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BTEC

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate


and Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First
Diploma in Applied Science
For first teaching from September 2006
Issue 2

March 2007

Applied Science

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and


Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in

Specification

Edexcel, a Pearson company, is the UKs largest awarding body offering academic and
vocational qualifications and testing to more than 25,000 schools, colleges, employers and other
places of learning here and in over 100 countries worldwide. We deliver 9.4 million exam
scripts each year, with 3 million marked onscreen in 2005. Our qualifications include GCSE,
AS and A Level, GNVQ, NVQ and the BTEC suite of vocational qualifications from entry level
to BTEC Higher National Diplomas and Foundation Degrees. We also manage the data
collection, marking and distribution of the National Curriculum Tests at Key Stages 2 and 3,
and the Year 7 Progress Tests.

References to third party material made in this specification are made in good faith. Edexcel
does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be
subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals,
magazines and other publications and websites.)

Authorised by Jim Dobson


Prepared by John Fincham
Publications Code BF017257
All the material in this publication is copyright
Edexcel Limited 2007

Contents

Introduction to 360Science

Essential principles for delivering a BTEC

What are BTEC Firsts?

BTEC First Diploma

BTEC First Certificate

National Occupational Standards

Key features of the BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science

Rationale of the BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science

Structure of the qualification

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science

Unit format
Units

11

Unit 1: Scientific Principles

13

Unit 2: Science and the World of Work

23

Unit 3: Chemistry Applications

31

Unit 4: Physical Science Applications

41

Unit 5: Biological Systems

51

Unit 6: Working with Science

61

Unit 7: Anatomy and Physiology

71

Unit 8: Environmental Science

81

Unit 9: Plants and Food

89

Unit 10: Forensic Science Applications

97

Unit 11: Science in Medicine

107

Assessment and grading

115

Quality assurance

116

Approval

116

Risk assessment

116

Internal verification

116

External verification

116

Calculation of the qualification grade

117

Awarding a qualification grade

117

School and College Achievement and Attainment Tables (SCAAT) equivalence

118

Programme design and delivery

119

Mode of delivery

119

Resources

119

Delivery approach

120

Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL)

120

Meeting local needs

120

Limitations on variations from standard specifications

120

Access and recruitment

121

Restrictions on learner entry

121

Access arrangements and special considerations

121

The Edexcel BTEC Qualification Framework for the science

122

sector
Further information

123

Useful publications

123

How to obtain National Occupational Standards

123

Professional development and training

124

Annexe A

125

QCA codes

Annexe B
Grading domains

125

127

127

Annexe C

129

Key skills

129

Key skills mapping summary of opportunities suggested in each unit

130

Annexe D
National Occupational Standards/mapping with NVQs

Annexe E

131

131

133

Wider curriculum mapping

133

Spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues

133

Environmental issues

133

European developments

133

Health and safety considerations

133

Equal opportunities issues

133

Wider curriculum mapping

134

Annexe F
Mapping BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science to new KS4

Science criteria

Annexe G
Useful websites

Annexe H
Edexcel website generic and specific course materials

135

135

137

137

141

141

Introduction to 360Science
The learner centred curriculum
360Science is the new portfolio of qualifications from Edexcel. It includes GCSE Science,
GCSE Additional Science, GCSE Biology, GCSE Chemistry and GCSE Physics, Entry Level in
Science, BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science and the BTEC First Diploma in Applied
Science specialist work-related qualifications.
Most importantly, it refers to the range of opportunities in science that is accessible to all
learners. 360Science is designed to meet the diverse aims and ambitions of learners from
those who simply want to understand the world around them to those who want to progress onto
further, in-depth study.
For tutors it means a flexible curriculum that allows them to select the most appropriate teaching
approach for the situation. 360Science provides clear guidance on planning and delivering
effective teaching, and values the importance of tutors professional judgement.

360Science:
offers exciting, engaging content
is accessible to learners of all abilities
is designed to meet learners needs
is designed to meet tutors needs
enables flexible teaching

provides full and ongoing support

offers truly vocational qualifications through BTEC.

The redevelopment has been driven by:


the 1419: Opportunity and Excellence policy document published by the DfES
(http://www.dfes.gov.uk)
the announcement of changes to the National Curriculum at Key Stage 4
a new programme of study for Key Stage 4 Science
new criteria for GCSE Science (www.qca.org.uk)
the redevelopment of Key Stage 3 and the need for smooth progression between Key Stages
the requirement to continue to provide work-related learning for all learners
the success of context orientated science qualifications, in terms of learner motivation and
achievement.
The new criteria for GCSE Science incorporate the Key Stage 4 programme of study and place
far greater emphasis on the skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works and
much less emphasis on knowing scientific facts.
This suite of qualifications has an innovative approach that provides an applied, contextualised
route as well as being concept driven. This makes for a very flexible model to suit the needs of
individual learners.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

GCSE Science
This is a new qualification based on the Key Stage 4 programme of study for Science. The
content is relevant to learners in their everyday life. The specification content allows tutors the
opportunity to explore work-related learning in science where appropriate.
The GCSE suite of qualifications (publication code UG016242) is available on the Edexcel
website.

GCSE Additional Science


This is a new qualification equivalent to one GCSE and builds on the work covered in GCSE
Science. Successful completion of GCSE Additional Science along with GCSE Science will
allow progression to GCE, BTEC and other post-16 science and science-related programmes.

GCSE Biology, GCSE Chemistry and GCSE Physics


These are single GCSEs which when taken together cover the programme of study for Science.
They include the relevant subject matter from GCSE Science and GCSE Additional Science,
along with specialist extension units.

Entry Level qualification in Science


The Entry Level in Science qualification allows learners to achieve at National Curriculum
Levels 1, 2 and 3. It covers the Key Stage 4 programme of study and aims at developing skills
rather than depth of knowledge. It is designed to be co-teachable with GCSE Science and
learners may be entered for both the Entry Level in Science and the GCSE Science; or learners
can progress to GCSE Science having entered for the Entry Level in Science. The Entry Level
in Science has been designed to:

recognise small steps of achievement

be based on test and classroom activities

be 100 per cent internally assessed.

This revised specification will be published in November 2005 on the Edexcel website.

BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science


This qualification attracts Achievement and Attainment table points and includes the new Key
Stage 4 Programme of Study. The qualification offers an approach based on the learner taking
on the role of being employed within the science industry. Teaching strategies reflect the nature
of the work within sciencebased industries, using a series of assignments and activities
encouraging learners to take responsibility and ownership for their learning. The qualification is
100 per cent internally assessed. Learners may progress to a BTEC National in Applied Science
or related BTEC Nationals, GCE Applied Science or related NVQ qualifications, or enter
employment.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Essential principles for delivering a BTEC


This specification contains the rules and regulations along with the units and associated
guidance to enable centres to deliver a programme of learning for the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC
First Certificate and Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science. The qualification
structures set out the permitted combination of units learners need to complete the qualification.
Each unit sets out the intended outcomes along with the content and also includes advice and
guidance regarding appropriate delivery and assessment strategies. The following generic
principles need to be adhered to in order that a BTEC qualification is delivered to the
appropriate standard.
The specification provides necessary information for the successful delivery and
achievement of the units and the qualification as a whole. Consequently, the specification is
of importance to the learner and tutor alike. The individual units may be delivered and
studied in isolation but the learner and the deliverer should have access to the full
information provided to support the programme of learning.
Centres need to make regular use of the Edexcel website (www.edexcel .org.uk) to ensure
that they have the most up to date information. In particular, the requirements relating to the
external verification of the qualification receive regular updates and appropriate information
for centres is posted on the website. It is the responsibility of the centre to ensure that
they are familiar with the latest BTEC NQF Level 2/3 (including Short Courses at
Levels 13) Handbook and that they implement any related policy documentation
which may have been posted on the website.
This specification contains details of the assessment and quality assurance procedures. It
includes advice about Edexcels policy regarding access to its qualifications, the design of
programmes of study and delivery modes. Centres must ensure that they conform to the
policies outlined in the specification.
Centres are required to recruit learners to BTEC qualifications with integrity. This
includes ensuring that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the
qualifications and that the qualification will meet their needs. Centres should take
appropriate steps to assess each applicants potential and make a professional judgement
about their ability to be able to successfully complete the programme of study and achieve
the qualification.
Centres are required to use the information in this specification to develop and deliver a
programme of learning that will enable learners to achieve the grading criteria stipulated in
the unit grading grids. Assessment assignments should ensure coverage of all criteria in
the unit as set out in the Grading Grid for each unit. Assignments constructed by centres
should be valid, reliable and fit for purpose, building on the application of the grading
criteria. Centres should use a variety of assessment methods, including case studies,
assignments and work-based assessments, along with projects, performance observation and
time-constrained assessments. Further guidance relating to the setting of assignments is
available in the Getting Started publication which is available on the Edexcel website
(www.edexcel.org.uk).
Centres are encouraged to place emphasis on the practical application of the grading
criteria, providing wherever possible a realistic scenario for learners to work with, and
making maximum use of, practical activities and work experience. The creation of
assignments that are fit for purpose is vital to the learners achievement and their
importance cannot be over emphasised.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

These qualifications have been accredited to the National Qualifications Framework (NQF)
and are eligible for public funding as determined by the DfES under Sections 96 and 97
of the Learning and Skills Act 2000. Details of the qualification units can be seen on the
QCA Open Qualifications database (www.qca.org.uk).
The qualification titles feature in the funding lists published annually by the DfES and the
regularly updated website www.dfes.gov.uk/. The NQF Qualification Accreditation
Numbers (QANs) should be used by centres when they wish to seek public funding for
their learners. The QANs for these qualifications are listed in Annexe A.
This specification is accredited by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority until
31 August 2009 and for certification of learners until 31 August 2011. Edexcel may update
this specification during its period of accreditation and centres need to refer to the
Edexcel website for the latest issue of the specification.
Centres that have not previously offered BTEC qualifications must apply for, and be
granted, centre approval before they can apply for approval to offer the programme.
When a centre applies for approval to offer a BTEC qualification they will be required to enter
into an approvals agreement. The approvals agreement is a formal commitment by the head or
principal of a centre to meet all the requirements of the specification and linked codes or
regulations.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

What are BTEC Firsts?


BTEC qualifications are designed to provide specialist work-related qualifications in a range of
sectors. They have been developed to provide the knowledge, understanding and skills
necessary to prepare learners for employment and/or to provide career development
opportunities for those already in work. Consequently they provide a course of study for fulltime or part-time learners in schools, colleges and training centres. They link to the National
Occupational Standards for the sector, where these are appropriate, and are supported by the
relevant Standards Setting Body (SSB) or Sector Skills Council (SSC). On successful
completion of a BTEC First qualification, learners may progress into or within employment
and/or continue their study in the vocational area.

BTEC First Diploma


The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma is a 360 guided learning hour qualification
comprising core and specialist units which cover aspects of knowledge, understanding and
competency necessary for employment within the sector. As such the BTEC First Diploma
offers a qualification which can extend a learners programme of study and provide vocational
emphasis within their programme of study. Equally, the BTEC First Diploma offers a focused
qualification for learners who wish to follow a programme of study that is directly related to
their work experience, or to an aspect of employment that they wish to move into in due course.

BTEC First Certificate


The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate is a 180 guided learning hour qualification which
offers a bite-sized opportunity for learners to experience a vocational qualification. The BTEC
First Certificate offers a focused vocational qualification for learners who wish to follow a
shorter programme of study related to an aspect of employment that they might wish to move
into; or a taster qualification which can extend their programme of study and provide an initial
experience of a vocational area. This will also enable learners to progress to a higher level
qualification relevant to the sector.

National Occupational Standards


BTEC Firsts are designed to relate to the National Occupational Standards (NOS) in the sector,
which in turn form the basis of the National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). BTEC Firsts do
not purport to deliver occupational competence in the sector, which should be demonstrated in a
work context. However, the qualifications provide much of the underpinning knowledge for the
NOS, as well as developing practical skills in preparation for work and possible achievement of
NVQs in due course.
Each unit identifies relevant aspects of the NOS that are addressed by the outcomes and content
of the unit. The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Applied Science relates to the Level 2 NVQ in
Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities.
Each unit identifies relevant aspects of the National Occupational Standards that are addressed
by the outcomes and content of the unit. The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied
Science provides underpinning knowledge towards the Level 2 Laboratory and Associated
Technical Activities National Occupational Standards (Industrial and Educational pathways)
(see Annexe D).

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Key features of the BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science
The BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science has been developed to focus on:
providing opportunities to acquire technical and employability skills, knowledge and
understanding which are transferable and will enable individuals to meet changing
circumstances, whether these arise from a shift in their own status or employment, or
general changes in applied science practice, provision or environment
providing opportunities for learners to gain a nationally recognised vocationally specific
qualification to enter employment as a science technician or assistant practitioner, or to
progress to other vocational qualifications such as BTEC Nationals in Applied Science
providing opportunities for learners who are employed in the applied science industry or in
an organisation that uses science to develop their underpinning knowledge and scientific
skills
developing the knowledge, understanding and skills of learners to meet the needs of the
Applied Science sectors
the role of the science technician or assistant practitioner, their relationship with the
scientific community and their responsibilities towards the community and the environment
providing opportunities for learners to focus on the development of the major key skills and
the wider key skills in context, such as improving their own learning and performance and
working with others
providing opportunities for learners to develop a range of skills and techniques, personal
qualities and attributes essential for successful performance in working life.

Rationale of the BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science


The BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science has been designed to build on Key
Stage 3 Science, Key Stage 3 National Strategy: boosting achievement in ICT and cover the
Key Stage 4 2006 mandatory science criteria (see Annexe F for mapping).
Learners can progress to the BTEC Nationals in Applied Science (Industrial and Laboratory
Science), Applied Science (Forensic Science), or Applied Science (Medical Science).
Learners can also progress to GCE in Applied Science and to a range of BTEC Nationals in
applied sciences such as Food Science, Beauty Therapy Sciences, Sport and Exercise Sciences,
Pharmacy Services, Polymer Technology or Dental Technology.
Alternatively they can progress to NVQs such as Laboratory and Associated Technical
Activities or Clinical Laboratory Support. The underpinning knowledge, practical and
vocational scientific skills learnt on the BTEC course will enhance and support the progression
to a competency-based course.
There are a number of occasions when employees in science work together and come together in
forums (eg at the Royal Society, professional bodies, the Sector Skills Council, Science
Learning Centres and at the Association for Science Education meetings and their annual
conference) to discuss current generic issues such as sustainable development, pollution, global
warming and health and safety etc. This is reflected in all the units.
It is also important that during the course learners take on the role of being employed within the
science industry when completing assignments/activities. This can be achieved by setting
assignments/activities with a scenario which reflects tasks/projects that employees would be
undertaking in the workplace.
Delivery strategies should reflect the nature of work within science employment by using an
approach which reflects the tasks/assignments/projects carried out in the workplace, where
learners take responsibility and ownership for their learning and achievement of set outcomes.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

This qualification offers course teams in centres an opportunity to develop their own
assignments/activities programme to take into account the needs of both local employers and
their learners.
The assessment approach allows a greater flexibility for assessment for learning, where
throughout the course learners can get feedback on their progress as they provide evidence to
complete the grading criteria.
It should be emphasised that learners following this course need to develop their communication
and application of number skills as they progress through the course. This can be through
presentations and discussions in which they have opportunities to express their opinion about
current science issues and through investigations using numerical data. Scientific employers
also value employees who are able to communicate effectively using electronic communication
and the correct scientific symbols and terminology.
It is important that learners develop their vocational practical skills and can follow scientific
procedures in a logical and safe manner, observe and record data accurately (using ICT
wherever possible), and present information concisely to enable others to successfully complete
the same investigation/practical experiment safely.
This qualification provides a route to employment as a science technician or assistant
practitioner working in a wide variety of roles in the science industry or in organisations that
use science. These can include roles such as:
a quality control technician/analyst, where the employee works in a production plant
laboratory carrying out analytical tests using modern instrumentation and ICT and
interpreting data
working in a hospital as a medical physics technician supporting the use of X-ray and other
imaging/scanning instruments
working in a research laboratory in the development of new drugs, managing projects which
include setting up apparatus, measuring and handling chemical substances, following
procedures, carrying out observations and measurements, separating out and analysing
products
working for a scientific magazine or journal, editing and proofreading articles on issues
such as implications and applications of new scientific discoveries/developments.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Structure of the qualification


Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science
The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science consists of three core units that
provide a combined total of 180 guided learning hours (GLH) for the completed qualification.
Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science
Unit

Core units

GLH

Level

Chemistry Applications

60

Physical Science Applications

60

Biological Systems

60

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science


The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science consists of two core units that
provide a combined total of 180 guided learning hours (GLH) for the completed qualification.
Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Unit

Core units

GLH

Level

Scientific Principles

60

Science and the World of Work

60

Unit

Specialist units

Chemistry Applications**

60

Physical Science Applications**

60

Biological Systems**

60

Working with Science

60

Anatomy and Physiology

60

Environmental Science

60

Plants and Food

60

10

Forensic Science Applications

60

11

Science in Medicine

60

**Pre-16 learners who are studying for the BTEC First Diploma must complete the core Units 1
and 2 and the specialist Units 3, 4 and 5 which incorporate the Key Stage 4 programme of
study. Pre-16 learners therefore can select only one specialist unit from Units 6 to 11.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Unit format
All units in Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First qualifications have a standard format which is designed
to provide clear guidance on the requirements of the qualification for learners, tutors, assessors
and those responsible for monitoring national standards.
Each unit is set out in the following way.
Unit title
The unit title is accredited by QCA and this form of words will appear on the learners
Notification of Performance (NOP). In BTEC First qualifications each unit consists of 30, 60,
90 or 120 guided learning hours
NQF level
This is the level of study of the qualification as determined by the National Qualifications
Framework (NQF).
Guided learning hours
Guided learning hours is a notional measure of the substance of a unit. It includes an estimate
of time that might be allocated to direct teaching, instruction and assessment, together with
other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported individual study. It
excludes learner-initiated private study. Centres are advised to consider this definition when
planning the programme of study associated with this specification.
Unit abstract
The unit abstract is designed to give the reader an appreciation of the value of the unit in the
vocational setting of the qualification as well as highlighting the focus of the unit. It provides
the reader with a snapshot of the aims of the unit and the key knowledge, skills and
understanding developed while studying the unit. The unit abstract also emphasises links to the
sector by describing what the unit offers the sector.
Learning outcomes
Learning outcomes state exactly what a learner should know, understand or be able to do as a
result of completing the unit.
Unit content
The unit content identifies the depth and breadth of knowledge, skills and understanding needed
to design and deliver a programme of learning sufficient to achieve each of the learning
outcomes. This is informed by the underpinning knowledge and understanding requirements of
the related National Occupational Standards (NOS). The content provides the range of subject
material for the programme of learning and specifies the skills, knowledge and understanding
required for achievement of the pass grading criteria.
Each learning outcome is stated in full and then the prescribed key phrases or concepts related
to that learning outcome are listed in italics followed by the subsequent range of related topics.
The unit content section will often have lists of topics that provide the range of the subject
material required to be covered in order to meet the grading criteria. Subject material maybe
further detailed by lists enclosed within brackets or an elongated dash which provide the defined
elements of the specific topic item. Where the subject material list includes an eg, it should be
noted that this provides an indicative range of material to support the specific topic item.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Grading grid
Each Grading grid contains statements of the criteria used to determine the evidence that each
learner must produce in order to receive a pass, merit or distinction grade. It is important to note
that the merit and distinction grading criteria refer to a qualitative improvement in the learners
evidence.
Essential guidance for tutors
This section is designed to give tutors additional guidance and amplification on the unit in order
to provide for a coherence of understanding and a consistency of delivery and assessment. It is
divided into the following sections:
Delivery explains the content and its relationship with the learning outcomes and offers
guidance about possible approaches to delivery. This advice is based on the more usual
delivery modes but is not intended to rule out alternative approaches.
Assessment provides amplification about the nature and type of evidence that learners
need to produce in order to pass the unit or achieve the higher grades. This section should
be read in conjunction with the grading criteria.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications
and other relevant units and qualifications sets out links with other units within the
qualification. These could be used to ensure that learners can relate different aspects within
the qualification and offer opportunities for integration of learning, delivery and assessment.
Links to the Occupational Standards will be highlighted here.
Essential resources identifies any specialist resources needed to allow learners to
generate the evidence required for each unit. The centre will be asked to ensure that any
requirements are in place when it seeks approval from Edexcel to offer the qualification.
Indicative reading for learners provides a short list of learner resource material that
benchmark the level of study.
Key skills
This section identifies where there may be opportunities within the unit for the generation of
evidence to meet the requirements of key skills units. Assessors should take care to become
familiar with the key skills specifications and evidence requirements and not to rely on the
contents of this section when presenting key skills evidence for moderation. Centres should
refer to the QCA website (www.qca.org.uk) for the latest version of the key skills standards.

