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Indonesian Tutorial written by Vremita Desectia

Learning to speak Indonesian is not as difficult as you think. The rules are so simple, it has no
gender, no agreement with plural/singular noun and genders and case and time, and it is easy to
pronounce.
As far as I know, the most problems that non-Indonesian-speakers have, are the prefixes,
suffixes, and circumfixes.
I don't give much of those forms of the language in this book, I only give the basics.
I admit it; it is difficult to understand the prefixes, suffixes, and circumfixes. Even the students in
the junior high schools seldom get an A+ for Indonesian :p
Did I say 'to understand'? Well, in the spoken language it does not matter (mostly) about the
usage of the prefixes and we can understand people well. But if you're in an Indonesian school
and you get the Indonesian subject. Well you have to think in Indonesian then.
Another problems in learning Indonesian: it has a lot of formal and informal forms.
But don't worry, since we only use the formal forms in a very formal situation (formal speech,
ceremonies, etc) and formal-written-Indonesian (newspapers, etc) and in poetry.
Indonesian also has ameliorative and pejorative words, and the use of these words depends on
the subjects. Example:
mati = die (natural sense)
we use these words to say 'die' but we see, "who dies"?
-mangkat = King
-gugur = soldier (die in the war, etc)
-wafat = good men (die because of old age)
-meninggal dunia = good men (die because of illness)
-tewas = people who die because of suicide, homicide, accident, etc.
-mampus = bad people, e.g a robber who dies because the police shot him
*for animal, just use the natural sense 'mati'.
And if you're talking in Indonesian and you don't know what to say, just use the natural word and
people will understand you. It's all right; it's just the sense.

If you're a tourist and you want to ask some help from Indonesians, don't worry about using
formal form or informal form because the words are both grammatically right; it's just the sense,
and we Indonesians can understand you well.
Good luck in learning Indonesian. (vremita_desectia [at] yahoo.com)

Alphabets
A
B
C
D
E

F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O

P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y

Pronunciation

Example

Meaning

car
bar
cheese, but softer, as in Italian ci, ce
day
an opened one: French les ()
a semi-opened one: end ()
a closed one: opened
fun
good
hard, hush
film
judge (Arabic )

aku
bola
cinta
dua
nenek
elang
embun
foto
gadis
hotel
ikan
janji

kind
law
mother
new
an opened one: of, ball ()
(as in Arabic ,)
A closed one: old ()
pure
quality
trilled like Italian, Spanish r,
like rrrrrrrrright :D (Arabic )
sand
time
good, blue
viva
hard one: wave
soft one: swing
extreme
hard one: you, yard
soft one: sounds like long ee
(Arabic )
zorro, not like Italian z (tz), but like bee

kata
lampu
mimpi
novel
omong

I (informal)
ball
love
two
Grandma
hawk
dew
photo
girl
hotel
fish
promise, to
promise
word
lamp
dream, to dream
novel
to say (informal)

orang
pandai, pintar
Quran
rumah

man, people
clever
The Koran
house

surat

letter

uang
voli
wafat
waktu
xerofit
yunior
yatim

money
volley
to die (polite)
time
xerofit
junior
kid who does not
have father
zygote

zigot

sound zzzz :D (Arabic )

Double
Pronunciation
Consonants
kh
Arabic
ng
singing English song

khusus
senang

ngg

mango, anggar

anggun

ny
sy

Sonya (name), Italian Signore nyanyi


Shy, Italian scendere
syarat
Diphthongs

ai
au

ia
iu
oi
ua

Pronunciation
I, find, Italian hai
now, Raul
Gonzales :D, Italian
naufragare (like
Arabic )
Italian, la mia bianca
scia
future, Italian pi,
giustizzia
boy, voice, Italian noi
Italian la sua

Example

Example

Meanings
specific
to be happy, glad,
cheerful, pleased
posh, beautiful, la
serenit
to sing
requirement

baik
mau

Meaning
good, well, nice
to will, want
(informal)

siang

afternoon

cium

kiss, to kiss

"Amboi!"
suara

"Wow!", "Gosh!"
voice

Note:
Some Indonesian words have double vowels, such as saat (time, when..) bait (a paragraph in a
poetry).
Sometimes, a word has 'triple diphtongs', like beliau (he, she, polite), sesuai (suitable). You
have to pronounce all the letters, because Indonesian pronunciation does not 'swallow' any word
of its words.
There are more diphthongs in Indonesian, but those are the most important.

Basic Phrases in Indonesian


Hello hai, halo
Good morning (til 10am) selamat pagi (selamat-closed e)
Good afternoon (til 3pm) selamat siang
Good evening (til 6pm) selamat sore (sore-semi-opened e)
Good night selamat malam
How are you? Apa kabar?
I am fine, thanks Baik, terimakasih
What is your name? Siapa nama Anda? (formal)
My name is __ Nama saya __
How old are you? Berapa umur Anda? (formal)
I am __ years old Umur saya __ tahun
Do you speak English? Apakah Anda berbicara bahasa Inggris? (formal)
Yes, I speak English Ya, saya berbicara bahasa Inggris
Can you speak English? Dapatkah Anda berbicara bahasa Inggris? (formal)
No, I can't speak English Tidak, saya tidak dapat berbicara bahasa Inggris
Nice to meet you Senang berkenalan dengan Anda (formal)
Note: To change formal forms into informal forms, simply change the word Anda to kamu.
Yes/No Ya/Tidak
Excuse me/Pardon me Permisi
Sorry Maaf
Thank you Terimakasih
You are welcome Sama-sama

Please Tolong
Goodbye Daag (daah - taken from Dutch language)
Selamat tinggal (it means.. 'never see you again')
Goodbye (have a nice trip) Selamat jalan
See you Sampai jumpa
Mr. Tuan (formal)
Bapak (married)
Saudara (not married)
Mrs. Nyonya (formal)
Ibu
Miss Nona (formal)
Saudari

I will add some note about addressing in Indonesian. Well, in Indonesian culture, people prefer to
address each other with their names. It is to respect other people. But sometimes in informal
situation, e.g with classmates, Indonesians can address others with 'kamu'.
When addressing elder people, Indonesians NEVER use 'kamu', but Indonesians also seldom
address with Anda. Indonesians usually address with 'Bapak' or 'Ibu' or 'Saudara/i'. Sometimes it
is followed with the person's name. For example, Bapak Ahmad.
Do NOT address these people with 'kamu':
-

Any member of your family. I mean, ANY. Even your little sister.

