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EVOLUTION OF SOLAR PV NICHE IN NIGERIA

Candidate No: 120078


Submitted on: 1 September 2014

Candidate No: 120078

SUMMARY
Use of climate-related technologies, such as solar photovoltaic (PV) is beneficial to climate change
mitigation, and also to, poverty alleviation. Based on this, this study draws from the Strategic
Niche Management framework, to examine and assess the dominant expectations driving the use
of solar PV in Nigeria, in order to determine why there is slow growth in the use of the technology
in the country. Three main expectations targeted at energy security, market development and,
climate change mitigation and sustainable development, were identified. The study also finds
that, varying levels of deficiency in collectivity, specificity, robustness and quality of the three
expectations, have contributed to slow growth in use of solar PV in Nigeria.

Candidate No: 120078

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

CHAPTER TWO

12

Theoretical Framework: Strategic Niche Management (SNM)

12

CHAPTER THREE

16

Methodology

16

3.1. Review of Literature

16

3.2. Interviews

16

3.3. Operationalization of Strategic Niche Management Theory

17

CHAPTER FOUR

19

Results: Historical Account of Use of Solar PV in Nigeria

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4.1. Inauguration of Solar Energy Society of Nigeria

19

4.2. United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy and ECOWAS
Declaration

20

4.3. Establishment of Energy Research Centres and Energy Commission of Nigeria

21

4.4. Activities of ECN, Federal Government Agencies and State Governments

22

4.4.1. Activities of State Governments

23

4.5. Commercial Activities

24

4.6. Climate Change and Energy Sector Reform

26

CHAPTER FIVE

28

Analysis and Discussion

28

5.1. Mapping Expectation Dynamics

28

5.2. Profile of Expectations

30

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5.3. Assessing Expectations 1, 2 and 3

34

CHAPTER SIX

39

Conclusion

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APPENDICES

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Appendix 1 - Sequence of events in use of solar PV in Nigeria and implemented projects

41

Appendix 2 - Interview questions

45

Appendix 3 - List of some solar PV projects implemented by ECN

46

Appendix 4 - Pictures of solar PV applications in Nigeria

47

Appendix 5 - List of Lagos-based solar PV companies listed by Posharp

50

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Candidate No: 120078

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ADP

Agricultural Development Programme

CTCN

Climate Technology Centre and Network

CTF

Clean Technology Fund

DFFRI

Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure

DG

Director General

ECN

Energy Commission of Nigeria

ECOWAS

Economic Commission of West African States

ERC

Energy Research Centre

FMWRRD

Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development

GHG

Greenhouse gas

ICEEED

International Centre for Energy, Environment and Development

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

kWp

Kilowatt peak

kVA

Kilo Volt Amperes

Mjm-2/day

Megajoule per square metre and per day

NASENI

National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure

NCERD

National Centre for Energy Research and Development

NEAZDP

North East Arid Zone Development Programme

NEAZDP

North East Arid Zone Development Programme

NGO

Non-governmental organisation

NITEL

Nigerian Telecommunications Limited

PRODA

Project Development Institute

R&D

Research and development

REMP

Renewable Energy Master Plan

REP

Renewable Energy Programme

SERC

Sokoto Energy Research Centre

Candidate No: 120078

SESN

Solar Energy Society of Nigeria

SNM

Strategic Niche Management

UN

United Nations

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

USAID

United States Agency for International Development

Candidate No: 120078

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES


Figure 1: Multiple Level Perspective

13

Figure 2: Perspective of expectations for analysis of the core elements of niche development
process

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Figure 3: Map of Nigeria showing the thirty six states and six geo-political regions

20

Table 1: Distribution of solar PV companies across Nigeria as at 1998

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Table 2: Other business ventures of Lagos-based solar PV companies

29

Table 3: Profile of Expectations

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Candidate No: 120078

PREFACE
My interest in researching on use of solar PV in Nigeria, is stemmed from the possibility of
addressing climate change, and at the same time meeting energy demands sustainably in
developing countries, through the use of renewable energy technologies. Based on review of
existing literature and contribution of two interviewees, the study presents a sequential portrayal
of the events, processes and projects related to promotion and use of solar PV in Nigeria. The
findings of the study have been analysed using the Strategic Niche Management framework. The
framework was applied by mapping, profiling and assessing dominant expectations held by actornetworks involved in driving the use of solar PV within the country. Based on the analysis, the
study finds that limitations in the collectivity, specificity, robustness and quality of the
expectations have contributed to slow growth in use of solar PV in Nigeria
I am indebted to my supervisor, Rob Byrne, for helping me form specific, robust and high quality
expectations for my dissertation. These have materialised as my research questions, and they
directed my energy and resources during the course of the study. Using the words of your
colleague, you are a heroic supervisor.
I am grateful to my two interviewees who did not deem it a futile exercise to respond to my
questions, but found time out of their very busy schedule, to promptly respond to my requests
amidst disturbing developments in our much loved country of Nigeria.
To my amazing husband, Babatope, I will forever cherish your love, uncanny devotion and untold
generosity. Above all, to God Almighty, for leading me to study here at University of Sussex, I say,
thank you.
It is important to mention that although careful attention has been given to the process of
identifying sources of information, and collecting relevant reports, for the purpose of relaying the
historical account of the use of solar PV in Nigeria; the results presented in this study does not
necessarily represent an exhaustive sequence of all the events and processes that have transpired
in introducing and promoting solar PV in Nigeria.

Candidate No: 120078

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
According to a 2011 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), on
renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation, use of renewable energies can play a
major role in climate change mitigation, due to their low greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting
property. Venema and Ciss (2004) also highlight the possible contribution of renewable energies
to climate change adaptation through improvement of the adaptive capacity of communities.
Based on this potential, many regional and national policy documents on combating climate
change have given special attention to use of renewable energies. For example, the 2007 African
Union Declaration on Climate Change and Development in Africa highlights the Unions
commitment to strengthening research and development (R&D) in use of renewable energy, for
enhancing the continents resilience and ability to adapt to climate change (AU, 2007). Also, at
the national level, many countries from diverse continents include use of renewable energies in
their climate change mitigation plans (UNFCCC, 2013).
In Africa, the major renewable energies that are abundant across the continent are bioenergy,
wind energy and solar energy (Karekezi, 2002; Bugaje, 2006), and in a bid to harness these
resources, various technologies such as clean cookstoves, biodigesters, wind turbines and solar
photovoltaic (PV) have been developed or disseminated in African countries (Karekezi and Ranja,
1998; Kammen and Kirubi, 2008). According to Yadoo and Cruickshank (2012), renewable energy
technologies do not only hold the potential of addressing climate change, but can also contribute
to poverty alleviation. Considering that sub-Sahara Africa represents the poorest region in the
world (Suberu et al., 2013), use of renewable energy technologies therefore stands to be of
immense benefit to the sub-region.
Nigeria is located in sub-Sahara Africa and it is Africas most populous nation (Bugaje, 2006). Its
population growth rate is 2.8% per annum and it currently has a population of about 170million
people (Ohunakin, 2010; World Bank, 2012). However, 80% of this population live on less than
two dollars a day (World Bank, 2014). This peculiarity, puts Nigeria in a precarious position since
poor countries are said to be more vulnerable to climate change (Venema and Ciss, 2004), and a
countrys high population can increase its level of vulnerability to environmental hazards (Cutter
et al., 2003). The peculiarity also signals the need to address both climate change and poverty
challenges in the country. Based on the ability of renewable energy technologies to contribute to

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addressing climate change challenges and poverty alleviation, this study is focused on use of solar
PV, a renewable energy technology, in Nigeria.
Nigeria is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
and the Kyoto Protocol (Special Climate Change Unit, 2012a). The country has also submitted its
first and second national communication report to the UNFCCC (Federal Republic of Nigeria,
2003a; UNFCCC, 2014a). In both documents, use of solar PV was identified as a measure that will
be explored by the country in reducing its GHG emissions. In addition, due to the limited access to
electricity in the country with only 40% national grid penetration (Oyedepo, 2014), use of solar PV
has been identified as a suitable technology for improving access to electricity, and in turn,
contributing to poverty alleviation (Bugaje, 2006; Kaygusuz, 2012; Oyedepo, 2012).
Solar PV converts solar energy to electricity (Green, 2006). The technology was initially applied in
space satellite energy systems, but the oil crises of 1973 and 1979 facilitated its terrestrial
application for electricity generation (Green, 2004; Peters et al., 2012). In Nigeria, solar PV was
first used in the 1980s (ICEEED, 2006; Ilenikhena and Ezemonye, 2010), for providing electricity in
villages. Thereafter, many solar PV projects have been implemented in different parts of the
country (Ikuponisi, 2004; Ilenikhena and Ezemonye, 2010; Oyedepo, 2014).
Many literatures have attested to Nigerias geographical advantage in use of solar PV (Adurodija
et al., 1998; Sambo 2010; Ohunakin et al., 2014). The countrys sunshine hours of 4 to 7.5hrs/day
(Sambo, 2010), and average daily solar radiation ranging from 14.4 to 21.6MJm-2/day have been
noted to have the capacity to sufficiently meet domestic electricity demands (Mohammed et al.,
2013). Also, the Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN), the apex government organ for formulation
and monitoring of energy policies has reiterated in many of its publications, the capability of solar
PV technology to meet the nations electricity demands (Sambo, 2005, 2010; Bala, 2012).
However, despite the acknowledged potentials of the technology and several efforts made at
promoting it, solar PV accounts for a negligible fraction of the countrys electricity mix (IEA, 2011).
This study investigates the processes and events involving the use of solar PV in Nigeria, with a
view to answering the research question - why is there slow growth in the use of solar PV in
Nigeria? By applying the Strategic Niche Management (SNM) theory, the study identifies three
dominant but divergent expectations driving the use of solar PV in Nigeria. It also argues that
there is a need for the convergence and re-formation of these expectations, in order to effectively
coordinate the promotion of solar PV technology in Nigeria, and maximize the potential of the
technology.