10

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Units
Unit 1:

Scientific Principles

13

Unit 2:

Science and the World of Work

23

Unit 3:

Chemistry Applications

31

Unit 4:

Physical Science Applications

41

Unit 5:

Biological Systems

51

Unit 6:

Working with Science

61

Unit 7:

Anatomy and Physiology

71

Unit 8:

Environmental Science

81

Unit 9:

Plants and Food

89

Unit 10: Forensic Science Applications


Unit 11: Science in Medicine

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

97

107

11

12

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

Unit 1:

Scientific Principles

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
This is a core unit within this specification and its purpose is to ensure that all learners cover a
number of key concepts in biology, chemistry and physics, and also the use of scientific units
and their conversion.
The key concepts in this unit provide the underpinning knowledge for many of the specialist
units to ensure that the coverage of biology, chemistry and physics is coherent in different
programmes of study chosen by centres.
For a science technician/assistant practitioner to carry out their work effectively and efficiently
they require a knowledge of the seven fundamental units, multiple and sub-multiple derived
units and their conversion. The outcome in chemistry concentrates on classification of materials,
the physics outcome on the properties of materials and forces and the biology outcome on living
cells.
The broad science base within this unit also contributes to the learners underpinning knowledge
and development of technical skills to allow for smooth progression to Level 3 qualifications
such as Medical Science, Forensic Science, Beauty Therapy Sciences, Pharmacy Services,
Engineering, Construction and Animal Management.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1

Understand the need for standardised systems of measurements and communication within
the world of science to allow a common interpretation of findings and recordings

Be able to investigate and report on properties of materials, linear motion and the effects of
forces on materials

Be able to investigate and report on the classification of materials

Understand the structure and characteristics of living cells and the role of enzymes,
including in energy conversions in the cell.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

13

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

Unit content

1 Understand the need for standardised systems of measurements and communication


within the world of science to allow a common interpretation of findings and
recordings
SI. Units: seven fundamental and derived units; multiples and sub-multiples; standard form;
terminology as relevant to each of the following quantities: length, area, volume, time,
mass, temperature, force, velocity, energy, power, pressure
Scalar and vector quantities: mass and weight; speed and velocity
2 Be able to investigate and report on properties of materials, linear motion and the
effects of forces on materials
Qualitative properties of materials: mechanical, eg toughness, ductility, brittleness,
malleability; thermal insulators and conductors; optical reflection and refraction; electrical
insulators and conductors; magnetism
Linear motion: speed; velocity; linear acceleration
Forces and momentum: effects of forces on materials (compression and tension, Hooks law
F=kx; change of speed and/or direction F=ma); forces come in pairs that are equal in size;
act in opposite directions and act on different bodies; relationship between force and rate of
change of momentum
3 Be able to investigate and report on the classification of materials
Naming: elements and their symbols; simple molecules; simple compounds
Formulae and representations: construction of simple discrete formulae; molecular;
structural; spatial formulae/models
Materials: metals and non-metals; elements, mixtures and compounds; names of groups I,
II, VII and VIII; period numbers in the periodic table
Particles: atoms, molecules and ions; properties of electrons, nucleons and simple model of
the atom; atomic number and position in the periodic table
4 Understand the structure and characteristics of living cells and the role of enzymes,
including in energy conversions in the cell
Cells: characteristics; structure of typical plant and animal cell using light microscopes; cell
diversity; the needs of a cell in maintaining life
Enzymes: as catalysts; structure related to specificity; factors affecting enzyme activity
(temperature and pH); mode of action
Energy in the cell: function; respiration and photosynthesis; word and balanced chemical
equations

14

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M1 use SI units and conversions to multiples and


sub-multiples or vice versa within a scientific
context
M2 describe the effects of forces on materials
M3 investigate motion in a straight line
M4 construct formulae of simple molecules and
compounds
M5 describe the differences between mixtures and
compounds
M6 make drawings of plant and animal cells, seen
with a light microscope, relating the structures
to their functions
M7 describe the processes of photosynthesis and
respiration, relating them to the energy
requirements of the cell

P1 use SI units with quantities and amounts when


describing and using scientific concepts

P2 investigate the effects of forces on materials

P3 distinguish between speed, velocity and


acceleration

P4 identify and name elements, simple molecules


and compounds

P5 identify and name elements, mixtures and


compounds

P6 draw and label a plant and animal cell, using a


light microscope, annotating with functions of
the components

P7 describe the needs of a cell and the processes of


photosynthesis and respiration

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D7 describe the processes of photosynthesis and


respiration and how they meet the needs of
cells, relating these to structures

D6 make drawings of plant and animal cells, seen


with a light microscope, comparing structures
and relating to the differing functions of plant
and animal cells

D5 explain the differences between mixtures and


compounds using relevant examples

D4 draw simple molecular, structural and spacial


formulae/models

15

D3 use different mathematical methods to analyse


the effects of forces on objects

D2 use different mathematical methods to analyse


the effects of forces on materials

D1 use SI units and conversions to multiples and


sub-multiples or vice versa within different
scientific contexts

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

16

D8 plan, carry out and evaluate experiments to


investigate the mode of action of enzymes and
factors which affect them.

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M8 plan and carry out experiments to investigate


the mode of action of enzymes and factors
affecting their action, drawing suitable
conclusions.

P8 carry out safely, experiments to investigate


factors affecting enzymes, and describe the
mode of action of enzymes related to their
structure.

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 17.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
The learning outcomes in this unit can be integrated and delivered with other units where the
specialist units build on the concepts of the learning outcomes eg learning outcome 3 with
Unit 3: Chemistry Applications.
The learning outcomes should be delivered through a programme of tuition, facilitated learning
and practical assignment work. This unit should be delivered wherever possible through a
practical and investigatory approach, to enable the learners to develop their skills and learn the
fundamental concepts required for further development in the specialist units.
In learning outcome 1 the science areas to be addressed should only be covered in terms of the
operation of their units and the terminology used in communicating SI and their derived units.
Learners should also be able use standard form when converting SI units to sub-multiple and
multiple units and vice versa.
In learning outcome 2 the properties of materials section should be covered using a qualitative
approach, where learners t should be shown the advantages of using different materials for
different purposes and how this relates to their useful physical properties, eg glass being used
for its useful reflective and refractive properties but not for its strength or heat resistance
properties. An experimental approach should be taken to investigate linear motion and forces.
Ideally, ICT equipment will be used, eg data logging devices. Data could be input into a
spreadsheet and graphs obtained from the data.
In learning outcome 3, the materials section, learners need to relate the groups in the periodic
table to their names to their relevant properties and how the number of electrons in their outer
shells relate to their reactivity.
The periodic table numbers should be related only to the atomic number of the elements and
their position in the periodic table.
Tutors and learners can be further guided in terms of the depth of coverage in this unit by the
grading criteria given in the assessment grid.
These concepts should reinforce and build upon knowledge previously acquired from Key Stage
3 and GCSE Science.
Assessment
Wherever possible the evidence should be obtained through practical investigations in context
working in an applied science or related area of work, where learners are building a portfolio of
evidence to meet the grading criteria.
A pass grade learner will achieve all the outcomes with some help from the tutor who will give
limited descriptions of the range of structures and functions indicated. The practical work is
likely to be carried out with support from the tutor, to solve straightforward problems. A limited
range of resources will be used in order to produce the work.
A merit grade learner will work with more independence. They will carry out research with little
guidance and will be able to plan and carry out practical work to solve more complex problems
or using a range of practical techniques.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

17

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

The descriptions of the issues in the range will be more detailed, showing an understanding of
the concepts involved. The merit grade learners will be able to link ideas from different areas
and discuss the impact of a variety of factors on an issue, such as energy cycles in biology
linking to structures and building upon concepts of energy conservation. A range of resources
will be used.
The distinction grade learners will work with greater autonomy, using the tutor as a resource
when necessary. The learners will use a wide range of resources and analyse the information
from these to produce fluent explanations and discussions.
The practical work will be planned, carried out and evaluated with a minimum of support.
The examples given will be detailed and comprehensive.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
This unit will provide a foundation for the study of some of the specialist units Unit 3:
Chemistry Applications; Unit 4: Physical Science Applications; Unit 5: Biological Systems; Unit
7: Anatomy and Physiology; Unit 8: Environmental Science; Unit 9: Plants and Food.
This unit also has links with the GCSE in Applied Science, Unit 1: Developing scientific skills
working safely, investigating living organisms, microscopy; Unit 2: Science for the needs of
society living organisms, obtaining useful products, the importance of energy and energy
efficiency.
This unit provides underpinning knowledge for the Laboratory and Associated Technical
Activities NVQ at Level 2 see Annexe D for mapping.
Essential resources
All learners will need access to appropriate laboratory facilities, and to library and information
technology resources. Access to a range of general GCSE chemistry, physics and
biology/human biology books will be required.
Learners can make use of a range of chemistry resources, similar to those used for GCSE in
Science. They will need access to a chemistry/science laboratory equipped with a fume
cupboard and standard laboratory chemistry apparatus.
Access to a range of information resources to complete investigative assignments and case
studies will be essential, including CD ROMs and the internet.
Indicative reading for learners
Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Classical Chemistry Experiments (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000) ISBN 0 85404 9193

Contemporary Chemistry for Schools and Colleges (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004)

ISBN 0 854043829 (source for nanotechnology)

Ellis P and Mcdonald A Reading into Science Biology (Nelson Thornes, 2003)

ISBN 0 748767991

The Essential Chemical Industry (Chemical Industry Education Centre, 1999)

ISBN 1 85342 577 X

GCSE in Applied Science (Folens, 2003) ISBN 1 843033674

18

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

Ken Gadd Associates Ltd Applied Science GCSE Edexcel (Nelson Thornes, 2003)
Roberts M and Ingram N Nelson Science Biology, Second Edition (Nelson Thornes, 2001)

ISBN 0 748762388

Ryan L Chemistry for You (Nelson Thornes, 2002) ISBN 0 748762345

Ryan Lawrie and Johnson Keith Physics for You: Revised National Curriculum for GCSE

(Nelson Thornes, 2004) ISBN 0 74876236

Salters GCSE Science Year 10 Learner Book (Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0 435629522

Salters GCSE Science Year 11 Learner Book (Heinemann, 2002) ISBN 0 435629530

ISBN 0 748772030

Williams G and Paul N Biology for You (Nelson Thornes, 2002) ISBN 0 748762329

New Scientist
Focus
For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

19

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

Key skills
Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.
Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

obtaining and displaying results

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

researching secondary data

weighing and measuring


accurately throughout the
practical work

N2.2

Use your information to carry out calculations


to do with:
a

amounts or sizes

obtaining and displaying results

scales or proportion

carrying out calculations using a


range of units and formulae in
scientific problems

handling statistics

using formulae.

making scaled drawings, eg


cells, molecules

calculating linear motion

calculating forces

identifying possible sources of


error

interpreting and displaying


results.

20

N2.3

Interpret the results of your calculations and


present your findings.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

discussing approaches to
investigations, or the research
findings

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

presenting the results and


conclusions of an investigation,
using graphs, charts etc, eg types
of cells, forces on materials,
enzyme action, differences
between mixtures and
compounds

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

using literature sources to find


information about a topic and to
extend ideas

C2.2

using literature sources to


develop familiarity with the
experimental methods to be used
in an investigation

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

using secondary data for


comparison with own results

writing reports of practical work

C2.3

writing extended reports on


science topics

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

preparing charts summarising


functions of, for example, cell
components.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

21

UNIT 1: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

selecting information from the


internet relating to a science
investigation

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


needs.

selecting data or text

displaying recorded results in


appropriate format

exploring information from the


internet/CD ROMs

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement

presenting research into a topic

producing display material eg


diagrams of tissue types.

Use different information sources for each task


and multiple search criteria in at least one case.
ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the
task and derive new information.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group


investigation

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out an


investigation/experiment in a
group

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving the


identified objectives.

interpreting and presenting


findings/results, adapting a plan
and making suggestions for
improvement

WO2.3 Review your contributions and agree ways to


improve work with others.

22

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 2: SCIENCE AND THE WORLD OF WORK

Unit 2:

Science and the World of Work

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
The science technician or assistant practitioner working within a laboratory situation needs an
understanding and an awareness of how their role and how the section/department in which they
work fit within the overall company structure/organisation and how the role of the company fits
within the scientific and local community.
This unit is designed to provide knowledge and understanding at an introductory level of the
work environment for a variety of science-based occupations. The unit is not intended to imply
that work experience should be an element of the programme, but centres wishing to implement
or develop such industrial links are encouraged to do so and to make use of this to cover
assessment for this unit.
This unit allows learners to gain knowledge of the organisation and structure of science
companies and organisations, and the specialist departments within them, eg research, pilot
scale etc. A brief study of the environment in which science organisations exist and how they
are perceived and represented, and how others can influence them, will help provide an overall
picture of science at work.
The unit has also been designed to provide knowledge and understanding of how society lives
and works within an environment which depends upon technological and scientific
achievements. It aims to develop a fundamental understanding and appreciation of modern work
and life situations where the impact of technology and science is ever present.
The unit also enables learners to gain an understanding of the process of how a science
innovation/idea is developed through to a successful emerging technology.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1 Know the structure and functions within a science-based company, its aims and role within
the scientific and local community
2 Understand how the public understanding of the science environment is perceived and
described by others
3 Understand how the quality of life and standard of living are affected by the impact of
science and technology
4 Be able to demonstrate that there are strong links between science, innovation and
investment, technology and engineering.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

23

UNIT 2: SCIENCE AND THE WORLD OF WORK

Unit content

1 Know the structure and functions within a science-based company, its aims and role
within the scientific and local community
Structure: types of organisation; aims; organisation charts; hierarchy and authority;

communication channels; core business

Functions: roles of research and development; finance; production; analytical services;


quality control; technical support; marketing; data processing and communication systems;
specialist departments in science organisations
2 Understand how the public understanding of the science environment is perceived and
described by others
Influences: political; economic; social; technological; education

Perceptions: TV; media; careers; family; friends; colleagues

History of science: major inventions; discoveries; theories; hypothesis

3 Understand how the quality of life and standard of living are affected by the impact of
science and technology
Impact: the immediate and delayed effects on quality of life and standard of living;

intended; unintended; fortune; misfortune; environmental effects; health; longevity;

progress

Feedback: positive (builds on the previous knowledge and reinforces it); negative (events
are not as expected)
Modifications: back to the drawing board; a further tweak needed; leave well alone
4 Be able to demonstrate that there are strong links between science, innovation and
investment, technology and engineering
Science: the knowledge and understanding of how it is carried out

Innovation: the idea; the invention; the investment

Technology: the artefacts using applied scientific knowledge

Engineering: making the technology work as it was designed

24

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M1 describe how the different departments of the


organisation work with each other, explain
how the products or services contribute to
society
M2 describe why the scientific product/service is fit
for purpose
M3 identify the scientific principles involved in
making the product or service supplied
M4 describe any opinions carried or implied by the
media and any influence, whether political,
social, technological or economic, being
represented
M5 describe how quality of life/standard of living is
affected by the impact of one science and
technology discovery/invention

P1 illustrate the aims, structure and functions of a


sciencebased organisation or an organisation
that uses science

P2 investigate and describe a scientific product or


service supplied by the organisation

P3 identify and practically investigate a process


used to make the identified product or service
supplied

P4 illustrate two different aspects of science as


reported in the media, identifying any opinions
they may be expressing

P5 identify how quality of life/standard of living is


affected by the impact of one science and
technology discovery/invention

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the
learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

25

D5 evaluate how quality of life/standard of living is


affected by the impact of one science and
technology discovery/invention

D4 analyse the opinions carried or implied by the


media to form and explain their own opinion on
the aspects of science reported

D3 explain the scientific principles involved in


making the product or service supplied

D2 identify and compare a scientific product/


service from a competing organisation

D1 describe the advantages and disadvantages that


the organisation has for the lives of people in
the area and for the general public

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 2: SCIENCE AND THE WORLD OF WORK

26

D6 evaluate the benefits, drawbacks and costs of


the science development to innovators, investors
and society.

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M6 describe the innovation or source of investment


that helped the scientific event to occur.

P6 investigate a particular aspect of technology and


engineering that enabled a selected science
development or event to occur.

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 28.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the
learner is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

UNIT 2: SCIENCE AND THE WORLD OF WORK

UNIT 2: SCIENCE AND THE WORLD OF WORK

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
This unit has been designed to give learners an overall picture of the science environment in its
many facets and the influences on public understanding. An investigative approach is
recommended for this unit. The learner is then required to examine a science-based company or
a company that uses science within this environment. The last two outcomes develop a learners
understanding of the impact of science and technology on society and the process of progressing
from science concepts to creating new technologies.
Work experience can be used to cover some of the information gathering required, leading to
completion of the integrative vocational assignment. However, work experience is a matter for
each centre and is not essential for the successful completion of this unit.
This unit has been designed to give learners an appreciation of living and working in a modern
technological world. Learners will investigate examples of where scientific ideas have been
developed into new technologies and scrutinise scientific organisations where there is a
high-level use of modern technology. It is expected, but not essential, that the learners will have
recently left school where they will have studied combined or separate sciences and some
aspects of technology. We are well aware that technology is a subject with as many definitions
and subject content lists as there are technologists.
Science, technology, and engineering all have many definitions, but for the purposes of this
unit on this programme, they are defined as being interdependent, as follows.
Science can be pure (the search for knowledge for the sake of gaining that knowledge), or it can
be applied to a variety of circumstances.
The knowledge gained from science and other discoveries allows the development of many
enabling technologies, eg quantum theory led to semi-conductor development followed by
big, faster, complex computers etc, some of which are now partly designing the next generation
of computers as well as being able to carry out millions of calculations per second to help us
analyse the world around us, leading to greater knowledge, etc. The subsequent use of any such
enabling technologies requires innovation, invention and investment.
At all stages of such development, the experiences and observations feedback more knowledge
allowing more scientific investigations and further technologies to develop.
Many engineers, technologists and scientists would disagree with this interpretation, which
serves to illustrate part of the intended theme of this unit we all have opinions, but must
support them with evidence and be prepared to face criticism and probable change. At times,
our initial beliefs and thoughts can be affected by a variety of influences, including feedback
from research and findings which follow the implementation of some new technology. In
essence, the unit provides a vehicle from which to study scientific and technological
developments and how the society in which we live has become dependent upon (or suffering
because of) many aspects of scientifically inspired technology, eg transport, communications,
automation, space investigation, construction, food production, water treatment, etc and how
these technologies utilise and depend upon the knowledge provided by science.
Discuss and expand the definitions of SITE (Science, Innovation and Investment, Technology,
Engineering) and consider alternatives.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

27

UNIT 2: SCIENCE AND THE WORLD OF WORK

Select a recent event in the world; investigate the science knowledge involved; the
technologies involved and how they have developed (and are still developing); how it was made
to work; investment, innovation, invention (as relevant); items and possibilities which were not
considered or may have been overlooked. For example the Tocoma Narrows Bridge, Sinclair
C5, high-speed train, Channel Tunnel, the Dome, mobile phones, the internet, ozone layer and
CFCs, Apollo Missions, Hubble Space Telescope, food and genetic research, artificial limbs,
transplant surgery, organic food as opposed to pesticides, river pollution, genetic defects, etc.
The successes mobile phones, internet, car ownership, services (water/gas/electricity)
The misfortunes eg Sinclair C5, the HST (didnt work due to minor error correction made
it is even better than ever imagined, etc and knowledge of universe increased), high-speed train,
self-driving cars
The still trying, but unlikely to remove a random element ideas earthquake forecasting,
earthquake proofing of buildings, etc where science is trying to be predictive; but can only
rely on probability, and where technologies are helping to reduce the damage at and near to
expected earthquake zones.
An overall theme could be used, again depending on resources and learner intentions.
Use of ICT and other resources which provide useful and motivating techniques to encourage
learners to investigate recent incidents and events; eg road/rail crashes, weather changes, health
issues (meningitis, MMR vaccine, etc); start with a quick introduction, discussion; allow their
opinions, then a video and/or newspaper articles, TV news or informative programmes (eg
Equinox, Horizon, etc).
Assessment
This unit should be assessed, where possible, via a portfolio of investigations. Each
investigation should include clear aims, a description of how the investigation was carried out,
how information and data were collected, the presentation of the information and conclusions
reached and the validity and reliability of the data in reaching the conclusion. Consideration of
environmental, social, economic, ethical and moral issues should be discussed where relevant.
Pass grade learners will require significant assistance from a tutor to achieve all the outcomes of
this unit.
To carry out the investigative work the learners will require a brief from the tutor which will
guide the learners through the practical or case study/assignment work that needs to be carried
out and gives ideas about how to obtain information to complete straightforward problems.
The tutor will also need to be present during practical investigations to supervise the learners
and provide guidance for the pass grade learners.
The merit grade learners will work with more independence. The learners will carry out research
with little guidance and will be able to plan and carry out practical work to solve more complex
problems, or using a range of practical techniques. The merit grade learners will be able to make
accurate observations and give reasons for any inaccuracies.
The descriptions of the issues in the range will be more detailed, showing an understanding of
the concepts involved. The merit grade learners will be able to link ideas from different areas
and discuss the impact of a variety of factors on an issue, such as those that can have an adverse
effect on a communication system.
The distinction grade learners will work with greater autonomy, using the tutor as a resource
when necessary. The learner will use a wide range of resources and analyse the information
from these to produce fluent explanations and discussions, using the correct scientific language
and units.