Your teachers, even if they are younger than you.

- Your schoolmates that are in grades higher than you, e.g. you're in Grade 10th, so you
shouldn't address the 11th Graders with 'kamu'.
-

Your colleagues

Any persons in your business life.

Any elder people you know or you meet.

Strangers.

You should address these people with 'Bapak' or 'Ibu' (can be followed with their names):
-

Your teachers

Any persons in your business life.

Any elder people you know or you meet.

Note on addressing in family:


Indonesians prefer to address their family members with their status, example:
Bapak / Ayah / Papa father
Ibu / Bunda / Mama mother
Kakak elder sister/brother
Adik younger sister/brother

Nenek grandmother
Kakek grandfather
Paman/Om your parents' brother
Bibi/Tante your parents' sister
etc.
When addressing cousins, Indonesians tend to use 'kamu' or their names instead.

A similar rule applies to the first person pronoun (saya and aku).
The rule is pretty simple, just call yourselves with 'saya' when talking to elderly people, at
work/school, business, in public, when talking to strangers, and some other formal situations.
Call yourselves with 'aku' when talking to your friends, younger persons, and some other
informal situations.
Important note:
- Old people, married people, business men/women, etc always call themselves 'saya' instead of
'aku' due to politeness. They also NEVER address people with 'kamu'. They always address with
Bapak, Ibu, Saudara/i, and can be followed by the persons' names.
- Young people can call themselves with 'saya' or 'aku', while the rules of politeness apply, as
mentioned above.

Singular Pronouns
I
you (singular)
he, she, it

saya (formal)
aku (informal)
Anda (formal) >> also formal plural
kamu (informal)
ia (formal)
beliau (formal, addressing an elder person)
beliau-closed e
dia

Plural Pronouns
we
you (plural)
he, she, it

kami (I and my friend)


kita (I, my friend, and you)
Anda (formal) >> also formal singular
kalian (informal)
mereka

Indonesian singular and plural nouns are easy to recognize.


buku a book
buku-buku some books
komputer a computer
komputer-komputer some computers
But be careful; repeated words not only express plural form, but they also mean other things.
Sometimes, prefixes/suffixes/circumfixes are added, or the letters/sound are changed.
Meaning
look-a-like
frequnciness
reciprocal
slightly

Word
mobil-mobilan
memukul-mukul
berpandang-pandangan
kemerah-merahan

Meaning
not a real car; just a car toy
to hit a few times
to gaze at each other
nearly red; pink-red

Note
mobil: car
pukul: to hit
pandang: to gaze
merah: red

Actually there are some other functions of the repeated words, but since we need more knowledge about the
language (even we Indonesians still have to study about these forms), I decided not to give them yet. But if you find
any Indonesian sentences that you feel difficult to translate, just send me an e-mail and I'll contact you.

Articles

Actually, Indonesian does not have articles. But we have different ways to say 'a/an/some' and 'the' for person/s,
thing/s, or animal/s.

The rule is to add 'se' (which means one, a/an) plus a special word.

Singular Plural
Person: seorang Persons: beberapa orang
Thing: sebuah Things: beberapa buah
Animal: seekor Animals: beberapa ekor
*What have you learnt? Good. 'beberapa' can be translated as 'some'.

Kakakku adalah seorang guru


My sister/brother is a teacher

Saya mempunyai beberapa ekor kelinci


I have some rabbits
*Notice: beberapa ekor kelinci >> 'beberapa' showed the plural form, so you don't have to say
'beberapa ekor kelinci-kelinci'.
There are several other indefinite articles. They are specialized:
Secarik/selembar kertas a (piece of) paper
Sebutir telur an egg
Sebulir air mata a tear (liquid comes from the eye)
Sepotong roti a (piece of) bread
Setetes air a dip of water

Actually there are still lots of articles like those, but those are the most common.

I'll tell you that Indonesian does not have the verb 'to be'. But sometimes, it's similar to the
Indonesian word adalah. Only for several situation:
Saya adalah pelajar.
I am a student.
Ini adalah buku saya.
This is my book.
Itu adalah kesalahan besar.
That is a big mistake.
However, in informal situation (mostly in spoken Indonesian), we can omit the word adalah.
In formal/written language, this word is just sometimes omitted.
And remember that adalah CAN'T be used as 'to be' when:
-telling time
-showing adjectives
-passive sentence, e.g. I am called.

Indonesian only has two ways to say this, these, that, or those:
this, these ini
that, those itu
Note: The demonstratives are placed after the noun, i.e:
kursi ini this chair
meja itu (mdja) that table
kursi-kursi ini these chairs
meja-meja itu those tables
*In the informal spoken language, we can place the demonstrative before/after the noun.
How to say here, there:
sini

sana

here

sana

di sini

di sana

In here, at here

in there, at there

ke sini

ke sana

to here

to there

Possesive Pronouns

My
Your
Her, his, its

. saya (formal)
-ku (informal)
. Anda (formal)
-mu (informal)
-nya

Pacarmu adalah teman sekolahku


Your girlfriend/boyfriend is my schoolmate
Boleh saya beritahu kamu rahasianya?
May I tell you her/his secret?
Sebenarnya dia adalah tunangan saya
Actually he/she is my fiance/e
Note:
-nya can also define a noun (definite article). Example:
Radionya menyala
The radio is turned on
Aku membawa bukunya
I bring the book