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The next chapter gives an overview of the theoretical framework used for this study i.e. the
Strategic Niche Management theory. The methodology employed for the study is described in
chapter three. Chapter four presents the results from investigating the historical account of use of
solar PV in Nigeria. These results are analyzed in chapter five by applying the SNM theory. The
final chapter summarises the findings from the analysis, gives recommendations on how Nigeria
can experience growth in use of solar PV technology and concludes the dissertation.

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CHAPTER TWO
Theoretical Framework: Strategic Niche Management (SNM)
SNM is a framework designed to facilitate the introduction and diffusion of radically new
sustainable technologies through implementation of societal experiments (Van Eijck and Romijn,
2008; Canils and Romijn, 2008a). Experiments in this context can be defined as initiatives that
embody a highly novel socio-technical configuration likely to lead to substantial sustainability
gains (Berkhout et al., 2010, cited in Smith and Raven, 2012: 1028). According to the SNM theory,
the activities involved in introducing the new technology should be carried out within a protective
space, so as to shield the new technologies from real-world selection pressures (Byrne, 2011: 11).
This protective space is referred to as a niche (Schot and Geels, 2008; Canils and Romijn, 2008a;
Byrne, 2011).
SNM adopts a multi-level perspective to socio-technical transitions as depicted in Figure 1. The
niche is situated below the regime (i.e. the normal way of doing things) which comprises
common choice of technologies, infrastructure, regulations and institutions (Van Eijck and Romijn,
2008). Also, both the niche and the regime are situated beneath a landscape characterized by
material and non-material social factors that mostly change very slowly over time (Geels, 2002),
such as demographics, lifestyles and the economic system (Van Eijck and Romijn, 2008).
The objective of SNM is to facilitate societal embedding of the new sustainable technology, and
bring about a shift in the socio-technical regime (Schot and Geels, 2008; Byrne, 2011). Byrne
(2011) highlights the relevance of development and diffusion of institutions to structuring local
practices, and facilitating societal embedding. Institutions in this regard encompass legal
frameworks, technical regulations and cultural norms associated with use of the technology. He
also notes that institutionalisation i.e. embedding of the institutions can be achieved through
methods such as formal training and informal habituation1.

informal habituation implies the psychological mechanism by which individuals acquire dispositions to
engage in previously adopted or acquired (rule-like) behaviour (Hodgson 2006: 18)

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Figure 1: Multiple Level Perspective.


Source: Geels (2002: 1261)

SNM recognizes that the new technology being introduced may be pitched against dominating
and possibly entrenched existing systems (Raven et al., 2010; Witkamp et al., 2011), and as such
require backing of appropriate actors, and conscientious and strategically envisioned processes.
As a result, SNM proposes three major processes for ensuring successful niche development (Schot
and Geels, 2008; Luo et al., 2013). These processes are as follows:
I.

Establishment of expectations: Expectations serve as compass for directing the efforts


and resources being committed to the niche development process. They also act as
central themes for actors to rally round and fuel their commitment (Hunt and De
Laurentis, 2014).

II.

Building of social networks: This helps to facilitate involvement of actors, and ensure
commitment and provision of resources, and measures such as public subsidies and R&D
budgets, tax exemptions and reduction of import duties, (Van der Laak et al., 2007; Byrne,
2011) which may be required for the niche development process.

III.

Learning process: The learning process in SNM is concerned with deriving lessons from
the societal experiments (Van der Laak et al., 2007). These lessons are generated from
interaction with the technology and its related processes, and they contribute to further
development of the technology (Canils and Romijn, 2008a). Lessons related to technical
functionality of the technology are referred to as first-order learning (Byrne, 2011), and
lessons that are related to the societal context in which the technology will be used are
referred to as second-order learning. SNM notes that while first-order learning is essential
for enhancing efficiency of the technology, and creating the appropriate environment for

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its functionality (Hoogma et al., 2002), it is second-order learning that ensures societal
embedding of the technology and its successful diffusion (Van der Laak et al., 2007; Byrne,
2011).
Due to the specification of the length of this dissertation, use of the SNM theory will be focused on
the key element in the first stage of a niche development process i.e. expectations. Expectations
can be said to be the background for the functions of the other major elements of the niche
development process (i.e. actor-networks and experiments). This is because they are meant to
serve as the underlying reason for involvement of actor-networks and implementation of
experiments. In addition, they provide directions for functioning of these two other elements. This
uniqueness has informed the decision to analyse the results from investigating the historical
account of use of solar PV in Nigeria from the perspective of expectations.
According to SNM scholars, and as highlighted by Berkout (2006), Schot and Geels (2008) and
Schilpzand et al. (2011), in order for expectations to lead to successful niche development, they
should be collective, robust, specific and of high-quality. These attributes are further discussed
below.
Collectivity: SNM scholars note that expectations can be held individually i.e. by a person or an
organisation, or collectively i.e. held and shared by a group of actors. They also cite articulation as
an important process in formation of collective expectations (Berkhout, 2006; Truffer et al., 2008;
Coenen et al., 2010).
Collective expectations have also been acknowledged by Berkhout (2006: 301) to be of more
relevance to niche development process because individual expectations are not likely to be
socially significant, even [when] held by a powerful social actor. Although Truffer et al. (2008)
also acknowledge that the socially-shared expectations are crucial to the evolution of new sociotechnical configurations, they allow some leeway for entrepreneurs, and note that submission to
social conformity can destroy the entrepreneurs very basis of innovation process. However, with
reference to several case studies on development and introduction of sustainable technologies, a
prominent observation is the involvement of more than one actor adopting a singular or set of
collective expectation(s) (Van der Laak et al., 2007; Eijck and Romijn, 2008; Thakore et al., 2013).
This observation may imply that there is a rare occurrence of an individual solely championing
development and introduction of a new sustainable technology. As a result, the statement
regarding the conditional necessity of collective expectations in the study by Truffer et al. (2008:

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1362) which is quoted below, might read better opening with a more definitive when, rather
than the conditional if.
If however, the relevant innovation processes cannot be controlled by an individual actor
alone, then collective expectations may become an important source of coordination and
legitimization.
Specificity: According to Temmes et al. (2013), expectations have been found to become
increasingly specific in successful niches. Based on Hegger et al. (2007), organised platforms help
to foster social discourse among actor-networks, and help in moulding expectations into a specific
form that fits certain time and space-bounded reality.
Robustness: This refers to the number of actors that share a particular expectation (Schot and
Geels, 2008). A higher number of actors is a likely implication of increased access to funds and
other material resources and support, and enhanced capability to incorporate other actors who
can be beneficial to the niche development process.
Quality: Expectations that are informed by existing experiments are noted to be of higher quality
than others that give no credence to existing experiments (Schot and Geels, 2008). Expectations
are not intended to remain static and can be more productive when they undergo re-formation
i.e. change, as a result of the learning process from experimentation (Geels and Raven, 2006).
Byrne, 2011 explains that second-order learning can lead to progressive changes in expectations
and refinement of the activities of the actor-networks, so that their efforts can be channelled in
the appropriate direction that is suitable to their specific context.

With respect to these recommendations, the above stated attributes are used to assess the
expectations that have been driving the use of solar PV in Nigeria. The next chapter elaborates
further on how the SNM theory is operationalized for the purpose of this study.

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CHAPTER THREE
Methodology
The aim of this study is to examine why there has been a slow growth in use of solar PV in Nigeria
since the implementation of the earliest recorded solar PV project in the 1980s. To achieve this,
the study will make use of the SNM theoretical framework to analyse historical account of
promotion and use of solar PV within the country. The overarching research question and the sub
questions are stated below.
Research Question:
Why is there slow grow growth in the use of solar PV in Nigeria?
Research Sub-questions:
1. What are the expectation dynamics in the use of solar PV in Nigeria?
2. Which actor-networks are aligned with these expectations?
3. What are the experiments that have been planned and/or implemented by the actornetworks, and how have expectations informed the choice of experiments?
The framing of the sub-questions is based on application of the SNM theory from the perspective
of expectations. The questions are focused on exploring the relationships between expectations
and the other two core elements of the niche development process namely actor-networks and
experiments.

3.1. Review of Literature


In order to address the research question, information on use of solar PV in Nigeria was gathered
from varying sources including peer-reviewed journal articles, news reports, government policy
documents, commissioned reports of public and civil society organizations, and the internet. Upon
gathering the information, a progression of events reflecting relevant actors and their specific
actions was delineated. Also, several solar PV projects that have been implemented in the
country, their location and in some instances, the period of implementation were compiled. The
detailed sequence of relevant events and the compiled list of projects can be seen in Appendix 1.

