't his
strong point! He had a real stubborn streak6 that made him unpopular with
managers and agents. But, you know, behind that gruff7 exterior he had a sharp
wit8.
Interviewer: You say gruff, some would say downright rude. Would that be too
harsh? He always seemed full of pent-up anger9 towards the world in
general. Stewart: Well, `rude' is a bit unfair. Yeah, he had a forthrightl10 manner,
and he was capable of open hostility if he thought we were being manipulated.
Interviewer: Yes, he did display some rather scary characteristics.
5

barely hidden

a stubborn side to his character

7.rude and unfriendly


8.was very amusing in a clever way
9

anger which he didn't express

10

direct

Retired golfer Andy Barstow


Interviewer: Andy, you're retired, you're a senior citizen, but everyone would agree
you certainly don't look your age11. What's your secret?
Barstow: Well thanks. I'm sure some people would say I don't act my age12 either!
Interviewer: Oh, that's not necessarily a bad thing! You do always seem to be
bursting with energy!
Barstow: That's what golf does for you!
11.look as old as you are
12

behave in a manner expected of your age

Other useful collocations for behaviour and appearance

She had a blank expression on her face. [showing no


understanding or emotion]

He always gave everyone a warm, friendly smile.

Tracy's new colleagues gave her a rather cool reception.


[unfriendly welcome]

You have been guilty of unacceptable behaviour.

I'm surprised you find Jack unfriendly. He's always been perfectly friendly to
me.

Angela has a rather abrasive manner. [rude and unfriendly manner]

81

EXERCISES:
Amanda often had a blank expression on her face.

1.Match these two columns to form collocations. Then match them with the
definitions below:

Blunk

Personality

Gruff

Streak

Striking

Reception

Cool

Exterior

Stubborn

Resemblance

Bubbly

Expression

1 two things or people which look very similar


2 a very lively person
3 a person's face which shows no emotion
4 when someone is being inflexible
5 an apparently rude and unfriendly personality
6 a rather unfriendly welcome

82

Ingls

NIVEL B2

2.Complete this conversation using collocations from the box in the appropriate
form so that Nell always agrees with Zo.
Bear a striking resemblance to / boost your confidence / burst with energy / has a lot
of admirable qualities / strong points / forthright manner
1 Zo: Tom looks a bit like Brad Pitt, doesn't he?
Nell: Yes, he does. He.him.
2 Zo: And he's very good at making you feel more confident, isn't he?
Nell: Yes, he's great at ......................................................
3 Zo: Though of course he does say what he thinks directly to you.
Nell: Yes, he sometimes has a ratherbut I like that.
4 Zo: Me too. In fact, I think that it might be one of his best characteristics.
Nell: Yes, you could say it is one of his .., I suppose.
5 Zo: Well, he has a lot of good points.
Nell: Yes, I'd certainly agree that he..
6 Zo: He's very energetic, for example.
Nell: Yes, I love the way he's always.. It's very attractive.

4 Complete each sentence using the word in brackets in the appropriate


form.
1 Teresa is always ................................. friendly towards me. (PERFECT)
2 Can you see how Holly is looking at him with open ..............................................
(HOSTILE)
3 I refuse to put up with such ................................... behaviour. (ACCEPT)
4 He displays a lot more attractive........................................... than his brother does.
(CHARACTER)
5 The woman looked at the official with ........................................... disguised contempt.
(THIN)
6 The star was upset that his home town gave him such a cool.. (RECEIVE)

83

ACTIVITY

The Love Competition


You are going to watch a short film called The Love Competition.
http://vimeo.com/ondemand/457/62131305#at=6

What are the rules of this competition?

stressed

alert

motivated

sad

attractive afraid obsessive aggressive


anxious

trusting

Chose some of the emotions from the list above and discuss whether you think more or
less of each one when they you in love. Example:
I think you feel more alert and attractive, but less sad and anxious.

84

Unit 2
B2

Ingls

NIVEL B2

B2 UNIT 2

THE 3r CONDITIONAL

Utilizamos el tercer condicional para hablar de situaciones que podran haber tenido
lugar en el pasado pero finalmente no lo hicieron.

Estructura: [If + past perfect clause] + [ Subject + would + present perfect]

If it had rained in Granada, I wouldnt have gone skiing last December.


(Si hubiera llovido en Granada, no habra ido a esquiar el pasado diciembre).

Las dos construcciones que forman el tercer condicional ([a] ,[b]) pueden aparecer
en el orden inverso ([b] [a]) sin que esto suponga ningn cambio en el significado.
Sin embargo, a la hora de escribir la oracin slo es necesaria la coma cuando la frase
con If aparece en primer lugar.

If we had played a little better , we would have won the game.


(Si hubiramos jugado un poco mejor, habramos ganado el partido).

We would have won the game if we had played a little better.


(Habramos ganado el partido si hubiramos jugado un poco mejor).

85

Existen otras conjunciones condicionales que pueden utilizarse como alternativa a


If:

Unless = a menos que, a no ser que.

I never listen to the radio, unless there is something interesting.


(Nunca escucho la radio, a no ser que haya algo interesante).
[I only listen to the radio if theres something interesting].

As long as = siempre que, mientras que.

I dont care what you did, as long as you love me.


(No me importa lo que hiciste, mientras que me quieras).
[If you love me, I dont care what you did].

Providing that , provided that = siempre que, slo en el caso de que.

Providing that she works harder, shell have a rise.


(En el caso de que trabaje ms, tendr un aumento de sueldo).
[If she works harder, shell get arise].

In case = por si, en el caso de que.

Ill knock on the door again, in case he hasnt heard it before.


(Llamar de nuevo a la puerta, por si no me ha odo antes).
[If he hasnt heard it before, Ill knock again on the door].

86

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Exercise6. Rewrite the sentences using the third conditional structure:

a. He crashed his car, because he fell asleep while driving.


a.

b. We couldnt go to the concert, because we didnt have enough money.


b.

c. I lost my job because I was late in several occasions.


c.

d. The wind was so strong that the bridge collapsed.


d.

e. I couldnt call Mats, because I lost her number.


e.

Exercise7. Match the sentences on the left (1-5) with the ones on the right (a-e):
1. If the cook hadnt ran out of flour,

a. we would have seen the match.

2. If I had won the lottery,

b. you wouldnt have got stomachache.

3. If you hadnt eaten so much,

c. she would have baked a cake.

87

4. If you hadnt had a coffee,

d. you wouldnt have been so nervous!

5. If we had stayed at home,

e. I would have sent you a present.

Exercise8. Complete each sentence with as long as, unless, in case or provided that:

1. They dont go abroad __________ the language of the country is the same as theirs.
2. __________ you do it in the smoking area, you are allowed to have a cigarette.
3. I offered some snacks and refreshments __________ they were hungry and thirsty.
4. Shes arriving this evening __________ there arent any delays.
5. __________ anything unexpected happens, I do the same thing every day.

88

Ingls

NIVEL B2

IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS / VERBS


La forma impersonal es aquella que no hace referencia a un sujeto determinado,
sino que simplemente omite el sujeto intencionadamente porque carece de
importancia. Existen varias formas de expresar la forma impersonal en ingls:
-

Usando el pronombre you:


Hace referencia a la segunda persona del singular (t) en sentido general, sin
referirse al interlocutor, o equivale a las oraciones impersonales que en espaol
se construyen con se.

If you are clever person, you know what to do in such situations.


(Si eres una persona lista, sabes qu hacer en ese tipo de situaciones).

How do you play chess?


(Cmo se juega al ajedrez?)

Usando el pronombre they:


Hace referencia a un grupo de personas entendido como colectivo o equivale a
las oraciones impersonales que en espaol se construyen con se.

They drink a lot of beer in Germany.


(Beben mucha cerveza en Alemania).
(Se bebe mucha cerveza en Alemania).

Usando el pronombre one:


Equivale a las oraciones impersonales que en espaol se construyen con
uno/a.

One never knows what to wear. (Uno/a nunca sabe qu ponerse).

89

Usando la voz pasiva:


Equivale a las oraciones impersonales que en espaol se construyen con se;
es importante no traducirlas literalmente con la estructura de oracin pasiva.

The castle was built in the 16th century.


(El castillo se construy en el siglo XVI).

English (is) spoken. (Se habla ingls).

It is said that the new secretary will be fired.


(Se dice que van a despedir a la nueva secretaria).

Usando el pronombre it:

ste no acta como pronombre personal, ya que no hace referencia a nada,


simplemente ocupa la posicin de sujeto (obligatorio en ingls) en las oraciones
sin agente que realice la accin del verbo.

Its freezing! (Hace muchsimo fro!)

Its getting late. (Se est haciendo tarde.)

Usando la partcula there seguida del verbo to be:

Cabe destacar que el verbo to be debe conjugarse segn el nmero


(singular/plural) y tiempo verbal de la oracin: is,are was,were.

90

Ingls

NIVEL B2

There is/was a cockroach in my hamburguer!


(Hay/Haba una cucaracha en mi hamburguesa!).

There are many things I dont understand about his life.


(Hay muchas cosas que no entiendo de su vida).

Usando la partcula there seguida de los verbos seem y appear.

There seems to be very little money left.


(Parece quedar muy poco dinero.)

There appears to be no difference between twin brothers.


(No parece haber mucha diferencia entre los hermanos gemelos.)

Exercise9. Translate the following sentences into English:

a. Amrica se descubri en 1492.


b. Se est haciendo de noche, nos vamos a casa?
c. Hay una cosa que te quiero decir, que es importante al menos para m.
d. A uno le gusta estar solo a veces.
e. Si el reloj no funciona, cmo sabes cundo entregar el examen?

91

PHRASAL VERBS

Un verbo frasal es un verbo seguido de una partcula que puede ser una preposicin
o un adverbio, y que cambia el significado para crear un verbo nuevo.

Shes looking after her little sister ( look + after = cuidar de)
I will give up smoking next week (give + up = dejar de)
If he find out, he will feel very sad (find + out = descubrir)

Alguno verbos frasales son Intransitivos > esto significa que no puede ir seguido de
un objeto.

He suddenly showed up. [Show up no puede llevar objeto]

Algunos verbos frasales son Transitivos > esto significa que puede ir seguido de un
objeto.

I made up the story. [The story es el objeto de make up]

Algunos verbos frasales transitivos pueden llevar el verbo y la preposicin


separados. Podemos colocar el objeto entre el verbo la preposicin.

I talked my mother into letting me borrow the car. [my mother es el objeto de
la oracin].
She looked the phone number up. [the phone number es el objeto de la
oracin].

92

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Algunos verbos frasales transitivos no se pueden separar. El objeto tiene que ir


detrs de la preposicin.

I ran into an old friend yesterday. [an old friend es el objeto].


They are looking into the problem. [the problem es el objeto].
Aunque muchos verbos frasales pueden llevar objeto tanto delante como detrs de la
preposicin, cuando el objeto es un pronombre, ste tiene que ir siempre entre el
verbo y la preposicin, nunca detrs de la preposicin.

I looked the number up in the phone book. (Correcta)


I looked up the number in the phone book. (Correcta)
I looked it up in the phone book. (Correcta)
I looked up it in the phone book. (Incorrecta)

A continuacin mostramos una lista con algunos de los verbos frasales ms


frecuentes. Es slo una muestra porque existen cientos de verbos frasales.

Be about to

Be against

Be on the point of (doing

Were about to take the train to York. (Estamos

something)

a punto de coger el tren a York).

Be opposed to

Some members of the Parliament are against


the

new

law.(Algunos

miembros

del

Parlamento estn en contra de la nueva ley).


Be away

Be far from home, from


this place (for at least a
night)

Be back

Have returned after a

Mark will be away on holidays until next week.


(Mark estar fuera de vacaciones hasta la
prxima semana).
I dont really know when he will be back from
his journey to Australia, Ill tell you as soon as I

93

long or short absence

know. (En realidad no se cundo volver de su


viaje a Australia, te lo dir tan pronto como lo
sepa).