28

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 2: SCIENCE AND THE WORLD OF WORK

The practical work and other investigative work will be planned, carried out and evaluated with
a minimum of support. Errors will be identified and conclusions drawn. The learner will present
reasoned discussions of issues, showing consideration of conflicting viewpoints.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
Links to other units include Unit 3: Chemistry Applications and Unit 8: Environmental Science
for topics like toxicity, crop spraying, organic food production, genetic and health problems
caused by drugs and chemicals, etc (see Essential resources). Also consider how legislation
leads and/or follows events and scientific findings for instance, global warming and
pollution, ozone layer, acid rain, etc and subsequent emissions control.
This unit also has links with the GCSE in Applied Science Unit 2: Science for the Needs of
Society obtaining useful products, the importance of energy and energy efficiency, and
Unit 3: Science at Work science in the workplace.
This unit presents opportunities to demonstrate key skills at level 2 in communication and
information technology (see Annexe C for mapping).
This unit provides underpinning knowledge for the Laboratory and Associated Technical
Activities NVQ at Level 2 (see Annexe D for mapping).
It also presents opportunities to cover the wider curriculum in the aspects of social/cultural,
moral/ethical, equal opportunities, health and safety and European issues (see Annexe E for
mapping).
Essential resources
Many television programmes (eg Equinox, Horizon) provide excellent discussion and debate
topics. Although TV companies usually allow recording of these programmes for educational
use, you are advised to check for permission and copyright.
The internet provides a vast range of information, particularly www.hsegov.uk,
www.open.gov.uk, recent prosecution cases for breach of statute, CLEAPSS, EMAS, MAFF
and others (see below).
News items focus on, for example, flooding, animal testing, road and transport including events
like rail/plane crashes, diseases, MMR vaccine, redundancies etc.
Indicative reading for learners
Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.
Scientific journals, eg Nature, Chemistry in Britain, Scientific American, New Scientist etc.
For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

29

UNIT 2: SCIENCE AND THE WORLD OF WORK

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.


Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in group discussions


about the impact of technology
on society and the environment,
or how the media portrays
scientific issues

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

carrying out an investigation and


producing a poster about one of
the above

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

reading and synthesising


information on the organisation
of science companies

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

producing reports about the


impact of technology or the
structure and organisation of a
science company.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

seeking information on the


website about scientific
discoveries or inventions or an
aspect of the impact of science
and technology on society

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


needs.

deriving new information from


scientific inventions or
discoveries

ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the


task and derive new information.

combining information from the


use of science and technology
and how it has had an impact on
society.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

30

Use different information sources for each task


and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

Unit 3:

Chemistry Applications

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
It is important that learners on an applied science programme have an understanding of
fundamental concepts that underpin the applications of chemistry in industry and the practical
chemistry vocational skills required in the workplace. It is also important that learners have
knowledge of the implications of chemistry such as sustainable development, waste disposal,
pollution and their effects on the environment and society.
Learners need to develop skills such as handling of laboratory apparatus; interpreting and safely
following laboratory procedures and processes; recording and analysing data, carrying out risk
analysis; communication skills in recording and carrying out information and using correct
symbols and terminology.
The unit develops the learners technical skills and knowledge of techniques through carrying
out chemistry practical investigations. The knowledge and skills developed are essential for
science technicians/assistant practitioners (or employees carrying out other related roles)
working in a number of chemistry related industries and laboratory services.
It is important during the delivery and assessment of this unit that the learner takes on the role
of being employed within the chemical or applied science industry or an organisation that uses
chemistry. This can be achieved by setting assignments/activities within a workplace scenario
and where the learner simulates the science employee.
Learners will cover the fundamental topics in chemistry including classification, properties of
materials, the factors that affect chemical reactions, the continuing growth of importance of
organic chemistry and the importance of effects on the earth and its environment.
The unit also requires the learner to investigate some new developments in chemistry such as
nanochemistry and the development of new smart materials. Learners should understand the
importance of the potential effects of manufactured and natural chemical substances on the
environment.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1

Know how atomic structure relates to the properties of the elements and compounds

Understand the factors involved in chemical reactions

Know the importance of organic chemistry

Understand the importance of the factors involved in the earth and its environment.

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UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

Unit content

Know how atomic structure relates to the properties of the elements and compounds
Atomic and electronic structure: nucleons and electron shells; relationship to the elements 1
to 20 in periodic table; isotopes eg hydrogen, chlorine
Chemical properties: graduation in properties in group 1 and group 7 relationship with
electronic configuration; reactivity with water; displacement reactions
Bonding: ionic; covalent; dative covalent; metallic bonding; dot and cross diagrams;
electron shell diagrams; properties and applications of ionic and covalent compounds eg
group 1 salts, diamond, graphite, oxygen, chlorine
Nanochemistry: nanoscale; carbon nanostructures eg bucky balls, nanotubes; uses of
nanochemistry eg sun creams, textiles, sports equipment, single crystal nanowires for
processors, mobile phone batteries; implications of nanochemistry eg safety, environmental
issues, ethical issues

Understand the factors involved in chemical reactions


Equations: word equations and simple balanced equations; reacting masses; types of
reaction (hydration, dehydration, reduction, oxidation)
Exothermic and endothermic reactions: heat evolved or absorbed; bond breaking and bond
making reactions eg heat of neutralisation and combustion; energy calculations with given
formulae; use of data logging
Reaction rates: effect of catalysts; surface area; concentration and temperature; use of
reaction rate graphs and data logging
Reversible reactions: dynamic equilibrium; Haber process: qualitative effects, temperature,
concentration
New materials: materials and their properties eg. Kevlar, GoretexTM,, LycraTM, ThinsulateTM,;
additives (cross-linking agents, plasticisers, stabilisers); smart materials eg thermochromic,
shape memory, photochromic, piezoelectric

Know the importance of organic chemistry


Organic compounds: definition; organic chemicals; carbon cycle
Hydrocarbons: petroleum cracking; alkanes and alkenes (methane, butane, pentane and
octane, and ethene); 2D structures; shapes; applications of hydrocarbons; polymerisation of
ethene and its applications
Halogen-containing organic compounds: chloroethene; polymerisation of chloroethene
(PVC and PVCu) and its applications
Oxygen-containing organic groups: alcohols (ethanol); carboxylic acids (ethanoic);
structures; physical properties and combustion; applications ethanol eg alcoholic drinks,
biofuels, cosmetics, inks, coatings; applications of ethanoic acid eg pickling, manufacture of
esters

32

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

Understand the importance of the factors involved in the earth and its environment
Human activity: effects on land; obtaining starting materials from the sea, land and air eg
coal, natural gas, oil, metal ores, salt, nitrogen, oxygen
Effects of chemical processing: energy factors; health and safety measures; disposal

involved to protect personnel and the environment

Sustainable development issues: eg recycling, use of fossil fuels versus nuclear fission fuels;
greenhouse gases; acid rain; biomass; future fuels eg hydrogen, ethanol, nuclear fusion;
adverse effects of chemicals, eg DDT, CFCs
Natural activity: the earths crust; tectonic plates; volcanic eruptions and gases; effects on
the atmosphere

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M2 investigate and explain the difference in


properties of substances with ionic, covalent
and metallic bonded substances
M3 using examples of suitable investigations collect
primary data and describe the differences
between exothermic and endothermic reactions
M4 investigate the use of primary data to describe
how factors affect reaction rates and reversible
reactions
M5 explain the benefits and disadvantages of using
organic compounds in society
M6 explain how human and natural activities affect
the earth and its environment.

P2 investigate and describe ionic, covalent and


metallic bonds

P3 carry out investigations to collect primary data


to define what is meant by exothermic and
endothermic reactions

P4 investigate and use primary data to identify the


factors affecting reaction rates and reversible
reactions

P5 investigate and describe the use of three main


types of organic compounds used in society

P6 describe how human and natural activities affect


the earth and its environment.

34

D6 evaluate the effects of human and natural


activity on the earth and its environment.

D5 evaluate the importance of organic compounds


used in society

D4 use primary data to evaluate how different


factors affect reaction rates for a given industrial
reaction

D3 explain the processes involved in exothermic


and endothermic reactions

D2 explain bonding in terms of stability a means


of achieving a full outer shell either by
transferring or sharing electrons

D1 explain the patterns and trends within groups 1


and 7 in the periodic table

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M1 describe the patterns and trends of chemical


properties of groups 1 and 7 in the periodic
table

P1 describe atomic and electronic structures of


elements 120, including isotopes, in the
periodic table

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 36.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
The purpose of this unit is to develop understanding in the underlying concepts involved in
chemistry, applying this understanding to applications in the manufacturing or service science
industry and developing practical investigative skills. Delivery strategies should reflect the
nature of work within science employment by using an assignment/portfolio building approach
where learners take responsibility for and ownership of their own learning.
This unit requires the learner to approach many of the concepts through scientific investigation
wherever possible (using practical assignments wherever possible). This is particularly
important in the areas:

properties of covalent, ionic and metallic substances

the chemical properties of groups 1 and 7

exothermic and endothermic reactions

factors affecting reaction rates and reversible reactions

the development of smart materials

properties of selected organic compounds

the effects of human and natural activity on the environment

the increased emphasis on sustainable development.

The knowledge gained about the factors affecting chemical reactions and properties of
substances in outcomes 1 and 2 can then be applied to examples of industrial chemistry
applications.
Learners need to know the importance of the periodic table and the classification of chemical
substances, chemical reactions and the factors that affect them. A model-making investigation
can also be carried out by learners to show the shapes of simple organic molecules and other
simple and giant covalent molecules. Models should also be used wherever possible to help
demonstrate the properties of ionically bonded substances.
In learning outcome 2 the delivery needs to focus on the learners knowledge of the importance
of producing new materials, new areas of research and the role of additives in designing and
altering the properties of new and existing materials.
In learning outcome 3 on organic chemistry the teaching and learning strategies need to
concentrate on the importance of organic chemical substances obtained from the fractional
distillation of crude oil, fossil fuels and other halogen and oxygen containing compounds.
Learning outcome 4 addresses the need to obtain starting materials from the earth and its
environment, exemplar factors involved in producing products for the consumer and other
chemistry applications (eg in medicine, in the home, DIY, research, quality control). It also
addresses the environmental effects of using chemical substances, their disposal and
sustainability. Learners can take part in expressing their own opinion on sustainable
development and could produce a poster on the effects of human activity on the earth and its
environment.
Visiting speakers from the chemical industry or visits/placements to such industries would be
useful to place concepts in a vocational setting.

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Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

Assessment
The assessment strategies used in this unit need to reflect the evidence required within the
grading criteria and should be assessed through scientific investigative assignments, where
communication can be considered through the learners presentations, scientific laboratory
reports, posters, graphs, charts etc.
The assessment strategies used in outcomes 1, 2 and 3 address the need for learners to develop
practical and enquiry skills, use ICT to collect, interpret and evaluate data to explain scientific
theories. They also cover the importance of health and safety during practical investigations, the
validity/reliability of data and identification of errors.
The behaviour and properties of nanochemicals could be used as an example of a situation
where science has no model to explain properties and behaviour at the present time.
The applications of chemistry need to be considered wherever possible throughout the unit and
are focused on in outcomes 2 and 3.
Outcome 4 addresses examples of the implications of science and technology.
Pass-grade learners will require significant assistance from a tutor to achieve all the outcomes of
this unit.
To carry out the investigative work the learner will require a brief from the tutor which will
guide the learners through the practical or case study/assignment work and gives ideas about
how to obtain information to complete straightforward problems.
The tutor will also need to be present during practical investigations to supervise the learners
and provide additional guidance for the pass grade learners. The pass grade learners will be able
to follow scientific procedures, will be able to use scientific symbols, use relevant terminology
and identify errors.
The merit-grade learners will work with more independence. The learners will carry out
research with little guidance and will be able to plan and carry out practical work to solve more
complex problems, or using a range of practical techniques. The merit grade learners will be
able to make accurate observations and give reasons for any inaccuracies.
The merit grade learners will be able to link ideas from different areas and discuss the impact of
a variety of factors on an issue, such as the temperature effect on industrial equilibrium
reactions.
The distinction-grade learners will work with greater autonomy, using the tutor as a resource
when necessary. The learners will use a wide range of resources and analyse the information
from these to produce fluent explanations and discussions, using the correct scientific language
and units. The practical work will be planned, carried out and evaluated with a minimum of
support. Errors will be identified and conclusions drawn.
The examples given will be detailed and comprehensive, for example, details of the factors
affecting industrial applications of chemistry. The distinction grade learners will present
reasoned discussions of issues, showing consideration of conflicting viewpoints.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
There are links with Unit 3: Biological systems which include the effect of human activity on
environmental issues, and the effects of chemical substances on human health. There are also
links with Unit 2: Physical Science Applications in the areas of energy and the electromagnetic
spectrum.
The unit provides opportunities in the wider curriculum, specifically in health and safety and
ethical/moral issues (see Annexe E for mapping).
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Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

The unit presents opportunities to demonstrate key skills at level 2 in application of number,
communication and information technology, and the wider key skills (see Annexe C for
mapping).
This unit also has links with the GCSE in Applied Science: Unit 1: Developing Scientific Skills;
Unit 2: Science for the needs of society; Unit 3: Science at Work.
This unit builds on the chemistry concepts covered in key stage 3 and covers the chemistry
content of the key stage 4 mandatory criteria. The unit therefore has strong links with the
content of the 2006 Core GCSE Science (see Annexe F for mapping).
It may also provide links with the NVQ in Laboratory and Technical Activities at Level 2 (see
Annexe D for mapping).
Essential resources
There are no particular books that cover this unit. Learners can find information using company
annual reports, journals, magazines, company websites and newspapers.
Learners should have access to a range of chemistry resources, similar to those used for GCSE
and the Intermediate GNVQ in Science. Learners will need access to a chemistry/science
laboratory equipped with a fume cupboard and standard laboratory chemistry apparatus.
Access to a range of information resources to complete investigative assignments and case
studies will be essential, including relevant CD ROMs and the internet.
Indicative reading for learners
Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Bell C, Brodie D, Dawson B and Tiernan A GCSE in Applied Science (Folens)

ISBN 1 843033674

Classical Chemistry Experiments (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000)

ISBN 0 854049193

Contemporary Chemistry for Schools and Colleges (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2004)

ISBN 0 854043829 (source for nanotechnology)

Ken Gadd Associates Ltd Applied Science GCSE Edexcel (Nelson Thornes, 2003)

ISBN 0 748772030

The Essential Chemical Industry (Chemical Industry Education Centre, 1999)

ISBN 1 85342577X

Ryan L Chemistry for You (Nelson Thornes, 2002) ISBN 0 748762345

Salters GCSE Science Year 10 Learner Book (Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0 435629522

Salters GCSE Science Year 11 Learner Book (Heinemann, 2002) ISBN 0 435629530

New Scientist
Focus
Materials World

The Institute of Materials, Minerals and


Mining

Big Picture

Wellcome Trust

Nanoscience Issue 2

Materials Foresight

Smart Materials for the 21st Century

The Institute of Materials,


Minerals and Mining

For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.


BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.


Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

obtaining data from


investigations in outcome 2 on
reaction rates and endothermic
and exothermic reactions

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

weighing and measuring out


materials in the practical work

N2.2

Use your information to carry out calculations


to do with:

obtaining and displaying results

amounts or sizes

carrying out calculations using


formulae

scales or proportion

handling statistics

identifying sources of error

using formulae.

interpreting and displaying


results.

N2.3

Interpret the results of your calculations and


present your findings.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in group discussions


to discuss the environmental
effects of the use of organic
compounds on the environment

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion

presenting the results and


conclusions of an investigation
about the factors effecting
reaction rates

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes

using literature sources about the


environmental effects of organic
compounds

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

producing posters or reports


about the above environmental
effects.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

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BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


using IT resources to find
needs.
information for a
presentation/report on the uses of
Use different information sources for each task
exothermic reactions or
and multiple search criteria in at least one case.
environmental effects of organic
compounds

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting reports and
data

ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the


task and derive new information.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

Improving own learning and performance level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

producing a plan for an


investigation for approval

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and


plan how these will be met.

planning and evaluating the


study and suggesting
improvements

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about


your learning, using your plan to help meet
targets and improve your performance.

carrying out the investigation

evaluating learning within the


investigation.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person


and provide evidence of achievements.

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group


investigation

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out an


experiment and/or research in a
group

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving


identified objectives.

interpreting and presenting


findings, adapting plan and
making suggestions for
improvement.

WO2.3 Review your contribution and agree ways to


improve work with others.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY APPLICATIONS

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BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Unit 4:

Physical Science Applications

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
Physical science has a wide range of applications both in everyday science and in the science
laboratory. All scientific processes depend on energy transformations, it is therefore important
for learners to investigate different types of energy and how these interact in industrial
processes.
Industrial processes use the properties of waves and radiation, for example spectral analysis to
identify the components of a material, or radiation used to examine defects in materials.
Industrial processes depend on electricity. Technicians need to be familiar with the production,
application and transformation of electricity so that they can handle electrical equipment safely.
Learners will have the opportunity to gain hands-on experience of using practical devices.
Learners should appreciate that many scientific applications are derived from the space
programme, for example Helium was first discovered by spectral analysis of the sun and heat
resistant materials were developed for the space programme. Learners will have the opportunity
to explore instrumentation used to explore space and the benefits that it brings.
This unit develops learners knowledge and understanding of the fundamental principles of
physical science and enables them to apply these principles to a range of practical situations.
Learners will develop the physical science practical skills required by employees working in
laboratories within the scientific industry or organisations that use science.
The way in which this unit is delivered and assessed allows learners to experience real-life
situations that arise in an industrial or service science laboratory.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1

Understand the importance of energy and energy transfer

Understand applications of waves and radiation

Understand applications of electricity

Understand methods used in astronomy to explore the universe, its galaxies, planets and
stars.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

41

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Unit content

Understand the importance of energy and energy transfer


Types of energy: eg thermal, electrical, light, sound, mechanical and chemical
Energy transfer: measurement; conservation eg solar to electrical to mechanical, chemical
to mechanical to electrical; efficiency calculations; economic costs; environmental effects
Molecular theory: thermal energy and basic molecular theory; internal energy; changing
states of matter solid/liquid/gas

Transfer of thermal energy: conduction; convection; radiation; insulation

Understand applications of waves and radiation


Ionising radiation: types (alpha, beta and gamma); effect of different thickness of paper,
aluminium and lead on each type of radiation
The electromagnetic spectrum: eg radio, X-rays, gamma radiation, microwaves, visible
light; colour; velocity, frequency, wavelength
Light waves: reflection; refraction; convex lenses; concave lenses; optic fibres; path taken in
the eye; use of lenses to correct eye problems
Sound waves: production; air pressure changes (compression and rarefaction); need for a
medium (velocity, frequency, wavelength); instruments/voices; sound insulation
(conductors, insulators)
Waves for communications: use of radio waves, microwaves, infrared and visible light to
carry information; processing information to improve effectiveness of communication
systems

Understand applications of electricity


Production: types of batteries eg rechargeable, Nickel Hydride, non-rechargeable; safe
disposal; accumulators; basic generator
Applications: eg motors, loudspeakers, transformers
Generation and transmission: power stations eg hydroelectric, coal fired, nuclear;
transmission from power stations to consumers; economics; environmental considerations
Conversion for industrial applications: movement; heating; lighting; sound

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BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Understand methods used in astronomy to explore the universe, its galaxies, planets
and stars
Exploration: solar system, galaxies, universe from space eg Hubble Space Telescope; from
Earth eg Jodrell Bank Observatory; manned missions eg International Space Station;
unmanned missions eg Cassins-Huygens
Instrumentation: optical telescopes (reflection, refraction); radio telescopes; stellar

spectroscope; satellites for observing X-rays and gamma rays eg Chandra X-ray

Observatory, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

Universe: the Big Bang (origin); expansion


Applications: new materials eg heat and fire resistant materials; new technology eg bar
coding, robotics; observation of earth eg measuring pollution, weather monitoring

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

43

M2 investigate the penetrating ability of different


types of ionising radiation through different
thickness of materials
M3 investigate different types of waves travelling in
different materials (including a vacuum) and
between different materials
M4 explain two applications of electricity

M5 describe methods used to investigate the


universe, its galaxies, planets and stars.