3.2. Interviews

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Two interviews were conducted in order to get primary information that can substantiate the
findings from the review of literature, and give further details on recent developments. The
interview guide in Appendix 2 shows the outline of questions used in conducting the interviews.
The first interview was with a pioneer member of the Solar Energy Society of Nigeria (SESN) and a
former Director General (DG) of ECN. The second interview was with the managing director of a
Lagos-based solar PV business.

3.3. Operationalization of Strategic Niche Management Theory


As noted earlier, SNM theory is applied from the perspective of expectations. Based on this, the
first step in the analysis of the findings of the study involved mapping expectation dynamics, and
identifying the major expectations in use and promotion of solar PV in Nigeria. This was achieved
through examination of social discourse and recurrent topics in line with the proposition of
Konrad (2006) and Truffer et al. (2008) on identifying expectations of actor-networks.
Then, the expectations identified were profiled based on the approach presented in Figure 2, so as
to ascertain the actor-networks and activities aligned with each of the identified expectations.
Lastly, the profiled expectations were assessed based on SNMs recommendation on the
appropriate attributes of expectations (as stated in Chapter 3) i.e. collective, robust, specific and
high-quality.
In summary, analysing the findings of this study will involve i) mapping, ii) profiling and iii)
assessing the expectations driving the use of solar PV in Nigeria.

Figure 2: Perspective of expectations for analysis of the core elements of niche development
process.
Source: Author

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A - relationship between expectations and actor-networks i.e. how actor groups align themselves with
different expectations.
B - relationship between expectations and experiments i.e. how different expectations lead to
implementation of different experiments and how they influence the performance of the experiments.
C - relationship between expectations and the interrelation of actor-networks and experiments i.e. how
expectations inform the choice of experiments implemented by actor networks.

Operationalising the SNM theory has necessitated the application of major SNM terms, for
representing different features associated with introduction and use of solar PV in Nigeria. As a
result, there is a need to explain what these terms portend. Solar PV is referred to as a
technological niche because its use presents the emergence of a new socio-technical configuration
for electricity generation in Nigeria; and the new configuration has to assume a position below
the existing electricity regimes in the country, pending its successful societal embedding and
diffusion across the country. The term expectations implies the benefits that can be derived from
use of solar PV, and the desired future state of affairs that can be realized. With reference to the
definition of experiments stated in the earlier chapter (i.e. initiatives that embody a highly novel
socio-technical configuration likely to lead to substantial sustainability gains), activities that
symbolize the facilitation of use of solar PV, though intended or unintended, are designated as
experiments. Based on this, experiments in this context are not limited to development or
deployment of solar PV technology, but include other initiatives such as product packaging, policy
processes and publications.
The next chapter gives a detailed account of the introduction and use of solar PV technology in
Nigeria, how the technology has been and is being promoted within the country, and the actors
that have played major roles in supporting its adoption.

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CHAPTER FOUR
Results: Historical Account of Use of Solar PV in Nigeria
This section presents the findings from literatures examined, and interviews conducted on the use
of solar PV in Nigeria. It puts together in a chronological order (as much as possible), the events,
projects and actors that have been involved in promotion and/or use of the technology.

4.1. Inauguration of Solar Energy Society of Nigeria


In March 1980, several academics (comprising scientists, engineers and technologists) gathered
together at the Project Development Institute (PRODA) in Enugu, in south-eastern Nigeria (Figure
3 shows the map of Nigeria with its thirty six states and six regions) to inaugurate the Solar
Energy Society of Nigeria (SESN, 2010a). The inauguration also doubled as an academic
conference. It featured presentation of technical papers that led to publication of the Nigerian
Journal of Solar Energy. It also led to hosting of the annual National Solar Energy Forum by the
society (SESN, 2010a).
According to one of the pioneer members of the society, the inauguration of SESN was propelled
by events on the global scene (Interview, 2014a). The major energy issues dominating the
international scene at the time were, the oil crises of the 1970s (Geels and Raven, 2010;
Ilenikhena and Ezemonye, 2010; Smith et al., 2014), and addressing energy poverty in developing
countries (Gherab, 1981; UN General Assembly, 1981). These concerns made many governments
to increase their investments in R&D activities for terrestrial application of solar PV (Kobos et al.,
2006; Pinkse and Van den Buuse, 2012). In line with this international development, SESN was
primarily formed to serve as a platform for solar energy enthusiasts in certain universities and
polytechnics, to share ideas and showcase their R&D outputs (Interview, 2014a). In July 1980,
SESN was officially launched at an event that had in attendance, key government functionaries
from the south-eastern region (SESN, 2010a).

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Figure 3: Map of Nigeria showing the thirty six states and six geo-political regions.
Source: Upfill-Brown et al. (2014: 3)

4.2. United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy and ECOWAS
Declaration
As a result of the challenge of energy poverty in many developing countries, and also the looming
energy crises of the 1970s, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly convened a conference on
use of new and renewable sources of energy, which held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1981 (Gherab,
1981). At the conference, the then president of Nigeria, Alhaji Shehu Shagari attested to the
possibility of using solar energy for the purpose of accessing modern energy services, and avoiding
the fossil fuel trap (Akinbami, 2001). According to Akinbami (2001), the Presidents declaration
represented the countrys preference for use of renewable energy sources as against dependence
on fossil fuels.
In 1982, Nigeria signed the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) declaration in
Conakry, Guinea, on establishment of an Energy Commission. The declaration mandated all
ECOWAS countries to setup energy commissions that will be responsible for coordinating and
supervising all energy functions and activities in each member state (ECN, 2012a: 1). Considering
Nigerias influential role in ECOWAS at the time (Ojo, 1980; Bach, 1983), it is likely, that the
decision by ECOWAS member states was prompted by Nigeria and in particular, by SESN. This is
because some of the founding members of SESN had initiated the process of establishing an

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energy commission in Nigeria in 1979, by facilitating the enactment of an Energy Commission Act
(Ilenikhena and Ezemonye, 2010; SESN, 2012b). ECOWAS is also reported to have sponsored a
solar PV project in Nigeria in 1987 (Adurodija et al., 1998) and Article 28.2c of ECOWAS treaty can
be said to reflect SESNs interest. The article states that, all member states are expected to:
promote the development of new and renewable energy particularly solar energy
(emphasis added) in the framework of the policy of diversification of sources of energy
(ECOWAS, 2007: 15).

4.3. Establishment of Energy Research Centres and Energy Commission of Nigeria


After the creation of SESN in 1980, the society was able to exert influence on governments
decisions and actions, in relations to energy-related issues in the country (SESN, 2010b). In 1982,
due to the advocacy efforts of the society, the federal government established and situated
energy research centres (ERCs) at four universities. Two of the research centres, namely Sokoto
Energy Research Centre (SERC) situated at Usman Dan Fodiyo University, Sokoto; and National
Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD) situated at University of Nigeria, Nsukka
were charged with conducting R&D programs in new and renewable energies amongst other
responsibilities (SESN, 2010b; ECN, 2012b). Two additional ERCs have since been established
resulting in a total of six ERCs (Ilenikhena and Ezemonye, 2010) located across the six geo-political
zones. The two ERCs dedicated to research in renewable energy have recorded considerable
accomplishment with respect to building local capabilities in solar technology, and developing
applications for use of solar energy in local commercial and household activities (Ikuponisi, 2004;
Ilenikhena and Ezemonye, 2010). Some of their contributions are outlined below:
Sokoto Energy Research Centre (SERC), Usman Dan Fodiyo University, Sokoto
i.

development of solar water heating systems and installation of the system at Usman Dan
Fodiyo university teaching hospital

ii.

design of solar cookers

National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of Nigeria, Nsukka
i.

design of large scale natural circulation 2-tonne capacity solar rice dryer

ii.

construction of solar chicken brooders

iii.

thin film growth of silicon semiconductor material

In 1983, SESN also influenced the amendment of the 1979 Energy Commission Act to make
provision for a Technical Advisory Committee that included the society (SESN, 2010b; Policy and

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Legal Advocacy Centre, 2012). The Energy Commission of Nigeria was eventually established in
1988 (ECN, 2012a), commenced operations in 1989 and the six ERCs were placed under its
administration (ECN, 2012b; Interview, 2014a). Since then, the commission has been
spearheading the drive for use of solar PV in Nigeria, by embarking on demonstration projects and
designing favourable policies. Also, the position of DG of the commission has been filled by
members of SESN since its inception until 2013 (ECN and UNDP, 2005; ECN, 2013; Interview,
2014a).