Be off

Be free from duty


Be cancelled
Leave

Hes having a day off tomorrow because of his


daughters wedding. (l no trabaja maana por
la boda de su hija.)
Liz is off at the moment, would you like to leave
a message for her? (Liz no est ahora, le
gustara dejarle un mensaje?)

Be over

Be finished

You needt worry any longer, now its all over.


(Ya no tienes que preocuparte ms, ahora todo
ha terminado).

Be up to

Be somebodys
responsibility

Should I apply for the job at the consultancy?

Be doing or thinking of

I dont know; its up to you (Debera solicitar

doing something bad

el empleo en la asesora? No se, lo que t


quieras).
What are they up to? (Qu estn tramando?).

Blow up

Explode
Inflate.

The policemen prevented the bombs from


blowing up. (Los policas impidieron que
estallaran las bombas).

Become angry
Break down

Stop working
Lose control and cry

Sue is having a nervous breakdown; she fears


she has failed the final exam. (Sue tiene un
ataque de nervios; teme haber suspendido el

94

Ingls

NIVEL B2

examen final).
Break in

Enter by force (also break

The burglars broke into the house and stole all

into)

their jewels and valuables. (Los ladrones


entraron por la fuerza en la casa y robaron
todas sus joyas y objetos de valor).

Break off

Separate by breaking
Stop, disrupt

Break up

End

Some big pieces of ice are breaking off from


the iceberg. (Trozos grandes de hielo se estn
desprendiendo del iceberg).
They didnt get on, so they finally broke up. (No
se llevaban bien, finalmente rompieron).

Bring about

Cause to happen
Mention a subject

Im sure she will bring the subject about in


order to get our attention. (Estoy seguro de que
sacar

el

tema

para

conseguir

nuestra

atencin).

This situation will bring about some problems


for us. (Esta situacin nos traer algunos
problemas).

Bring up

Take care of children until

He was brought up by his mothers sister, who

they are adults

lived in Rome. (Fue criado por la hermana de


su madre, que viva en Roma).

95

Brush up

Revise something you

I havent studied French for years; I need to

have nearly forgotten

brush it up. (Llevo aos sin estudiar francs,


necesito repasarlo.)

Call back

Return a phone call, or call

If you call me and Im not in, I will call you back.

later

(Si me llamas y no estoy en casa, te devolver


la llamada).

Calm down

Relax

Now you must calm down or you wont get


better. (Ahora debes calmarte o no te pondrs
mejor).

Carry on

Continue (with)

Carry on! You can do it! (Contina! t puedes


hacerlo!)

You should carry on having the pills. (Deberas


seguir tomando las pldoras).
Carry out

Do a task

He cant carry out this task; its too complicated


for him. (l no puede llevar a cabo esa tarea,
es demasiado complicada para l).

Catch up

Reach somebody or reach

I was always above his level in Maths but in the

certain level

end he caught me up. (Yo siempre estaba por


encima de su nivel en Matemticas pero al final
me alcanz).

Check in

Report that you have

You will have to show the receptionist you

arrived at a hotel or airport

passport when you check in. (Tendrs que


mostrarle al recepcionista tu pasaporte cuando
llegues al hotel).

96

Ingls

Check out

NIVEL B2

Check that something is

Could you please make sure that this is the

true

hotel address? I forgot to check it out.

Pay your bill and leave

(Podras asegurarte de que esta es la


direccin del hotel? Olvid comprobarlo).

You have to check out before 12:00. (Debes


dejar el hotel antes de las 12).
Cheer up

Feel happier

Cheer up! Youll get well soon! (Anmate! te


pondrs bien pronto!).

Come across

Find (something/

I came across him at the supermarket and he

someone) by chance

pretended not to remember me.

(Me lo

encontr en el supermercado y fingi no


recordarme).
Come back

Come round

Return to the place where

Helen will come back here in two or three days.

you are now

(Helen volver aqu en dos o tres das).

Visit

When will you come round? Id like to show you

Recover consciousness

my

new

furniture.

(Cundo

vendrs

visitarme? Me gustara ensearte mis muebles


nuevos).
When she came round she didnt remember
what had happened.
(Cuando

recuper

el

conocimiento

recordaba lo que haba pasado).

97

no

Come up

Ascend, rise to the surface


Be mentioned
Arise

Come up with

up. (He estado aos esperando que surgiera


este tema)
He came up to me and asked me my name.

Approach

(Se acerc a m y me pregunt mi nombre).

Think of

If you can come up with a better idea dont

Produce

Count on

Ive been waiting years for this issue to come

Rely on someone

hesitate to tell us. (Si se te ocurre una idea


mejor no dudes en decrnoslo).
You can always count on me to help you.
(Siempre puedes contar conmigo para que te
ayude)

Cut down

Reduce

The level of pollution must be cut down. (El


nivel de contaminacin debe reducirse).

Cut off

Disconnect
Stop providing something

Do up

Fasten
Make improvements
Refurbish

Drop off

If you cannot pay they will cut off the electricity


supply. (Si no puedes pagar cortarn el
suministro de electricidad).
The little boy can dress up and do up his
shoelaces by himself. (El pequeo sabe
vestirse y atarse los cordones de los zapatos l
solo).

Take somebody in your car

You neednt take the bus, Ill drop you off. (No

Decrease

necesitas coger el autobs, yo te llevar).

Sales have dropped off this month.

98

Ingls

NIVEL B2

(Las ventas han disminuido este mes).


Fall over

Fall to the ground

He stepped on something slippery and fell


over. (Pis algo resbaladizo y se cay).

Fill in

Complete

If you havent filled in the application form, you


still have time to do it. (Si no has rellenado la
solicitud, todava tienes tiempo de hacerlo).

Fill up

Become full

Dont fill up my glass, Im not very thirsty (No


llenes mi vaso, no tengo mucha sed).

Find out

Discover

He looked amazed when he found out that he


had been chosen for the new quiz. (Pareci
asombrado cuando descubri que haba sido
elegido para el nuevo concurso).

Get in /into

Enter ( a place, car, plane)

Get into the plane and look for your seat (Sube
al avin y busca tu asiento).
Get in they are waiting for you there! (Entra, te
estn esperando ah!).

Get out (of)

Leave (a place, car, plane)

Get out of here; I dont want to see you again


(Sal de aqu, no quiero volver a verte).

Get on

Have a good relationship


Go aboard a train,
plane)

Mary and Elisabeth never argue, they get on so


well!! (Mary y Elisabeth nunca discuten, se
llevan tan bien!).
Get on or the bus will leave without you!
(Sbete o el autobs se ir sin ti!).

Get off

Leave a vehicle

Get off my car right now!

99

(Sal de mi coche ahora mismo!).


Get over

Recover

If you take care of her she will soon get over.


(Si la cuidas se recuperar pronto).

Get up

Get out of bed

What time did you get up?


(A qu hora te levantaste?).

Give away

Give something for free

If you dont need those clothes, give them


away. (Si no necesitas esa ropa, dala).

Give in

End resistance to

Try to convince your friend. Sooner or later he

something/someone

will give in. (Intenta convencer a tu amigo.


Tarde o temprano, ceder).

Give off

Emit (smell, light,

These exotic flowers give off a very sweet

radiation)

smell. (Estas flores exticas desprenden un


olor muy dulce).

Give out

Distribute

Tom, will you please help the teacher give out


the notebooks? (Tom, ayudas al profesor a
repartir las libretas?).

Give up

Leave a habit
Stop using something
Stop trying to do
something

Go back

Ill try to give up smoking next month. (Intentar


dejar de fumar el mes que viene).
He finally gave up trying to find a job abroad.
(Al final dej de intentar encontrar un empleo
en el extranjero).

Return to another place

I forgot to take my wallet, I have to go back

where you were before

home. (Olvid coger mi cartera, tengo que


volver a casa).

100

Ingls
Go off

Not being good anymore

NIVEL B2

This milk has gone off, dont drink it. (Esta


leche se ha estropeado, no te la bebas).

Grow up

Develop from child to adult

When you grow up youll be able to do it.


(Cuando seas mayor, podrs hacerlo).

Hold on

Wait

Ill put you through with Mr. Roberts, please


hold on. (Le paso con el sr. Roberts, espere
por favor).

Hold up

Delay

The release of the much awaited film has been


held up by the court.
(El estreno de la muy esperada pelcula ha
sido retrasado por los tribunales).

Let down

Disappoint

He is a good friend who has never let me


down. (l es un buen amigo que nunca me ha
decepcionado).

Look after

Take care of

You should tell someone to look after your

someone/something

belongings. (Deberas decirle a alguien que


cuide tus pertenencias).

Look down on

Regard as inferior

His older brother always looked down on him


when he gave his opinion about anything. (Su
hermano

mayor

siempre

lo

despreciaba

cuando daba su opinin sobre cualquier cosa).

101

Look for

Search for something/

I will move next month and I have to look for a

someone

flat near the city centre. (Me mudar el mes


que viene y tengo que buscar un piso cerca del
centro de la ciudad).

Look into

Investigate, consider,

Ill look into your proposal as soon as I have

study

time. (Estudiar tu propuesta en cuanto tenga


tiempo).

Look up

Search for information

I have to look a few words up in the dictionary


before doing the exercises. (Tengo que buscar
en el diccionario unas cuantas palabras antes
de hacer los ejercicios).

Look up to

Respect someone

James looked up to his father; he always paid


attention to his advice.
(James respetaba a su padre, siempre haca
caso a sus consejos).

Look
forward to

Be excited about

The children are looking forward to the trip.

something that's going to

(Los nios estn deseando ir de viaje).

happen (followed by a
noun or ing)

Make up

Invent

Johns looking forward to meeting my friends.


(John est deseando conocer a mis amigos).
Why did you make up such a bad story? (Por
qu te inventaste esa historia tan mala?).

Pick up

Lift someone or something

You shouldnt have picked up the phone. (No

Collect

deberas haber cogido el telfono).

Win something

Will you pick me up at about 9? (Me


recogers sobre las 9?).

Put down

Stop holding

Put the phone down and come here to help me!


(Cuelga el telfono y ven aqu a ayudarme!).

Put off

Postpone

The meeting has been put off until tomorrow


morning. (La reunin se ha pospuesto hasta
maana por la maana)

102

Ingls
Put on

Wear something

NIVEL B2

Why dont you put on your new dress? It really


suits you. (Por qu no te pones tu vestido
nuevo? Te queda muy bien)

Put up with

Stand
something/somebody

Run across

Find accidentally
Find by chance

Im sorry, I cant put up with her.


(Lo siento, no puedo soportarla).
Laurie run across Paul near here and asked
him about his new apartment. (Laurie se
encontr a Paul por aqu cerca y le pregunt
por su nueva casa).

Run down

Run into

Express a negative

He loves to run everyone down. (Le encanta

opinion of someone

criticar a todo el mundo).

Crash, collide

The taxi run into another car and three people


were injured. (El taxi choc con otro coche y
tres personas resultaron heridas).

Run out (of)

Set off.

Finish

I can give you a cup of tea, I run out of coffee.


(Puedo darte una taza de te, se me ha

Use the last of

acabado el caf).

Start on a journey

When will we set off to France? (Cundo

Leave
Start a chain of events
Start someone doing

saldremos para Francia?).


Tony is too lazy. Why dont you set him off to
clean his bedroom? (Tony es demasiado vago.
Por qu no lo pones a limpiar su cuarto?).

something
Set up

Place in position
Erect

We have to set up the tents before dusk.


(Tenemos que montar las tiendas antes de que
anochezca).

Establish, open
Slow down

Reduce speed, go more

Slow down! You drive very quickly! (Ve ms

slowly

despacio! Conduces muy deprisa!).