Our
Your
Their

. kami, . kita
. kalian
. mereka

Mari kita mulai pelajaran kita

Let us start our lesson


Tutup mata kalian.. tarik nafas..
Close your eyes.. take a breath..
Dengarkan suara mereka..
Listen to their voice..
Mine
Yours
Hers, his, its

Milik saya, milikku, punya saya (formal)


Punyaku (informal)
Milik Anda, milikmu (formal)
Punyamu (informal)
Miliknya (formal)
Punyanya (informal)

Jangan sentuh! Buku itu milik saya


Don't touch! That book is mine
Dan ini milik Anda
And this is yours
Maaf, tapi buku yang Anda pegang itu miliknya
Sorry, but the book you're holding is hers
Ours
Yours
Theirs

Milik kami, milik kita (formal)


Punya kami, punya kita (informal)
Milik Anda, milik kalian (formal)
Punya kalian (informal)
Milik mereka (formal)
Punya mereka (informal)

Mobil ini milik kita


This car is ours
Dua mobil itu milik kalian

Those two cars are yours


Dan yang baru itu milik mereka
And that new one is theirs

Present, Past, and Future tense


Simpler than you think. Just put:
tengah (formal)
sedang (informal)
telah (formal)
sudah (informal)
akan

present, simple present, perfect present, continuous, etc.


past, simple past, past participle, etc.
future, conditional, etc.

Saya merokok
Saya sedang merokok
Saya sudah merokok

I smoke
I am smoking
I smoked
I have smoked
I had smoked
I have been smoking

Saya akan merokok

I had been smoking


I will smoke
I will be smoking
I will have smoked

The subject, the verb, the nouns, the adjectives, and the adverbs do not change their forms.

Negation

Indonesian has two ways to form a negative sentence. We use the words tidak and bukan. The
word bukan is to form a negative sentence such as denial about something, then follow the clause
with an explanation using the word melainkan (but).

Tidak:

Buku itu tidak bagus.


That book is not good.

Saya tidak tahu.


I don't know.
Bukan:
Buku itu bukan hitam, melainkan hijau.
That book is not black, but (it is) green.

Saya bukan dokter, melainkan reporter.


I am not a doctor, but (I am) a reporter.

Position

Di
Di atas
Di bawah
Di depan
Di belakang
Di samping
Di dalam
Di luar
Di antara

in, on, at
up, upon, on, onto, over, above
down, under, below
in front of
behind
beside
in, into, inside
out, outside
between

Ke
Ke atas
Ke bawah
Ke depan
Ke belakang
Ke samping
Ke dalam
Ke luar
Dari
Dari dalam
Dari luar
Kue itu di atas meja
The cake is on the table
Saya di sekolah
I am at school
Saya pergi ke sekolah
I go to school
Saya pindah ke depan
I move towards
Saya dari kedai kopi
I am from the coffee shop

to
upwards
downwards
forwards, towards
backwards
aside
inside
outside
from
from inside
from outside

(I just from the coffee shop)


(I just back from the coffee shop)

Comparative and Superlative


Just add:
lebih for comparative
paling or ter- for superlative
big besar
bigger lebih besar
biggest paling besar / terbesar
small kecil
smaller lebih kecil
smallest paling kecil
Botol ini lebih besar daripada itu
This bottle is bigger than that
Bola ini lebih kecil daripada itu
This ball is smaller than that
Ini adalah botol terkecil / paling kecil
This is the smallest bottle
Itu adalah ball terbesar / paling besar
That is the biggest ball
Note:
Daripada means 'than'. It can also means 'instead of'
Saya lebih muda daripada kamu
I am younger than you
Dia akan bermain piano daripada bernyanyi
He will play the piano instead of singing

Useful words
at, in, on

di -- we'll learn further about this :D

to

ke (closed e)

from

dari

for

untuk

that, which

yang

(similar to Italian che)

yang

now

sekarang (closed e)

before

sebelum (closed e)

after

sesudah (closed e)

very

sangat (before the word)

very

sekali (after the word))

until

sampai (places)

until

hingga

because

karena, sebab

will (going to)

akan

have (avere)

sudah

not yet

belum

is spite of / despite

walaupun (formal), walau (informal)

If

jika, bila, seandainya, andaikan, andai


(formal), kalau (informal)

only, just
hanya (before the word)
only, just
saja (after the word)
with, by

dengan (closed e)
Saya sangat senang
I am very happy
Kamu cantik sekali / Kamu sangat cantik
You are very beautiful
Kamu tampan sekali / Kamu sangat tampan
You are very handsome
Saya sudah sarapan
I have had breakfast
Saya belum sarapan
I have not had breakfast yet
Jika Anda merasa kesulitan, saya siap membantu Anda
If you feel any difficulties, I am ready to help you
Kalau kamu mau, aku akan ke rumahmu besok
If you want, I will come to your house tomorrow

Questions
what

apa

who

siapa

where at

mana, di mana / dimana

where to

ke mana / kemana

which one

yang mana

when

kapan

why

mengapa (formal)

why

kenapa (informal)

how

bagaimana

how much/

berapa

how many

(all e in this column are closed e)

Apa yang kamu lihat?


What are you looking at?
Siapa di sana?
Who is there?
Dimana kamu?
Where are you?
Kemana kamu pergi?
Where are you going?
Bunga yang mana yang paling indah?
Which flower is the most beautiful?
Mengapa kamu menangis?
Why are you crying?
Kenapa kamu tidak menjawab?
Why aren't you answering?
Berapa harganya?
How much does it cost?
Berapa banyak kelinci yang kamu punyai/kamu miliki?
How many rabbits do you have?