4.4. Activities of ECN, Federal Government Agencies and State Governments


ECN has implemented over fifty solar PV projects across the country, in varying applications such
as solar street lightning, solar-powered borehole and solar-based rural electrification. However,
about 80% of these projects are based in the northern regions (ECN, 2012c). Detailed list of some
of ECNs projects and pictures depicting the various solar PV applications can be seen in
Appendices 3 and 4 respectively.
With regards to policy design, ECN drafted Nigerias first energy policy in 1993, reviewed it in
1996 and was able to get it approved by the federal government in April 2003 (Federal Republic of
Nigeria, 2003b; Sambo, 2010; Okpala, 2013). The policy notes that Nigeria shall aggressively
pursue the integration of solar energy into the nation's energy mix (Federal Republic of Nigeria,
2003b: 29), by using it as a complementary energy resource in the rural and urban areas. It also
outlines the specific strategies that will be adopted for enhancing local capabilities and
developing a market for solar energy technologies.
In November 2005, ECN with the support of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),
and in collaboration with a local non-governmental organisation (NGO), International Centre for
Energy, Environment and Development (ICEEED), developed a Renewable Energy Master Plan
(REMP) for the country (ECN and UNDP, 2005). The plan is linked with other broad national policy
documents, and programmes like the National Energy Master Plan, and National Economic
Empowerment and Development Strategy. REMP also provides short, medium and long term
numerical targets for use of solar energy in the country. ECN has since submitted the plan to the
federal government, but the commission is still awaiting its approval (Sambo, 2005).
In 2006, the Federal Ministry of Power and Steel, in conjunction with ICEEED released the
Renewable Electricity Action Plan. The document focuses on use of renewable energy for
electricity generation, and highlights Nigerias potentials in use of solar PV (ICEEED, 2006). It also

Candidate No: 120078

23

clearly states the federal governments target for use of solar PV in the country and this is quoted
below (ICEEED, 2006: 52):
The Federal Government of Nigeria sets the following 10-year targets for the contribution
of renewable electricity to the economy (2007-2016) ...
1 Million Solar Home Systems
2000 Rural solar school electrification
2000 Rural solar clinics electrification
10,000 solar street lights
ECN conducted two different surveys in 1995 and 1998 in order to determine the level of solar PV
business activities in the country, and ascertain the performance of the existing solar PV projects
(Oparaku, 2002). The surveys were able to bring to the fore the activities of the ERCs and other
federal

government

agencies.

According

to

Oparaku

(2002),

the

now-defunct

Nigerian Telecommunications Limited (NITEL), invested in an extensive roll out of solar PV systems
in 1991, for powering their repeater stations. The government-owned company was able to fund
installation of fifty-three solar PV systems as part of a hybrid electricity generation design where,
a solar PV system (see picture in Appendix 4) served as the primary source for electrical power and
two diesel-powered generators served as backup. SERC was put in charge of maintaining the
systems, and during the course of ECNs 1998 survey, all but one of the systems were found to still
be functioning (Oparaku, 2002). The national agricultural and rural development agencies2 are
said to have enlisted the services of local solar PV companies, for supply and installation of water
pumps in communities that were mainly situated in the northern part of the country, while the
North East Arid Zone Development Programme (NEAZDP) is noted to have sponsored the supply of
twenty-three solar refrigerators between 1988 and 1995 (Oparaku, 2002).

4.4.1. Activities of State Governments


Many state governments in the country have on their own, established full-fledged ministry of
energy in their states, due to the influence of ECN (Interview, 2014a). Sokoto state is said to have
sponsored one of the earliest solar PV projects in Nigeria, a 7kWp village lighting project in TungaBuzu and Gotomo communities, which was likely implemented by the states College Polytechnic,
Birnin-Kebbi in 1985 (Oparaku, 2002; SESN, 2012b; Jobs in Nigeria, 2013). In 2001, Jigawa state
supported and part-sponsored a $450,000 rural electrification project implemented by a US-based
NGO, Solar Electric Light Fund. The project, which included use of solar PV for providing electricity
2

The agricultural and rural development agencies include Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Rural
Development (FMWRRD), Agricultural Development Programme (ADP), North East Arid Zone Development
Programme (NEAZDP) and the Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFFRI).

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24

to schools, business centres and farms, also benefited from the financial support of the United
States Agency for International Development (USAID) and United States Department of Energy
(National Geographic, 2011; SELF, 2014).

Lagos state implemented a solar-based rural electrification project in Bishop Kodji community, in
2006 (National Geographic, 2011). Also, the offices of the state governments Electricity Board is
currently powered by solar PV (Lagos State Government, 2011). Other states that have supported
implementation of solar PV projects in their communities include Cross River, Ekiti and Nassarawa
states (Ilenikhena and Ezemonye, 2010; Interview, 2014a).

4.5. Commercial Activities


Adurodija et al. (1998: 137) note that, as far back as 1990, there has been considerable level of
awareness among industrialists and private people in Nigeria, on the use of solar PV for
provision of electricity.
In addition, the results of ECNs survey show that, forty-four private solar companies were
operating in Nigeria as at 1998 (ICEEED 2006). It also revealed that, these companies had carried
out two hundred and twenty one solar PV installations across the country, for clients from both
public and private sectors, between 1990 and 1998; and the installations summed up to 212kWp
module capacity (Oparaku, 2002; ICEEED 2006). As shown in Table 1, thirty of the forty-four
companies were based in Lagos state, in the south-western part of the country, where they were
mostly involved in installation of solar PV systems for provision of electricity to residential
buildings. Twelve of them were based in northern states (Kaduna, Kano, Jos, Bauchi, Borno,
Sokoto) where they mainly supplied and installed solar PV-powered refrigerators (for preserving
vaccines in health centres and clinics) and water pumps; while the remaining two companies were
based in Enugu and Rivers states, in the south-eastern region of the country (Oparaku, 2002;
ICEEED 2006).

Table 1: Distribution of Solar PV Companies across Nigeria as at 1998.


State

Lagos

Kaduna

Kano

Plateau

Bauchi

Borno

Rivers

Enugu

Sokoto

Total

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No of

30

25

44

Companies
Source: ICEEED (2006: 31)

In September 2011, another federal government agency, the National Agency for Science and
Engineering Infrastructure (NASENI), commissioned a solar panel manufacturing plant with
capacity of 7.5MW/year (PV Tech, 2011; NASENI, 2011a) for the purpose of business creation,
revenue generation, capacity building and ceding of technology (NASENI, 2011b: 7). The plant is
primarily involved in assembling parts of solar panels (the main processes in the plant are cell
sorting and testing, soldering, laminating, framing and packaging) and it is located in Karshi,
Abuja in the north central region. The plant has produced about 2,800 panels as at February 2014
(Leadership Newspaper, 2014), and some of the panels have been used for providing electricity to
rural information technology centres setup by the National Information Technology Development
Agency (NASENI, 2011c; Oil Price, 2014). According to a February 2014 news report, NASENI is
planning to increase the plants level of production to 70MW/year, in order to maximize the
plants full potential (Leadership Newspaper, 2014).

In the past four years, there has been reported surge in solar PV business activities in Lagos state
(Interview, 2014b). Many of the states residents have purchased solar PV systems for the purpose
of serving as backup to the erratic supply of electricity from the grid (GP Inverters, 2014;
Interview, 2014b). Some of the solar PV companies have also setup business pages on social
media sites like Facebook where they advertise their products (Interview, 2014b), and companies
such as GP Inverters, Powertech Solar Energy and Solar and Inverter have been able to attract an
audience of over 90,000 people (i.e. Facebook likes) on the site (GP Inverters, 2014; Powertech
Solar Energy, 2014 and Solar and Inverter, 2014). In addition, these companies package their
products in line with the commonly known terms for sizes of diesel or petrol powered generators
sold in the country, such as 1kVA, 1.5kVA, 3kVA and 3.5kVA (Ajadi et al., 2012; Mbamali et al.,
2012).

According to the manager of one of the solar PV companies, his company carries out about two
installations in a day, and has recently opened an additional outlet within Lagos in order to meet
the increasing demands for their services (Interview, 2014b). He also mentioned that some major
manufacturers of solar PV equipments such as Amara Raja Group of Companies (an Indian firm)
have established their presence in Lagos in order to ensure unhindered and prompt supply of solar

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26

PV equipments to local companies. This quote below from the manager best summarizes the
recent development in Lagos state:

We are experiencing a beautiful growth. The market is seriously growing. In two years,
the landscape will be completely transformed (Interview, 2014b).

4.6. Climate Change and Energy Sector Reform


In line with addressing the global challenge of climate change, use of renewable energy
technologies such as solar PV, and their transfer from developed to less developed countries have
been noted to be an important aspect of mitigating climate change (UNFCCC, 2014b). This
realization has also led to release of a special report on Methodological and Technological Issues
in Technology Transfer by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2000); and the
creation of the Technology Executive Committee and Climate Technology Centre and Network
(CTCN) by the UNFCCC (UNFCCC, 2014b).
Nigerias first and second National Communication to the UNFCCC refer to use of solar PV
technology as part of the countrys mitigation options, and in a bid to actualize this, the federal
government in 2010 established the Renewable Energy Programme (REP), under the auspice of
the Federal Ministry of Environment (REP, 2012a, 2012b; Abubakar, 2014). REP is being
implemented in partnership with state governments, multinationals, private companies and
international development partners such as United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),
UNDP, World Bank and DFID (REP, 2012c). Through the programme, the government intends to
setup a 50MW solar PV farm project in Kaduna, and provide solar kits for hairdressing salons and
healthcare centres (REP, 2012b). REP has also recently secured approval for a $150 million
investment plan for solar PV development in northern Nigeria, from the Clean Technology Fund
(CTF)3 (REP, 2012d).
In the same year REP was established, the Presidential Taskforce on Power (a team assigned to
engineer the reform of the power sector) released the Roadmap for Power Sector Reform, a
document that presents the federal governments strategies for achieving stable electricity supply
in Nigeria (The Presidency, 2010). According to the document, the reform will not focus on using
solar PV due to its high capital costs and long lead times (The Presidency, 2010: 10), but will
3

Clean Technology Fund (CTF) is a World Bank managed Climate Investment Fund (CIF) aimed at supporting
middle-income countries in scaling up the demonstration, deployment, and transfer of low carbon
technologies in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and sustainable transport (Climate Investment Funds,
2014).