103

Show up

Arrive

She showed up very late, we were about to


leave. (Ella apareci muy tarde, estbamos a
punto de irnos).

Show off

Act ostentatiously

He loves to show off, but he is not as rich as he


pretends to be. (Le gusta alardear pero no es
tan rico como aparenta).

Sort out

Organize

Michelle is only 4 years old but she loves to


sort out all her picture cards and her dolls.

Arrange or order by

(Michelle tiene solo 4 aos pero le encanta

classes

ordenar sus cromos y sus muecas).

or categories
Solve a problem
Do you think we could sort out the question
somehow? (Crees que podemos resolver la
cuestin de algn modo?).
Speak up

Speak loudly, clearly

Speak up or no one will be able to understand


you! (Habla ms alto/claro o nadie podr
entenderte!).

Take after

Resemble an ancestor

Patrick looks after his mother and Sylvia looks


after her father. (Patrick se parece a su padre y
Sylvia se parece a su madre).

Take off

Remove
Leave the ground, rise into
the air

You must take your hat off before getting into


the church. (Debes quitarte el sombrero antes
de entrar en la iglesia).

What time will the plane take off?


(A qu hora despega el avin?).
Talk into

Persuade (followed by

He talked me into this journey. (Me convenci

noun or ing)

para hacer este viaje).

104

Ingls

Tell off

Reprove, scold

NIVEL B2

If you dont behave, mum will tell you off,


Johnny. (Si no te portas bien, mam te
regaar, Johnny).

Throw away

Turn back

Turn down

Get rid of

Throw away all this rubbish!! (Deshazte de

(someone/something)

toda esa basura!).

Turn in a reverse or

Suddenly, he turned back and approached me.

contrary direction

(De repente se dio la vuelta y se acerc a m).

Reduce or make lower by

Its too hot in here; Ill turn the heating down.

turning (a switch, a tap)

(Hace demasiado calor aqu dentro, bajar la


calefaccin).

Turn on

Allow water, electric


current to flow by using a

Will you please turn on the lights, Paula? (Por


favor, enciendes las luces, Paula?).

switch
Turn off

Prevent water, electric


current from flowing by

Turn the tap off, you are wasting water. (Cierra


el grifo, ests desperdiciando agua)

using a switch
Turn over

Turn upside down


Move by rotating

Turn the omelette over and cook it until light


golden. (Dale la vuelta a la tortilla hasta que se
dore un poco).

Show another side of


something
Wake up

Stop sleeping

I woke up because there was a lot of noise in


the street. (Me despert porque haba mucho
ruido en la calle).

Work out

Find the solution to a

Before we work it out, we will need your help.

problem or question

(Antes de que lo solucionemos, necesitaremos

Elaborate something
Write down

Record something by

tu ayuda).
As he was talking to me, I was writing down
everything he was saying. (Mientras l me

105

writing

hablaba, yo estaba escribiendo todo lo que


estaba diciendo).

Write up

Write fully, copy

Rose, write up all the names in the list and add


their e-mail addresses and phone numbers.
(Rose, copia todos los nombres en la lista y
aade sus direcciones de correo electrnico y
telfonos.).

Exercise10. Fill in the gaps with a phrasal verb.

Example:
I feel sleepy; I ______up very early today. > I feel sleepy; I got up very early today.

a) Peter, stop__________ the little girl off! She didnt break anything!
b) The play will start at seven, so I will __________you up at half past six and we will
arrive at the theatre on time.
c) Dont __________her down, she needs you.
d) Mark got really angry, he __________up and said something terrible to Susan.
e) I dont know what you __________up to, but please be careful.
f) Could I speak to Walter, please? Sorry, he __________away on a business trip.
He will __________back in three or four days.
g) I would never live in this area; there are factories with chimneys that __________off
noxious fumes.
h) I think Alice is not reading, she __________over the pages of the magazine too
quickly.

106

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Exercise11. Replace each underlined words with a phrasal verb.

Example:
She is always criticising me. I dont like her. = She is always criticising me. I cant put
up with her.

a) They didnt answer the phone when you called them.


b) The students are copying the text that their teacher wrote on the blackboard.
c) Frank has to make sure that he will earn enough money if he accepts the new job
they offered him.
d) Harry will soon open his new shop in Australia.
e) We must give each person the materials for the course.
f) Diplomatic relations between the two countries ended due to the conflict.
g) Sarah convinced us to organize the party in her house.

Exercise12. Translate into English:

a) No me gusta Jenny, ella considera inferior a todo el mundo en la oficina.


b) No tires mis libros viejos! Quiz los necesite algn da.
c) Mira a Marianne, est a punto de llorar.
d) Necesito que alguien me anime hoy.

107

Exercise:
Use the following verbs (believe, fill, get, look, put, switch, take, throw, turn, try) and the
prepositions (away, down, for, in, off, on, out) an form meaningful sentences.

1) Quick!

the bus. It's ready to leave.

2) I don't know where my book is. I have to


3) It's dark inside. Can you
4)

it.

the light, please?

the form, please.

5) I need some new clothes. Why don't you


6) It's warm inside.

these jeans?

your coat.

7) This pencil is really old. You can

it

8) It's so loud here. Can you

the radio a little.

9) The firemen were able to

the fire in Church Street.

10) Does your little brother

ghosts?

108

Ingls

NIVEL B2

http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=339

Watch the video and put the lines in each stanza in the
correct order.

Prevent the dog from barking with a juicy bone,


Bring out the coffin, let the mourners come.

Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone,


Silence the pianos and with muffled drum
------------Let the traffic policemen wear black cotton gloves.
Scribbling on the sky the message He is Dead.
Let aeroplanes circle moaning overhead
Put crepe bows round the white necks of the public doves,
-------------------------------My noon, my midnight, my talk, my song;
I thought that love would last forever: I was wrong.
He was my North, my South, my East and West,
My working week and my Sunday rest,
-----------------------For nothing now can ever come to any good.
Pour away the ocean and sweep up the woods;
Pack up the moon and dismantle the sun,
The stars are not wanted now; put out every one,

109

Vocabulary - Phrasal Verbs

Match the columns.

(1) bring out

to collect things and put them where you keep them

(2) cut off

to remove

(3) pack up

to expose; reveal

(4) pour away

to remove people from an area

(5) put out

to halt the operation of; disconnect

(6) sweep up

to (cause to) flow quickly and in large amounts

110

Ingls

NIVEL B2

COMMON PHRASAL VERBS 3


1- Hang

:Wait a short time (informal)

2- Keep

:Continue doing

3- Let

:Allow to enter

4- Hang

:Spend time relaxing/with friends (informal)

5- Look

: Investigate

6- Hang

7- Look

8- Keep

:End a phone call

: Take care of someone/sth.

:Continue at the same rate.

9- Pass

: Die

10- Look

: Have a lot of respect/Admire. "Look ___ to someone"

111

VOCABULARY - PRESENTATIONS

3. PRESENTATIONS

3.1 OPENINGS
For most of us, giving presentations is important for our professional career. Presenting
our products, challenges and solutions this is the key element of business
communication, where money is often made or lost. And, in todays international
business environment, we are increasingly required to give presentations in English.

112

Ingls

NIVEL B2

INTRODUCTION

A. Welcoming the audience

Good morning / afternoon ladies and gentlemen.


Hello / Hi everyone.
First of all, let me thank you all for coming here today.
Its a pleasure to welcome you today.
Im happy / delighted that so many of you could make it today.
Its good to see you all here

B. Introducing yourself

Let me introduce myself.


Im Diane Ross from...
For those of you who dont know me, my name is ...
Let me just start by introducing myself.
My name is ...

C. Giving your position, function, department, company

As some of you know, Im the purchasing manager.


Im the key account manager here and am responsible for ...
Im here in my function as the head of ...
Im the project manager in charge of

D. Introducing your topic


What Id like to present to you today is...
Im here today to present ...
Todays topic is...
The subject / topic of my presentation is ...
In my presentation I would like to report on ...
In my talk Ill tell you about ...
Today Im going to talk about ...
Ill be talking about ...

E. Saying why your topic is relevant for your audience


Todays topic is of particular interest to those of you / us who ...
My talk is particularly relevant to those of us who ...
My topic is / will be very important for you because ...

113

By the end of this talk you will be familiar with ...

F.

Stating your purpose


The purpose / objective / aim of his presentation is to ...
Our goal is to determine how / the best way to ...
What I want to show you is ...
My objective is to ...
Today Id like to give you an overview of ...
Today Ill be showing you / reporting on ...
Id like to update you on / inform you about ...
During the next few hours well be ...
Structuring Ive divided my presentation into three (main) parts.
In my presentation Ill focus on three major issues.

G.

Sequencing
Point one deals with ... , point two ... , and point three...
First, Ill be looking at... , second... ,and third ...
Ill begin / start off by ... .
Then Ill move on to ...
Then / Next / After that ... Ill end with ...

E. Timing
My presentation will take about 30 minutes.
It will take about 20 minutes to cover these issues.
This wont take more than...

F.

Handouts
Does everybody have a handout / brochure / copy of the report?
Please take one and pass them on.
Dont worry about taking notes. Ive put all the important statistics on a handout
for you.
Ill be handing out copies of the slides at the end of my talk.
I can email the PowerPoint presentation to anybody who wants it.

G.

Questions
There will be time for questions after my presentation.
We will have about 10 minutes for questions in the question and answer period.
If you have any questions, feel free to interrupt me at any time.
Feel free to ask questions at any time during my talk.

114

Ingls

NIVEL B2

H. Rhetorical questions
Is market research important for brand development?
Do we really need quality assurance?

I.

Interesting facts
According to an article I read recently, ...
Did you know that ...?
Id like to share an amazing fact / figure with you.

J.

Stories and anecdotes


I remember when I attended a meeting in Paris, ...
At a conference in Madrid, I was once asked the following question: ...
Let me tell you what happened to me ...

K.

Problem to think about


Suppose you wanted to ... .
How would you go about it?
Imagine you had to ....
What would be your first step?

3.2 THE MIDDLE / MAIN PART


A. Saying what is coming
In this part of my presentation, Id like to talk about..
So, let me first give you a brief overview.

B.

C.

Indicating the end of a section


This brings me to the end of my first point.
So much for point two.
So, thats the background on ...
Thats all I wanted to say about ...
Summarizing a point
Before I move on, Id like to recap the main points.
Let me briefly summarize the main issues.
Id like to summarize what Ive said so far ...

115

D.

Moving to the next point


This leads directly to my next point.
This brings us to the next question.
Lets now move on / turn to ...
After examining this point, lets turn to ...
Lets now take a look at ...

E.

Going back
As I said / mentioned earlier, ...
Let me come back to what I said before ...
Lets go back to what we were discussing earlier.
As Ive already explained, ...
As I pointed out in the first section, ...

F.

Referring to other points


I have a question in connection with / concerning payment.
There are a few problems regarding the quality.
With respect / regard to planning, we need more background information.
According to the survey, our customer service needs reviewing.

G. Adding ideas
In addition to this, Id like to say that our IT business is going very well.
Moreover / Furthermore, there are other interesting facts we should take a look
at.
Apart from being too expensive, this model is too big.
Talking about (difficult) issues I think we first need to identify the problem.
Of course well have to clarify a few points before we start.
We will have to deal with the problem of increasing prices.
How shall we cope with unfair business practices?
The question is: why dont we tackle the distribution problems?
If we dont solve this problem now, well get / run into serious trouble soon.
We will have to take care of this problem now.
We are currently having difficulties with ...

H.

Rhetorical questions
What conclusion can we draw from this?
So, what does this mean?
So, just how good are the results?
So, how are we going to deal with this increase?
So, where do we go from here? Why do I say that?
Because...
Do we really want to miss this opportunity to ... ?