Numbers
0 nol
1 satu
2 dua
3 tiga
4 empat
5 lima
6 enam
7 tujuh
8 delapan
9 sembilan
10 sepuluh
11 sebelas
12 duabelas
13 tigabelas
14 empatbelas
15 limabelas
16 enambelas
17 tujuhbelas
18 delapanbelas
19 sembilanbelas
20 duapuluh
21 duapuluh satu

22 duapuluh dua
23 duapuluh tiga
24 duapuluh empat
25 duapuluh lima
30 tigapuluh
40 empatpuluh
50 limapuluh
60 enampuluh
70 tujuhpuluh
80 delapanpuluh
90 sembilanpuluh
100 seratus
101 seratus satu
110 saratus sepuluh
120 seratus duapuluh
200 duaratus
300 tigaratus
1.000 seribu
10.000 sepuluh ribu
100.000 seratus ribu
1.000.000 satu juta
1.000.000.000 satu milyar

Kedua pria itu sangat tampan


Those two guys are very handsome
Saya menyukai keduanya
I love both of them (those two guys)
Saya akan mendekati salah satu dari mereka
I will approach one of them
Hei, kalian berdua! Ini nomor telepon saya:
Hey, you two! Here's my phone number:
Nol-enam-dua-dua-tujuh-empat-delapan-delapan-dua-tiga-nol-satu
Zero-six-two-two-seven-four-eight-eight-two-three-zero-one
Telepon saya sesudah pukul sembilan malam
Call me after nine p.m.
Kamu sudah menelepon saya sekali / dua kali / tiga kali
You have called me once / twice / three times

Numbers
First pertama
Second kedua
Third ketiga
Fourth keempat
Fifth kelima
*and just add ke- and so on :P
Saya merupakan anak pertama di dalam keluarga saya

I am the first child in my family


Saya mendapat rank kedua di sekolah saya
I got the second rank in my school
Ini adalah ketiga kalinya saya mendapat posisi bagus di sekolah saya
This is the third time I got good position in my school
Dan untuk keempat kalinya, orangtua saya memberikan saya hadiah
And for the fourth time, my parents give me prizes

Days in a Week
Sunday Ahad / Minggu
Monday Senin
Tuesday Selasa
Wednesday Rabu
Thursday Kamis
Friday Jumat (Jum'at)
Saturday Sabtu
week minggu
day hari
holiday hari libur
yesterday kemarin
today hari ini
tomorrow esok (formal), besok (informal)
next tomorrow lusa
Notice how similar are those days with Arabic numbers:

wahid, isnain, tsalasa, arba'atun, khamsatun, etc.


However, usually Indonesian starts the day with Senin, Selasa, etc.
Hari apa hari ini?
What day is today?
Hari ini hari Minggu
Today is Sunday
Aduh, aku harus masuk sekolah besok!
Ow, I have to go to school tomorrow!

(literally: I have to be inside the school tomorrow. Masuk: in, inside)

Besok? Tapi besok hari libur


Tomorrow? But tomorrow is holiday

Eh.. Aku ketinggalan sesuatu di sekolah kemarin.. Tugas untuk minggu ini
Er.. I left something in school yesterday.. Homework for this week

Pergilah. Aku akan menunggumu. Ingat, kita akan ada pesta malam ini
Off you go. I'll be waiting for you. Remember, we'll have a party tonight

Oke. Sampai nanti


Okay. See you later

Months in a Year
January Januari
February Februari
March Maret
April April
May Mei
June Juni
July Juli
August Agustus
September September
October Oktober
November November
December Desember
month bulan
year tahun
Note: The word 'month' (bulan) in Indonesian is the same as 'moon' (bulan).
Saya akan ke Jakarta pada bulan Mei
I am going to Jakarta on May
Saya akan ke SMU tahun ini
I am going to go to high school this year
Direction
North utara
Northwest barat laut

West barat
Southwest barat daya
South selatan
Southeast tenggara
East timur
Northeast timur laut
Rumahku terletak di timur Masjid
My house is to the east of the mosque
Di selatannya terdapat rumah sepupuku
To the south of it there is my cousin's house

Colors
black hitam
grey abu-abu
white putih
red merah
pink merah muda
green hijau
blue biru
yellow kuning
orange oranye
purple ungu
brown cokelat
dark green hijau tua
light green hijau muda
dark blue biru tua
light blue biru muda
*and so on
Matanya berwarna cokelat muda
His eyes are light brown
Saya menyukai jaket biru tua itu
I love that dark blue jacket

Seasons
Spring musim semi

Summer musim panas


Fall musim gugur
Winter musim dingin
Rain musim hujan
Dry musim kemarau
Note: musim means season
Pada musim kemarau udara menjadi dingin
In dry season the air becomes so cold

Countries, Languages, and Nationalities


Australia

Australia

Belgium

Belgia

Canada

Kanada

China

Cina

Croatia

Kroasia

France

Perancis

Egypt

Mesir

England

Inggris

Germany

Jerman

Great Britain Britania Raya


Italy

Italia

Japan

Jepang

Mexico

Meksiko

Netherlands

Belanda

Norway

Norwegia

Poland

Polandia

Russia

Rusia

Saudi Arabia

Arab Saudi

Singapore

Singapura

Spain

Spanyol

Sweden

Swedia

Switzerland

Swiss

Turkey

Turki

USA

Amerika Serikat

Those are some of the country names. What about the languages and nationalities? Simple. Just
put bahasa (language) or orang (people, person, man/woman) before the name of the country
you desire.
Australia Australia
English Bahasa Inggris
Australian Orang Australia
Saudi Arabia Arab Saudi
Arabic Bahasa Arab
Arabian Orang Arab
Italy Italia
Italian Bahasa Italia
Italian Orang Italia
Note: If you're an American and you speak English, then you shouldn't say "Saya berbicara
bahasa Amerika", but you should say "Saya berbicara bahasa Inggris".