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27

prioritize use of hydro, coal and natural gas for generation of electricity. However, in 2013, the
Taskforce released a revised version of the document which now states that, more attention will
be paid to solar energy ... in the medium and long term (The Presidency, 2013).
These findings on the historical account of the use of solar PV in Nigeria will be analysed in the
next chapter, by applying the SNM theory from the perspective of expectations.

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28

CHAPTER FIVE
Analysis and Discussion
As stated in Chapter 3, the analysis of the findings of this study will involve i) mapping expectation
dynamics, ii) profiling the expectations that will be identified and iii) assessing the expectations in
line with the provisions of the SNM theory.

5.1. Mapping Expectation Dynamics


The early wave of activities in promotion and use of solar PV in Nigeria was championed by SESN
and its activities were informed by the prevailing international discourse on energy issues at the
time i.e. challenges of oil crises and energy poverty. Based on literatures reflecting on these
concerns, the interventions undertaken by governments and other relevant bodies in response to
these challenges were expected to lead to less reliance on use of oil as a primary energy source,
and in turn, ensure security of energy supply (UN, 1981; Sovacool and Brown, 2010; Smith et al.,
2014). With respect to this, it can be said that, the expectation that steered the activities of SESN
in promoting use of solar PV in Nigeria was, security of energy supply.
Additional probable evidence of SESNs alignment with this international agenda can be seen in its
prominent role in establishment of ECN. According to the stated legal framework establishing
ECN, the Energy Commission Act, the functions of the commission include to:
promote the diversification of the energy resources through the development and optimal
utilization of all [energy sources], including the introduction of new and alternative energy
resources like solar, wind, biomass and nuclear energy (ECN, 2012d).
Also, ECN is described as the national focal point for energy (ECN, 2012b) in Nigeria, and this is in
line with the recommendations of the 1981 UN conference on New and Renewable Sources of
Energy, which held in Nairobi, Kenya. As part of the Nairobi Programme of Action, all
governments were urged to maintain and/or establish, as the case may be, national focal points
(UN General Assembly, 1981: 2-3).
The number of solar PV companies operating in Nigeria as shown in Table 1, and the setup of a
manufacturing plant by NASENI highlight the existence of a different activity route that is not
necessarily influenced by an international agenda, but focused primarily on home-grown business
transactions. Based on Table 1, 68.18% of solar PV companies were based in Lagos state, the
acclaimed commercial capital of Nigeria (Idowu et al., 2011; Ezeah and Roberts, 2014). Lagos
state residents are said to have limited access to reliable and constant electricity supply from the

Candidate No: 120078

29

national grid (Apulu et al., 2011; Olorunfemi, 2013), and as a result of this, they make use of solar
PV as backup to the erratic grid electricity (Oparaku, 2002; Interview, 2014a).
The other services undertaken by the Lagos-based solar PV companies might also give an
overview of the primary line of business of these companies. With reference to an ECN-published
list of renewable energy companies in the country (ECN, 2012e), some of the companies listed
were engaged in sale and installation of inverters4, and oil and gas business. In addition, based on
the information provided by a business listing web service for renewable energy technologies,
Posharp (Posharp, 2014), and further verification of the authenticity of the information by visiting
the companies website (where available), a more recent list of Lagos-based solar PV businesses
was compiled and analyzed for the purpose of this study (detailed list of the companies can be
seen in Appendix 5). The result of this analysis is presented in Table 2 and it shows that about 70%
of the companies provide backup power systems (mainly inverters).
Table 2: Other business ventures of Lagos-based solar PV companies.
Venture

No. of companies

Other renewable technologies

9%

Inverters

14

41%

technologies

6%

Building materials

3%

None (only solar PV)

14

41%

Total

34

Information communication

This commercial route of activities in use of solar PV, and also the general focus of many of the
solar PV companies, signal a market positioning for use of solar PV as a power backup system. As
such, the expectation from these activities can be said to be, market development of solar PV as
backup to grid electricity.
Another significant influence on use of solar PV in Nigeria is the global challenge of climate
change, and the relevance of use of technologies in mitigating climate change. In the context of
developing countries, there is often a recurring theme in the construction of the purpose for use of
technologies in climate change mitigation. A statement on UNFCCCs work on technology reads:
4

Although inverters represent part of the components for setting up a solar PV system, they are also
commonly used across Nigeria in backup power systems (Otegbulu, 2010; Nwachukwu, 2014).

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30

Promoting the effective development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies


is critical in enabling developing countries to pursue their objectives for sustainable
development in a climate-friendly manner (UNFCCC, 2014c: 1).
Also, the mission of the CTCN is framed as:
... to stimulate technology cooperation and to enhance the development and transfer of
technologies and to assist developing country Parties at their request, consistent with
their respective national circumstances and priorities, to ... support actions on mitigation
and adaptation and enhance low-emission and climate-resilient development (UNFCCC,
2013: 4).
In addition, IPCCs report on technology transfer also states that:
Technology for mitigating and adapting to climate change should be environmentally
sound technology (EST) and should support sustainable development (IPCC, 2000: 3).
Based on the above quotes, it can be seen that the social discourse on use of solar PV as a
climate-related technology in developing countries is not only focused on climate change
mitigation, but it also targets sustainable development in the countries.
The establishment of REP under the auspice of the Ministry of Environment is categorically
described as part of Nigerias contribution to the international agenda of reducing greenhouse
gases (REP, 2012a). Also, the background information to the programme ascertains a clear link
with UNFCCCs agenda of climate change mitigation and sustainable development (Federal
Ministry of Environment, 2013). As a result, the expectations from climate change-oriented wave
of activities in use of solar PV in Nigeria can be said to be, climate change mitigation and
sustainable development.
In summary, three different expectations have dominated the scene of solar PV technology in
Nigeria and they are listed below:
1. Security of energy supply
2. Market development of solar PV as backup to grid electricity
3. Climate change mitigation and sustainable development.

In the next section, the three expectations identified will be profiled by analyzing their relationship
with the other two SNM elements i.e. actor-networks and experiments.

5.2. Profile of Expectations


Expectation 1: Security of Energy Supply

Candidate No: 120078

31

A: Actor-Network
In many countries of the world, the major responses to addressing security of energy supply in the
1970s and early 1980s focused primarily on conducting research into alternative energy sources
(Jacobsson and Johnson, 2000; Jacobsson and Lauber, 2006; Pinkse and Van den Buuse, 2012),
and development or revision of energy policies (Ikenberry, 1986; Mohammed and Lee, 2006; Ong
et al., 2011). These scientific and political measures can be described as top-level strategies5
requiring high profile actors (i.e. researchers and governments).
This dynamic also played out in Nigeria with researchers from universities and polytechnics
aligning with the internationally-informed expectation of energy security, and coordinating their
activities via SESN. SESN was able to bring on board other high profile actors like the national
government, state governments and government agencies. It also involved private companies like
Siemens, by giving honorary awards, and accepting a few as corporate members of the society
(SESN, 2010c). The top-level strategic attribute of the expectation of security of energy supply can
be said to have led to involvement of high profile actor-network comprising academic researchers,
government and some private businesses.
B: Experiments
In a similar mode to the status of the actor-network, the activities and projects influenced by the
expectation comprised mainly of high profile activities, including advocacy, policy formulation and
R&D, targeted at influencing government and making contribution to technological development.
Although the actor groups also ventured into other less high profile activities like deployment of
solar PV technology in specific locations, these projects however remained on a small scale and
some of the installations are no longer functional (Oparaku, 2002; National Geographic, 2011).
On the other hand, the actor groups recorded impressive success in their advocacy and policy
formulation efforts with establishment of the ERCs and ECN; and in their research efforts with
publication of the Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy. The influence of the strategic nature of this
expectation can thus be seen from the performance of the activities, as the high profile efforts
achieved tremendous success, but less strategy-focused activities like deployment of solar PV
systems did not record similar success.
C. Actor-network and Experiments
5

Many countries view energy security as a strategic concern. In the United States of America (USA) and
United Kingdom, energy security concerns are addressed in their National Security Strategy documents
(Cabinet Office, 2008; Office of the President, 2010). Also, the 2002 European Security Strategy (ESS) tagged
A Secure Europe in a Better World (Quille, 2004) addresses energy security.

Candidate No: 120078

32

The attendant high profile, strategic attribute of this expectation can be seen to reflect on the
type of actor-network aligned with it, and this also likely influenced their choice of activities,
which hinged more on high profile policy formulation and research.

Expectation 2: Market development of Solar PV as Backup to Grid Electricity


A: Actor Networks
The major actor groups aligned with this expectation are solar PV companies that are likely
interested in profit making. This actor group has also been able to attract another actor group of
users that purchase solar PV systems as backup to grid electricity. Based on the market focus of
the expectation, the actor-network aligned with it can be seen to include important actors crucial
to the commercial process involved in developing a product or service and its utilization by an end
user. As such, the actor-network aligned with this expectation comprises manufacturers, retailers,
installers and users.
B: Experiments
The thrust of the activities implemented under the expectation of market development of solar PV
as a backup power system can be said to be, facilitation of sale of solar PV systems, and likely
guarantee of profit making by solving a prevailing challenge in the society i.e. lack of consistent
supply of electricity. In addition, the solar PV companies have been able to apply a profit-driven
pricing model to deployment of solar PV systems (Interview, 2014a), which serves as an assurance
of profit and motivation to remain in the business.
C: Actor-network and Experiments
Terms such as profit, product, sale, service and purchase appear synonymous with this
expectation and these terms primarily connote activities that are underpinned by the prospect of
financial justification. As such, the supply side of the market development activities lean more to
choice of activities promising financial reward, while the user actor group lean more to the
promise of economic utility6 i.e. satisfaction in use of the solar PV systems.
Expectation 3: Climate change mitigation and sustainable development
A: Actor-Network

Economic utility refers to satisfaction derived from use of a product or service (Grosse et al., 1998;
Morgeson et al., 2011).