116

Ingls

NIVEL B2

3.3 CONCLUSION
A.

Indicating the end of your talk


Im now approaching / nearing the end of my presentation.
Well, this brings me to the end of my presentation.
That covers just about everything I wanted to say about ...
OK, I think thats everything I wanted to say about ...
As a final point, Id like to ...
Finally, Id like to highlight one key issue.

B.

Summarizing points
Before I stop, let me go over the key issues again.
Just to summarize the main points of my talk ...
Id like to run through my main points again ...
To conclude / In conclusion, Id like to ...
To sum up (then), we ...

117

3.4 GRAPHS BRINGING VISUALS TO LIVE

Weve all taken part in some quite boring presentations. And in those cases, weve all
seen complex charts and graphs that tell us either way too much or absolutely nothing
at all. For the most part, visuals arent naturally interesting or informative. Its what we
do with them that is important.
You cant just put a graph on a screen and then explain each point on the graph. And
you cant put up a table of figures and then read out each column and row.
What you really need to do is tell the story of the data and to bring the visuals to life.
What should people focus on? What is the important number on the screen? What
does the graph actually tell us?
Bringing visuals to life is necessary if you want to give effective presentations. Well
look at how to do this. In this lesson, well cover several important functions, including
using analogy, defining terms, using rhetorical questions, and highlighting key
numbers.

Charts and graphs are very useful for presenting information, especially numbers. But
you must learn how to use them properly. If you dont, your presentation might not have
the expected effect. That might mean its seen as dull, but it could also mean that you
fail to convince someone of your idea.

118

Ingls

NIVEL B2

TYPES OF CHARTS:

Pie chart

Bar chart

Line graph

USEFUL VOCABULARY TO DESCRIBE CHARTS:

ADJECTIVE + FALL:
Dramatic fall
Market fall
Gradual fall
Rapid fall

119

Moderate fall
Significant fall
Slight fall
Sharp fall
Sudden fall

ADJECTIVE + INCREASE
Gradual increase
Market increase
Rapid increase
Moderate increase
Significant increase
Slight increase
Steady increase
Steep increase

DESCRIBING POSITION
Highest level
Lowest level
Peaked
Reached a peak
Stood at

NOUNS OF MOVEMENT
Decline
Decrease
Drop

120

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Fall
Fluctuation
Improvement
Increase
Recovery
Reduction
Rise

VERBS OF MOVEMENT
Bottom out
Doubled to
Fluctuate
Level off
Plunge
Soar
Go up`
Rise
Jump

TRENDS
Upward trend
Downward trend

GLOSARY:

Benefit an advantage or something that brings positive effects


Commute - to travel to and from work
Consolidate to combine many small things into one larger system or unit

121

Flow chart a drawing that shows steps, stages or a process


Focus on to concentrate on or to pay attention to
Handle to deal with or manage some activity
Logistics management of the storage and movement of goods, materials and
information
Make sense to be reasonable, practical, or easy to understand
Numbers dont lie - we say the numbers dont lie when we believe that some
statistics or numbers show or highlight an important fact
Plant a factory or facility that produces or processes something
Point to to draw attention to, especially by using a finger
Port a town, city or place where ships load and unload their cargo
Pretty much - mostly
Pull up to show on a video monitor or computer screen
Reimagine to imagine or think about something in a new way
Route a way that someone or a vehicle travels to get somewhere
Shipping line a business that operates ships either for freight or passengers
Warehouse a large house where goods are stored
.

3.5 TIPS FOR SUCCESSFUL PRESENTATIONS:

A good presentation is one that connects to your audience with a clear, organized
message that can be easily understood. So, what can we do to make an impact? How
can we connect our message to the audience? What do we need to think about when
preparing our presentation? And how do we work to our strengths and minimize the
challenges of presenting in English?

Keep it SHORT, SIMPLE, ENGAGING and REAL

SHORT: Try this: after you prepare your presentation, go through and cut out 30%.
You should be able to do that without damaging your central message. What

122

Ingls

NIVEL B2

remains will have much more impact because its not surrounded by fluff. This applies
to PowerPoint slides, charts, and diagrams as well. As a general rule, try to limit
slides to one per minute.

SIMPLE: Simple means organized and clear. Start with the purpose of your
presentation, which you should be able to summarize in one sentence. Simple also
applies to your language and visuals. Dont try to impress people with technical
lingo. It wont work. And keep PowerPoint slides simple. No confusing charts or
graphs. Only the essential information, in simple form. The text on your slides
should not be too hard to see, no smaller than a 30-point font. This will force you to
keep the text simple. I promise you, people will appreciate that.

ENGAGING: You need to catch and hold peoples attention. You want them to be
interested. And how do we do that? They include repetition, rhetorical questions,
metaphors, and visualizing facts and figures. One thing that is not engaging is
information overload. Dont overwhelm your audience. Use pictures and other
visual aids to illustrate your points. If youre doing a PowerPoint, dont put two
informational slides right after each other. Mix it up. Give some information, then use
a picture to help people understand what youre saying, then give more information.
Being engaging also means being interactive. Ask questions. Look at people. Ask
for input. Get people to do something besides just listen to you talk.

REAL: Try using an anecdote or story a story that everyone can connect with,
something that everyone experiences. Tell them why your topic matters. Tell them how
it affects them, their jobs, and their lives. Connect yourself with the people and
connect the people with the topic. Another part of keeping it real is working within
your abilities. If youre not comfortable telling a joke in English, dont tell a joke. If
you have to keep the words simple, keep them simple. Presentations are hard enough
as it is. Dont try to push yourself too far outside your normal communication
style.

SPEAKING PRACTICE:
1. Do you think PowerPoint is used effectively?
2. How long can you keep an audience focused during a presentation?
3. Think about the good presentations youve seen. What qualities did the
speaker have?
4. What is the most difficult part of speaking in front of a group of people?
5. What different types of visual aids are commonly used in presentations?
6. When you give a presentation, do you usually stand in one place or
move around?

123

VOCABULARY:
Take a look at the words below:
Body language the ideas or feelings you communicate with your body, gestures,
and facial expressions. NOTE: During a presentation make sure your
body language shows confidence and interest
Drone on to talk about something for a long time in a boring way
Dynamic constantly changing or very active
Engage to attract or hold someones attention
Get on someones nerves to annoy or bother someone
Illustrate a point to make an idea clear by using examples, pictures or
comparison
Input information, opinion or viewpoint given to a person or process
Know your stuff to understand a certain subject very well
Move on to continue to the next topic
Prop an object or thing that helps you during a presentation
Scan to look over quickly
Shoot up to increase suddenly and a lot
Short attention span if you have short attention span, you cant focus on a
topic for a very long time
Sink in if a message or point sinks in it means the listener understands it
completely
Tune someone out- to stop listening to someone, especially because you are
bothered or bored.
Universal true about everyone in all places
Wander to move around without a clear purpose; if your mind or attention
wanders, it means you stop focusing on one thing.
Work into to insert or use something within something else

124

Ingls

NIVEL B2

4.1 DEALING WITH QUESTIONS

Business people often have to answer questions. You may have to respond to
questions during a meeting or negotiation or after you have given a presentation. There
are several possible responses to such questions. You can:
1. answer directly ("Yes", "No", "I'm..", etc)
2. ask for clarification of the question
3. reassure the questioner
4. give yourself time to think
5. avoid answering

The language you use becomes very important. It can provide you with certain helpful
tactics to use in various situations. Look at these useful phrases:

Reactions to questions
Have I understood
you correctly?

Would you mind


rephrasing the
question? I didn't
quite understand it.

125

|
|
|

SEEKING CLARIFICATION
|
|

|
|

If I understand you
you're asking...

When you say...


do you mean...?

I'd like to reassure


you about that

There is no need for


concern on that
point

|
|

|
|

GIVING REASSURANCE
|
|

|
|

You need have no


worries on that front

I can understand
your concern but...

GIVING YOURSELF
TIME TO THINK

126

Ingls

NIVEL B2

|
|

|
|

I'm glad you asked


that question

That's a very
interesting question

I'm afraid I can't


give you an answer
to that question
at the moment

I'd prefer not to


comment on that
for the moment

|
|

|
|

AVOIDANCE

|
|

|
|

Perhaps I could
answer that
question later

Well, that would


depend on
various factors

127

4.2 AGREEING AND DISAGREEING

Many business people have to participate in business meetings conducted in English.


There are various aspects of language involved in meetings. These range from the
formal language of chairing and controlling official meetings, to the language of opinion
giving, agreeing, disagreeing, persuading, etc. In this lesson, we look at the language
of opinions.

Here are some useful phrases.

1. Asking for opinions


a. What are your feelings on ... ?
b. What do you think of ... ?
c. What's your opinion of ... ?
d. Could we hear your opinion of ... ?

128

Ingls

NIVEL B2

2. Giving opinions
a. I'm inclined to think ...
b. I think ...
c. My opinion is ...
d. It's my feeling that ...
e. I'm absolutely sure that ...
f.

I tend to think ...

3. Agreeing
a. I completely agree with you.
b. I agree.
c. Well, yes.
d. That's right.
e. I couldn't agree more.
f.

That seems reasonable.

129

4. Disagreeing
a. I agree up to a point, but ...
b. I don't agree at all.
c. I'm afraid I don't entirely agree with you.
d. I totally disagree with you.
e. I disagree.
f.

That's completely wrong.

VOCABULARY: (agreement)

Ways to agree:
So do I / I do too = I think so too (strong agreement)

Standard phrases to agree


You are quite right!
I couldnt agree more!
Thats exactly how I see it / feel about it
Absolutely!

Using synonyms:
That was just a miserable day! Awful

130

Ingls

NIVEL B2

By using an example:
This food is great Especially the chicken

Using a general comment:


Chinese food is delicious. Yes, all Asian food is.

PRACTICE WRITING

You are a boss and one of your employees calls you and asks for the following
things very politely.

An extra day to finish the report

To go home early because he has a headache

To go to a conference in the USA

To leave early in order to pick up his sister at the airport

Decide whether or not to agree with each one!

I WISH / IF ONLY

I wish o if only se usan para expresar un deseo o bien lamentarnos de algo que ha
ocurrido en el pasado y se traduce normalmente como ojal, aunque el uso de If only
es mucho ms enftico. Despus de I wish/ If only usamos los siguientes tiempos
verbales:

Simple Past > para expresar el deseo de que algo sea diferente a como es en
realidad (en espaol, pretrito imperfecto de subjuntivo). En el lenguaje ms

131

formal se suele usar las forma were con todas las formas personales detrs de
I wish/ If only.

I wish you were here! (Ojal estuvieras aqu)


I wish he were with us now! (Ojal estuviera con nosotras ahora)

Would + infinitivo > para expresar el deseo de que algo ocurra en el futuro o
para expresar una queja referida a una accin que nos gustara que cambiara
(en espaol, pretrito imperfecto de subjuntivo). Would no se usa para la
primera persona ni para hablar de algo que no depende de la voluntad del
sujeto.

I wish they would come! (Ojal vinieran)


I wish I would work less. > NO (Sera > I wish I worked less)
She wishes she would be taller > NO (Sera > She wishes she were
taller)

Past Perfect > para expresar el deseo de que algo hubiera ocurrido de forma
diferente o expresar arrepentimiento por haber hecho algo (en espaol,
pretrito pluscuamperfecto del subjuntivo).

I wish they had come! (Ojal hubieran venido)

Adems de las estructuras con el significado de ojal, existen otras construcciones


en las que tambin se usa wish:
-

Subject + wish + object + noun phrase

We wish you a merry Christmas.

132

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Subject + wish + (object) + to- infinitivo

I wish to make a complaint.

Subject + for + noun phrase

We wish for peace and love.

Subject + object + adjective

The officers wish him alive.

Subject + not wish + object + on + somebody

I wouldnt wish it on my worst enemy.