Family
Mother Ibunda (very formal)
Bunda (formal)
Ibu (informal/familiar)
Father Ayahanda (very formal)
Ayah (formal)
Bapak (informal/familiar)
Elder sister / brother Kakak
Younger sister / brother Adik
Elder brother Kanda (very formal)
Younger sister Dinda (very formal)
Grandmother Nenek
Grandfather Kakek
Granddaughter / grandson Cucu
Husband Suami
Wife Istri
Daughter Putri
Son Putra
Aunt Bibi (vocative: Tante)
Uncle Paman (vocative: Om)
Cousin Sepupu

Nephew / niece Kemenakan (formal)


Keponakan (informal)
Mother-in-law Ibu mertua
Father-in-law Ayah mertua
Elder sister/brother-in-law Kakak ipar
Younger sister/brother-in-law Adik ipar
Stepmother Ibu tiri
Stepfather Ayah tiri
Step-eldersister/brother Kakak tiri
Step-younger sister/brother Adik tiri

Animals
cat kucing
dog anjing (pejorative)
fish ikan
ant semut
rooster/hen ayam
cow sapi
goat kambing
bee lebah
bird burung
rabbit kelinci
elephant gajah
giraffe jerapah
frog katak (ameliorative), kodok (pejorative)
snake ular
sheep biri-biri
butterfly kupu-kupu
spider laba-laba
Note:

'anjing' can also means a kind of profanity. So, be careful if you want to say it to an
Indonesian.
Biri-biri, kupu-kupu, and laba-laba do not have plural forms. But they are always
written/spoken twice like that, not; biri, kupu, or laba. I don't know why, but that's what I
learnt in kindergarten :p

Schools and Professions


School sekolah
Teacher guru
Student murid
Book buku
Pen pena
Class kelas
Classroom ruang kelas
Math matematika
Biology biologi
Geography geografi
Chemical kimia
History sejarah
Economy ekonomi
Physic fisika
accountant akuntan
engineer insinyur
office worker karyawan (m), karyawati (f)
doctor dokter
teacher guru
architect arsitek
lawyer pengacara
Note:

teacher means guru. Literally, it also means 'pengajar'. >>


ajar to study/to teach
mengajar teach
pengajar teacher
pelajar student
belajar to study

Now it's time to get serious. I will give some examples about the conjugation with prefixes,
suffixes, and circumfixes.
Prefixes
word
me
Tulis
Menulis
(to
(write)
write)
Jalan
(to
walk)
Baca
Membaca
(to read) (read)
Lihat Melihat
(to see) (see)
Dengar Mendengar
(to hear, (hear,
listen) listen)

ber
-

di
ter
Ditulis
Tertulis
(written) (written)

pe
Penulis
(writer)

per memper se
-

Berjalan (to walk)

Pejalan
(walker

Terbaca
(read)
Terlihat
(seen)
Terdengar
(heard)

Reader
(pembaca)
-

Pendengar
(listener)

Dibaca
(read)
Dilihat
(seen)
Didengar
(heard)

The table that I left does not mean that the words do not exist; they just don't make sense, or they
need a suffix.
The prefix 'memper-' has two function:
1. if it is followed by an adjective, it is to make something to be.. (the adjective).
2. if it is followed by a verb, it is to do something to other person, to make other person.. (the
verb)
There is a confusion between the prefix 'pe' and 'per'.
-

'pe' shows the person who does the verb, while

'per' shows the person who has a profession as the verb.

'se' means one. You can see how it works on the numbering section.

Prefixes, suffixes, and circumfixes


Prefix

-an

Prefix and suffix


me-kan

ber-

-kan

me-i

di-

-i

memper-i

ter-

-wan

memper-kan

pe-

-man

pe-an

per-

-lah

per-an

me-

Circumfix
-em-

Suffix

memper-

ber-an

se-

se-nya

ke-

Prefixes >> prefixes are always closed e


me-

to make an active Mengambil


sentence, to
make something Membuat
change, and
needs an object Mencari
(watch how the
letter changes
Mendengar
before the first
word of the
Mengevaluasi
infinitive)
Mengganti

Me + ambil

To take

Me + buat

To make, to create

Me + cari

To search, to look for

Me + dengar

To hear, to listen to

Me + evaluasi

To evaluate

Me + ganti

To change

Menghilang

Me + hilang

To be disappeared

Mengisi

Me + isi

To fill in

Menjual

Me + jual

To sell

Mengira

Me + kira

To guess

Melihat

Me + lihat

To see

Memasak

Me + masak

To cook

Mengoperasi

Me + operasi

To do an operation(surgery)

Memindah

Me + pindah

To move (stuff)

Merasa

Me + rasa

To feel

Menyapu

Me + sapu

To sweep

Menulis

Me + tulis

To write

Mengulang
Saya mengambil baju-baju saya

Me + ulang
To repeat
I take my clothes

Kamu membuat lukisan

You make a painting (you paint/you are painting)

Saya mencari teman saya

I look for my friend

Saya mendengar sesuatu

I hear something

Kamu mengisi gelas itu dengan air

You fill the glass with water

Ayah menjual mobilnya

Father sells his car

Kamu melihatku?

Do you see me?

Saya memindah weblog saya

I move my weblog

Saya merasa capai / lelah

I feel tired

Dia menyapu lantai

She/he sweeps the floor

Kamu menulis sebuah lagu

You write a song

ber-

Ber + angkat

To have a departure

Ber + bahasa

To have an ability to speak


a/some language/s

to make an active Berangkat


sentence that
does not have to Berbahasa
followed by an
object
Bercinta

Ber + cinta
To have sex

Berdansa

Ber + dansa

Berguru

Ber + guru

To have a dance

Berhitung

Ber + hitung

To have a study

Berjanji

Ber + janji

To have count

Bermain

Ber + main

To have a promise

Berpura-pura

Ber + pura-pura To have a play

Bersantai

Ber + santai

To have a pretend

Bertaruh

Ber + taruh

To have a relax

Berubah

Ber + ubah

To have a bet

Bervariasi

Ber + variasi

To have a change

Berzina

Ber + zina

To have a variation

Ayah berangkat ke kantor

To have an affair, a
prostitution
Father leaves for office

Saya berbahasa Indonesia

I speak Indonesian

Apakah kamu bercinta dengannya?

Do you have sex with her?

Maukah kamu berdansa denganku?

Would you dance with me?