P2 list the different types of ionising radiations and


their properties

P3 identify different type of waves and their main


characteristics

P4 describe two ways in which electricity may be


produced

P5 state methods used to investigate the universe,


its galaxies, planets and stars.

44

D5 analyse the effectiveness and limitations of


methods used to investigate the universe, its
galaxies, planets and stars.

D4 analyse the problem of energy losses when


transmitting electricity and when converting it
into other forms for consumer applications

D3 explain how waves may be used for


communications

D2 explain the reason for the different penetrating


abilities of different types of ionising radiation
through paper, aluminium and lead

D1 calculate energy consumption and the efficiency


of energy conversion in energy cycles

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M1 explain situations involving energy conversions


and energy conservation within energy cycles

P1 describe energy cycles in diagrams and in


writing

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is on page 45.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
As far as possible the learning outcomes should be delivered using a practical, investigative
approach that will enable learners to develop their practical and enquiry skills. The briefings for
investigations should be based on scenarios applicable to a typical industrial laboratory or
organisation that uses physical science applications.
Learners should be allowed to plan their own investigations wherever possible, for example to
test a scientific idea. Learners should consider health and safety issues when planning an
investigation. Data should be collected using Information Communication Technology (ICT)
where appropriate, and presented in a suitable format. Learners should consider the validity of
data and its reliability and they should draw conclusions from the data.
Learners should comment on the environmental, social and economic impact of their
investigations and should also consider ethical and moral issues where applicable.
Learners can present their research and conclusions in a variety of different ways including
laboratory reports using ICT (word processors; spreadsheets to produce graphs and charts),
giving presentations to their peers and possibly to learners in a lower year group (using a
presentation package), posters, leaflets etc. This will allow learners to demonstrate a range of
written and verbal communication skills.
In order to ensure that all learners can achieve a pass a predominantly qualitative approach
should be taken, supported by relevant mathematical and statistical concepts. To progress to
further science-based study or career pathways, such as engineering, computing, radiology or
environmental science, then coverage of sufficient mathematics is still essential and also
needs to be allowed for in the merit and distinction criteria.
Some aspects of this unit may be taught or extended by using case studies. Ideas for case studies
can be obtained from magazines, journals and professional institutes. Local industry might be
able to provide guest speakers who could discuss a case study from their own experience or set
a scenario for a topic. Alternatively, learners could visit local industry to see science in action.
Learners could prepare for their visit by producing a list of questions. Some local industries may
be able to offer learners work experience or work shadowing, so that learners gain first-hand
experience scientific work in a laboratory.
Assessment
This unit should be assessed, where possible, via a portfolio of scientific investigations. Each
investigation should include clear aims, a description of how the investigation was carried out
(including health and safety considerations), how data was collected, the data itself (presented in
an appropriate format), conclusions reached and the validity and reliability of the data in
reaching the conclusion. The portfolio of evidence should demonstrate the use of ICT as
discussed in the section on delivery strategies. Consideration of environmental, social,
economic, ethical and moral issues should be discussed where relevant.
Pass-grade learners will require significant assistance from a tutor to achieve all the learning
outcomes of this unit.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

45

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

To carry out their investigative work learners will require a brief from the tutor which will guide
them through the practical or case study/assignment work that needs to be carried out and gives
ideas about how to obtain information to complete straightforward problems. Pass-grade
learners will be able to follow scientific procedures and will be able to use scientific symbols,
relevant terminology and identify errors.
The tutor will need to be present during practical investigations to supervise pass grade learners
and to provide guidance.
Merit-grade learners will work with more independence. The learners will carry out research
with little guidance and will be able to plan and carry out practical work to solve more complex
problems, or use a range of practical techniques. The merit grade learners will be able to make
accurate observations and give reasons for any inaccuracies.
The merit grade learners will be able to link ideas from different areas and discuss the impact of
a variety of factors on an issue for example factors that can have an adverse effect on a
communication system.
Distinction-grade learners will work with greater autonomy, using the tutor as a resource when
necessary. The distinction grade learners will use a wide range of resources and analyse the
information gained from these to produce fluent explanations and discussions, using the correct
scientific language and units.
The distinction grade learners practical work will be planned, carried out and evaluated with a
minimum of support. Errors will be identified and conclusions drawn.
The examples given by the distinction grade learners will be detailed and comprehensive, for
example details of the factors affecting industrial applications of physics. The distinction grade
learners will present reasoned discussions of issues, showing consideration of conflicting
viewpoints.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
This unit has links with Unit 1: Chemistry Applications in which learners will look at energetics
of chemical reactions and could use parts of the Electromagnetic Spectrum.
This unit also has links with the GCSE in Applied Science: Unit 1: Developing Scientific Skills;
Unit 2: Science for the Needs of Society and Unit 3: Science at Work.
This unit builds on the physics concepts covered in Key Stage 3 and covers the physics content
of the Key Stage 4 mandatory criteria. The unit, therefore, has strong links with the content of
the 2006 GCSE Science core.
This unit provides opportunities to look at the wider curriculum, specifically health and safety
and environmental issues (see Annexe E for mapping).
This unit presents opportunities to demonstrate key skills at level 2 in application of number,
communication, information communication technology and problem solving skills (see
Annexe C for mapping).
The unit may also provide links with the NVQ in Laboratory and Technical Activities at Level 2
(see Annexe D for mapping).
This unit is mapped to the 2006 Key Stage 4 science criteria (see Annexe F for mapping).
Essential resources
A well-equipped physics laboratory will be required for the successful delivery of this unit.
Learners will benefit from access to ICT equipment and the internet.

46

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Indicative reading for learners


Bell C, Brodie D, Dawson B and Tiernan A GCSE in Applied Science (Folens)

ISBN 1 843033674

Lawrie R and Keith Johnson Physics for You (Nelson Thornes, 2004) ISBN 0 74876236

Focus
New Scientist
For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

47

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.


Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

obtaining data from


investigations

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

weighing and measuring out


materials in the practical work

N2.2

Use your information to carry out calculations


to do with:

obtaining and displaying results

amounts or sizes

carrying out calculations using


formulae

scales or proportion

handling statistics

identifying sources of error

using formulae.

interpreting and displaying


results.

N2.3

Interpret the results of your calculations and


present your findings.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

discussing strategies and


methods to be used during an
investigation such as the transfer
of heat and good and bad
conductors of heat

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

presenting the results and


conclusions of an investigation

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

using literature sources to


develop familiarity with the
experimental methods to be used
in an investigation

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

writing two reports about


investigations carried out into
the properties of materials.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

48

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

using IT resources to find


information for a
presentation/report

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


needs.

using information sources to find


out which material is the best
heat insulator or best material for
heat reflection

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting reports and
data

ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the


task and derive new information.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

Use different information sources for each task


and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

Improving own learning and performance level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

producing a plan for an


investigation for approval

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and


plan how these will be met.

planning and evaluating the


study and suggesting
improvements

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about


your learning, using your plan to help meet
targets and improve your performance.

carrying out the investigation

evaluating learning within the


investigation.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person


and provide evidence of achievements.

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group


investigation

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out an


experiment and/or research in a
group

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving


identified objectives.

interpreting and presenting


findings, adapting plan and
making suggestions for
improvement.

WO2.3 Review your contribution and agree ways to


improve work with others.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

49

UNIT 4: PHYSICAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

50

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Unit 5:

Biological Systems

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
It is important that learners on an applied science programme have a good understanding of
basic concepts of biology in order that these may be developed and used in a variety of
applications, including the understanding of health-related factors.
Learners need to develop understanding of the wide variety of living organisms on the earth,
and how they interact with each other and the environment. This unit requires learners to
understand the role of DNA in inheritance and evolution, this being applied to the study of
inherited factors and conditions. The unit then encourages the learner to study factors that may
affect human health and the protective mechanisms of the human body.
This unit will enable learners to develop their biology practical skills, underpinning knowledge
and understanding of biology, including applications in the workplace and effects on the
environment and society.
The learners technical skills are also developed along with their knowledge and understanding
of techniques as they carry out a wide range biology practical investigations. The knowledge
and skills developed are essential for technicians and assistant practitioners working in biology,
health care, food science, agriculture, horticulture, beauty therapy and other biology-related
industries and laboratory services.
It is important during the delivery and assessment of this unit that the learner takes on the role
of being employed within the biology industry or an organisation that uses biology.
Learners will also investigate how body systems respond to internal and external environmental
changes using hormonal and nervous signals to maintain the body processes.
At the end of this unit learners will understand how living things interact with each other and
their surroundings. They will also understand how organisms are adapted to their environment.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1

Understand the diversity of living organisms and how they are classified

Be able to investigate how living things interact with each other and their environments

Understand that genes are responsible for inheritance, and variations within species, leading
to evolutionary change

Understand the factors that may affect human health and the ways human health is
controlled.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

51

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Unit content

1 Understand the diversity of living organisms and how they are classified
Classifying organisms: wide variety of living organisms; identification keys; the need to
organise/classify; variety of systems; Linnaen system of classification
Major characteristics of: viruses; bacteria; protists; fungi; plants (flowering plants, nonflowering plants), animals (invertebrates, vertebrates)
2 Be able to investigate how living things interact with each other and their
environments
Interdependence of organisms: nature and relationship, eg parasite and host, predator and
prey; food chains and food webs; pyramids of numbers; energy and biomass
Effects of human activity on the environment: eg greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, ozone
depletion, acid rain, recycling of household waste, use and conservation of household
utilities (gas, water, electricity), pollution; pollution indicator species; effects on food chains
and food webs
3 Understand that genes are responsible for inheritance, and variations within species,
leading to evolutionary change
Genes control cell function: DNA code; translation; structure of a protein eg enzyme;

control of cells activities

DNA molecule: coded sequence of bases (A, C, T, G)

Evolutionary change: role of genetic variation, environmental conditions

Inherited factors: conditions and diseases eg sickle cell syndrome/anaemia, multiple

sclerosis, Parkinsons disease, cystic fibrosis

Gene therapy: for prevention/treatment of disease, eg cystic fibrosis, haemophilia


4 Understand the factors which may affect human health and the ways human health is
controlled
Factors: medical eg harmful effects of micro-organisms, carcinogens; social the use and
misuse of drugs) eg cannabis, nicotine, alcohol, solvents, heroin, caffeine; exercise eg
calories ingested v calories used
Medical treatments: eg use of antibiotics and immunisation; gene therapy; use of stem cells;
in vitro fertilisation; cloning
Protective mechanisms: nervous and chemical co-ordination; chemical (effects of
adrenaline, insulin); electrical (body senses) eg touch, taste, sight, hearing, smell; structure
and function of a simple reflex arc
Auto-immune diseases: eg multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns disease

52

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M1 explain the need to classify organisms

M2 describe examples of adaptations to the


environment shown by organisms within the
ecosystem.
M3 describe the effect of these environmental
changes over time and the means of measuring
them
M4 describe (using examples) how variation within
a species brings about evolutionary change
M5 identify the mechanisms by which these
conditions and diseases are inherited
M6 explain the mechanisms involved in disrupting
body systems, for each of the examples chosen

P1 construct simple identification keys and


describe the main characteristics within the
major classification groups

P2 describe an ecosystem investigated and indicate


the types of interdependence of living things in
it

P3 describe the possible effect of human activities


on the ecosystem investigated

P4 describe the relationship between chromosomes,


DNA and genes

P5 identify and describe two examples of inherited


conditions and diseases

P6 describe the effects of four different factors


which have a detrimental effect on human
health

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

53

D6 describe the social issues which arise from each


of the conditions described

D5 investigate and describe the effectiveness of


gene therapy to prevent inherited conditions and
diseases

D4 explain how genes control variation within a


species using a simple coded message

D3 analyse data relating to changes in the


environment and explain how the environmental
impact might be minimised in future

D2 construct quantitative and qualitative diagrams


to demonstrate the relationships between
organisms living interdependently within an
ecosystem

D1 discuss the characteristics which are used to


distinguish the major groups

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

54

D7 explain the effects of the chemical and


hormonal controls on human health.

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M7 describe the differences between the actions of


chemical and electrical protective mechanisms
of the body.

P7 describe two control mechanisms which enable


the human body to maintain optimum health.

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is on pages 56.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
The material in this unit should be introduced through a programme of tuition, guided learning
and practical assignment work. The unit will be delivered, wherever possible, through a
practical and investigatory approach. This will enable learners to develop skills and learn the
fundamental concepts required for further development in the area of biological sciences.
This is particularly important in the following areas:

interdependence of populations of predator and prey species

effects of human activity on the environment using living indicators

principles of classification and the difficulties of classification

use and creation of classification keys

description of food chains quantitatively using pyramids of biomass

competition for resources between and within species

advantages of reflex responses

production of insulin and regulation of glucose concentration in the blood

genetic manipulation to create new varieties of organism

key components of a healthy diet.

In learning outcome 1 learners observe and measure differences between species and individuals
of the same species. Where possible this should be carried out by observing organisms in their
natural habitat. These differences may show distinct characteristics by which organisms may be
distinguished or grouped together using a variety of systems.
Learning outcome 2 explores the interdependence of living things and their environment. How
changes in the environment can bring about evolutionary change and in particular the impact of
human activities on the delicate balance of nature and how this impact could be minimised.
Learning outcome 3 looks at how genes control cell activities (in particular cellular products)
which may then influence the development of the whole organism perhaps leading to
evolutionary change (for example the growth in numbers of the melanic form of peppered moth
Biston betularia in the industrial north of England towards the end of the nineteenth century).
Learners can investigate how we manage genetic variation to produce new varieties of fruit and
vegetables and even livestock.
Learning outcome 4 addresses the need to maintain a healthy body and the implications of a
balanced diet, appropriate exercise and the use (or misuse) of certain drugs on our personal
development and the health of the community overall.
Visiting speakers from conservation groups, sport and leisure centres, hospital trusts or
visits/placements to such groups would be useful to put these concepts into a vocational setting
and to distinguish between the theory and the practice.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

55

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Assessment
Wherever possible, this unit should be assessed through learners building up a portfolio of
scientific investigation assignments. Communication can be considered through the learners
presentations, scientific laboratory reports, posters, graphs, charts etc.
Assessment strategies should enable learners to demonstrate practical and enquiry skills and
allow the collection (using ICT), interpretation and evaluation of data to explain scientific
theories. Learners must be aware of the importance of health and safety during practical
investigations, the validity/reliability of data and identification of errors.
Learning outcomes 2, 3 and 4 address examples of the implications of science and technology.
The applications of biology need to be considered wherever possible throughout the unit.
Pass-grade learners will require significant assistance from a tutor to achieve all of the unit
learning outcomes.
To carry out investigative work the learner will require a brief from the tutor which will guide
them through the practical or case study/assignment work that needs to be completed and gives
ideas about how to obtain information to complete straightforward problems. The pass grade
learners will be able to follow scientific procedures and will be able to use scientific symbols
and relevant terminology and identify errors.
The tutor will need to be present during practical investigations to supervise the pass-grade
learners and to provide guidance for the pass grade learners.
Merit-grade learners will work with more independence. The learners will carry out research
with little guidance and will be able to plan and carry out practical work to solve more complex
problems, or use a range of practical techniques. The merit grade learners will be able to make
accurate observations and give reasons for any inaccuracies.
Merit grade learners will be able to link ideas from different areas and discuss the impact of a
variety of factors issue, for example variations in diet and exercise between different
individuals.
Distinction-grade learners will work with greater autonomy, using the tutor as a resource when
necessary. The learner will use a wide range of resources and analyse the information from them
to produce fluent explanations and discussions, using the correct scientific language and units.
The distinction-grade learners practical work will be planned, carried out and evaluated with a
minimum of support. Errors will be identified and conclusions drawn.
The examples given will be detailed and comprehensive, for example, details of the factors
effecting industrial applications of biology. The distinction grade learners will present reasoned
discussions of issues, showing consideration of conflicting viewpoints.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
There are links with Unit 1: Chemistry Applications, for example the effect of human activity on
the environment and the chemical substances involved in human health.
This unit also has links with the GCSE in Applied Science: Unit 1: Developing Scientific Skills;
Unit 2: Science for the Needs of Society and Unit 3: Science at Work.
This unit builds on the biological concepts covered in Key Stage 3 and covers the biology
content of the Key Stage 4 mandatory criteria. Therefore, the unit has strong links with the
content of the 2006 GCSE Science core (see Annexe F).

56

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Essential resources
Learners should have access a range of biology resources, similar to those used for GCSE and
the Intermediate GNVQ in Science. Learners will need access to a science laboratory.
Access to a range of information resources to complete investigative assignments and case
studies will be essential, including relevant CD ROMs and the internet.
Indicative reading for learners
Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Bell C, Brodie D, Dawson and Tiernan A GCSE in Applied Science (Folens)

ISBN 1 843033674

Ellis P and Mcdonald A Reading into Science Biology (Nelson Thornes, 2003)

ISBN 0 748767991

Ken Gadd Associates Ltd Applied Science GCSE Edexcel (Nelson Thornes, 2003)

ISBN 0 748772030

Roberts M and Ingram N Nelson Science Biology, Second Edition (Nelson Thornes, 2001)

ISBN 0 748762388

Salters GCSE Science Year 10 Learner Book (Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0 435629522

Salters GCSE Science Year 11 Learner Book (Heinemann, 2002) ISBN 0 435629530

Williams G and Paul N Biology for You (Nelson Thornes, 2002) ISBN 0 748762329

Focus

New Scientist

For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

57

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.


Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

obtaining data from


measurements and observations
in learners outcome 3 on
variations in species

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

interpreting and displaying


results.

N2.3

Interpret the results of your calculations and


present your findings.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in group discussions


to discuss the environmental
impact of human activities

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

presenting the results of research


into the components of a healthy
diet

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

using literature sources about the


effects of the use and misuse of
drugs

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

producing posters or reports


about the use of medical
applications in learners outcome
4.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

58

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

using IT resources to find


information for a
presentation/report on examples
of evolutionary change.

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


needs.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting reports and
data

ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the


task and derive new information.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

Use different information sources for each task


and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

Improving own learning and performance level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

producing a plan for an


investigation for approval

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and


plan how these will be met.

planning and evaluating the


study and suggesting
improvements

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about


your learning, using your plan to help meet
targets and improve your performance

carrying out the investigation

evaluating learning within the


investigation.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person


and provide evidence of achievements.

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group


investigation

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out an


experiment and/or research in a
group

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving


identified objectives.

interpreting and presenting


findings, adapting plan and
making suggestions for
improvement.