Exercise9. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense:

a) I wish he _________________ here now (to be).


b) If only you _________________ here yesterday (to be).
c) We wish you _________________ tomorrow (to come).
d) You will wish you _________________ earlier yesterday (to leave).
e) We wish you _________________ yesterday (to arrive).
f)

I wish that he _________________ us next year (to visit).

g) If only she _________________ at home now (to be).


h) You wish that he _________________ you last week (to help).
i)

He will always wish he _________________ rich (to be).

133

PASSIVE VOICE

La voz activa se emplea cuando el sujeto del verbo hace referencia a la persona o
cosa que realiza la accin significada por el verbo. Por el contrario, la voz pasiva se
emplea cuando el sujeto del verbo hace referencia a la persona o cosa que sufre,
que recibe, la accin significada por el verbo.

Slo pueden usarse en voz pasiva aquellos verbos que puedan llevar objeto.

The ball was struck by the boy.


Gold has been found by the explorers.

La voz pasiva en la forma del indicativo se forma con el verbo to be + participio


pasado del verbo principal. A continuacin mostramos un cuadro con los diferentes
tiempos verbales:

a. El presente simple de indicativo


Ejemplo de conjugacin con el verbo to show:
Simple Present Indicative of To Be Simple Present Indicative of Passive Voice
of To Show
I am

I am shown

you are

you are shown

he is

he is shown

134

Ingls

NIVEL B2

b. Los dems tiempos del indicativo


El verbo To Be comparado con la voz pasiva del verbo To Show
Present Continuous

Present Continuous

I am being

I am being shown

you are being

you are being shown

he is being

he is being shown

Present Perfect

Present Perfect

I have been

I have been shown

you have been

you have been shown

he has been

he has been shown

Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous

I have been being

I have been being shown

you have been being

you have been being shown

he has been being

he has been being shown

Simple Past

Simple Past

I was

I was shown

you were

you were shown

he was

he was shown

135

Past Continuous

Past Continuous

I was being

I was being shown

you were being

you were being shown

he was being

he was being shown

Past Perfect

Past Perfect

I had been

I had been shown

you had been

you had been shown

he had been

he had been shown

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

I had been being

I had been being shown

you had been being

you had been being shown

he had been being

he had been being shown

Simple Future

Simple Future

I will (shall) be

I will (shall) be shown

you will be

you will be shown

he will be

he will be shown

136

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Future Continuous

Future Continuous

I will (shall) be being

I will (shall) be being shown

you will be being

you will be being shown

he will be being

he will be being shown

Future Perfect

Future Perfect

I will (shall) have been

I will (shall) have been shown

you will have been

you will have been shown

he will have been

he will have been shown

Future Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous

I will (shall) have been being

I will (shall) have been being shown

you will have been being

you will have been being shown

he will have been being

he will have been being shown

Los tiempos Present Perfect Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous y


Future Perfect Continuous de la voz pasiva se hacen muy largos e incmodos, por lo
que se usan muy poco.
Oraciones interrogativas y negativas:
-

Interrogativas:

137

(You were shown the sights) Were you shown the sights?
(She is being shown the sights) Is she being shown the sights?
(He will have been shown the sights) Will he have been shown the sights?
(We should be shown the sights) Should we be shown the sights?

Negativas:

You were not shown the sights.


She is not being shown the sights.
He will not have been shown the sights.
We should not be shown the sights.

a) Cambio de voz del verbo:


Normalmente, cuando se pasa una frase de activa a pasiva, cambiando slo la voz
del verbo y dejando el resto de las palabras de la oracin tal como estn en la frase
activa, se produce un cambio en el significado.
Active Voice: He is driving to the airport.
Passive Voice: He is being driven to the airport.
[La persona a la que se refiere el sujeto de la primera frase se comporta activamente:
est ejerciendo la accin de conducir. La persona a la que se refiere el sujeto de la
segunda frase est actuando de forma pasiva: l o ella no conduce sino que alguien le
est llevando al aeropuerto].
b) Cambio de voz del verbo manteniendo el significado de la oracin:
Para mantener el significado de una oracin cuando se altera la voz del verbo, es
necesario alterar el orden de las palabras de la oracin.
- Cambio de activa a pasiva > Cuando un verbo que lleva objeto se cambia de activa a
pasiva, para mantener el significado de la frase, dicho objeto se ha de convertir en el
sujeto del verbo y el que en la frase activa es sujeto puede situarse despus del verbo
acompaado de la preposicin by pasando a ser agente.

138

Ingls

NIVEL B2

The wind is rippling the water. [el verbo is rippling tiene como sujeto wind y
como objeto water. Cuando el verbo pasa a pasiva y se mantiene el significado
de la frase, lo que antes era objeto, water, se convierte en el sujeto del verbo y
lo que antes era sujeto, wind, se convierte en el agente (objeto de la
preposicin by)].
The water is being rippled by the wind.
Active: The squirrel ate the nut.
Passive: The nut was eaten by the squirrel.
Active: The child will open the parcel.
Passive: The parcel will be opened by the child.
Cuando se cambia la voz del verbo en una frase manteniendo el significado de la
misma, es necesario asegurarse de que el verbo concuerde con el nuevo sujeto.
Active: The boys are mowing the lawn.
Passive: The lawn is being mowed by the boys.
[En la primera frase, el sujeto boys es plural; por tanto, debe usarse el auxiliar are;
en la segunda frase, el sujeto lawn es singular; por tanto, se emplea el auxiliar is].

- Cambio de pasiva a activa > Cuando un verbo pasa de pasiva a activa, para
mantener el significado de la frase, el que es el sujeto pasa a ser el objeto del verbo y,
si la frase incluye una proposicin introducida por la preposicin by, el que es objeto
de la preposicin pasa a ser el sujeto del verbo.

Passive: The clover is being eaten by the cow.


Active: The cow is eating the clover.
Passive: The wine was ordered by the dealer.
Active: The dealer ordered the wine.
Passive: The deer could have been killed by the poacher.
Active: The poacher could have killed the deer.
c) Cambio de voz de un verbo que lleva tanto objeto directo como indirecto:

139

Cuando un verbo en voz activa lleva tanto objeto directo como objeto indirecto,
cualquiera de ellos puede convertirse en el sujeto del verbo al pasarse la oracin a
pasiva, mantenindose el significado de la misma. El objeto que no pasa a ser sujeto
queda como objeto. Cuando un verbo en pasiva lleva objeto indirecto, ste va
normalmente precedido por una preposicin.

Active: The guide will show you the museum.


Passive: You will be shown the museum by the guide.
Passive: The museum will be shown to you by the guide.

[En la primera frase (Active) el verbo will show lleva el objeto directo museum, y el
objeto indirecto you. En las frases segunda y tercera el verbo will be shown est en
pasiva, y el significado se ha mantenido al alterar el orden de las palabras y usar la
preposicin by. En la segunda frase, el que era objeto indirecto, you, es ahora el sujeto
del verbo, y el que era el objeto directo, museum, se mantiene como objeto directo. En
la tercera frase, el que era objeto directo, museum, ha pasado a ser el sujeto del
verbo, y el que era objeto indirecto, you, ahora va precedido de la preposicin to].
Active: The policeman gave you a medal.
Passive: You were given a medal by the policeman.
Passive: A medal was given to you by the policeman.

La voz pasiva en la forma del subjuntivo se forma de la misma manera que el


indicativo. A continuacin mostramos un cuadro los siguientes tiempos verbales:
Simple Present

Simple Past

I am shown

I were shown

you are shown

you were shown

he is shown

he were shown

140

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

I am being shown

I were being shown

You are being shown

you were being shown

he is being shown

he were being shown

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

I have been shown

I had been shown

you have been shown

you had been shown

he have been shown

he had been shown

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

I have been being shown

I had been being shown

you have been being shown

you had been being shown

he have been being shown

he had been being shown

a) Presente simple del subjuntivo > se emplea normalmente en clusulas


subordinadas que empiezan con that en frases que contienen rdenes o solicitudes
formales.
I request that he be invited to speak.
We asked that our suggestions be considered.
They will insist that their colleague be admitted to the association.

b) Formas del pasado del subjuntivo > se emplea para expresar deseos y condiciones
falsas o improbables.

141

I wish he were allowed to come. (deseo)


It would have been better if they had been invited. (falsa condicin o premisa)

Exercise2. Change the following affirmative statements into questions. For


example:

You are required to prepare the documents for the meeting.


Are you required to prepare the documents for the meeting?
1. They should be informed.
2. She might have been invited to come.
3. You had been told not to say anything about that.
4. They will be used when needed.
5. It has been stored in an appropriate place.
6. They were being repaired.

Exercise3. Change the following affirmative statements into negative statements.


For example:

They would have been trained to do this job.


They would not have been trained to do this job.
1. We could have been observed from that building there.
2. It is being dealt with successfully.
3. They were being kept under observation.
4. You will be held responsible if something goes wrong.
5. They were expected to get here at ten o'clock.
6. He will be asked to collaborate.
7. It was sent to the correspondent department on time.

Exercise4. For each of the following sentences, first indicate the tense of the
underlined verb, and then change the verb from the Active Voice to the

142

Ingls

NIVEL B2

corresponding tense in the Passive Voice. Take note of the resulting change in
the meaning of the sentence. For example:

They drive to work at seven o'clock every morning.


Simple Present: They are driven to work at seven o'clock every morning.
Did he notice?
Simple Past: Was he noticed?

She is not telling the truth.


Present Continuous: he is not being told the truth.

We have sent a message.


Present Perfect: We have been sent a message.

I will pay.
Simple Future: I will be paid.

1. Do they expect to have any guests for dinner? _________________


2. He is giving orders and instructions. __________________
3. They have moved to a different city. __________________
4. She will fly to Madrid next week. _________________
5. He has offered a discount in all his products. __________________
6. They have stopped to take a rest. __________________
7. Will you have given permission? _________________
8. We sent a quite long letter. __________________
9. We were teaching Spanish and French. __________________
10. I understand perfectly what you mean. ___________________

11. He is offering free advice for unemployed people. _________________


12. She will rush to the station. __________________

Exercise5. For each of the following sentences, first indicate the tense of the
underlined verb, and then change the verb from the Passive Voice to the

143

corresponding tense in the Active Voice. Take note of the resulting change in the
meaning of the sentence. For example:

We are paid on a monthly basis.


Simple Present: We pay on a monthly basis.

She is not assisted every day.


Simple Present: She does not assist every day.

Was he not being flown to LA?


Past Continuous: Was he not flying to LA?

It has been grown here for the past ten years.


Present Perfect: It has grown here for the past ten years.

Might they be called at five in the afternoon tomorrow?


Simple conjugation with might: Might they call at five in the afternoon tomorrow?

1. We can be heard easily from far away. _________________


2. She is being given spiritual guidance. __________________
3. Were they not flown over the mountains? ________________
4. I had been transferred to another department.
5. He is being convinced. __________________
6. We have been sent an anonymous gift. __________________
7. He is not being taught music properly. _________________
8. Should they have been driven to their destination? ______________
9. They will be watched constantly. __________________
10. We had been taken to the beach today. __________________
11. Has he been checked into the hotel? ______________
12. Could I have been told the news last week? __________________

Exercise6. Change the underlined verbs in the following sentences from the
Active Voice to the corresponding tenses in the Passive Voice. Preserve the

144

Ingls

NIVEL B2

meaning of the sentences by using the preposition by and making the necessary
changes in word order. For example:

The teenager drove the car.


The car was driven by the teenager.

The girl is riding the horse.


The horse is being ridden by the girl.

The student has cooked a delicious lunch.


A delicious lunch has been cooked by the student.

The president of the company will thank the members of all the departments.
The members of all the departments will be thanked by the president of the
company
company.
The children can understand the text.
The text can be understood by the children.
1. That woman founded this association.
2. This picture won the prize.
3. The girl is playing the piano.
4. The mailman has already delivered all the letters.
5. The pilot can fly the aeroplane.
6. The child bought the white t-shirt.
7. The cat chased the mouse.
8. The workers will paint the walls.
9. The stranger could have stolen the wallet.
10. The dealer has sold the jewels.
11. The dog splashed the water.
12. The man has watered the flowers.