Saya berjanji padamu

I promise you

Jangan berpura-pura tidak tahu

Don't pretend like you don't know

Mari bersantai di gazebo

Let's have a relax in the gazebo

Aku bertaruh dia akan menang

I bet she/he will win

di-

to make a
passive
sentence

Diambil

Di + ambil

To be taken

Dibuat

Di + buat

To be made

note: must be Dicari


caused by

Di + cari

To be searched, to be looked for

something

Didamba

Di + damba

To be wanted, to be waited

Di + ganti

To be changed

Di + huni

To be occupied

Diisi

Di + isi

To be filled in

Dijumlah

Di + jumlah

To be calculated

Dikandung

Di + kandung

To be contained

Dilihat

Di + lihat

To be seen

Diminta

Di + minta

To be asked

Diolah

Di + olah

To be processed (factory)

Diproses

Di + proses

To be processed

Dirinci

Di + rinci

To be explained, to be described

Disumpah

Di + sumpah

To be sworn

Ditambah

Di + tambah

To be added, to be increased

(not
Diganti
improvviso)
Dihuni

Diulang
Kamu dicari orangtuamu

Di + ulang

To be repeated
You are looked for by your parents

Jadwal hari ini telah diganti

(your parents [are]look[ing] for you)

Rumah ini hanya dihuni oleh kami berdua

Today's schedule is changed

Aku sudah lakukan apa yang diminta olehnya

This house is only occupied by us

Susu itu diolah di pabrik

(just us that live in this house)

Saya adalah penerjemah yang telah disumpah

I have done what she/he asked me to


The milk is processed in the factory
I am a sworn translator

Ter-

To make a superlative

Terbaru

Ter + baru

The newest

Note: you can change Tercantik


the prefix 'ter-' with the
word paling, i.e:
Terenak

Ter + cantik

The fairest (woman)

Ter + enak

The most delicious

terbaru = paling baru

Terindah

Ter + indah

The most beautiful

(the newest)

Terkecil

Ter + kecil

The smallest

Terlebar

Ter + lebar

The widest

Termanis

Ter + manis

The sweetest

Terpandai

Ter + pandai

The cleverest/the smartest

Terpintar

Ter + pintar

The cleverest/the smartest

Tertua
Terambil

Ter + tua
Ter + ambil

The oldest
To be taken

Ter + curi

To be stolen

Ter + ganggu

To be disturbed

Ter + ingat

To be remember

Terjual

Ter + jual

To be sold

Terlihat

Ter + lihat

To be seen

To make a passive
sentence, but not like
di-, we don't know if the Tercuri
word with ter- is caused
by somehing or just
Terganggu
improvviso
Teringat

Tertulis
Dia adalah wanita tercantik di Swedia

Ter + tulis
To be written
She is the most beautiful woman in Sweden

Bali adalah tempat terindah yang pernah kulihat

Bali is the most beautiful place I've ever seen

Kenangan itu termanis dalam hidupku

That was the sweetest memory in my life ever

Dia adalah anak terpandai di kelas


Saya merasa sangat terganggu

He is the cleverest boy in the class


I am feeling so disturbed/annoyed/aggravated

Saya teringat akan Bali

I remember about Bali

Gaun itu telah terjual

The gown is sold

Kamu bisa terlihat orang lain!

You could have been seen!

Kalimat itu tertulis di kertas

That sentence is written on the paper

Pe- Person /
Pengambil
thing who
does,
Pemburu
makes, etc.
Pencium

Pe + ambil

Person who takes

Pe + buru

Hunter

Pe + cium

Kisser

Pendaki

Pe + daki

Hiker

Penghitung

Pe + hitung

Person who counts

Pengikut

Pe + ikut

A tool used for counting things

Penjual

Pe + jual

Follower

Pengasih

Pe + kasih

Seller

Pelukis

Pe + lukis

Person who likes to give

Pemula

Pe + mula

Painter

Pemukul

Pe + pukul

Beginner

Penyanyi

Pe + nyanyi

Person who hits

Penyaji

Pe + saji

Singer

Penari

Pe + tari

Servant

Penunggu

Pe + tunggu

Dancer

Dia adalah pendaki yang hebat

Person who waits


She/he is a great climber

Mereka adalah pengikutku

They are my follower

Pelan-pelan, aku masih pemula

Slow down, I am still a beginner

Aku ingin menjadi penyanyi

I want to be a singer

Kamu adalah penari yang baik

You are a good dancer

Dia adalah pencium yang hebat

He's an unbelieveable kisser

Indonesian phrases in several situations


1. Common expressions
Saya senang
I am happy/glad
Saya sedih
I am sad
Saya lelah
I am tired
Saya lapar
I am hungry
Saya haus
I am thirsty
Saya mengantuk
I am sleepy
Saya takut
I am scared/I am afraid
Saya bingung
I am confused
Saya bosan
I am bored
Saya sakit
I am sick/I am ill

2. In the restaurant
Pelayan!
Waiter! Waitress!
Tolong menunya
The menu, please
Apa menu spesial hari ini?
What's the special menu of today?
Saya pesan..
I want.. (literally: I reserve)
Jangan terlalu pedas / asin / manis
Don't be too spicy(hot) / salty / sweet
Tolong bonnya
The bill, please
Makanan Foods Minuman Beverages
Nasi rice air water
Sup soup susu milk
Daging meat kopi coffee
Telur egg teh tea
Mie noodle jus juice
Ayam chicken bir beer
Sapi beef limun lemonade
Jagung corn
Jamur mushroom

Keju cheese
Tomat tomato
Kentang potato
Kue cake
Roti bread
Note:
Nowadays, western foods in Indonesian restaurants are written as their natives:
salad, spaghetti, tiramisu, pizza, kebab, sushi, yakiniku, etc.