WO2.3 Review your contribution and agree ways to


improve work with others.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

59

UNIT 5: BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

60

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

Unit 6:

Working with Science

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
This unit has been designed to give learners an introductory overview of the science technician
or assistant practitioner (or other equivalent science-related job title) at work. The unit deals
with the personal skills, the laboratory environment and its organisation, the duties and
responsibilities of a science technician and assistant practitioner and health and safety aspects of
their work. It has integrative links with Unit 2: Science and the World of Work and develops the
learners understanding of the place of a technician or assistant practitioner within the
workplace and the part they play in achieving the overall aims of an organisation.
The unit can be contextualised to a number of different job roles in a science industry or
organisation that uses science such as in quality control, research, medical science,
environmental science, heavy chemicals, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, education etc.
The unit concentrates on the practical and organisational skills required by a science
technician/assistant practitioner, the running of laboratories, employment rights and
responsibilities, personal development and health and safety issues. The learner develops an
overview of working within a laboratory (or equivalent workplace), the skills needed to run a
laboratory and how its objectives fit within the overall organisation.
It is important that the learner is aware of issues with regard to sustainable development in the
running of a laboratory such as waste disposal, recycling, energy conservation etc.
It is also important that learners use modern laboratory instrumentation or carry out visits to
employers to observe such instrumentation in action.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:

Be able to investigate and demonstrate knowledge of the basic duties and responsibilities of

a junior science technician and assistant practitioner

Understand the need for personal, communication and ICT skills

Be able to investigate safe working practices and health and safety legislation

Know the key features involved in laboratory organisation.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

61

UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

Unit content

1 Be able to investigate and demonstrate knowledge of the basic duties and


responsibilities of a junior science technician and assistant practitioner
Schedule of work: eg daily, weekly, monthly and annual tasks, duty rotas, meetings, annual
leave timing, break time, flexibility, inter-departmental servicing
Personal: job description; appraisal; targets; professional development; progression/career
development
Typical duties and responsibilities: eg to support senior technicians and practitioners;
maintain the science workplace; types of workplace eg quality control, research, weights
and measures, environmental health, forensic, medical
Tasks: complexity of knowledge and skills required to perform job effectively and

efficiently eg following procedures, reading service manuals

2 Understand the need for personal, communication and ICT skills


Personal: eg introduction to time management, organisational skills, problem solving,
teamwork; relationships with supervisor, scientists, peer group, learners, human resources,
personnel in other departments, behaviour and motivation, contracts of employment,
employment protection, equal opportunities, ACAS, Young Persons at Work
Communication: lines of authority and accountability to and from other personnel; external
suppliers; external servicing staff; lay people; types of communication; scientific
terminology
ICT in a laboratory environment: eg an introduction to the use and need of the internet,
intranet, service providers, email, word-processing packages, MIS, spreadsheets, databases,
relevant scientific software, CDs, scientific databases
3 Be able to investigate safe working practices and health and safety legislation
Safe working practices: working under supervision; hazard recognition; safety awareness;
risk assessments; accident procedures; incident procedures; fire precautions; storage; use of
fume cupboards
Law: Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; COSHH; risk assessment; RIDDOR; codes of
practice; local laboratory rules; customs and excise; Legislation eg toxic and flammable
substances, radiation sources, microbiological hazards

62

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

Know the key features involved in laboratory organisation


Laboratory design: service requirements; equipment; furniture; glassware; storage; health
and safety requirements; testing equipment; workspace
Laboratory procedures: eg budgets, stock control, ordering procedures, receipt of goods,
waste control, servicing of equipment, health and safety checks, good housekeeping,
servicing contracts, laboratory maintenance, research of availability and cost of
equipment/substances, sterilisation of equipment, storage of substances
Laboratory practices: eg interpretation of instructions and manuals, preparation of
materials/substances, testing materials, usage of equipment, use of mobile test kits,
collection/transport of substances and equipment

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

63

M2 describe how the personal, communication and


ICT skills of the junior science technician and
assistant practitioner contribute to the work of
an organisation
M3 describe the role of safe working practices and
health and safety legislation within a laboratory
M4 describe the need for effective laboratory
design, key practices and procedures within a
science laboratory.

P2 identify personal, communication and ICT skills


of junior science technicians and assistant
practitioners within an organisation

P3 investigate and demonstrate the role of safe


working practices and health and safety
legislation within a laboratory

P4 list the key features of laboratory design and


key practices and procedures within a science
laboratory.

64

D4 evaluate the effectiveness of a laboratory


design, the key practices and procedures within
that laboratory.

D3 explain how safe working practices and health


and safety legislation maintain a safe
environment within a laboratory

D2 evaluate how their personal, communication and


ICT skills can effectively contribute to an
organisation

D1 explain how the typical duties and


responsibilities of a junior science technician
and assistant practitioner contribute to the
effectiveness and efficiency of the laboratory
workplace

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M1 describe the typical duties and responsibilities


of a junior science technician and assistant
practitioner

P1 identify the typical duties and responsibilities of


a junior science technician and assistant
practitioner

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 65.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
This unit requires learners to carry out investigative work for which they must be adequately
prepared. The achievement of the outcomes requires the development of a variety of process
skills. The delivery of this unit can be integrated with other units such as Unit 2: Science and the
World of Work.
The delivery of the programme would be enhanced by inviting an experienced science
technician or assistant practitioner or a company training manager to speak about their role in
laboratory organisation or personal career development. Learners would also benefit from
visiting industries or sectors that provide a science service to gather information for their
assignment work.
Learners could be given an investigative/practical assignment to produce a report on the key
features of a laboratory/workplace in a science-based organisation or in their college/school.
Proformas/templates similar to those used in the educational institution or obtained from a
company could be used as exemplars, eg invoices, stock records, requisitions, local laboratory
rules, to help complete assignments.
Learners could produce a poster to report findings of an investigation into safe working
practices or the duties and responsibilities of a science technician or assistant practitioner.
This is also a unit where learners can work together to extract, synthesise, summarise and
present relevant information to specific investigations.
Assessment
This unit can be assessed using a number of separate assignments discrete to this unit or as part
of an integrative assignment with a common theme.
The outcomes may be met by individual or group investigations. In the latter case, assessors
must document each learners contribution to the investigation and provide appropriate
authentication of the evidence presented.
Much of the evidence for this unit will be generated by investigative work. The quality of each
learners work will be only partially reflected in the assignments/report. It is important that the
assessor observes all phases of the work and records each learners performance. These records
should be included in the learners evidence as authentication of performance and to support the
grade recommended for the work. The assessors judgement must reflect the overall quality of
the work and should not be overly influenced by the media through which it is reported.
All grades require the learners to undertake some initial planning before the commencement of
investigative work. Learners must therefore consider carefully what is involved in the work and
how they are to approach the constituent tasks. The initial plan must be submitted and agreed
before any investigative work is started. However, an action plan should not be a static
document. It may need to be revised in reaction to progress made or results obtained. The
learners should be given the opportunity to review their plans at frequent intervals and to revise
them as appropriate. Each revision should be clearly dated and recorded by the assessor. It is
likely that the learners who aspire to merit or distinction grades will review their action plans
more frequently and in more detail than the pass grade learners.

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UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

The pass grade learners will work mainly from supplied methods, but must provide evidence of
an initial appreciation of the basis of the investigation through the initial action plan, in which
they identify clearly why the work is to be carried out and which outcomes should be achieved.
The work must be reported in accordance with scientific conventions. The written
assignments/report will be the normal method of reporting. However, scientific work may also
be reported orally or through electronic media. Whatever medium is chosen, the learner must
communicate the conduct of the work, the results achieved and the extent to which their
objectives were met. The work must be documented sufficiently well to enable the assessment
and grading to be verified. Where reporting is carried out orally, evidence must include the
learners preparatory materials and an assessor commentary. The pass grade learners do not
need to access secondary sources of information, other than those provided or recommended by
the tutor.
The merit grade learners must research and analyse the topic to be investigated before devising
the action plan, which should include a clear formulation of the objectives of the work. They
may use the tutor as a resource during the preparation of the plan; such consultation should not
disqualify the learner from the merit grade, providing that they have clearly appreciated the
background to the topic and the dimensions of the investigation to be carried out. The plan
should consider the nature of the information and data to be obtained, and set realistic and
achievable targets for accuracy of the work.
The merit grade learners must show, during the investigatory work, an appreciation of errors in
measurements and, where possible, take the appropriate steps to minimise them. The
information and data obtained should be processed in appropriate ways to produce valid
conclusions to the work. The learner must show, throughout the work and in the final report, a
clear appreciation of the principles underlying the investigation. Some use of appropriate
secondary sources of information will be required in the initial research on the topic; the
assessor should monitor this closely to ensure that the learner does not waste time by pursuing
information at a level too high for the expectations of a level 2 qualification.
The distinction grade learners plan should be based on a detailed analysis of the background to
the topic, including the use of secondary sources of information. The plan must be clearly
structured, have identified monitoring points and set clear objectives for the success of the work.
The assessor should scrutinise the plan before commencement of the work to ensure that the
overall objectives are achievable. Advice can be given to improve the plan in areas where the
learner could not reasonably be expected to be proficient and this should not disqualify them
from this grade. The progress of the work should be monitored as planned and any required
revisions made.
The distinction grade learners must carry out a detailed evaluation of the work undertaken. This
evaluation must include the conduct of each phase of the work, the achievement or otherwise of
the objectives formulated in the plan and the application of scientific principles throughout the
work. The distinction grade learners must demonstrate appropriate uses of secondary sources of
information and show clearly how each recorded source helped.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
There are specific links with Unit 2: Science and the World of Work and links with all the
practical outcomes within other units.
This unit has links with the GCSE in Applied Science Unit 1: Developing Scientific Skills
working safely, handling equipment and materials and following procedures.
This unit presents opportunities to demonstrate key skills in communication, information and
communication technology improving own learning and performance, problem solving and
working with others (see Annexe C for mapping).
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UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

It also provides underpinning knowledge for the Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities
NVQ at Level 2 (see Annexe D for mapping).
This unit provides opportunities in the wider curriculum, specifically in health and safety, social
and cultural, ethical/moral and European issues (see Annexe E for mapping).
Essential resources
Centres will require a general-purpose laboratory or a range of laboratories and laboratory
equipment, suitable for delivering biology, chemistry and physics to GCSE and above.
Access to exemplar proformas used in laboratory practices and procedures, job descriptions and
appraisal procedures is needed.
Sources of support and information should include:

British Standards

Hazcards (CLEAPSS School Science Service, 2004 update)

Laboratory Handbook (CLEAPSS School Science Service 2004 update)

protocols and standard operating procedures from local organisations

Safeguards in the School Laboratory, 10th Edition (ASE, 1996) ISBN 0 863572502

Safety in Science Education (DfES, 1996) ISBN 0 11270915X

Indicative reading for learners


Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Revell M Technical Support for School Science (Association for Science Education, 1990)

ISBN 0 863571425

Technicians Task Group The Prep Room Organiser (Association for Science Education,

2003) ISBN 0 863572839

For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

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UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.


Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in group discussions


about health and safety issues
and the duties/responsibilities of
a junior science technician and
assistant practitioner

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

presenting the results and


conclusions of an investigation
into one of the above topics

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

using literature sources to


develop and synthesise
information to be used for one of
the above investigations

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

writing reports or producing a


poster about personal,
communication or ICT skills
required for a junior science
technician and assistant
practitioner.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

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UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

searching for information about


health and safety in science
laboratories and appraisal
systems

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


needs.

exploring and developing


information about appraisal
systems and design of
laboratories

ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the


task and derive new information.

presenting combined information ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
for the design of laboratories and
number.
how this overlaps with health
and safety issues.

Use different information sources for each task


and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

Improving own learning and performance level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

setting targets with the tutor for


planning and carrying out an
investigation

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and


plan how these will be met.

taking some responsibility for


meeting the targets set in the
investigation

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about


your learning, using your plan to help meet
targets and improve your performance.

reviewing the progress of the


investigation with the tutor,
providing evidence and
transferring learning from one
task to another within the
investigation.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person


and provide evidence of your achievements.

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UNIT 6: WORKING WITH SCIENCE

Problem solving level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

PS2.1
setting a task of comparing and
contrasting the different key
features of a chemistry, physics
and biology laboratory and
deciding on the common features
of a science laboratory

Identify a problem, with help from an


appropriate person, and identify different ways
of tackling it.

deciding how they are going to


plan the investigation and
solving the problem of finding
out the similarities and
differences

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the


problem.

checking methods against


standard laboratory designs

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and


identify ways to improve problem solving
skills.

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

involved in a joint investigation


using the above examples.

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving the


identified objectives.
WO2.3 Review your contributions and agree ways to
improve work with others.

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UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Unit 7:

Anatomy and Physiology

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
This unit is designed to give learners a basic knowledge and understanding of human anatomy
and physiology, and will support those who wish to continue their studies on courses such as the
BTEC Nationals in Applied Science (Medical Science), Sport and Exercise Sciences or Beauty
Therapy Sciences where anatomy and physiology are core components of the qualifications. It
will also support learners wishing to enter employment in the health, beauty and sport science
sectors.
The unit is intended to be delivered through practical and experiential learning wherever
possible, where learners will need to describe the structure and function of body systems and
where practicable will simulate body system functions in vitro. Measurement of surface area,
and the role of enzymes in the digestive system will be investigated. Simple respiratory function
and aspects of the functioning of the circulatory system will be measured.
A knowledge of the nervous system should be reinforced by simple reflex and sensory
experiments. Hormone function should be studied in conjunction with case studies and realistic
scenarios.
The unit requires learners to have an appreciation of homeostasis and the need for internal
control mechanisms. Only one of these mechanisms should be studied in detail.
Cell division and its relation to growth and to the reproductive and inheritance of characteristics
processes is studied, and with practical input wherever this can be arranged, and a knowledge of
the human reproductive system is included.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:

Know the structure and investigate the functions of individual body systems, and relate the

functions to their role in maintaining health


Be able to investigate the roles of the nervous and endocrine systems in co-ordinating body
systems
Understand the importance of homeostasis to human body function

Know the factors involved in the maintenance of the human species.

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UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Unit content

1 Know the structure and investigate the functions of individual body systems, and
relate the functions to their role in maintaining health
The digestive system: parts of the digestive system and how they are involved in digestion,
eg mouth, stomach, small intestine, large intestine; mechanical digestion (teeth, swallowing,
peristalsis); chemical digestion (enzymatic breakdown of, eg carbohydrates, fats and
proteins); absorption and assimilation (fate of nutrients, storage of excess nutrients, use of
nutrients to maintain cell and body functions)
The respiratory system: parts of the respiratory system; gas exchange; factors affecting rates
of breathing; aerobic respiration in cells to release energy to maintain cell and body
functions
The circulatory system: structure of blood; the blood circulatory system (blood vessels, the
lymphatic system, the structure of the heart, blood circulation providing the transport
system to maintain cell and body functions); the function of blood in defence against
infection
2 Be able to investigate the roles of the nervous and endocrine systems in co-ordinating
body systems
The nervous system: the central nervous system; the peripheral nervous system; nerve
structure; a simple reflex arc; the function of the autonomic nervous system
The endocrine system: position of main glands (pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas,
reproductive); function of adrenaline, thyroxine, insulin, progesterone, oestrogen and
testosterone in co-ordinating the body systems
3 Understand the importance of homeostasis to human body function
Homeostasis: definition of organs involved and homeostatic control eg skin, liver in
temperature control, kidneys in excretion; salt levels and water levels in the blood; liver and
pancreas in blood sugar levels
Role of homeostasis: maintaining a constant internal environment in the body
4 Know the factors involved in the maintenance of the human species
Cell division: mitosis; meiosis; chromosomes; genes
Inheritance of characteristics: monohybrid inheritance patterns; sex determination;
production of gametes; continuous and discontinuous variation eg tongue rolling, skin
colour
Human reproductive system: structure of male and female reproductive systems; sperm
production; ovulation; fertilisation; formation of the embryo; development of the foetus;
birth; hormonal birth control

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M1 describe the ways in which each of these three


systems interacts with the other to maintain
cellular and body functions

M2 explain the way in which a nerve impulse is


conducted from a sensory site to produce an
effect
M3 explain the difference between the way
hormones coordinate body functions and the
way the nervous system coordinates body
functions
M4 describe the need for the homeostatic
mechanism and its effect on the body
M5 solve simple monohybrid inheritance problems

P1 describe the structures associated with the


digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems
Identify the functions of each system and
describe how each contributes to the
maintenance of a healthy body

P2 describe the structures of the nervous system


and its role in coordinating body functions

P3 describe the position of the main endocrine


glands and describe the action of the hormones
they produce

P4 identify a homeostatic control system and


describe the components and action of it

P5 describe mitotic and meiotic cell division, and


the role of each in monohybrid inheritance
patterns

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

73

D4 distinguish between continuous and


discontinuous variation in inherited characters

D4 explain what happens to the body when the


homeostatic mechanism is no longer working
effectively

D3 describe cell function and the relationship with


the cell environment

D2 compare and contrast the effects of nervous


coordination and endocrine coordination

D1 explain the role of the three systems in the


production of energy in the cells

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

74

D5 explain the way conception is controlled using


replacement hormones.

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M6 explain the process of hormonal control of the


reproductive cycles and functions.

P6 identify the structure and describe the functions


of the male and female human reproductive
systems.

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 75.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
This unit requires investigation of a range of human body systems. As far as possible, this
should involve practical investigations of mammalian organs and tissues. The learners should
improve their microscope skills throughout the study of this unit and be able to recognise
tissues. Experiments using digestive enzymes can be used to model the digestive process. The
learners may carry out investigations into the effects of factors on the circulatory and respiratory
functions, such as the effects of exercise or body size.
Experiments on reaction times may prove to be useful in the demonstration of the reactions of
the nervous system. Breeding experiments with Drosophila will be useful to practically
demonstrate monohybrid inheritance. Alternatively, computer simulations of breeding patterns
can be used. Learners should be encouraged to develop an investigative approach to their work
and not rely upon the tutor for all information. Some of the subject matter may need to be taught
in a traditional manner, but the learners should be encouraged to develop research skills and to
research information. As far as possible, the work should be presented in a vocational context,
eg sports science, health, and visits to relevant workplaces can be invaluable. Visiting speakers,
eg a health visitor, can help to set the information being gained into a meaningful context.
Assessment
The learners will carry out a range of investigations into the body systems indicated and link the
functions of these to the maintenance of a constant internal environment, or to reproduction and
growth. The tutor may choose to assess some discussion around a topic to avoid an
overproduction of written work, or may decide to ask the learners to produce visual displays of
the systems, in some format. It is important that learners be allowed the opportunity to research
a range of topics and not merely use material provided in class. The higher grades should reflect
an increasing independence of approach to the work, evidence of understanding and to finding
information. If work is carried out in groups, it must be possible to identify the input of each
member of the group.
To achieve a pass grade, the learners will be able to describe the structure and function of each
of the body systems, in outline. Definitions should be accurate and the work must demonstrate
an understanding of the need for coordinating and control of the systems within a constant
internal environment.
A simple consideration of the method of communication/control used by the nervous and
endocrine systems will include each of the hormones mentioned, the glands and the structure of
the systems.
The concept of immunity will be outlined in terms of defence against disease and the production
of antibodies. The transport, respiratory and digestive systems should be linked at least to the
level of transporting nutrients and gases around the body.
The descriptions of mitosis and cell division should not involve the stages of the process,
merely the outcome from each and the idea of retaining or halving chromosome numbers for
reproduction or growth.