Exercise7. Change the underlined verbs in the following sentences from the
Passive Voice to the corresponding tenses in the Active Voice. Preserve the

145

meaning of the sentences by omitting the preposition by and making the


necessary changes in word order. For example:

Their new song was heard by everyone.


Everyone heard their new song.

The instructions were followed by the officials.


The officials followed the instructions.

The money is being counted by the cashier.


The cashier is counting the money.

The animals in the zoo have been fed by the tourists.


The tourists have fed the animals in the zoo.

The landscape will be photographed by the photographer.


The photographer will photograph the landscape.

1. The bill was paid by the boss.


2. The cake was made by the cook.
3. The wiring must be checked by the electrician.
4. The crow was being scolded by the squirrel.
5. The book was written by a specialist.
6. The house was decorated by a student.
7. The seeds were taken by the birds.
8. The beer has been drunk by the guests.
9. The mail is opened every day by the secretary.
10. The ingredients have been added and mixed by the cooks.
11. The bird was seen by the naturalists who were observing.
12. His work will be published by the magazine next month.

Exercise8. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present


Subjunctive of the Passive Voice of the verbs shown in brackets. For example:

146

Ingls

NIVEL B2

She ordered that the most important details _______ known. (to make)
She ordered that the most important details be made known.

He advises that the plane ________ at a high altitude. (to fly)


He advises that the plane be flown at a high altitude.

1. They demand that the change of plans _____________ at nine o'clock. (to report)
2. It is necessary that their accomplishments ____________. (to recognize)
4. It is crucial that we _____________ of any change. (to inform)
5. He asks that his papers and documents ____________ in order. (to put)
6. They requested that their qualifications ______________. (to accept)
7. We insist that he not _____________ his rights. (to deny)
8. It is important that the requirements _____________. (to meet)
9. She requests that the most experienced candidate ___________. (to choose)
10. It is recommended that care __________ in making the repairs. (to take)
11. He insists that smoking ______________. (to forbid)

VOCABULARY
Ooops! Dont put your foot in it! (No metas la pata!)

1.How do you say in English: Espero que vengas a mi fiesta?


I hope that you come to my party?
NOOOOOOOO
We say:
I hope you come to my party!!

*When talking about hope or something that will happen in the future, we need: subject
+hope + subject + verb in present simple

147

Eg.: She hopes they play well today.


I hope it doesnt rain on Saturday!

2.How do you say in English Cada individuo tiene que tomar su propia
decisin? Every individual has to make his own decision?
NOOOOO
We need to say:

Every individual has to make THEIR own decision!

3.How do you say in English Por fin han aparecido las llaves de mi coche!
Finally, my keys have appeared?
NOOOO
We say: Finally, my keys have turned up! or My keys have finally turned up, or
just Ive finally found my keys

INTENSIFIERS 1
We use words like very, really and extremely to make adjectives stronger:
Its a very interesting story
Everyone was very excited.
Its a really interesting story.
Everyone was extremely excited

We call these words intensifiers. Other intensifiers are:


amazingly

Exceptionally

incredibly

remarkably

Particularly

Unusually

148

Ingls

NIVEL B2

We also use enough to say more about an adjective, but enough comes after its
adjective:
If you are seventeen you are old enough to drive a car.
I cant wear those shoes. Theyre not big enough.
Intensifiers with strong adjectives:
Strong adjectives are words like:
enormous, huge = very big
tiny = very small
brilliant = very clever
awful; terrible; disgusting; dreadful = very bad
certain = very sure
excellent; perfect; ideal; wonderful; splendid = very good
delicious = very tasty
We do not normally use very with these adjectives. We do not say something is "very
enormous" or someone is "very brilliant".
With strong adjectives, we normally use intensifiers like:
absolutely completely
really

totally

utterly

exceptionally particularly quite

The film was absolutely awful.


He was an exceptionally brilliant child.
The food smelled really disgusting.

Exercise 1:
Choose the correct intensifier:
1.absolutely / really
A:How was your exam?
B: Not good. It wasdifficult
2.extremely / absolutely
A:Are you hungry?
B.Hungry? I am starving!

149

3.totally/very
A:So, did you like the movie?
B:No, I thought it was.awful!

4.extremely / totally
A: Do you think well get a pay rise this year?
B:Well, if we do, it will be.small!

5.really/very
A:Did you have a good holiday?
B:Yes, thanks. It was ..fantastic.

6.absolutely, very
A: I dont like politics.
B: No? I find it .interesting.

INTENSIFIERS 2

Certain adjectives have their own 'special' intensifiers which are often used with them.
Here are some common ones:
blind drunk
He was blind drunk and behaved really badly.
bone dry
I must have a drink. I'm bone dry.
brand new
I've just bought a brand new car.

150

Ingls

NIVEL B2

crystal clear
The sea near Rhodes is crystal clear.
dead easy
That exam was dead easy. I've certainly passed.

He's won three lottery prizes this year. He's dead lucky.
dead right
I agree entirely. You are dead right.
dirt cheap
I bought my car for a dirt cheap price from an old lady who had hardly
driven it.
fast asleep / sound asleep
I was in bed and fast asleep by nine.
I was sound asleep and I didn't hear anything.
paper thin
These office walls are paper thin. You can hear everything said in the
next office.
pitch black
There's no moon. It's pitch black out there.
razor sharp
Be careful with that knife- it's razor sharp.
rock hard
It's impossible to dig this soil it's rock hard.
stark naked
The hotel door slammed behind me and I was left standing stark naked
in the middle of the corridor.
stone deaf
He can't hear a thing. He's stone deaf.

151

wide awake
I was wide awake by six.
wide open
Who left the door wide open?

EXERCISE 2
COMPLETE THE SENTENCES:

I was ..............awake by seven.


I cant see a thing. Its .............black in here.
Ive got a.................new computer.
There has been no rain for weeks. The ground is...........dry.
My new computer is.............easy in use.
I got my computer for a ........cheap price.
I was...........lucky to get such a bargain.
I was............asleep when you phoned.

NEWCOMER / COMEBACK / COMEDOWN / COME-ON

NEWCOMER
If youve never seen this word before, you might be able to work out its meaning from
the two words that it contains: newand come. As you might expect, it means
someone who has recently arrived in a place, for example: She is a newcomer to
the company. The place in question doesnt need to be physical or geographical
either; you can be a newcomer to a particular activity or situation: Im a newcomer to
politics

COMEBACK
If you know what the verb to come back means , then youll probably be able to work
out that this noun means a vuelta of some kind. Its most commonly used in the field
of entertainment or sport when someone returns to the activity that they used to be
successful at: He made a comeback to the team after being injured for two years
The other meaning of a comeback is when you make a quick and usually witty
(ingenioso) response to a critical remark.

152

Ingls

NIVEL B2

COMEDOWN
Again, this word has two uses. First, it can be used when people have experienced a
loss of status or importance in their jobs or lives. For example: Playing for Oviedo was
a bit of a comedown for him after having played for Real Madrid.
The other meaning is to describe a feeling of disappointment or depression and in
particular after a drug ceases to produce an effect.

COME-ON
And finally, as we always like to show you the most curious uses of English, ...if
somebody gives you the come-on , youre lucky...or maybe not! IIt means that they
are insinundose

QUICK QUIZ:

1.Cmo se llamara una


vuelta a las tablas de un
esceario o a los plats
del cine/televisin?

2.Cmo llamamos a una


persona que acaba de
llegar a un sitio o a una
actividad?

a)come-on

a)a comedown
b)a comeback

3.Qu palabra significa


un bajnen ingls?

a)a newcomer

b)comedown

b)a comeback

GRAMMAR
HARDLY / SCARCELY AND NO SOONER

These three expressions can be used (often with a past perfect tense) to suggest that
one thing happened very soon after another. Note the sentence structure:

153

..hardlywhen/before..
..scarcely. when/before..
no sooner..than

Examples:

I had hardly/scarcely closed my eyes when the phone rang.

She was hardly/scarcely inside the house after the kids started screaming.

I had no sooner closed the door than somebody knocked.

We no sooner sat down in the train than I felt sick.

In a formal or literary style, inverted word order is possible.

Hardly had I closed my eyes when I began to imagine fantastic shapes.

No sooner had she agreed to marry him than she started to have doubts.

EXCLAMATIONS: STRUCTURES

Exclamations are often constructed with how and what or with so and such;
negative questions forms are also common.
1.Exclamations with how
These are often felt to be a little formal or old-fashioned
How + adjective
Strawberries! How nice!

How + adjective/adverb + subject + verb


How cold! (NOT: How it is cold!)
How beautifully you sing! (NOT: How you sing beautifully!)

154

Ingls

NIVEL B2

How + subject + verb


How youve grown!

2.Exclamations with what

What a/an (+adjective) + singular countable noun

What a rude man! (NOT: What rude man!)

What a nice dress! (NOT: What nice dress)

What a surprise!

What (+ adjective) + uncountable / plural noun

What beautiful weather! (NOT: What a beautiful weather!)

What lovely flowers!

What fools!

What + object + subject + verb (note word order)

What a beautiful smile your sister has! (NOT: has your sister!)

3.Exclamations with so and such

So + adjective

Youre so kind!

Such a/an (+adjective) + singular countable noun

Hes such a nice boy! (NOT: a such nice boy)

155

Such (+adjective) + uncountable / plural noun

They talk such rubbish! (NOT: ..such a rubbish)

Theyre such kind people (NOT: .so kind people)

4.Negative question forms

Isnt the weather nice!

Hasnt she grown!

Americans and some British speakers may use ordinary (non-negative) question forms
in exclamations.

Boy, am I hungry!

Wow, did she make a mistake!

Was I furious!

VOCABULARY
ADJECTIVES FOR AN INTERVIEW
Trabajador
Puntual
Diligente
Tenaz
Motivado
Extrovertido
Determinado
Fiable
Paciente
Organizado
De confianza

Hard-working
Punctual
Diligent
Tenacious
Motivated
Outgoing
Driven
Reliable
Patient
Organized
Trustworthy

USEFUL VERB: TO PROVE (DEMONSTRAR)

156

Ingls

NIVEL B2

EXERCISE 1:
The HR responsible is on a medical leave and asked you to be in charge of a job
interview. Its up to you to decide whether or not you want to hire a candidate. As you
want to make the right decision, we want to confirm it with your team mates. Continue
as shown in the example:

E.g. Mark carta de presentacin Before we decide whether were going to hire / to
employ this candidate, lets have another look at his cover letter

1.Julie preferencias laborales


2.Sam experiencia
3.John curriculum vitae
4.Jorge permiso de trabajo
5.Ana formacin
6.Helen antecedentes
7.Mike solicitud de empleo
8.Sue - referencias

EXERCISE 2:
Remember the useful verb weve seen before? If not, let us remind you that it was to
prove (demonstrar) .

Continue as shown in the example below:


-TRABAJADOR SACAR LAS NOTAS MS ALTAS EN LA UNIVERSIDAD
-I proved Im hard-working by getting the highest grades at university.

Puntual - llegar siempre temprano a todas las reuniones

Diligente nunca cometer errores con los informes

Tenaz triplicar los beneficios anuales de la empresa como director de ventas

Motivado ascender cuatro veces en un ao

157

Extrovertida aumentar el inters en productos y ferias de trabajo

Determinado trabajar hasta tarde por la noche hasta terminar los proyectos

Fiable terminar con xito cada tarea asignada por mi jefa

Paciente aumentar el nivel de ingls de mis alumnos en el colegio

Organizada coordinar a cien empleados en mi ltimo puesto de trabajo

158

Unit 3
B2

Ingls

NIVEL B2

B2 UNIT 3

AT / ON / IN TIME

At + clock time
In + part of the day
On + particular day
At + weekend, public holiday
In + long period

1.Clock times: at

I usually get up at six oclock.