3. In the hotel
Anda punya kamar kosong?
Do you have any unoccupied rooms?
Kamar Anda di lantai satu / dua / tiga
Your room is on 1st floor / 2nd floor / 3rd floor
Ini kunci kamar Anda
This is your key
Anda punya kamar yang lebih baik / murah?
Do you have any rooms better(nicer) / cheaper?
Saya ingin kamar dengan..
I want a room with..
Saya tidak memerlukan kamar dengan..
I do not need a room with.. (it's not necessary to me)
Kamar mandi, air panas, ekstra bed, AC, televisi, lemari es, telepon
Bathroom, hot water, extra bed, AC, TV, refrigerator, telephone
Apakah sudah termasuk sarapan?
Is breakfast included?
Saya mau check in / check out
I want to check in / check out
Tolong angkat koper saya
Please lift my luggage
Tolong carikan taksi
Please get me a taxi

4. In the city
Taksi!
Taxi!
Tolong antar saya ke..
Please take me to the..
Berhenti! Stop!
Stop!
Berapa saya harus bayar?
How much do I have to pay?
Permisi, dimana..
Excuse me, where is the..
Belok kanan / kiri
Turn right / left
Lurus
Move towards
Saya mau tukar 100 Euro ini dengan Rupiah
I want to change these 100 Euros to Rupiahs
Places
bank bank
restoran restaurant
supermarket supermarket
hotel hotel
mall mall

halte bus bus shelter


rumah sakit hospital
kantor polisi police station
gereja church
masjid mosque
kantor pos post office
toko buku bookstore / bookshop
bar bar
kafe caf
kedai kopi coffeshop
bioskop cinema

5. Dating (lol)
Vada's note:
Muahaha.. Well for me there's nothing more interesting in learning languages than memorizing
the romantic phrases.. (that's my opinion.. but people are different, aren't they?)
Maukah kamu pergi denganku Sabtu malam?
Do you want to go with me Saturday night?
Tentu, kemana kita akan pergi?
Sure, where will we go?
Bolehkah saya menjemputmu?
May I pick you up?
Terimakasih atas malam yang indah
Thank you for the wonderful night
Boleh saya cium kamu? Boleh saya memberimu sebuah ciuman?
May I kiss you? May I give you a kiss?
*And perhaps these phrases below are useful if you have an Indonesian boyfriend/girlfriend
Saya cinta padamu (formal)
Saya mencintaimu (whoa.. poetry-language)
Saya sayang kamu
Saya menyayangimu (again, poetry-language)
I love you
Saya rindu kamu
Saya merindukanmu (poetry-language really sounds romantic to Indonesian)
I miss you

Saya bermimpi tentangmu


Saya memimpikanmu (poetry-language is seldom used, because it's too beautiful to be said)
I dream of you
Saya berpikir tentangmu
Saya memikirkanmu (well, we love poetry-language..)
I think of you
*If you want to say it with 'very much' just add sangat before the verbs (and also before
adjectives).

Here's some phrases I've taken from Russian.. but I translated them into English and Indonesian
My sun
My dear
My bunny
My sweet
Come to me my dear
My love
Good girl
Good boy
My little angel
Remember, I'm always next to
you
I'll do everything perfectly
Don't worry
Relax, i'll do that
Let me do that
Trust me
Everything's gonna be alright
You can do it
I believe in you
I'll help you
You are not alone
I'm next to you
I'm here
Darling, don't worry
You're strong
We will do it
Easy, everything is ok
Everything is going all right
It's normal

Matahariku / mentariku
Sayangku
Kelinciku
Manisku
Kemarilah padaku, sayang
Cintaku
Gadis baik
Pria baik
Malaikat kecilku
Ingat, saya selalu di sampingmu
Saya akan lakukan semua dengan baik
Jangan khawatir
Rileks, saya akan melakukannya
Biarkan saya melakukannya
Percayalah padaku
Semua akan baik-baik saja
Kamu bisa melakukannya
Saya percaya padamu
Saya akan membantumu
Kamu tidak sendiri
Saya di sampingmu
Saya di sini
Sayang, jangan khawatir
Kamu sangat tangguh
Kita akan melakukannya
Tenang, semua baik-baik saja
Semua baik-baik saja
Itu normal

Marriage proposal
*In Indonesia, the person who usually gives the proposal is the man. So most of Indonesian
women usually just 'wait and accept' or 'wait and refuse'.
I only know several phrases in marriage proposal to a woman.
I want you to be my wife.
I love you very much and ask you
to be my wife.
All I pray for god is you to say
"yes!"
I wish it so badly!
Be my wife!
Marry me!
We are created for each other.
Say "yes!"
I want us to always be together.
Let's go through life together.
I want so badly that we have a
real family.
Let's create a real family.
I want so much for you to marry
me.
We love each other so much!
I love you so much.
Finally I want to tell you this:
I need you so much.
I can't live without you.
Say that you love me!
I feel so good next to you.
You became everything for me!
I thank god that I met you.
You are my destiny
I swear I'll give you my heart.
I think of you day and night
You are all that I need.
Am I deserving of your love?
Believe me.
I am the happiest man on earth
because I met you.
I want you to be only mine.
Let's never part.
I love you

Saya ingin kamu menjadi istriku


Saya sangat mencintaimu dan memintamu
untuk menjadi istriku
Saya berdoa kepada Tuhan agar kamu berkata
'ya'
Saya sangat mengharapkannya!
Jadilah istriku!
Menikahlah denganku!
Kita diciptakan untuk bersama. Katakan 'ya'.
Saya ingin kita selalu bersama
Mari hidup bersama
Saya ingin kita berkeluarga
Marilah berkeluarga
Saya ingin sekali kamu menikahi saya
Kita sangat mencintai satu sama lain
Saya sangat mencintaimu
Akhirnya, saya ingin mengatakannya padamu:
Saya sangat memerlukanmu
Saya tidak dapat hidup tanpamu
Katakan bahwa kamu mencintaiku
Saya senang bersamamu
Kamu adalah segalanya bagiku
Terimakasih Tuhan, saya bertemu denganmu
Kamulah takdirku
Saya bersumpah akan memberimu hatiku
Saya memikirkanmu siang dan malam
Kamulah yang kuperlukan
Apa saya berhak atas cintamu?
Percayalah padaku
Saya adalah orang paling bahagia di dunia
karena saya menemukanmu
Saya ingin kamu hanya milikku
Jangan pernah berpisah
Saya cinta kamu. Saya mencintaimu. Saya
sayang kamu.