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UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

A straightforward consideration of monohybrid inheritance, eg tongue rolling, should be used to


explain how characteristics are passed from parents to offspring by a pair of alleles. They will
be able to solve simple monohybrid genetic problems, which are similar to those already tried
and with some assistance. An appreciation of discontinuous and continuous variation should be
conveyed.
The pass grade learner may also require some assistance in finding information and will use a
limited range of information sources.
The merit grade learner will use specialist language more readily and provide more detailed
descriptions of the structure, function and interrelationships between the body systems in
maintaining homeostasis, eg they will use the concept of negative feedback to describe the
control of temperature, osmotic concentration or blood glucose.
Nervous and hormonal control will be described and compared, using suitable examples of each
and covering all the hormones listed.
The description of the reproductive systems should be detailed and include the role of the
hormones in the control of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and sexual development in males and
females. There should be a comparison of mitosis and meiosis which indicates their importance.
The description of monohybrid inheritance should include several similar examples which
demonstrate understanding of the principles of Mendels First Law.
The distinction grade learner will use the tutor as one of many sources of information.
There will be more detailed descriptions of all the body systems and their functions. The control
of internal conditions listed will be considered in a range of circumstances, using the concept of
negative feedback.
The nervous and endocrine control systems will be both compared and contrasted in a range of
areas, such as reaction time, chemical and electrical transmission. The interrelationships of the
transport, respiratory and digestive system will be analysed in some detail. There should be a
detailed consideration of immunity and the control of the reproductive functions. Mitosis and
meiosis should be compared and contrasted, with some reference to the process, as well as the
outcome of the cell division. Variation should be explained. Inheritance of both dominant and
recessive monohybrid conditions should be explained and applied to new genetic problems.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
There are links with Unit 1: Scientific Principles (enzymes, cells) and Unit 5: Biological
Systems (nervous and endocrine systems and inheritance).
This unit also has links with the GCSE in Applied Science Unit 1: Developing Scientific Skills
investigating living organisms, microscopy, Unit 2: Science for the Needs of Society
living organisms and Unit 3: Science at Work monitoring living organisms.
This unit provides underpinning knowledge for Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities
NVQ at Level 2 (see Annexe D for mapping).

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UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Essential resources
Learners will need access to a range of biology resources, similar to those for GCSE and A level
work. They will need microscopes, dissection equipment, models or charts of body systems and
prepared slides. A spirometer and attachments will facilitate investigations into the respiratory
system. Stop clocks, stethoscopes, blood pressure monitors will be needed for practical
investigations of the circulatory system. Ergometers can be used to monitor the effects of
exercise on the body.
Learners will need access to a range of software to present their work and to carry out model
genetic crosses. If possible, Drosophila breeding experiments could be used to demonstrate
monohybrid inheritance.
Indicative reading for learners
Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Ellis P and McDonald A Reading into Science Biology (Nelson Thornes, 2003)

ISBN 748767991

Kapit W The Anatomy Coloring book (Addison-Wesley, 2001) ISBN 805350861

Roberts M and Ingram N Nelson Science Biology, Second Edition (Nelson Thornes, 2001)

ISBN 748762388

Williams G and Paul N Biology for You (Nelson Thornes, 2002) ISBN 748762329

Wright D Human Physiology & Health (Heinemann, 2000) ISBN 43563304X

For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

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UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.


Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

researching secondary data on


pulse rates, blood sugar levels or
blood pressure levels

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

obtaining primary data on pulse


rates

carrying out calculations on the


above results

N2.2

Use your information to carry out calculations


to do with:

obtaining and displaying results

amounts or sizes

identifying possible sources of


error

scales or proportion

handling statistics

using formulae.

interpreting and displaying


results.

N2.3

Interpret the results of your calculations and


present your findings.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

discussing strategies and


methods to be used during the
investigations or discussing the
results of the research

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

presenting the results and


conclusions of an investigation,
using graphs, charts, diagrams,
etc

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

using literature sources to


develop familiarity with the
experimental methods to be used
in an investigation

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

using sources to find and


summarise information for the
report/discussion/presentation.

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Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

using secondary data for


comparison to own results

C2.3

writing reports on all subjects,


with evaluation

writing plans before any


investigation.

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


needs.

using IT resources to find


information for a
presentation/report

Use different information sources for each task


and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

using genetics modelling


exercises to find solutions to
problems

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting reports and
data

ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the


task and derive new information.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

Improving own learning and performance level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

producing a plan of work for


approval

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and


plan how these will be met.

planning and evaluating the


work and suggesting
improvements

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about


your learning, using your plan to help meet
targets and improve your performance.

carrying out the work

evaluating learning within the


investigation.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person


and provide evidence of your achievements.

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Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 7: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Problem solving level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

planning an investigation to
confirm a hypothesis, eg pulse
rate and exercise

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an


appropriate person, and identify different ways
of tackling it.

planning and carrying out an


experiment

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the


problem.

interpreting and presenting


results, conclusions and
suggestions for improvement.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and


identify ways to improve problem solving
skills.

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group


investigation

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out an


experiment and/or research in a
group

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving the


identified objectives.

interpreting and presenting


findings, adapting a plan and
making suggestions for
improvement.

WO2.3 Review your contributions and agree ways to


improve work with others.

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BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 8: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Unit 8:

Environmental Science

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
This unit is designed to promote knowledge and understanding of environmental issues and
policies for learners studying applied science. It is useful for learners who wish to progress to a
BTEC National in Environmental Science or other environmental qualification. A technician or
assistant practitioner in the science industry or in an organisation that uses science needs an
awareness of the impact of their work and their organisation upon the environment and that
many organisations have a policy on sustainability.
It is important that learners are aware of the implications of science on the environment, the
development in organisations of the need to address the issue of sustainability and the
management of waste products, risk analysis, pollution, the effects of global warming and its
implications for society. The theme within the unit is studying ecosystems, their structure and
operation, how to manage them and how human activities influence them.
Learners can take part in discussions about the importance of ecosystems, the public perception
of local, national and global issues such as overfishing, deforestation, fossil fuels usage,
overpopulation etc.
The role of government and non-government bodies in the management of ecosystems, their
protection and the ownership of sustainability globally are topics of great political importance.
Learners should become aware of the part that non-violent pressure groups play in influencing
governments and global international companies.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1

Understand the structure and operation of ecosystems

Know how human activities influence ecosystems

Be able to identify and use the techniques and issues involved in the management of
ecosystems

Know the role of government and non-government bodies in environmental protection.

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UNIT 8: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Unit content

1 Understand the structure and operation of ecosystems


Definitions: the meaning of the terms biosphere; ecosystem; plant and animal communities;
predator; primary organism; food chain; species
Identification, interrelationships and description: producers; primary consumers,

consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers; detrivores and decomposers;

ecosystems; maintenance, balance

2 Know how human activities influence ecosystems


Sustainable development: strategy; community; design
Pollution and waste disposal: their effects on the ecosystem; the greenhouse effect and
global warming
Building and development on the ecosystem: the effects and results of building on flood
plains and the colonisation of flood deltas as in Bangladesh
Human population expansion: the effect on the biosphere; the effect on the ecosystems
through recreation and leisure
3 Be able to identify and use the techniques and issues involved in the management of
ecosystems
Management issues: health and safety aspects; codes of practice
Management techniques: practice of fieldwork: collection of data relating to an ecosystem;
the use of soil sampling and analysis; measurement of microclimatic variables; temperature,
humidity, rainfall, wind speed; population analysis and estimation of vegetation, of animals,
use of quadrates, trapping

4 Know the role of government and non-government bodies in environmental protection


Government bodies: the legislative process and environmental protection; relevant
legislation; European law; global agreements
Non-governmental bodies: their role in environmental protection eg Worldwide Fund for
Nature, Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth

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BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M1 describe the structure and operation of an


ecosystem
M2 describe how human activities influence
ecosystems
M3 describe the techniques and issues involved in
the effective management of an ecosystem
M4 describe the role of government and nongovernment bodies in environmental protection.

P1 identify the structure and operation of


ecosystems

P2 identify human activities that influence


ecosystems

P3 identify and use the techniques and issues


involved in the management of ecosystems

P4 identify the role of government and nongovernment bodies in environmental protection.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 84.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D4 analyse the contribution of government and


non-government bodies to environmental
protection.

D3 analyse own use of techniques and issues


contributing to the management of an
ecosystem

83

D2 analyse the long-term consequences of human


influence on ecosystems

D1 analyse the interrelationships and roles of the


different components in the structure and
operation of an ecosystem

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 8: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

UNIT 8: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
This unit requires the learners to investigate ecosystems in a practical context. Fieldwork should
be organised to provide the learner with the opportunity to collect data relating to the biotic and
abiotic factors in the ecosystem. A range of ecosystems would improve the learners
understanding of the concepts. There should also be an opportunity to investigate practically
some of the human influences on the ecosystem. Visits to managed wildlife regions can often be
arranged and led by experts, working for the organisation concerned, who can be invaluable as a
source of information for the learners and to demonstrate practical skills.
The section relating to government and other agencies involved in environmental issues could
best be covered by a research project, allowing learners to obtain information from a range of
sources. Other sections of the unit lend themselves to more traditional teaching, but, as far as
possible, an investigative approach should be encouraged.
Investigations should include the collection of primary and secondary data from both
government and non-government organisations.
Delivery strategies should allow the learners to gather and present a range of evidence to
achieve the grading criteria, eg through posters, reports, charts, graphs etc.
Assessment
Wherever possible this unit should be assessed through a programme of investigative
assignments. This will enable learners to compile a portfolio of their assignment work to meet
the grading criteria required.
The pass grade learners will need some support to locate information sources and may use a
limited range of information. Similarly, the practical investigations will need to be carried out
with supervision and support. The work will be carried out with due regard for health and
safety.
The merit grade learners will use a range of information sources. The practical work will be
competent and well organised and data collected relating to a range of environmental factors.
The account of the ecosystem will be descriptive and show the links between the various factors
involved, including the effects of humans on these. Similarly, the management of ecosystems
will refer to a range of techniques and the investigation of bodies involved in environmental
protection will demonstrate research skills.
The distinction grade learners will use the tutor as another source of information when
researching. The practical work will demonstrate careful planning and a range of environmental
variables will be investigated. The data will be analysed effectively, including that relating to
the effects of humans on the environment.
Secondary data will be used to analyse the relationships between the factors influencing an
ecosystem. More detailed analyses will be undertaken, showing a depth of understanding of the
complexity of the factors affecting ecosystems and the bodies involved in protecting them. A
wide range of information sources will be used, with some appreciation shown of the
differences in the presentation of environmental information from different sources.

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BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 8: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC


qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
Some of the science principles involved in Unit 1: Scientific Principles may be used in this unit.
There are also links with Unit 2: Science and the World of Work, since environmental agencies
and their work could be investigated to cover the requirements of that unit. Links with Unit 9:
Plants and Food include the environment and sustainable development.
This unit also has links with the GCSE in Applied Science Unit 1: Developing Scientific Skills
investigating living organisms, Unit 2: Science for the Needs of Society living organisms
and Unit 3: Science at Work monitoring living organisms.
This unit provides underpinning knowledge for the Laboratory and Associated Technical
Activities NVQ at Level 2 (see Annexe D for mapping).
Essential resources
In order to deliver this unit effectively, centres should have access to a range of equipment for
fieldwork, as used in GCSE and Advanced-level work. There should be access to a range of
ecosystems, ideally at managed sites, with due regard given for safety and environmental
protection. Simple sampling techniques should be used for population analysis and the
investigation of the abiotic environment, eg soil tests, wind speed, temperature, rainfall, water
analysis. Suitable texts for the identification of species should be available, perhaps as keys.
Learners should have access to the internet to gather information about a variety of
organisations. It may be possible to use visiting speakers from relevant bodies, eg Friends of the
Earth.
Indicative reading for learners
Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.
Chambers G Climate, the Environment and People (Heinemann Educational Secondary

Division, 2001) ISBN 0 435354094

Morgan S Global Warming (Heinemann Library, 2003) ISBN 0 431149011

Woollcombe D Rescue Mission, Planet Earth: Childrens Edition of Agenda 2 (Kingfisher

Books, 1994) ISBN 1 856971740

For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

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UNIT 8: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.


Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

obtaining and displaying results

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

researching secondary data

weighing and measuring


accurately throughout practical
work

N2.2

Use your information to carry out calculations


to do with:
a

amounts or sizes

obtaining and displaying results

scales or proportion

identifying possible sources of


error

handling statistics

using formulae.

interpreting and displaying


results.

N2.3

Interpret the results of your calculations and


present your findings.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

discussing strategies and


methods used during the
investigations

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

presenting the results and


conclusions of an investigation,
using graphs, charts etc

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

using literature sources to


develop familiarity with the
experimental methods to be used
in an investigation

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

comparing information from a


range of sources on an
environmental issue

extracting information about a


range of environmental agencies.

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BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 8: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

writing a report on an
investigation, with evaluation
and results presented

C2.3

reporting on the influences of


humans on ecosystems

reporting on the roles of a


variety of government and nongovernment agencies.

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

selecting information for reports

selecting data for investigations.

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


needs.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement

searching for information for


reports from a range of sources

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement

presenting reports.

Use different information sources for each task


and multiple search criteria in at least one case.
ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the
task and derive new information.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

Improving own learning and performance level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

producing a plan of work for


approval

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and


plan how these will be met.

planning and evaluating the


work and suggesting
improvements

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about


your learning, using your plan to help meet
targets and improve your performance.

carrying out the work

evaluating learning within the


investigation.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person


and provide evidence of your achievements.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

87

UNIT 8: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Problem solving level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

planning an investigation to
confirm a hypothesis, eg on an
ecosystem

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an


appropriate person, and identify different ways
of tackling it.

planning and carrying out an


experiment

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the


problem.

interpreting and presenting


results, conclusions and
suggestions for improvement.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and


identify ways to improve problem solving
skills.

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group


investigation

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out an


experiment and/or research in a
group

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving


identified objectives.

interpreting and presenting


findings, adapting a plan and
making suggestions for
improvement.

WO2.3 Review your contributions and agree ways to


improve work with others.

88

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 9: PLANTS AND FOOD

Unit 9:

Plants and Food

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
It is important for learners to have knowledge and understanding of the structure and function of
plants and their role as sources of food for both animals and humans. This is particularly
important where learners want to progress onto biological, food science and manufacturing,
environmental, animal management and land-based qualifications.
The unit explores the relationship between the structure and function of plants, their types of
cells, how they store food and their relationship to the environment and country where they are
grown. This theme is further explored by investigating the relationship between food
production, the population it supports and economic factors. It will enable learners to discuss
topical subjects such as genetically modified crops and the use of organic and inorganic
fertilisers.
It will enable learners to understand and give examples of plant breeding and of the technology
used. Technicians/assistant practitioners working within this field of study need an
underpinning knowledge which includes the current issues facing society such as global
warming, genetic engineering, food distribution, plant production for fuel usage and fair trade.
The unit also explores issues such as population growth, food storage, distribution and
availability.
This unit links closely with environmental issues and global issues related to sustainable
development and the environment, the use of inorganic fertilisers and their effects on
ecosystems.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:

Understand the structure and function of the plant, plant cells and the importance of storage

organs

Be able to investigate the major food plants of the world

Understand the economic relationship between food production and population size

Be able to investigate the role of plant breeding and technology.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

89

UNIT 9: PLANTS AND FOOD

Unit content

1 Understand the structure and function of the plant, cells and the importance of storage
organs
Plant cell structure in relation to food production and storage: cell wall; cytoplasm;
vacuole; chloroplasts; root; stem; leaf and their role in photosynthesis
Reproductive organs: flowers; seeds; fruits
Energy stores: stem; root; fruits; seeds; leaf
Types of stored materials: starches; sugars; oils; proteins
2 Be able to investigate the major food plants of the world
Cereals: eg wheat, barley, rice, maize, millet, other starch-storing plants, pseudo-cereals,
potato, tropical plants, cassava, plantain
Oil-producing plants: oil-bearing seeds; palm oil; olive oil
Protein-producing plants: legumes; beans; peas
Sugar-storing plants: eg sugar cane, sugar beet, fruit sugars, nectar
Plants as sources of vitamins: vitamins in the animal diet
3 Understand the economic relationship between food production and population size
Food production: population; climate change; organic versus non-organic; market and retail

influence

The importance of food production in the following terms: political; economic;

environmental; European policies in agriculture; common agricultural policy; fair trade;

GAT; GAP

Collapse in food production: eg Eritrea and Ethiopia


4 Be able to investigate the role of plant breeding and technology
Plant-breeding crops: uses eg wheat, rice, sugar beet, fruit
Fertilisers: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium; organic versus non-organic fertilisers
Genetic modification of food crops: gene transfer and manipulation; polyploidy in fruits and
cereals; chemically and physically induced mutation

90

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M1 describe the structure and functions of the plant


cell in relation to food production
M2 explain how the stored materials are stored
M3 compare and contrast the major food crops
across the world, indicating the relationship
between climate, food production and
population
M4 explain the influence of economic and political
factors on food production, and its impact on
the environment
M5 give examples and explain the importance of
plant breeding techniques that have led to
improved varieties of major food plants,
including genetically modified crops.

P1 identify the structure and functions of the plant


cell in relation to food production

P2 identify the stored materials and where they are


stored in the plant

P3 identify where the major food plants are grown


in the world, noting the climate and typical
production figures

P4 identify the issues relating to food supply in


national and global terms

P5 investigate and describe plant-breeding


technology and the use of fertilisers in order to
improve yields and resistance to disease.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 92.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

D5 evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of


plant technology and plant breeding.

D4 analyse the influence of food plants on the


demography of the world

D3 compare and contrast the advantages and


disadvantages of the major food crops,
particularly in terms of nutrition

D2 explain why the stored materials are stored

91

D1 explain the structure and functions of the plant


cell in relation to food production

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 9: PLANTS AND FOOD

UNIT 9: PLANTS AND FOOD

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
The material contained in this unit should be introduced through a programme of tuition, guided
learning and practical assignment work. This unit should be delivered wherever possible
through a practical and investigatory approach, to enable the learners to develop their skills and
learn the fundamental concepts required for further development in the area of plants and food.
It is important that assignments are in the context of how plants are used to provide food for
animals and humans and the relationship with food production, the effects of climate change,
the role of food retailers and the changing environment of consumer expectations.
This unit is ideal for enabling learners to communicate both orally and through the use of
posters by exploring topical issues in food production and its relationship with science and
technology. Learners can discuss/debate issues about the use of genetically modified crops and
global issues such as fair trade.
These concepts in this unit build on knowledge acquired from Key Stage 3.
Visits to the food industry would enhance the learners understanding of the practical
applications of the food manufacturing concepts taught in this unit and visits to agricultural
establishments would enable learners to contextualise food plant production.
National and global food production offers numerous opportunities for learners to gather data
and carry out analysis against predictions and scientific theories.
Assessment
This unit should be assessed wherever possible through a programme of scientific investigative
assignments in order for learners to build up a portfolio of evidence to meet the needs of the
grading criteria.
Pass grade learners will give limited descriptions of the range of structures and functions
indicated. The practical work is likely to be carried out with support from the tutor to solve
straightforward problems. A limited range of resources will be used in order to produce the
work.
Merit grade learners will carry out research with little guidance and will be able to plan and
carry out practical work to solve more complex problems using a range of practical techniques.
The descriptions of the issues in the range will be more detailed, showing an understanding of
the concepts involved. The merit grade learners will be able to link ideas from different areas
and discuss the impact of a variety of factors on an issue, such as food production across the
world.
A range of examples will be given, eg for plant-breeding techniques, and some evaluation made
of their importance.
Distinction grade learners will use the tutor as a resource when necessary. They will use a wide
range of resources and analyse the information from these to produce fluent explanations and
discussions.
The practical work will be planned, carried out and evaluated with a minimum of support.

92

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 9: PLANTS AND FOOD

The examples given will be detailed and comprehensive, for example details of plant-breeding
and gene-manipulation techniques. The learner will present reasoned discussions of issues,
showing consideration of conflicting viewpoints.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
This unit has links with Unit 1: Scientific Principles and Unit 5: Biological Systems.
It provides underpinning knowledge for the Laboratory and Technical Associated Activities
NVQ at Level 2 (see Annexe D for mapping).
Essential resources
A range of laboratory equipment will be needed for this unit, as for GCSE Biology and Key
Stage 4 Science. Reagents to enable food tests to be carried out will be important, as will a
range of different crops to test. Tutors may wish to grow a crop under a range of conditions.
Visiting speakers from the food industry, or visits/placements to such industries, would be
useful to put the unit in a vocational setting.
Access to IT facilities will be important in the presentation of both primary and secondary data.
internet sites will be useful to investigate global climate and crops.
Many GCSE science or biology textbooks contain the necessary information for this unit.
Indicative reading for learners
Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Coultate T P Food: The Chemistry of its Components (Royal Society of Chemistry, 1996)

ISBN 0 854045139

Fox B and Cameron A Food Science: Nutrition and Health (Arnold, 1995)

ISBN 0340604832

Hill G Introducing Chemistry: The Salters Approach (Heinemann, 1989)

ISBN 0 43564002X

For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

93

UNIT 9: PLANTS AND FOOD

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.


Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

obtaining and displaying results

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

researching secondary data

weighing and measuring


accurately throughout practical
work

N2.2

Use your information to carry out calculations


to do with:
a

amounts or sizes

interpreting and manipulating


secondary data

scales or proportion

identifying possible sources of


error

handling statistics

using formulae.

interpreting and displaying


results.

N2.3

Interpret the results of your calculations and


present your findings.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

discussing strategies and


methods used during the
investigations

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

presenting the results and


conclusions of an investigation,
using graphs, charts etc

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

using literature sources to


develop familiarity with the
experimental methods to be used
in an investigation

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

using information sources to


provide information for
discussions/reports.

94

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 9: PLANTS AND FOOD

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

writing a report on investigation,


with evaluation and results
presented

C2.3

writing a plan before


investigation

writing a letter to organisations


requesting information

producing a table of nutrient


values for a variety of crops etc.

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


needs.

finding and selecting


information for discussion/report
on climate, crops etc

selecting nutrient information

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement

comparing to secondary data

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement.

Use different information sources for each task


and multiple search criteria in at least one case.
ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the
task and derive new information.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

Improving own learning and performance level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

producing a plan of work for


approval

LP2.1

Help set targets with an appropriate person and


plan how these will be met.

planning and evaluating the


study and suggesting
improvements

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about


your learning, using your plan to help meet
targets and improve your performance.

carrying out the work

evaluating learning within the


investigation.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person


and provide evidence of your achievements.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

95

UNIT 9: PLANTS AND FOOD

Problem solving level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

planning an investigation to
confirm a hypothesis, eg pulse
rate and exercise

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an


appropriate person, and identify different ways
of tackling it.

planning and carrying out an


experiment

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the


problem.

interpreting and presenting


results, conclusions and
suggestions for improvement.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and


identify ways to improve problem solving
skills.

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group discussion

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out an


experiment and/or research in a
group

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving


identified objectives.

interpreting and presenting


findings, adapting a plan and
making suggestions for
improvement.

WO2.3 Review your contributions and agree ways to


improve work with others.

96

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

UNIT 10: FORENSIC SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Unit 10:

Forensic Science Applications

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
This unit introduces and develops the skills, understanding and knowledge of scientific
processes and their application to forensic science and the criminal investigation. The skills
developed are essential for practitioners working in the forensic science workplace. It is
intended that this unit will draw together and build on aspects of the applied biology, applied
chemistry and applied physics core units, to extend the learners knowledge of the range of
practical applications of core science principles and techniques.
The unit also provides learners with the opportunity to learn how to process the crime scene and
how to analyse evidence using a number of different biological, physical and chemical
techniques. In addition, learners will be introduced to the criminal justice system and expert
witness testimony. It is important during the delivery and assessment of this unit that the learner
takes on the identity of someone employed within the forensic science industry or organisation.
Forensic science is the application of scientific methods and processes used for the purposes of
the law. It provides impartial scientific evidence to assist in a criminal investigation and court
trial. Forensic science is a multidisciplinary subject, drawing principally from chemistry and
biology, but also from physics, geology, psychology, social science, pathology, anthropology,
entomology, dentistry/odontology, engineering, etc.
In a criminal investigation, scene of crime officers (SOCOs) process the crime scene and collect
evidence from the scene, victim and/or suspect. The evidence is then sent to a laboratory, where
a forensic scientist examines and analyses it. Both SOCOs and scientists may be required to
give evidence in court as expert witnesses.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1

Be able to investigate scene-of-crime process, record and collect evidence

Understand the principles and demonstrate the techniques used in the analysis and
interpretation of biological evidence

Understand the principles and demonstrate the techniques used in the analysis and
interpretation of physical and chemical evidence

Understand the relationship of forensic science to the law and criminal investigation.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

97

UNIT 10: FORENSIC SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Unit content

1 Be able to investigate scene-of-crime process, record and collect evidence


Health and safety: hazards and risks at the scene and in the labbiohazards; sharps; control
and regulation (personal protective equipment; risk assessment; COSHH)
The scene of crime: initial assessment; securing the scene; recording and documenting the
scene; search techniques
The evidence: searching for and targeting evidence; recording and documenting evidence;
processing and analysing evidence; collecting and recovery of evidence; packaging and
labelling evidence; transporting evidence and chain of continuity; contamination of the
scene and evidence; anti-contamination methods

2 Understand the principles and demonstrate the techniques used in the analysis and
interpretation of biological evidence
Hair: human/animal (types; structures and characteristic features); comparison microscopy
Fingerprints: patterns; characteristics; identification/comparison techniques
Blood and body fluids: eg components of blood, semen and saliva;
identification/comparison; enhancement techniques; presumptive and conclusive tests;
blood and enzyme group types
DNA Profiling: RFLP; SGM+; DNA extraction and the PCR process
Entomology: lifecycle of insects; breakdown of body tissues; time and location of death
Anthropology/odontology: bones and artefacts; structure and layout of teeth; use in mass
disasters
3 Understand the principles and demonstrate the techniques used in the analysis and
interpretation of physical and chemical evidence
Methods of analysis: eg paper/gas/column chromatography; TLC, HPLC eg colorimetry,
visible, UV and mass spectroscopy; comparison microscopy
Toxicology: eg drugs, alcohol, poisons; identification/comparison; methods of analysis
Marks and impressions: footprint casting; toolmarks; identification/comparison
Trace evidence: eg fibres, glass and paint; identification/comparison; methods of analysis
Blood pattern analysis: eg blood splatter, volume, direction and force

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Understand the relationship of forensic science to the law and criminal investigation
The forensic scientist: the role of the forensic scientist; professional ethics; the expert
witness
Reporting the evidence in a statement and in court: name; qualifications and experience;
outline of circumstances and aim of investigation; list of exhibits collected and analysed;
description and evaluation of the work carried out and techniques used; results and
interpretation of the evidence; conclusions
The criminal investigation: types of crime; criminal investigation procedures/practice;
quality and significance of evidence
Interviewing techniques: witnesses; victim, open/closed question techniques
The criminal justice system: the law and court system; the trial process and rules of
evidence; sentencing and the penal system; crime prevention and treatment

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M2 describe how well their outcomes met the


objectives of the investigation and draw
conclusions
M3 describe patterns in physical and chemical data
and make connections
M4 prepare a statement to give evidence in court
describing the techniques they used to obtain
evidence and explain the conclusions drawn
from an investigation
M5 identify the links between the forensic science
service and the criminal justice system.

P2 produce and follow a realistic and achievable


plan to analyse two types of biological evidence

P3 produce and follow a realistic and achievable


plan to analyse two types of physical and
chemical data

P4 prepare a statement to give evidence in court


identifying the techniques used to obtain the
evidence and the conclusions from an
investigation

P5 identify the role of the forensic science service


within the criminal justice system.

100

D5 explain the relationship between the forensic


science service and the criminal justice system.

D4 prepare a statement to give evidence in court


evaluating the techniques they used to obtain
evidence and justify the conclusions drawn from
an investigation

D3 explain patterns in physical and chemical data


and make connections

D2 justify potential changes to their plans and


procedures to improve the conclusions drawn

D1 evaluate the processing of a crime scene,


interpreting how the valid evidence collected
could be used in a criminal investigation

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

M1 describe the processing of a crime scene,


explaining how the techniques they used
obtained valid forensic evidence

P1 demonstrate efficient and effective processing


of a crime scene and recovery of valid evidence

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 101

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 10: FORENSIC SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

UNIT 10: FORENSIC SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
This unit is an introductory overview of forensic science and will allow learners to progress
onto the BTEC Nationals in Forensic Science. The purpose of this unit is to develop knowledge
and skills in the underlying concepts of biological, physical and chemical analysis, and to apply
this knowledge to applications in forensic science. The material contained in this unit should be
introduced through a programme of tuition, guided learning and practical activities. This unit
should be delivered wherever possible through a practical investigatory approach, to enable
learners to develop their skills and understanding of fundamental concepts required for further
development in the area of forensic science. Delivery strategies should reflect the nature of the
practical investigative work involved in the forensic science workplace by setting applicable
crime scenarios and case studies.
A range of teaching and learning methods may be used including:

processing of a mock scene of crime

individual, pair and group practical investigations

use of IT to produce reports and analyse results

use of internet sites and textbooks to research

group oral presentations

case study seminars

trace evidence workshops

class and group discussions

peer review and feedback

interview and court role-play

producing posters and information leaflets

use of videos and DVDs

industrial visits and guest speakers.

Assessment
This unit is internally assessed. It is essential that a variety of assessment methods is used to
give learners the opportunity to achieve all the outcomes and the full range of grades.
Report writing and giving evidence criteria may be associated with learning outcomes 1, 2
and/or 3.
The pass grade learners must be able to effectively process the crime scene and recover
evidence using the correct techniques; plan and perform correct analysis of different types of
evidence following specified procedures; collect, record and process data in an appropriate
format, identifying patterns in data and making connections; prepare and write a report in an
appropriate format, and give evidence in court, identifying the techniques used and using
laymens terms correctly; make outline analyses of issues of criminal investigations, the law and
the criminal justice system and their link to forensic science.

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UNIT 10: FORENSIC SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

The merit grade learners must be able to recognise the significance of evidence and understand
why and how the correct techniques must be used; take account of constraints and adapt and
modify procedures and techniques to overcome problems, matching the outcomes to the
objectives of the investigation; interpret qualitative and quantitative data, describing patterns in
data and drawing conclusions; show understanding of scientific terminology and ideas relevant
to the criminal investigation and the criminal justice system.
For the Distinction grade, learners must be able to interpret the meaning of evidence and
recognise the relevance of conclusions to a specific case study; anticipate problems and
implement contingency plans, justifying changes to procedures and showing understanding of
why approaches used to overcome constraints enabled evidence to be obtained; evaluate
qualitative and quantitative data, analysing patterns and interpreting conclusions; show a high
level of scientific knowledge relevant to the criminal investigation and the criminal justice
system.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
There are links to Unit 2: Science and the World of Work, Unit 3: Chemistry Applications and
Unit 6: Working with Science.
There are links with the GCSE in Applied Science in Unit 1: Developing Scientific Skills and
Unit 3: Science at Work.
The unit provides links with NVQ Laboratory and Technical Activities at Level 2 (see
Annexe D for mapping).
It presents opportunities to demonstrate key skills at level 2 in application of number,
communication, information and communication technology, improving own learning and
performance and problem solving and working with others (see Annexe C for mapping).
This unit also provides opportunities within the wider curriculum (see Annexe E for mapping).
Essential resources
Access to a range of information resources to complete investigative assignments and case
studies will be essential, including a variety of textbooks, journals, internet sites, CD ROMs and
DVDs.
Indicative reading for learners
Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.
Jackson A R W and Jackson J M Forensic Science (Pearson Education, 2004)
ISBN 0 1304325 2
Langford A, Dean J, Reed R, Holmes D, Weyers J, and Jones A Practical Skills in Forensic
Science (Pearson Education, Mar 2005) ISBN 0 13114400 6
Lyle D P Forensics for Dummies (Hungry Minds, 2004) ISBN 0 76455580 4
Moore P The Forensics Handbook (Eye books, 2004) ISBN 1 90307035 X
Pratt R Crime Science (DK, 2003) ISBN 0 75134576 8
White P C Crime Scene to Court: The Essentials of Forensic Science (The Royal Society of
Chemistry Books) ISBN 0 85404656 9

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Journal of Forensic Science (ASTM International)

Forensic Science International (Elsevier)

Science and Justice (Forensic Science Society)

Crime Magazine- an encyclopedia of crime (crimemagazine.com)

Real-Life Crimes magazine (Eaglemoss Publications Ltd)

The Forensic Scientist World A booklet of Science (Pfizer)

For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

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UNIT 10: FORENSIC SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Key skills

Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.


Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Application of number level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

obtaining data from


investigations using colorimetry
and chromatography

N2.1

Interpret information from a suitable source.

weighing and measuring out


drug or poison evidence samples
in practical work

N2.2

Use your information to carry out calculations


to do with:
a

amounts or sizes

carrying out calculations of


absorbance using formulae
involved with spectroscopy

scales or proportion

handling statistics

using statistics involved with


DNA profiling

using formulae.

identifying sources of error

interpreting and displaying


results from an investigation into
blood typing.

N2.3

Interpret the results of your calculations and


present your findings.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group discussion


about the best type of packaging
for different types of evidence

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

presenting a poster about the


different types of drugs of abuse

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

reading and summarising two


information handouts from
textbooks on DNA fingerprinting
and criminal cases this technique
has been used in

C2.2

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

producing a plan and a report


about a scene-of-crime search and
examination.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

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Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

using IT resources to find


information for a
presentation/report on fire
investigation

ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your


needs.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting reports and
data from investigation into
blood splatter

ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the


task and derive new information.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement for investigation
into drug colour testing.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

Use different information sources for each task


and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

Improving own learning and performance level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

producing for approval a plan for LP2.1


an investigation into fingerprints

Planning and evaluating the


work and suggestions for
improvements

Carrying out the investigation

Evaluating learning within the


investigation.

Help set targets with an appropriate person and


plan how these will be met.

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about


your learning, using your plan to help meet
targets and improve your performance.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person


and provide evidence of your achievements.

Problem solving level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

planning an investigation to
confirm the identity of an
offender using different types of
analysis

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an


appropriate person, and identify different ways
of tackling it.

planning and carrying out the


experiment

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the


problem.

interpreting and presenting


results, conclusions and
suggestions for improvement.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and


identify ways to improve problem solving
skills.

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UNIT 10: FORENSIC SCIENCE APPLICATIONS

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group


investigation into the criminal
justice system

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out an


experiment and/or research in a
group

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving


identified objectives.

interpreting and presenting


findings, adapting a plan and
making suggestions for
improvement.

WO2.3 Review your contributions and agree ways to


improve work with others.

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UNIT 11: SCIENCE IN MEDICINE

Unit 11:

Science in Medicine

NQF Level 2:

BTEC First

Guided learning hours: 60

Unit abstract
In this unit the learners knowledge and understanding, and where practicable the learners
skills, are developed to engage in the detective work aspect of diagnosing problems which
occur in human body systems. Equally the unit expands learners knowledge and understanding
of a range of treatments available, how some of these treatments are developed and the
principles of treatment selection based on diagnosis, cost, ethics and availability.
It is therefore essential that during the delivery and assessment of this unit that the learners take
on the identity of someone employed within the biomedical industry sector, eg as an assistant
practitioner in a diagnostic laboratory or as a technician maintaining equipment. The unit
requires the learner to be a concerned member of the community.
At the end of this unit, the learners will understand more fully the processes involved in
diagnosis of illness, the different options for treatment, how a new drug is developed and the
factors which influence the treatment of illness. They will be required to make judgements
based on evidence about likely diagnosis of conditions and will be given scenarios which will
influence the administration of treatment. All examples will require knowledge of the UK
system of health administration. The problems of ethical judgements and decisions will be
introduced to enable the learners to have informed evidence for contemporary, medically related
debate.
The unit introduces the concept of using scientific knowledge and procedures to work out when
a human biological system malfunctions ie the process of diagnosis and subsequently the use
of science knowledge and scientific procedures in the treatment of illness. It also explores the
procedures involved in developing a new drug therapy and allows the learner to understand the
complex nature of the process. The assumption that all known treatments are available to all
people is challenged in outcome 4 and learners are encouraged to have a view on current issues.
It is intended that this unit will draw together and build on aspects of the applied biology,
applied chemistry and applied physics core units, to extend the learners knowledge of the range
of applications of core science principles, techniques and ethical issues.

Learning outcomes
On completion of this unit a learner should:
1

Know the range of scientific procedures used in diagnosing illness

Understand the scientific principles of treating illness

Understand the way a new therapeutic drug is developed

Know the factors affecting treatments.

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UNIT 11: SCIENCE IN MEDICINE

Unit content

Know the range of scientific procedures used in diagnosing illness


Biological diagnosis (pathology): microbiological organisms causing disease eg bacteria,
viruses, parasites; haematology (the cellular structure of blood, and abnormalities) eg
leukaemia; chemical analysis of blood, sputum, urine, faeces eg urine sugar levels, blood
cholesterol levels; cytology (cell appearance) eg cervical smear tests, genetic investigations
(DNA analysis; family history counselling) eg cystic fibrosis
Physical diagnosis: normal range of body temperature measurements and blood pressure
measurements; significance of deviations from these norms, body scans eg X-rays,
computerised tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans; endoscopy
procedures eg gastro-endoscopy

2 Understand the scientific principles of treating illness


Using therapeutic drugs: the principles of the use of a range of therapeutic drug types;
analgesics eg paracetamol, aspirin, codeine; anti-inflammatories eg ibuprofen; anti-biotics
eg penicillin, anti-histamine eg acrivastine; chemical replacement eg insulin; other groups of
drugs eg cytological (chemotherapy), anti-depressants, stimulants, sedatives, heart drugs
Drug formulations: eg cream, ointment, tablet, capsule, oral liquid, injection liquid
Administration routes of therapeutic drugs: eg oral, intravenous injection, sub-cutaneous
injection, topical
Using therapeutic techniques: the principles of a range of physical therapies available for
treatment of conditions; surgery eg appendectomy, radiotherapy eg cancer treatment, laser
therapy eg short sightedness; physiotherapy eg muscular sport injuries; osteopathy, eg back
injuries alternative therapies eg acupuncture; replacement and preventative therapy; the
principles of blood and plasma transfusion; vaccinations and organ transplants; cultures and
religions; beliefs and values
3

Understand the way a new therapeutic drug is developed


Primary compounds research: development of chemical compounds which may have
therapeutic activity; initial screening of range of compounds
Range of testing of potential new drug: in vitro and in vivo testing; legal requirements,
clinical trials and data requirements
Manufacture of the new drug: scaling-up process; selection of formulation; marketing
Research and development: cost; time; stages; trials

Know the factors affecting treatments


Financial factor: cost of treatment to the NHS; allocation of finite resources; regional
availability of resources; waiting lists
Personal factors: religious views eg contraception, blood transfusions, individual choice
Risk factors: involved in administering drugs and treatments eg side effects, age, allergies,
addictive properties, antagonistic treatment regimes
Ethical factors: eg judgement of benefit; judgement of continuation of life support;

abortions

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M1 explain the scientific principles underlying the


two biological and two physical procedures
M2 describe how the therapeutic drugs are used to
treat these illnesses
M3 explain the functions of each of the techniques
in given treatment processes
M4 explain why very few of the compounds which
start the process of development ever succeed
through to become licensed drugs
M5 explain the general risks involved in all types
of drug treatments.

P1 identify and describe two biological and two


physical procedures used to diagnose illness

P2 identify the therapeutic drugs used to treat


three given illnesses
P3 describe two therapeutic techniques that are
available to treat given examples of illnesses

P4
how a new drug is identified and
and describe
conditions
developed to production and marketing stages
of development

P5 describe the factors affecting availability of


drugs and treatments to patients.

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Guidance to support the assessment of this unit is available on page 110.

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show


that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner
is able to:

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show


that the learner is able to:

Grading criteria

109

D5 explain the reasons why decisions to give


prescription drugs to some and not to others are
always controversial.