Ill meet you at 4.15.

Phone me at lunch time.

At is usually left out in an informal style:

What time does your train leave?

2.Parts of the day: in


I work best in the morning.
We usually go out in the evening!
*Note the difference between in the night (mostly used to mean during one particular
night) and at night(during any night). Compare:

I had to get up in the night.

I often work at night.

*In an informal style, we usually use plurals (days, etc.) with no prepositions.
Would you rather work days or nights?

159

*We use on if we say which morning / afternoon etc. we are talking about, or if we
describe the morning / afternoon etc.

See you on Monday morning.

We met on a cold afternoon in early spring!

3.Days: on

Ill ring you on Tuesday!

My birthdays on March, 21st.

Theyre having a party on Christmas day!

*In an informal style, we sometimes leave out on

Im seeing her Sunday morning.

4.Public holidays and weekends: at


We use at to talk about the whole of a holidays at Christmas, New Year, Easter and
Thanksgiving.
-Were having the roof repaired at Easter.
-But we use on to talk about one day of the holiday.
-Come and see us on Christmas day!
-What are you doing on Easter Monday?

*British people say at the weekend, Americans say on.

5.Longer periods: in

-It happened in the week after Christmas.


-I was born in March.
-Our house was built in the 15th century!

160

Ingls

NIVEL B2

-Kent is beautiful in spring!


-He died in 2010.

6.Other uses of in
In can also be used to say how soon something will happen and to say how long
something takes to happen.

Ask me in three or four days!

I can run 200 meters in about 30 seconds.

The expression ins time is used to say how soon something will happen, not
how long something takes. Compare:

Ill see you again in a months time.

He wrote the book in a month. (NOT: ..in


a months time)

BEGIN VS. START


1.meaning: formality
Begin and start can both be used with the same meaning.

I began / stated teaching when I was 24 years old.

If Sheila doesnt come soon, lets begin / start without her.


We generally prefer begin when we are using a more formal style. Compare:

We will begin the meeting with a message from the President.

Damn! Its starting to rain!

2.cases where begin is not possible


Start(but not begin) is used to mean:
a)start a journey

I think we ought to start at six, while the roads are empty!

161

b)start working (for machines)

The car wont start.

c)make something start


How do you start the washing machine?

The Presidents wife, fired the gun to start the race.

EXERCISE 1:
1.I ......... my car to make sure it worked about ten minutes before I drove to work.
a)began
b)started
c)begin
d)start
2.My car very rarely ......... first time when the weather is really cold.
a)begins
b)beginning
c)starting
d)starts
3.We ......... off early on the first day of summer so that we could see the sun rise.
a)began
b)started
c)starting
d)beggining
4. I read the ......... of that book but I couldn't possibly read the whole story
a)starting
b)start
c)beggining
d)begin
5. I can't ......... to understand why anyone would want to be cruel to animals.
a)start
b)begin
c)starts
d)begins
6. He ......... off at me again simply because I had forgotten to lock the back door after I
came home.

162

Ingls

NIVEL B2

a)started
b)began
c)begun
d)starts
7. I won a lot of money by betting on that horse but it was simply a case of ......... luck.
a)starts
b)starters
c)beginners
d)beginnings
8. As far as I was concerned when the accident happened, it was the ......... of the end.
a)start
b)begin
c)starting
d)beginning
9. Who would like to ......... off the debate?
a)begin
b)start
c)begins
d)starting
10. I would greatly appreciate it if you didn't ......... up that old argument again.
a)start
b)begin
c)starts
d)begins

Reciprocal pronouns: each other and one another

We use the reciprocal pronouns each other and one another when two or more
people do the same thing. Traditionally, each other refers to two people and one

163

another refers to more than two people, but this distinction is disappearing in modern
English.

Peter and Mary helped one another.


= Peter helped Mary and Mary helped Peter.
We sent each other Christmas cards.
= We sent them a Christmas card and they sent us a Christmas card.
They didnt look at one another.
= He didn't look at her and she didn't look at him.

We also use the possessive forms each others and one anothers:
They helped to look after each others children.
We often stayed in one anothers houses.
NOTE: We do not use reciprocal pronouns as the subject of a clause.

EXERCISE:
Complete the sentences with 'each other' or 'one another' so that they mean the
same as the first sentence. You should use the distinction that was traditionally used.

1.She looked at them and they looked at her.


They looked at ...............

2. Paula sent Paul text messages and Paul sent her back text messages.
They sent ............... text messages.

3. We gave them a present and they gave us a present.


We gave ............... presents.

4. I didn't speak to you, Jack, and you didn't speak to me.


We didn't speak to ...............

5. He wore his brother's clothes and his brother wore his clothes.

164

Ingls

NIVEL B2

They wore ...............'s clothes.

6. My brother and I drove you mad and you drove us mad.


We drove ............... mad.

VOCABULARY

DEADLINES

Your projects deadline is getting closer and closer. You are on time (up to date) on
some of the aspects but you are falling behind on some others. Your boss wants you
to catch up on all of themIN ENGLISH!
So, youd better start learning the vocabulary below:

Fecha tope

Deadline

Cumplir con fecha tope

Meet a deadline

No cumplir una fecha

Miss a deadline

Ponerse a da

Catch up

Quedarse atrs

Fall behind

Mantener el ritmo

Keep up

Estar al da

Be up to date

Atrasado

Behind schedule

En fecha

On schedule

Antes de lo previsto

Ahead of schedule

NOTE: ON is the preposition you need for these verbs: to fall behind on, to catch up
on, etc.

165

EXERCISE
You are the project manager of your company (Eres el director de proyectos de tu
empresa). One of your responsibilities is to keep your boss up to date every Monday
morning. As your boss is English all the meetings are held in English. One of the
employees has just given you the report, but as he is Spanish, everything comes in
Spanish, of course, and you need to translate it on the spot (en el acto). Dont get
nervous, you now know all the vocabulary you need!
The first one has been done for you:

Were not going to meet the deadline / Were going to miss the deadline on Project C.
Were catching up on Project A.
Were ahead of schedule on Project B.

1 No vamos a cumplir la fecha tope en el Proyecto C. Nos estamos


poniendo al da en el Proyecto A. Vamos antes de lo previsto en el Proyecto B.
2
Proyecto
3

Estamos en fecha en el proyecto B. Nos estamos quedando atrs en el


A. No estamos al da en el Proyecto C.
Estamos preocupados por la fecha tope del Proyecto C.

Tenemos que mantener el ritmo en el Proyecto B. Vamos atrasados con el Proyecto


A.
4
El equipo no est al da con el Proyecto A. No hemos cumplido la fecha
tope del Proyecto B. Estamos en fecha con el Proyecto C.
5

Vamos antes de lo previsto con el Proyecto B.

No podemos mantener el ritmo en el proyecto A.


Tenemos que ponernos al da en el Proyecto C.

166

Ingls

NIVEL B2

POLITENESS

Politeness 1: asking questions

1.Requests: Could you.?

167

We usually ask people to do things for us asking yes/no questions. (This suggests that
the hearer can choose whether to agree or not)

Could you tell me the time please? (Much more polite than: Please tell me the
time!)

Some other typical structures used in requests:

Could you possibly tell me the way to the station? (very polite)

Would you mind switching on the TV?

Would you like to help me for a few minutes?

You couldnt lend me some money, could you? (informal)

Indirect yes/no questions are also used in polite requests:

I wonder if you could (possibly) help me for a few minutes.

2.Other structures: telling people to do things


If we use other structures (for example imperatives, should, had better), we are not
asking people to do things, but telling or advising them to do things. These structures
can therefore seem rude if we use them in requests. , especially in conversations with
strangers or people we do not know well. Please makes an order or a request a bit
more polite, but does not turn it into a request. The following structures can be used
perfectly correctly to give orders, instructions or advice, but they are not polite ways of
asking people to do things.

Please help me for a few minutes.

Help me, would you?

Carry this for me, please.

You ought to tell me your plans.

You should shut the door.

You had better help me.

3.Shops, restaurants, etc


Requests in shops, restaurants, etc. are usually more direct and are not always
expressed as questions.

168

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Typical expressions:

Can I have one of those, please?

Could I have a look at the red ones, please?

Id like to see the wine list, please.

I would prefer a small one.

Give me.please and I want..please are not normally considered polite.


But in places where only a few kinds of things are being sold and not much needs to be
said, it is enough just to say what is wanted and add please.

The Times, please!

Black coffee, please!

Two cheeseburgers, please!

Return to Lancaster, please!

4.Negative questions
Negative questions are not used in polite requests.
Could you give me a light? (NOT: Couldnt you give me a light? this sounds like a
complaint)

But negative statements with question tags are used in informal requests.

You couldnt give me a light, could you?

I dont suppose you could give me a light, could you? (very polite)

5.Expressions of opinion
Expressions of opinion can be made less direct by turning them into questions.
Compare:

169

It would be better to paint it green. (direct expression of opinion)

Wouldnt it be better to paint it green? (less direct: negative question asking for
agreement)

Would it be better to paint it green? (open question very direct)

GRAMMAR
One and ones
We use one (singular) and ones (plural) to avoid unnecessary repetition.

See those two girls? Helen is the tall one and Jane is the short one.
Which is your car, the red one or the blue one?
My trousers are torn. I need some new ones.
See those two girls. Helen is the one on the left.
Lets look at the photographs. The ones you took in Paris.

We often use them after Which ... in questions:

You can borrow a book. Which one do you want?


There are lots of books here. Which ones are yours?

EXERCISE:
Complete the sentences by typing 'one' or 'ones' into the gaps.
1.How old are my children? The younger is four and the older .is seven.
2.The new mobiles are much lighter than the old
3.I dont mind what kind of car it is, I just want..that gets me there.
4.Which do you prefer, this.or that .?
5.I need some new glasses. The..I have at the moment are broken.
6.I hope this holiday will be to remember.

170

Ingls

NIVEL B2

IT AND THERE

English clauses always have a subject:


His father has just retired. Was a teacher. > He was a teacher.
Im waiting for my wife. Is late. > She is late.
Look at the time! Is half past two.> Its half past two.
except for the imperative (see more)
Go away.
Play it again please.
If we have no other subject we use there or it.
there
We use there as a dummy subject with part of the verb be followed by a noun
phrase. (see Clauses, sentences and phrases):
to introduce a new topic:
There is a meeting this evening. It will start at seven.
There has been an accident. I hope no one is hurt.
with numbers or quantities:
There was a lot of rain last night.
There must have been more than five hundred in the audience.
to say where something is:
There used to be a playground at the end of the street.
There are fairies at the bottom of the garden.
I wonder if there will be anyone at home.
with an indefinite pronoun or expressions of quantity and the to-infinitive:
There is nothing to do in the village.
There was plenty to read in the apartment
There was nothing to watch on television.
There is a lot of work to do
If we want to show the subject of the to-infinitive we use for:
There is nothing for the children to do in the village.
There was plenty for us to read in the apartment
There was nothing for them to watch on television.
There is a lot of work for you to do.

171

with an indefinite pronoun or expressions of quantity and an -ing verb:


There is someone waiting to see you.
There were a lot of people shouting and waving.
We use a singular verb if the noun phrase is singular:
There is a meeting this evening. It will start at seven.
There was a lot of rain last night.
There is someone waiting to see you.
We use a plural verb if the noun phrase is plural:
There are more than twenty people waiting to see you.
There were some biscuits in the cupboard.
There were a lot of people shouting and waving.