I can't live without you


Saya tidak dapat hidup tanpamu
I need you
Saya membutuhkanmu
I need you so much
Saya sangat membutuhkanmu
I wish you were mine
Kuharap kamu milikku
I love you with all my heart, with Saya mencintaimu dengan sepenuh hatiku,
all my soul
dengan sepenuh jiwaku
There's no borders for my love
Tidak ada halangan bagi cintaku
There's no obstacles for our love Tidak ada halangan bagi cinta kita
I fell in love with you from the first Saya jatuh cinta padamu sejak pandangan
sight
pertama
Come to me, my love
Kemarilah padaku, cinta
All ages are dutiful to love
Semua umur berhak mencinta
I can't live without your love
Saya tidak dapat hidup tanpa cintamu
Give me your love
Berikan saya cinta
I give you all my love
Saya memberimu seluruh cinta saya
There's no happiness without your
Tidak ada kebahagiaan tanpa cintamu
love
I will always love you
Saya akan selalu mencintaimu
I want you to know - there's love Saya ingin kamu mengetahui: ada cinta di
in my heart
hatiku
Our love won't disappear with
Cinta kita tak akan hilang dimakan waktu
years
I am proud of our love
Saya bangga akan cinta kita

You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You

are so beautiful
are so handsome
are so wonderful
are so splendid
are so exciting
are so lovely
are so pretty
are so cute
are so sweet
are so sensitive
are so talented
are so wise
are so understanding
are so soft
are so gentle
are so unusual
are so honest
are so kind
are so open
are so glamorous
are so faithful

Kamu sangat cantik


Kamu sangat tampan
Kamu sangat hebat
Kamu sangat luar biasa
Kamu sangat menarik
Kamu sangat cantik
Kamu sangat manis
Kamu sangat manis
Kamu sangat manis
Kamu sangat sensitif
Kamu sangat berbakat
Kamu sangat bijaksana
Kamu sangat pengertian
Kamu sangat lembut
Kamu sangat lembut
Kamu sangat luar biasa
Kamu sangat jujur
Kamu sangat baik
Kamu sangat terbuka
Kamu sangat anggun
Kamu sangat setia

Daily Phrases
Good morning. Morning.
Good afternoon.
Good evening.
Good night.
Hello. Hi.
Welcome.
How are you?
Not too well, I'm afraid.
How are you getting on?
Pretty fair, thank you. And what
about you?
Fine, and how are you?
Not too bad.
Is everything all right?
Are you ok?
How are things?
What's new?
How is your family?
How is your mother?
Are you o.k.?
Fine, thanks.
Very well.
Not bad.
O.K.
Not so good.
The same.
A bit tired.
I am busy.
I am not well.
And you?
I am sorry to hear that.
I am happy for you.
Is this clear?
Pardon?
I'm sorry, what did you say?
I see
Am I speaking fast?
Do you understand me?
I don't understand you.
I understand you.
I quite understand you.
I understand you quite well.
I understand every word you say.

Selamat pagi. Pagi


Selamat siang
Selamat sore
Selamat malam
Halo. Hai.
Selamat datang
Apa kabar?
Tidak terlalu bagus
Bagaimana kabarmu?
Cukup baik, dan Anda?
Baik, dan kamu?
Tidak buruk
Apakah semua baik-baik saja?
Apakah kamu baik-baik saja?
Bagaimana kabarnya?
Apa kabar?
Bagaimana keluargamu?
Bagaimana ibumu?
Apakah kamu baik-baik saja?
Baik, terimakasih
Sangat baik
Tidak buruk
Baik
Tiak terlalu baik
Sama-sama
Sedikit lelah
Saya sibuk
Saya tidak sehat
Dan kamu?
Maaf
Saya senang denganmu
Apakah sudah jelas?
Permisi?
Maaf, apa yang Anda katakan?
Saya mengerti
Apakah saya berbicara cepat?
Apakah Anda mengerti saya?
Saya tidak mengerti Anda
Saya mengerti Anda
Saya cukup mengerti Anda
Saya mengerti Anda cukup baik
Saya mengerti setiap kata yang Anda ucapkan

Yes, perfectly well.


Speak louder, please.
Please, speak slower.
I'm sorry, I didn't quite catch what
you said.
Write it down, please.
Translate it.
Please, say it again.
How do you say that in english?
We need an interpreter.
We don't need an interpreter.
I must be going.
Good-bye.
See you soon.
So long.
See you again.
See you later.
Cheerio / Bye!
Good luck!
Give my regards to..
I hope to see you soon.
I'll call you later.
Have a comfortable journey!
(good-bye)
Keep well!
Take care!
Till we meet again.
Write me.
Here's my address.
Have a success!
Sweet dreams!
Be happy!

Ya, sangat baik


Berbicaralah lebih keras
Berbicaralah lebih pelan
Maaf, saya tidak mengerti apa yang Anda
katakan
Tolong tuliskan
Terjemahkan
Tolong ulangi
Bagaimana kata itu dalam bahasa Inggris?
Kita butuh penerjemah
Kita tidak butuh penerjemah
Saya harus pergi
Daag (daah)
Sampai jumpa lagi
Sampai jumpa
Sampai jumpa lagi
Sampai jumpa
Daag!
Sukses!
Salam untuk..
Saya harap kita bertemu lain kali
Saya akan meneleponmu
Selamat jalan!
Sehat selalu!
Hati-hati!
Sampai bertemu lagi (sampai jumpa lagi)
Kabari aku
Ini alamat saya
Sukses!
Mimpi indah
Bergembiralah