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33

Promotion of solar PV technology used to be an activity confined to environmental groups,


particularly in the 1980s (Arquilla and Ronfeldt, 2001; Smith et al., 2014). However, with the
challenge of climate change becoming a front burner issue from the 1990s (Glantz, 2005;
Lorenzoni and Pidgeon, 2006), use of solar PV attracted more attention and the technology
became part of the newly termed class of climate technologies or climate-related technologies
(UNEP, 2013; UNFCCC, 2013). Due to the distinctive global characteristic of climate change and
the urgent need to mitigate climate change (King, 2004; Bichard and Kazmierczak, 2012), the
actor groups involved in driving the use of solar PV extended beyond environmentalists to include,
high profile, policy-influencing multilateral and unilateral actors such as the United Nations,
regional and national governments and private companies (UNEP, 2013; UNFCCC, 2013). Also,
because development is primarily targeted at improving living standards of the poor (Sen, 1998;
Anand and Sen, 2000), the sustainable development component of Expectation 3 attracts
grassroots-mobilizing actors such as NGOs.
This constitution of actor groups also plays out in Nigeria based on the line up of partners involved
with REP. As a result, the actor-network aligned with the expectation of climate change mitigation
and sustainable development can be said to comprise government agencies, NGOs, international
development partners and private companies.
B. Experiments
In Nigeria, most of the activities addressing climate change have been driven by events and
processes dominating the international scene. For example, the production of the first and second
National Communication documents to the UNFCCC was in accordance with the requirement of
the UNFCCC. The establishment of REP is also in fulfilment of the Federal Republic of Nigerias
obligation to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and as part
of African strategy on voluntary emission reduction (REP, 2012a: 1). In addition, the major
environment and energy focused NGO in Nigeria, ICEED, has primarily been involved with
internationally aligned activities, such as leading the Nigerian arm of the international NGO
coalition, Climate Action Network (CAN), and drafting the UNDP-sponsored Renewable Energy
Master Plan (ECN and UNDP, 2005).

C. Actor-network and Experiments


Based on the examples of experiments stated above, the choice of activities of actor-network
aligned with this expectation can be said to be more focused on international activities on climate

Candidate No: 120078

34

change mitigation, and this may have led to giving less attention to the second component of the
expectation i.e. sustainable development. An outline of the functions of the department of climate
change does not include development-related activities (Special Climate Change Unit, 2012b).
Also, of all the seven registered UNFCCCs Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)7 projects hosted
in Nigeria, only one is directly focused on poor people living in the country i.e. grassroots-inclined,
with most of the projects addressing reduction of gas flaring from oil fields (UNFCCC, 2014d).
Some of the (intended) activities of REP might contribute to the sustainable development
component particularly the Naija light solar electrification programme but these activities seem
to still be in the pipeline (REP, 2012d).
The profiles of the three expectations as discussed above, are summarized in Table 3.
Table 3: Profile of Expectations.
Expectations

Actor-Network

Experiments

Choice of
Experiments

Expectation 1:

Academic researchers

Security of Energy Government


Supply

R&D

(national Advocacy

High

profile

strategic activities

and state governments Policy formulation


and agencies)

Technology

Private companies

deployment

Expectation 2:

Manufacturers

Product packaging

Financially oriented

Market

Retailers and installers

Product pricing

activities

development

of Users

solar PV as backup

Product promotion
Sale and installation

to grid electricity
Expectation 3:
Climate

Government agencies

change NGOs

mitigation

and International

sustainable

development partners

development

Private companies

Strategy documents

Activities

REP

international

International coalition

perspective

with

5.3. Assessing Expectations 1, 2 and 3


In this section, the profiled expectations will be assessed based on the recommendations by SNM
scholars. For the sake of brevity in making reference to the expectations, the three expectations
7

CDM is a financial mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol under the UNFCCC that enables developed countries
meet their carbon emission reduction targets by implementing projects in developing countries that will
lead to reduction of carbon emissions (Streck, 2004).

Candidate No: 120078

35

i.e. i) security of energy supply, ii) market development of solar PV as backup to grid electricity,
and iii) climate change mitigation and sustainable development, will be referred to as Expectation
1, Expectation 2 and Expectation 3 respectively.

Collectivity: Collectivisation of Expectation 1 through linking up individual activities of different


academics around the country and forming the SESN can be said to have contributed to the early
achievements of the society. In particular, articulation of the expectation may have influenced the
possible enlistment of other powerful actors (e.g. the national government and state
governments), and the subsequent success in setting up some of the necessary institutional
frameworks for introduction and use of solar PV in Nigeria. This accomplishment is in line with the
provision for successful niche development as stated by Van der Laak et al. (2007: 3217):
Articulating expectations is important to attract attention and resources as well as new
actors, in particular when the technology is still in early development and functionality
and performance are still unclear.
Expectation 3 can also be termed collective because of the various actor groups aligned with it
and this may have contributed to REP being able to secure relevant support for its planned
activities and in particular the $150 million investment from CTF. Expectation 2 is still largely
independently driven and yet to emerge as a collective expectation and this may explain why
despite the record of substantial growth in specific locations due to individual efforts (Interview,
2014b), this has not resulted in a country-wide progress.
Specificity: With the exception of Expectation 2, the other expectations can be seen to be both
internationally-informed and having the benefit of organised platforms (i.e. SESN and REP).
Although the major platform for Expectation 1, SESN, clearly outlines its aims and objectives
(SESN, 2010d), the points presented do not include any country-specific expectation that portrays
definitive next steps, in achieving the bigger utopian international agenda of energy security. REP
on its part provides a country-specific list of what it refers to as expected benefits to Nigerians
(REP, 2012e) and this list can be said to represent Schilpzand et al.s promises about future
benefits (2011: 13). There is no definitive expression of expectations by actor-network aligned
with Expectation 2 and this maybe as a result of the absence of a strong business association
platform8 (Interview, 2014b).

Some actors have fronted a solar PV business association platform but its weak membership strength and
very low participation rate makes it to be of little or no significance (Interview, 2014b).

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36

The non-specificity of Expectations 1 and 2 (which primarily underpinned most of the activities in
the country since 1980) may have contributed to the slow growth of use of solar PV in Nigeria.
Non-specificity of Expectation 1 might also explain why SESN continued operating in its businessas-usual mode by mainly publishing the Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy and organising the
annual Nigeria National Solar Energy Forum (SESN, 2010e), even after international interest in the
expectation had begun to wane due to collapse of oil prices in mid 1980s (Cabraal et al., 1998;
Ramcharran, 2002; Smith et al., 2014). Furthermore, based on limited reference to the SESN in the
recent developments in solar PV activities in the country, non-specificity of expectations may have
contributed to the societys seeming diminished relevance and isolated activities.
Robustness: Expectations 3 and 2 can be considered to be the most and least robust respectively.
It is likely that the limited robustness of Expectation 2 may have contributed to concentration of
commercial deployment of solar PV in the commercial nerve centre of the country (see Table 1)
and probably leading to a slow growth in countrywide use of the technology.
The moderate robustness of Expectation 1 on the other hand can be said to have translated into a
foundational structure for use of solar PV in Nigeria which is now beneficial to the other two
expectations. For example, the practice of importation and distribution of solar PV equipments
across Nigeria is likely to have been initiated by ECN and the ERCs which were established due to
influence of SESN. Also, the implementation of demonstration projects by these organisations is
likely to have given Nigerian residents a degree of familiarity with the solar PV technology thus
enhancing easy acceptance and use of the technology.
With respect to its high level of robustness, Expectation 3 can be said to hold the promise of
securing a higher degree of support and resources than experienced with Expectations 2 and 3
and actualization of the different pending activities may facilitate a country-wide increase in use
of solar PV.
Quality: Expectation 1 can be said to have been substantiated by ongoing projects since many of
its activities were informed by the experiments emerging on the international scene. For example,
the formation and nomenclature of SESN is related to that of other solar energy-focused
associations in many of the developed countries that sprang up in the 1970s (ISES, 2012).
Expectations 2 and 3 on the other hand seem to appear as newly-formed, freshly inspired
developments with little or no links to past or ongoing projects.
Based on the above assessment of the three expectations, it is likely that the existing meagre
share of solar PV in Nigerias electricity mix is due to the moderate collectivity, robustness and