It
We use it to talk about:
times and dates:
Its nearly one oclock.
Its my birthday.
weather:
Its raining.
Its a lovely day.
It was getting cold.
to give an opinion about a place:
Its very cold in here.
It will be nice when we get home.
Its very comfortable in my new apartment.
to give an opinion followed by to-infinitive:
Its nice to meet you.
It will be great to go on holiday.
It was interesting to meet your brother at last.
to give an opinion followed by an -ing verb:
Its great living in Spain.
Its awful driving in this heavy traffic.
It can be hard work looking after young children.

172

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Using "it" to talk about people


We use it to talk about ourselves:
on the telephone:
Hello. Its George.
when people cannot see us:
[Mary knocks on door] Its me. Its Mary.
We use it to talk about other people:
when we point them out for the first time:
Look. Its Sir Paul McCartney.
Whos that? I think its Johns brother.
when we cannot see them and we ask them for their name:
[telephone rings, we pick it up] Hello. Who is it?
[someone knocks on door. We say:] Who is it?

EXERCISE 1
Choose the correct subject, 'it' or 'there', to complete each sentence.
1. s a party at Nicks tonight. Do you want to go?
2. s half past ten. We should go home soon.
3.If youre hungry, _____s some lasagne in the fridge
4. Dont forget, _____s your mums birthday tomorrow.
5.. s very warm in here. Can we open a window?
6.OK, lets start the meeting. _____s a lot to talk about!
7. The last time we had a holiday, _____ rained all the time.
8. isnt easy being a nurse.
9. s red wine or white. Which would you prefer?
10. s stupid to drink and drive.

173

VOCABULARY

SOCIAL LANGUAGE

Every language has fixed expressions which are used on particular social occasions
for example when people meet, leave each other, go on a journey, sit down to meals
and so on. Here are some of the most important English expressions of this kind.

1.Introductions
Common ways of introducing strangers to each other are:

John, do you know Helen? Helen, this is my friend John!

Sally, I dont think youve met Elaine.

I dont think you two know each other, do you?

Can / May I introduce you to John Willis? (more formal)

*People who are introduced often shake hands. *

2.Greetings
When meeting people (formal):

(Good) morning / afternoon / evening.

When meting people (informal)

Hello / Hi (very informal)

When leaving people:

Good bye!

174

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Bye! (informal)

Bye-bye! (often used to and by children)

Cheers! (informal British only)

Take care! (informal)

See you!

It was nice to meet you / meeting you!

3.Asking about health, etc


When we meet people we know, we often ask politely about their health or their
general situation

How are you?

How are things?

How is it going?

Formal answers:

Very well, thank you! And you?

Informal answers:

Fine / Great thanks!

All right!

Not too bad!

So-so!

It could be worse!

Musnt grumble!

4.Special greetings
Greeting for special occasions are:

Happy birthday!

Happy New Year / Happy Easter!

Merry Christmas!

175

Happy anniversary!

Congratulations on your exam results / new job. Etc (NOT: Congratulation


on..)

5.Small talk
British people often begin polite conversations by talking about the weather.

Nice day, isnt it? - Lovely!

6.Getting peoples attention


Excuse me! Is commonly used to attract somebodys attention, or to call o waiter in a
restaurant!

7.Apologies
British people Excuse me before interrupting or disturbing somebody, and sorry
after doing so? Compare:
Excuse me. Could I get past? Oh, sorry, did I step on your foot?

I beg your pardon I didnt realise this was your seat!

8.Drinking
When people begin drinking alcoholic drinks socially, they often raise their glasses and
say something. Common expressions are Cheers! (BrE) and Your health . When
you drink to celebrate an occasion (such as a birthday, a wedding, or a promotion), we
often say: Heres to!

Heres to Betty!

Heres to the new job!

Heres to the happy couple!

9. Good wishes
Typical expressions are Give my best wishes / regards / greetings / love to X.,
Remember me to X, Say hello to X for me. When the wishes are passed on,
common expressions are: X sends his / her best wishes / regards, X says hello!

176

Ingls

NIVEL B2

10.Sympathy
Common formulas in letters of sympathy (for example someones death) are:
I was very / terribly / extremely sorry to hear about.. and Please accept my
deepest sympathy

11.Sleep
When someone goes to bed, people often say Sleep well. In the morning, we may
ask Did you sleep well? or How did you sleep?

177

Organising your social life

Hi Nadia,
How was your weekend? My old school friend Emma came on a flying visit1, which
was fun. We had a giris' night out on Saturday with a couple of other friends. We
went out for a meal to a local restaurant. So much for me sticking to my diet!
Emma was here for a surprise party for her parents on Sunday. She and her brother
wanted to spring a surprise on2 them for their 30th wedding3 anniversary - they
thought 30 years together definitely called for a celebration - so they decided to
throw a party for them. They had it at a hotel near their house and invited all their
parents' oid friends. The vicar who'd married them even put in an appearance4! They
asked me along too and it was lovely, a really special occasion with a fun
atmosphere. i was just sorry I couldn't spend much quality time with Emma, but she
promised the next time she comes it won't be7 such a whirlwind visit. Anyway, what
about you? Is life its usual busy social whirl ? Do you still go clubbing every
weekend? Claire

Useful vocabulary:
1.a visit that doesn't last long
2.

to surprise

meant that a celebration was appropriate

178

Ingls

NIVEL B2

carne just for a short time

time where people can give their complete attention to each other

brief and very busy visit

non-stop set of social events

Formal entertaining
Penniston International Youth Festival
Mark Janowski (Conimittee Chair)
To: Councillor D. M. Patel - County Hall, Swithick

Dear Councillor Patel,


First let me thank the County Council, on behalf of the Festival Organising
Committee, for playing host to I the welcome reception for our international
colleagues and for making us so welcome at County Hall last week. We were
also grateful that you were able to find time to pay us a visit at our weekly
planning meeting, we were delighted to hear that you intend to join the
festivities at the opening ceremony of the festival.
We would further like to invite you and your spouse to attend a formal function,
to be held at the Castle Hotel, Penniston on Friday 27 July, from 7.30pm to
10.30pm, to mark the closing of the festival.
Yours sincerely,

Useful vocabulary:
1.provide the facilities for

EXERCISES:

1.Choose the correct collocation.


1 My parents have always gave I made I had my friends feel very
welcome.
2 My aunt carne on a quality I whirling I flying visit last week.
3 It's quite difficult to hold on I keep with I stick to a diet when you're
eating out with friends.

179

4 You've passed your exam! Well, that takes I gives I calls for a
celebration!
5 We hope you will give I find I spend time to visit our exhibition of
students' artwork.
6 It's important to try to spend plenty of welcome I convivial I quality
time with your family.
7 My sister's life is a constant special / active I social whirl.
8 I recommend you pay / spend / go a visit to the folk museum while you're
in Dekksu.
9 Athens threw I gave / played host to the first modern Olympic Games in
1896.

SPEAKING:
1. Which do you prefer:

when you're too tired to cook, ordering a takeaway or eating out?

plain food or rich food?

having a family gathering or having a barbecue with friends?

giving a dinner party or going out for a meal?

paying your friends a visit or playing host to friends at your own


home?

a whirlwind visit from a friend, or a relative who stays for a week?

GRAMMAR
Common problems with count/uncount nouns

1: Uncount nouns used as count nouns


Although substances are usually uncount nouns...
Would you like some cheese?
Coffee keeps me awake at night.
Wine makes me sleep.
... they can be also used as count nouns:

180

Ingls

NIVEL B2

Id like a coffee please.

= Id like a [cup of] coffee.

May I have a white wine.

= May I have a [glass of] white wine.

They sell a lot of coffees.

= They sell a lot of [different kinds of] coffee.

I prefer white wines to red.

= I prefer [different kinds of] white wine to red.

They had over twenty cheeses on


sale.

This is an excellent soft cheese.

= This [kind of] soft cheese is excellent.

They had over twenty [types of] cheese on


sale.

2: Some nouns have both a count and an uncount form:


We should always have hope.
George had hopes of promotion.
Travel is a great teacher.
Where did you go on your travels?

3: Nouns with two meanings


Some nouns have two meanings, one count and the other non count:
His life was in danger.
There is a serious danger of fire.
Linguistics is the study of language.
Is English a difficult language?
Its made of paper.
The Times is an excellent paper.
Other words like this are:
business

death

industry

marriage

power

tax

time

victory

use

work

181

property

4: Uncount nouns that end in -s


Some uncount nouns end in -s so they look like plurals even though they are singular
nouns.
These nouns generally refer to:
Subjects of study:

mathematics, physics, economics, etc.

Activities:

gymnastics, athletics, etc.

Games:

cards, darts, billiards, etc.

Diseases:

mumps, measles, rabies, etc.

Economics is a very difficult subject.


Billiards is easier than pool or snooker.

5: Group nouns
Some nouns, like army, refer to groups of people, animals or things, and we can use
them either as singular nouns or as plural nouns.
army

audience

committee

company

crew

enemy

family

flock

gang

government

group

herd

media

public

regiment

staff

team

We can use these group nouns either as singular nouns or as plural nouns:

My family is very dear to me.


I have a large family. They are very dear to me. (= The members of my
family)
The government is very unpopular.
The government are always changing their minds.

Sometimes we think of the group as a single thing:

The audience always enjoys the show.


The group consists of two men and three women.

Sometimes we think of the group as several individuals;

The audience clapped their hands.


The largest group are the boys.

182

Ingls

NIVEL B2

The names of many organisations and teams are also group nouns, but they are
usually plural in spoken English:

Barcelona are winning 2-0.


The United Oil Company are putting prices up by 12%.

6: Two-part nouns
A few plural nouns, like binoculars, refer to things that have two parts.
glasses

jeans

knickers

pincers

pants

pliers

pyjamas

scissors

shorts

spectacles

tights

trainers

trousers

tweezers

These binoculars were very expensive


Those trousers are too long.
To make it clear we are talking about one of these items, we use a pair of
I need a new pair of spectacles.
Ive bought a pair of blue jeans.
If we want to talk about more than one, we use pairs of :
Weve got three pairs of scissors, but they are all blunt.
I always carry two pairs of binoculars.

EXERCISE 1
Choose the correct sentence.
1.
a)Tea is grown in Sri Lanka.
b)A tea is grown in Sri Lanka.

2.
a)Do you eat a cheese before or after your meal?
b)Do you eat cheese before or after your meal?

183

3.
a)It was difficult marriage.
b)It was a difficult marriage.

4.
a)Thats very interesting property. How much is it?
b)Thats a very interesting property. How much is it?

5.
a)Its not easy to run a business and raise a family.
b)Its not easy to run business and raise a family!

6.
a)Physics are not my best subject.
b)Physics is not my best subject.

7.
a)Can you lend me some scissors?
b)Can you lend me a scissors?

8.
a)I need to buy a new trousers.
b)I need to buy some new trousers.

184

Ingls

NIVEL B2

VOCABULARY
Situational language: fixed expressions

The expressions that used in typical situations are often idiomatic in the same sense.

Some examples:

Could you check the oil? (More natural than Could you inspect the oil?
orCould you see how much oil there is in the engine)

Is it a direct flight or do I have to change? (More natural than Does the


plane go straight there or do I have to get another one?)

Sorry I kept you waiting! (More natural than Sorry I made you wait)

Could I book a table for three for eight oclock. (More natural than Could
you keep me a table for three people for eight oclock?)

Yummi..those cookies look delicious! Please, help yourself! (Srvete!)

Other fixed expressions are used as parts of sentences useful introductions,


conclusions or frames for the things that people want to say:

Let me know when/where/what/how

The best thing would be to.

The point is

I wouldnt be surprised if

Here are some more expressions and some idioms as well:

left, right and center (por un tubo)

To spoon feed someone - To provide (another) with knowledge or information


in an oversimplified way. (Should a teacher spoon feed his/her students?)

no-brainer (Something so simple or easy as to require no thought) Studying


English is a no-brainer for me.

Dont get your hopes up ! (No te hagas ilusiones!)

A horse of a different colour (harina de otro costal)

Come off it! (Venga ya!)

185

186