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quality of Expectation 1. Also, the non-collectivity and lack of robustness of Expectation 2; lack of
specificity of Expectations 1 and 2; alongside low quality of Expectations 2 and 3 can be said to
have contributed to slow growth in use of solar PV in Nigeria.
The scenario of the three dominant expectations shows that the expectations sprang from
different bases, and are operationalized in almost completely different directions. As such, newly
emerged expectations do not have the benefit of second-order learning from previously
implemented projects. In addition, these expectations also seem to be divergent in purpose,
operations and results. A more appreciative scenario would have been if Expectation 2 emerged
as a result of refining Expectation 1, and if Expectation 3 had similar relationship with Expectation
2. However, the lack of reference to projects from Expectation 1 in both Expectations 2 and 3; and
lack of reference to projects from Expectation 2 in Expectation 3 gives an impression that that the
goal of diffusion of solar PV technology in Nigeria might be governed by divergent expectations,
and implemented in an unrelated, multi-directional approach.
It might be easy to say that Expectation 1 has outlived its purpose and should be discarded.
However, with energy security re-emerging as a major international concern, due to the issues of
terrorism and the finite nature of fossil fuels (Lloyd and Subbarao, 2009; Umbach, 2010), its
existing structures and networks may still be beneficial in promoting use of solar PV in Nigeria.
Also, lessons can be derived from its strategies and projects, and these can serve as beneficial
inputs to actualisation of the other two expectations.
Expectation 3 can be said to be slightly linked to Expectation 1 based on its approach of involving
governments, international partners and demonstration projects (mostly in rural communities);
however the proponents of Expectation 1 do not seem to have any visible position or responsibility
within the framework setup for its actualisation. So, despite its moderate collectivity, specificity
and robustness; its limitation in quality might lead to improvident duplication of efforts. It may
however be that the actor-network aligned with Expectation 3 view Nigeria as a country lacking in
experience in use of solar PV technology, and as such, focus their efforts on similar demonstrative
activities of the actor-network aligned with Expectation 1.
Expectation 2 does not seem to exhibit many of the desirable attributes recommended by SNM
theory, but its existence and limited robustness has generated momentum in use of the
technology, in locations that may have been neglected by actor-networks aligned with
Expectations 1 and 3. The market approach of Expectation 2 (particularly, use of social media for
advertising) has also contributed to publicizing strategic ways, in which solar PV can be adapted

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to meet demand for electricity. As a result of this, the capabilities of solar PV technology are no
longer only known to communities where demonstration projects are domiciled, but this
knowledge now extends beyond the geographical boundary of the location of implemented
projects. In addition, Expectation 2 can be said to be aiding diffusion of the technology by
facilitating the progress from demonstration to commercialisation. However, a major drawback
to the achievement of Expectation 2 is that, it may be disenfranchising poor people that are
unable to afford the technology at market prices.
With respect to the above discussion, none of the three expectations can be said to be irrelevant
even in the context of recent times. There is therefore a need to synergize the three expectations
and/or probably present one of them as the primary dominant expectation, with the other two
expectations incorporated as subsets of the dominant expectation. Expectation 3 appears to hold
the promise of possibly shouldering the other two expectations, since commercialisation of solar
PV will be beneficial to successful diffusion of the technologies, and would lead to reduction in
GHG emissions. Also, due to the importance of energy supply to economic development and
poverty alleviation (Ogunlade et al., 2003), security of energy supply will benefit the sustainable
development component of Expectation 3. In addition, it is important to note that the newly reformed or re-defined expectation does not need to be static or linear, and the actor-network in
the country should make allowances for requisite changes that might be informed by
experimentation outcomes.
The next chapter gives recommendations on how the convergence of the three expectations can
be realised, and highlights the benefits Nigeria stands to gain upon the re-formation and
refinement of the expectations.

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CHAPTER SIX
Conclusion
This study presents the historical account of use of solar PV in Nigeria, based on results from
investigating diverse sources including literatures, media reports and key actors in the country. It
also makes use of the SNM theory, with particular emphasis on expectations, to assess why there
is slow growth in use of the technology in the country. The study finds three dominant
expectations with limited connections prevailing in the promotion and use of solar PV in Nigeria,
and identified them as i) security of energy supply, ii) market development of solar PV as backup
to grid electricity iii) climate change mitigation and sustainable development. It also notes that
the expectations exhibit varying degrees of deficiency in the recommended factors for building a
successful niche i.e. collectivity, specificity, robustness and quality; and that this may have
contributed to the slow growth in use of solar PV in Nigeria.
The existence of divergent expectations reflects a pressing need for convergence of the three
expectations in order to build a stable niche where actors' strategies, expectations, beliefs,
practices, outlooks, perceptions and views ... go in the same direction and become more specific
and consistent (Hoogma, 2000, cited in Canils and Romijn, 2008b: 615). Convergence of the
expectations can also facilitate synergy of the strong attributes of each of the expectations, and
lead to formation of collectivised expectation, that will result in successful niche building and
expansion process.
By realising convergence of the expectations, and ensuring actors operate in a distinct direction,
the federal government may choose to promptly approve the REMP, which provides for direct
supply of solar PV electricity to the grid. Also, international development partners will have a
platform to connect with, and possibly get involved with grassroots activities, rather than
primarily building cooperation with government-related organisations. In particular, with
government projects concentrated in the northern part of the country and mostly in rural areas,
and with commercial activities concentrated in the south, convergence of expectations might help
eliminate the geographical divide in location of experiments, and facilitate even diffusion of the
technology across the country.
It is possible to get overly impressed with the entrepreneurial valour displayed by the key actors
aligned with Expectation 2, and then opt to have this expectation run its course independently.
However, it should be noted that this expectation holds the risk of being short-lived if the supply
of electricity from the grid becomes consistent and reliable. Also, the position of Nigeria as an oil

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exporting country should not deter the federal government and other relevant actors from
actively participating in conscientious formation of collectivised, convergent expectations for
driving the use of solar PV in the country because in the words of Grubb et al. (2014: 1):
Fossil fuels are finite. So too is the atmosphere. Sooner or later, energy systems have to
change.
Convergence of the three identified expectations can be facilitated through the use of foresight
approaches for reconstruction of expectations held by actor groups as exemplified in Truffer et al.
(2008), and also by conducting visioning exercises for stakeholders as noted by Canils and Romijn
(2008a). Following that, strategies for achieving the agreed expectations should be developed
which as much as possible delineates activities, responsibilities and timelines. It is important to
ensure that these strategies are built on what already exists in the country (i.e. projects, processes
and policies) and that lessons derived from implementing the strategies loop into further
refinement of the expectations.
There is need for further research into the process of solar PV niche development in Nigeria, and
in particular, analysis of other niche elements and external factors presented in SNM framework,
including the electricity regime and landscape in Nigeria. The current events and circumstances
relating to use of solar PV in Nigeria, also tend to present a viable opportunity for normative
application of SNM theory, and operationalization of the SNM competency kit for practitioners
presented by Raven et al. (2010). Accurate knowledge of contextual use of solar PV in Nigeria, and
conscientious application of SNM framework will likely help ensure people living across different
regions and at different income levels, have access to and make use of solar PV technology. This
approach may be explored by actor-networks to achieve increase in use of solar PV technology in
Nigeria, and ensure Nigerias development is on a sustainable path.

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APPENDICES
Appendix 1 - Sequence of events in use of solar PV in Nigeria and implemented projects
March 1980: Inaugural meeting of the Solar Energy Society of Nigeria (SESN) at Project
Development Institute (PRODA) Enugu. The meeting featured presentation of technical papers
and prompted the organization of an annual National Solar Energy Forum (NASEF). The pioneer
members of the Society consisted primarily of academics including i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

Professor A.O.E. Animalu (University of Nigeria, Nsukka)


Professor C.C.O. Ezeilo (University of Nigeria, Nsukka)
Professor G.O. Ezekwe (Projects Development Institute, Enugu)
Professor U.A. Akinsote (University of Lagos)
Professor R.I. Salawu (University of Lagos)
Professor N.I. Ngoka (Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife)
Professor A.T. Sulaiman (Federal University of Technology, Yola)

July 1980: Official launch of the SESN. The ceremony involved government dignitaries namely - the
Deputy Governor of old Anambra State, Engr. A.S. Umenyi and Honourable Commissioner for
Technology, Imo State, Chief Oji O. Okereke.
1980: Launch of the first edition of the Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy by SESN in Lagos state.
August 1981: United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, Nairobi
conference. The then President of Nigeria, Alhaji Shehu Shagari addressed the delegates at the
conference and expressed the need for developing countries to seize the opportunity in transiting
from wood fuels to commercial energy forms to consider and investigate the possibilities of using
renewable energy in order to avoid a fossil fuel trap. He specially recommended solar energy as
one of the preferable renewable energy sources based on its level of supply on the continent.
May 1982: ECOWAS meeting of Heads of State of in Conakry. The delegates adopted a
declaration that each member state should establish an Energy Commission that will be charged
with the responsibility of coordinating and supervising all energy functions and activities within
the state.
1982: Establishment of four Energy Research Centres by the federal government. Two of the
Centres, Sokoto Energy Research Centre (SERC) and National Centre for Energy Research and
Development (NCERD), Nsukka were specially charged with conducting research and development
(R&D) programs in solar energy as part of their mandate.
1985: Implementation of the one of the earliest solar photovoltaic (PV) project in Nigeria, a 7kWp
village PV lighting project in Tunga-Buzu and Gotomo villages financed by Sokoto state
government.
1987: The SESN re-launches the Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy in Kano state in order to raise
funds for publication of outstanding volumes of the journal.

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1988: Establishment of the Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN). The commission is the apex
government organ for the formulation of the most appropriate energy planning frameworks and
monitoring and evaluation of energy programs in the country.
1992: Establishment of the National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure (NASENI)
by the federal government for facilitation of capital goods research and production and reverse
engineering.
1993: ECN develops the National Energy Policy which acknowledged the possibility of generating
electricity from solar PV and laid out strategies for promotion and actualization of the use of solar
electricity in Nigeria.
1996: Review of the National Energy Policy by an Inter-ministerial Committee.
1998: Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN) sets up a National Committee to ascertain the level of
PV industry activity in Nigeria with a view to establishing Nigerias manufacturing capabilities for
PV modules and Balance of Systems Components (BOS).
2003: Approval of the National Energy Policy by the Federal government.
2005: Federal government embarks on privatisation of the energy sector and enacts the Electric
Power Sector Reform Act.
2006: Development of Renewable Energy Masterplan (REMP) for Nigeria with external support
from UNDP.
August 2010: Launch of the Roadmap for Power Sector Reform (RPSR) by President Goodluck
Jonathan. The policy document stated that solar energy would not be part of governments
prioritized energy sources for electricity generation in Nigeria due to factors such as high capital
costs and long lead times.
2010: Establishment of the Renewable Energy Programme by the Federal Ministry of
Environment. - http://renewableenergy.gov.ng/projects/
September 2011: Commencement of operation at the 7.5MW/year capacity Solar Panel
Manufacturing Plant by NASENI. The project was implemented by the Federal Government
through a joint venture with a (undisclosed) foreign partner.
August 2013: Revision of the 2010 Roadmap for Power Sector Reform (RPSR) Document to
incorporate governments revised intention to pay more attention to use of solar energy in the
countrys power sector.
Solar PV Projects in Nigeria:
1985: 7kWp village PV lighting in Tunga-Buzu and Gotomo villages financed by Sokoto state
government and implemented by Birin-Kebbi Polytechnic.
1987: Siemens installed two PV-powered microwave repeater stations under sponsorship of the
Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS)

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1993: Installation of 7.2 kWp rural electrification system in Kwakwalawa village in Sokoto state by
the Sokoto energy research centre (SERC).
1994: 6.5 kW, is in Tunga-Benzu village in Kebbi State to provide energy for lighting and television
set operation, 7.5 kWp situated in Kwa-Kwalawa village in Sokoto State. Both commissioned in
1994, they were also executed by the Sokoto Energy Research Centre, and sponsored by the
Energy Commission of Nigeria.
1995: 7.5 kWp PV solar village located at Iheakpu-Akwa in Enugu State, was commissioned in
1995. This project was executed by the National Energy Research Centre, Nsukka.
No specified date: National centre for energy research and development (NCERD), Nsukka
installed a 1.5kWp capacity standby PV system to supplement power supply from electric
company at its premise.
No specified date: NCERD built a 2kWp capacity PV system at Iheakpu-Awka community in Enugu
State and a 2.85kWp solar PV plant at Hu-Mbauzo in Abia State.
No specified date: Design and fabrication of solar energy powered equipment/infrastructure by
members of the Solar Energy Society of Nigeria. The equipment/infrastructure include solar
cookers, solar heaters solar stills, solar dryers, improved wood-stoves, biogas digesters, passive
solar houses, solar refrigerators and air-conditioners, traffic lights and solar water supply systems.
No specified date: Solar cell production at Obafemi Awolowo University IIe-Ife
No specified date: Thin film Growth at the NCERD, Nsukka
No specified date: Solar-PV refrigerators produced by Solar Electric System of Jos
2001: Implementation of Village Electrification project in Jigawa State by Solar Electric Light Fund
SELF, an NGO based in USA and Jigawa State Government (funded by Japanese government) to
power essential services in 3 villages of Jigawa State. The project provides electricity to power
health clinics, schools, street lights, mosques, homes, micro-enterprise centers, and electric water
pumps for drinking and irrigation.
April 2003: Sixteen solar powered water projects commissioned in Nassarawa State.
2004: Cross River State government also used solar energy to generate and supply electricity to
Okundi community, Obude cattle ranch and Kanyiang game reserve in Boki local government
2006: Implementation of Bishop Kodji Solar PV project in Lagos. Project was likely financed
through a Rural Electrification Fund from the World Bank.
Unspecified date: Lagos State Electricity Board is currently running its office on solar and is
looking at the possibility of how public schools can benefit from the solar lights
March 2, 2013: Establishment of the solar-powered floating school at Makoko, Lagos by NL (a
private architectural firm based in the Netherlands but headed by a Nigerian) with support of
United Nations Development Programme/Federal Ministry of Environment (AAP) and Heinrich Bll
Foundation

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2013 - NASENI supplies solar panels to NITDA from its Karshi solar plant for powering NITDAs
Rural Information Technology Centres (RITCs). NASEMI claims to have installed solar panels across
all the countrys local government areas on behalf of NITDA.

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Appendix 2 - Interview questions


Interview with pioneer member of SESN and former DG of ECN
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.

What are the events, processes, actions and persons that facilitated the formation of the
Solar Energy Society of Nigeria in 1980?
Was formation of SESN in connection with any international process such as the U.N
debates, academic research collaboration or activities within the African continent?
Is the SESN still functioning actively? If it is not, what may have led to the limited level of
activity?
What are the accomplishments of ECN with regards to use of solar PV in Nigeria?
What are the major challenges faced by ECN with respect to promoting the use of solar
PV?
What might be the cause of delay in scaling up ECNs projects across the country?
How were the research activities of the energy research centres linked with the ECNs
projects?
What are the major factors that might be hindering widespread use of solar PV in
Nigeria?
What breakthroughs have been accomplished in solar PV technology and its application
by Nigerian researchers?
What are the major hindrances to local R&D activities in solar PV applications?

Interview with managing director of a Lagos-based solar PV company


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.

When was your company established?


What prompted your company to go into the solar PV business?
Can you describe your business process i.e. sourcing of equipments, installations and
servicing.
What other business areas is your company involved in?
What has been the reception of the populace to use of solar PV and can you give an
estimate of your sales level e.g. total installations in a week/month?
Who are your major customers?
What are the major challenges that you face in this line of business?
Is there any solar PV business coalition? Do you work in partnership with any other
organisation such as international business or donors, government or local NGO?
How would you rate the level of diffusion of solar electricity technology in Nigeria in the
past ten years and five years?
What do you think might be hindering widespread use of solar PV in Nigeria?
Do you receive funding or support from any national or international body?

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Appendix 3 - List of some solar PV projects implemented by ECN

State

Project

No of Projects

Abia

2.85kWp Solar based rural electrification

Akwa Ibom

1.75kWp Solar based electrification

Bayelsa

Solar based rural electrification

Benue

Solar based rural electrification

11

Delta

Solar based rural electrification

Delta

Solar plant

FCT, Abuja

Solar based rural electrification

Gombe

Solar based rural electrification

Jigawa

Solar based rural electrification

Jigawa

1.565kWp Solar-powered borehole and


street lighting

Katsina

Solar based rural electrification

18

Lagos

Solar based street lighting

Taraba

Solar based rural electrification

Taraba

Solar based rural street lighting

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Appendix 4 - Pictures of solar PV applications in Nigeria

Solar-based rural electrification project


Source: Ilenikhena and Ezemonye (2010)

Solar-based rural electrification project


Source: National Geographic (2011)

47

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Solar-powered borehole
Source: Sambo (2010)

Solar street lightning


Source: Sambo (2010)

Solar PV system at telecommunication repeater station


Source: Sambo, A.S. (2010)

48

Candidate No: 120078

Solar PV system for backup supply of electricity in Lagos state


Source: GP Systems and Solar (2012)

Solar PV system for backup supply of electricity in Lagos state


Source: Afrisolar (2013)

49

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Appendix 5 - List of Lagos-based solar PV companies listed by Posharp


S/N

Company

Other Business

A.C.Asor & Bros. Trading Stores Ltd.

Building

Anova Integrated Systems Limited

ICT

Crownsworth Nigeria Limited

ICT

Linkway Technologies Limited

Inverters

Greenpower Overseas Limited

Inverters

Hidoor Solutions

Inverters

Idsolar Power Supply Company

Inverters

Kingkenn Investment Company Limited

Inverters

Kings Solar Inc.

Inverters

10

O2 Alternative Power Solutions

Inverters

11

Wetcoast Nigeria Limited

Inverters

12

Prince Zubek Nigeria Ltd.

Inverters

13

Stormberg Power Ltd

Inverters

14

Afrisolar International Limited

Inverters

15

Bexolie Energy Technologies Ltd

Inverters

16

Gaiasolar Nigeria

Inverters

17

kingsbest power energy ltd

Inverters

18

Arthur Energy Technology Ltd

Only solar PV

19

Fadomeg global concept

Only solar PV

20

Grand Henry Nig ltd

Only solar PV

21

Green Seal Industrial and Commercial Company

Only solar PV

22

Prince Zubek Nig. Ltd.

Only solar PV

23

Solarmate Engineering Ltd.

Only solar PV

24

Prewoh Nieria Limited

Only solar PV

25

smarte solar systems, ltd

Only solar PV

26

Brianok Engineering Nigeria Limited

Only solar PV

27

Greenicles

Only solar PV

28

Pamtronics Nig Limited

Only solar PV

29

Rubitec Nigeria Limited

Only solar PV

30

The Solar Shop Ltd

Only solar PV

31

Solar Wizard Nigeria Ltd

Only solar PV

32

Profit & Comfort Energy Ltd

Other renewable technologies

33

Sonnekraft Technologies Ltd

Other renewable technologies

34

AngleLight Resources Ltd

Other renewable technologies

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