D2
explain why the actions of therapeutic drugs
procedures
treat given illnesses
D3 evaluate the reasons why some individuals,
are used to
religions and cultures choose not to take
advantage of all types of available treatments
D4 review the legal requirements for the
introduction of a new drug into the UK market

D1 evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of


using the two biological and two physical

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must


show that, in addition to the pass and merit
criteria, the learner is able to:

In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all of the learning outcomes for the unit.
The criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

Grading grid

UNIT 11: SCIENCE IN MEDICINE

UNIT 11: SCIENCE IN MEDICINE

Essential guidance for tutors

Delivery
The learning outcomes for this unit should be introduced to encourage the development of both
practical investigative skills and research and enquiry skills. The outcomes lend themselves to
topical scenario studies, which reflect the experience of the learners and issues of the moment.
Practical investigations will be limited to outcomes 1 and 2 but planned investigations into the
identification characteristics and the importance of observations in biological diagnosis of
illness should be introduced. So too should the concept of variable efficacy of drugs with
different organisms. Photographic and computer generated data can be used where it is
impractical for learners to general primary data.
It is expected that learners will know the basic physical principles of diagnostic equipment, eg
which waves are used in ultra-sound and X-rays, and which is less likely to be harmful to the
body cells and know that computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide
more detailed information. Body temperature and blood pressure readings and norms should be
explored and the significance of deviations from accepted norms examined.
Learners should be allowed to plan their own investigations wherever possible depending on
personal experience and interest. They should be encouraged to engage in research from a
variety of sources, not just the internet. Primary source research should be encouraged wherever
possible, eg personal experiences, local hospital or medical centre open day visits, private
pathology company visits, pharmaceutical company visits to see equipment and how it is used.
Information may be presented in a variety of imaginative ways to stimulate the interest of the
learners and the group. Role-play can be introduced, for example, in outcome 4.
Learners should engage in debate on ethical issues introduced in the legal requirements for the
testing of new compounds prior to clinical trials and introduction as a licensed drug. They
should also in the debate which arises from issues introduced in outcome 4.
Assessment
This unit should be assessed by building a portfolio of scientific investigation assignments to
establish the coverage of the outcomes and the grading criteria. This should include laboratory
reports, posters, graphs, charts, visit reports, debate preparations.
The unit lends itself to activities such as courtroom scenarios, role-plays and formal debates,
and the tutor should feel free to use all of these as forms of assessment within this unit.
Wherever possible the evidence should be obtained through practical investigations in context,
working in an applied science or related area of work, where learners are building a portfolio of
evidence to meet the grading criteria.
Pass grade learners will achieve all the outcomes with some help from the tutor who will give
limited descriptions of the range of structures and functions indicated. The practical work is
likely to be carried out with support from the tutor to solve straightforward problems. A limited
range of resources will be used in order to produce the work.
Merit grade learners will work with more independence. They will carry out research with little
guidance and will be able to plan and carry out practical work to solve more complex problems
or using a range of practical techniques.

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UNIT 11: SCIENCE IN MEDICINE

The descriptions of the issues in the range will be more detailed, showing an understanding of
the concepts involved. The merit grade learners will be able to link ideas from different areas
and discuss the impact of a variety of factors on an issue, such as administering drugs and
treatments. A range of resources will be used.
Distinction grade learners will use the tutor as a resource when necessary. They will use a wide
range of resources and analyse the information from these to produce fluent explanations and
discussions.
The practical work will be planned, carried out and evaluated with a minimum of support.
Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC
qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications
This unit has links with Unit 1: Scientific Principles, Unit 5: Biological Systems and Unit 7:
Anatomy and Physiology.
It also has links with the GCSE in Applied Science: Unit 1: Developing Scientific Skills; Unit 2:
Science for the Needs of Society; Unit 3: Science at Work.
The unit provides links with NVQ Laboratory and Technical Activities at Level 2 (see
Annexe D for mapping).
Essential resources
A well-equipped biology laboratory, with access to microbiological equipment, will be required
for successful delivery of this unit.
Learners will benefit from access to ICT equipment and the internet.
It is recommended that a bank of scientific case studies be built up from a collection of articles
from magazines and journals.
A database of industrial and medical contacts that can provide guest speakers, work placements
and visits to pharmaceutical laboratories and diagnostic laboratories would prove useful.
Many GCSE science, biology or physics textbooks contain some necessary information for this
unit.
Local and national newspapers are often a good source of scenario material for projects relating
to this topic area and can be the basis for discussion.
Indicative reading for learners
Materials that illustrate the level of learning required and that are particularly relevant.

Ellis P and McDonald A Reading into Science Biology (Nelson Thornes, 2003)

ISBN 0 748767991

GCSE in Applied Science (Folens, 2003) ISBN 1 843033674

Ken Gadd Associates Ltd Applied Science GCSE Edexcel (Nelson Thornes, 2003)

ISBN 0 748772030

Roberts M and Ingram N Nelson Science Biology, Second Edition (Nelson Thornes, 2001)

ISBN 0 748762388

Salters GCSE Science Year 10 Learner Book (Heinemann, 2001) ISBN 0 435629522

Salters GCSE Science Year 11 Learner Book (Heinemann, 2002) ISBN 0 435629530

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UNIT 11: SCIENCE IN MEDICINE

Williams G and Paul N Biology for You (Nelson Thornes, 2002) ISBN 0 748762329
Wright D Human Physiology and Health (Heinemann, 2000) ISBN 0 43563304X
New Scientist
Focus
Biological Review
For details of relevant websites please see Annexe G.

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UNIT 11: SCIENCE IN MEDICINE

Key skills
Achievement of key skills is not a requirement of this qualification but it is encouraged.
Suggestions of opportunities for the generation of level 2 key skill evidence are given here.
Tutors should check that learners have produced all the evidence required by part B of the key
skills specifications when assessing this evidence. Learners may need to develop additional
evidence elsewhere to fully meet the requirements of the key skills specifications.

Communication level 2
When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in the discussion on


the ethics of life support

C2.1a

Take part in a group discussion.

taking part in the discussion on


in vitro and in vivo testing of
drugs

giving information to the group


on personal experiences of
treatments

C2.1b

Give a talk of at least four minutes.

presenting information on a
researched topic, eg radio article

researching information on the


development of a drug.

C2.2

researching information on the


types of therapies

Read and summarise information from at least


two documents about the same subject. Each
document must be a minimum of 500 words
long.

producing reports, posters,


leaflets on religious views on
medical treatments.

C2.3

Write two different types of documents each


one giving different information. One
document must be at least 500 words long.

Information and communication technology level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

using internet sources to research ICT2.1 Search for and select information to meet your
needs.
information on therapies and
treatments
Use different information sources for each task
and multiple search criteria in at least one case.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting reports and
data

ICT2.2 Enter and develop the information to suit the


task and derive new information.

displaying results in appropriate


format, presenting conclusions
and suggestions for
improvement.

ICT2.3 Present combined information such as text


with image, text with number, image with
number.

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UNIT 11: SCIENCE IN MEDICINE

Improving own learning and performance level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

producing for approval a plan for LP2.1


an investigation

planning the study and


suggesting improvements to the
investigation

carrying out the investigation.

reviewing the investigation or


piece of work and suggesting
improvements.

Help set targets with an appropriate person and


plan how these will be met.

LP2.2

Take responsibility for some decisions about


your learning, using your plan to help meet
targets and improve your performance.

LP2.3

Review progress with an appropriate person


and provide evidence of your achievements.

Problem solving level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

planning an investigation to
confirm a hypothesis, eg which
antibiotics are effective against a
given bacteria

PS2.1

Identify a problem, with help from an


appropriate person, and identify different ways
of tackling it.

planning and carrying out an


experiment

PS2.2

Plan and try out at least one way of solving the


problem.

interpreting and presenting


results, conclusions and
suggestions for improvement.

PS2.3

Check if the problem has been solved and


identify ways to improve problem solving
skills.

Working with others level 2


When learners are:

They should be able to develop the following key


skills evidence:

taking part in a group


investigation

WO2.1 Plan work with others.

planning and carrying out an


experiment and/or research in a
group

WO2.2 Work co-operatively towards achieving


identified objectives.

interpreting and presenting


findings, adapting a plan and
making suggestions for
improvement.

WO2.3 Review your contributions and agree ways to


improve work with others.

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Assessment and grading


The purpose of assessment is to ensure that effective learning of the content of each unit has
taken place.
Assignments should ensure coverage of all the criteria in the unit as set out in the Grading grid
for each unit. It is advisable that criteria are clearly indicated on each assignment to provide a
focus for learners (for transparency and to help ensure that feedback is specific to the criteria)
and to assist with internal verification and standardisation processes. Tasks and activities should
enable learners to produce evidence that relates directly to the specified criteria.
Assignments constructed by centres should be valid, reliable and fit for purpose, building on the
application of the grading criteria. Centres should use a variety of assessment methods,
including case studies, assignments and work-based assessments, along with projects,
performance observation and time-constrained assessments. Centres are encouraged to place
emphasis on the practical application of the grading criteria, providing a realistic scenario for
learners to adopt, and making maximum use of practical activities and work experience. The
creation of assignments that are fit for purpose is vital to achievement by learners and their
importance cannot be over emphasised.
When reading the Grading grids and designing assessment instruments, centres should note that
for learners to achieve a merit/distinction grade they will be required to provide evidence that is
qualitative in its nature. Centres are encouraged to look across each assessment criterion in the
Grading grid to identify common topics within units and to assess learners work according to
the level that they have achieved as determined by the grading criteria.
The grading criteria are developed in relation to grading domains which provide for the
assessment of the learning outcomes of the unit. There are four grading domains which underpin
the grading criteria.

Application of knowledge and understanding.

Development of practical and technical skills.

Personal development for occupational roles.

Application of generic and key skills.

The qualitative nature of the merit and distinction grading criteria are based upon indicative
characteristics required of the assessment evidence to fulfil the higher grades. Please refer to
Annexe B.
A grading scale of pass, merit and distinction is applied to all units.
In the Edexcel BTEC Firsts all units are internally assessed.
All assessment for BTEC Firsts is criterion referenced, based on the achievement of specified
outcomes. Each unit has specified criteria to be used for grading. A summative unit grade can be
awarded at pass, merit or distinction:

to achieve a pass learners must have satisfied all the pass criteria

to achieve a merit learners must additionally have satisfied all the merit criteria

to achieve a distinction learners must additionally have satisfied all the distinction criteria.

Learners who complete the unit but who do not meet all the pass criteria are graded
unclassified.

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Quality assurance
Edexcels qualification specifications set out clearly the standard to be achieved by each learner
in order to gain the award of the qualification. This is covered in the statement of outcomes and
grading criteria in each unit. Further guidance on delivery and assessment is given in the
Essential guidance for tutors section of each unit. This section is designed to provide additional
guidance and amplification related to the unit to support tutors, deliverers and assessors and to
provide for a coherence of understanding and a consistency of delivery and assessment.
Edexcel operates a quality assurance process which is designed to ensure that these standards
are maintained by all internal verifiers and external verifiers. It achieves this through the
following activities.

Approval
Centres will be allowed accelerated approval for a new programme where the centre already
has approval for a programme that is being replaced by the new programme. Centres wishing to
offer a vocational area for the first time will need to apply for approval to offer the programme.
Centres that have not previously offered BTEC qualifications will first need to apply for, and be
granted, centre approval before they can apply for approval to offer the programme.
When a centre applies for approval to offer a BTEC qualification they will be required to enter
into an approvals agreement.
The approvals contract is a formal commitment by the head or principal of a centre to meet all
the requirements of the specification and linked codes or regulations. Sanctions and tariffs may
be applied if centres do not comply with the agreement. Ultimately, this could result in the
suspension of certification or withdrawal of approval.

Risk assessment
Edexcel has an approval process which creates a quality profile of each qualification
programme in each centre and for the centre as a whole. This profile contributes to the
determination of the nature of external verification activity for each programme and will also be
used to initiate other quality control measures by Edexcel.

Internal verification
Centres are required to have processes in place reviewing each assessors decisions to ensure
that they are correctly interpreting and applying the standards set out in the specifications. The
system used to do this is a matter for individual centres and Edexcel fully supports the use of the
centres own quality assurance systems where this ensures robust internal standardisation.
Centres should refer to the BTEC NQF Level 2/3 (including Short Courses at Levels 13)
Handbook (updated annually). This updated information may also be found on the Edexcel
website/Services for centres/FE Colleges and Schools.

External verification
Edexcel will sample assessors decisions using sector-specialist external verifiers. For BTEC
Firsts this process will follow the National Standards Sampling (NSS) protocol. The learner
work must have been internally assessed. Additionally, at least 50 per cent of submitted work
must have been internally verified.
Centres should refer to the BTEC NQF Level 2/3 (including Short Courses at
Levels 13) (updated annually). This updated information may also be found on the Edexcel
website/Services for centres/FE Colleges and Schools.

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Calculation of the qualification grade


Awarding a qualification grade
The qualification grade will be calculated through the aggregation of points achieved through
the successful achievement of individual units. Learners will achieve a pass, merit or distinction
qualification grade based on the attainment of a stated minimum number of points for each unit
grade. The number of points available will be dependent on the unit grade achieved and the size
of the unit as determined by the stipulated guided learning hours.
For the calculation of a qualification grade for a BTEC First Certificate and a BTEC First
Diploma a learner must:
complete all designated units
achieve a minimum points score of 18 points for a First Certificate and 36 points for a
First Diploma
achieve a pass grade for all designated units for a First Certificate and achieve a pass
grade for units with a combined total of 300 guided learning hours for a First
Diploma.
Points available
Size of unit (GLH)

Pass grade

Merit grade

Distinction grade

10

30

60

12

18

90

18

27

120

12

24

36

Qualification grade
Qualification

Pass grade

Merit grade

Distinction grade

Distinction*

BTEC First Certificate


(54 maximum)

1829

3041

4253

54

BTEC First Diploma


(108 maximum)

3659

6083

8495

96108

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School and College Achievement and Attainment Tables (SCAAT)


equivalence
BTEC First Certificate and SCAAT points
BTEC First Certificates attract points for the DfES School and College Achievement and
Attainment Tables (formerly Performance Tables). The qualification attracts the same points as
two GCSEs at A* C, and contributes 40 per cent towards the threshold. For the detailed point
scores for a pass, merit, distinction, and distinction*, please see the QCA Openquals website at:
www.openquals.org.uk.
BTEC grade boundaries

BTEC First Certificate grade

SCAAT points and


GCSE grade equivalence

1829

Pass

CC

3041

Merit

BB

4248

Distinction

AA

4954

Distinction*

D*

A* A*

BTEC First Diploma and SCAAT points


BTEC First Diplomas attract points for the DfES School and College Achievement and
Attainment Tables (formerly Performance Tables). The qualification attracts the same points as
four GCSEs at A* C, and contributes 80 per cent towards the threshold. For the detailed point
scores for a pass, merit, distinction, and distinction*, please see the QCA Openquals website at:
www.openquals.org.uk.
BTEC grade boundaries

BTEC First Diploma grade

SCAAT points and


GCSE grade equivalence

3659

Pass

CCCC

6083

Merit

BBBB

8495

Distinction

AAAA

96108

Distinction*

D*

A* A* A* A*

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Programme design and delivery


These qualifications consist of core units (which are mandatory) and specialist units. Specialist
units are designed to provide a specific focus to the qualification. Required combinations of
specialist units are set out clearly in relation to each qualification in the defined qualification
structures provided in this document.
In BTEC First qualifications each unit is 30, 60, 90 or 120 guided learning hours. The definition
of guided learning hours is a notional measure of the substance of a qualification. It includes
an estimate of time that might be allocated to direct teaching, instruction and assessment,
together with other structured learning time such as directed assignments or supported
individual study. It excludes learner-initiated private study. Centres are advised to consider this
definition when planning the programme of study associated with this specification.

Mode of delivery
Edexcel does not define the mode of study for BTEC First qualifications. Centres are free to
offer the qualifications using any mode of delivery that meets the needs of their learners. This
may be through traditional classroom teaching, open learning, distance learning or a
combination of these. Whatever mode of delivery is used, centres must ensure that learners have
appropriate access to the resources identified in the specifications and to the subject specialists
delivering the units. This is particularly important for learners studying for the qualification
through open or distance learning.
Learners studying for the qualification on a part-time basis bring with them a wealth of
experience that should be utilised to maximum effect by tutors and assessors. Assessment
evidence based on the learners work environment should be encouraged. Those planning the
programme should aim to enhance the vocational nature of the BTEC First qualification by:
liaising with employers to ensure a course relevant to the specific needs of the learners
accessing and using non-confidential data and documents from learners workplaces
including sponsoring employers in the delivery of the programme and, where appropriate, in
the assessment
linking with company-based/workplace training programmes
making full use of the variety of experience of work and life that learners bring to the
programme.

Resources
BTEC First qualifications are designed to prepare learners for employment in specific sectors.
Physical resources need to support the delivery of the programme and the proper assessment of
the outcomes and therefore should normally be of industry standard. Staff delivering
programmes and conducting the assessments should be fully familiar with current practice and
standards in the sector concerned. Centres will need to meet any specialist resource
requirements when they seek approval from Edexcel.
Where specific resources are required these have been indicated in individual units under the
Essential resources section.

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Delivery approach
It is important that centres develop an approach to teaching and learning that supports the
specialist vocational nature of BTEC First qualifications. Specifications contain a balance of
practical skill development and knowledge requirements, some of which can be theoretical in
nature. Tutors and assessors need to ensure that appropriate links are made between theory and
practice and that the knowledge base is applied to the sector. This will require the development
of relevant and up-to-date teaching materials that allow learners to apply their learning to actual
events and activity within the sector. Maximum use should be made of the learners experience.

Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL)


Edexcel encourages centres to recognise learners previous achievements and experience
through APL. Learners may have evidence that has been generated during previous study or in
their previous or current employment or whilst undertaking voluntary work that relates to one or
more of the units in the qualification. Assessors should assess this evidence against the National
Occupational Standards mapped in the specification. As with all evidence, assessors should be
satisfied about the authenticity and currency of the material when considering whether or not
the outcomes of the unit have been met.
Full guidance on Edexcels policy on APL is provided on our website: www.edexcel.org.uk

Meeting local needs


Centres should note the qualifications set out in these specifications have been developed in
consultation with centres and employers, particularly the NTO or the Sector Skills Council for
the Science sector. The units are designed to meet the skill needs of the sector and the specialist
units allow coverage of the full range of employment. Centres should make maximum use of the
choice available to them within the specialist units in these specifications to meet the needs of
their learners, and the local skills and training needs identified by organisations such as the
Regional Development Agency and the Local Learning and Skills Council.
In certain circumstances, the units contained in these specifications may not enable centres to
meet a local need. In this situation centres may seek approval from Edexcel to make use of units
from other standard NQF BTEC First Diploma specifications. Centres will need to justify the
need for importing units from other specifications and Edexcel will ensure that the vocational
focus of the qualification has not been diluted. Units that have externally set assignments cannot
be imported into other qualifications.
There may be exceptional circumstances where even this flexibility does not meet a particular
local need. In this case centres can seek permission from Edexcel to develop a unit with us to
meet this need. The cases where this will be allowable will be very limited. Centres will need
strong evidence of the local need and the reasons why the existing standard units are
inappropriate. Edexcel will need to submit these units for accreditation by QCA.

Limitations on variations from standard specifications


The flexibility to import standard units from other BTEC First Diploma specifications and/or
develop unique units is limited to one unit in a BTEC First Diploma qualification. This
flexibility is not available within the BTEC First Certificate. The use of these units cannot
be at the expense of the core units in any qualification.
More detailed guidance on delivery and assessment is given in each unit.

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Access and recruitment


Edexcels policy regarding access to its qualifications is that:
the qualifications should be available to everyone who is capable of reaching the required
standards
the qualifications should be free from any barriers that restrict access and progression
there should be equal opportunities for all wishing to access the qualifications.
Centres are required to recruit learners to BTEC qualifications with integrity. This will include
ensuring that applicants have appropriate information and advice about the qualifications and
that the qualification will meet their needs. Centres should take appropriate steps to assess each
applicants potential and make a professional judgement about their ability to successfully
complete the programme of study and achieve the qualification. This assessment will need to
take account of the support available to the learner within the centre during their programme of
study and any specific support that might be necessary to allow the learner to access the
assessment for the qualification. Centres should also show regard for Edexcels policy on
learners with particular requirements.
Centres will need to review the profile of qualifications and/or experience held by applicants,
considering whether this profile shows an ability to progress to a Level 2 qualification. For
learners who have recently been in education, the profile is likely to include one of the
following:
a standard of literacy and numeracy supported by a general education equivalent to four
GCSEs at grades DG

related work experience

other related Level 1 or 2 qualifications.

More mature learners may present a more varied profile of achievement that is likely to include
experience of paid and/or unpaid employment.

Restrictions on learner entry


The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science and the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC
First Diploma in Applied Science are accredited on the National Qualifications Framework
(NQF). The qualifications are listed on the DfES funding lists Section 96 and Section 97.
Additionally, the majority of BTEC First qualifications are available to learners aged 1416 to
enhance their curriculum and to help them gain experience of vocational skills which will
prepare them for work.

Access arrangements and special considerations


Edexcels policy on access arrangements and special considerations for BTEC and Edexcel
NVQ qualifications aims to enhance access to the qualifications for learners with disabilities and
other difficulties (as defined by the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act and the amendments to
the Act) without compromising the assessment of skills, knowledge, understanding or
competence.
Further details are given in the policy Access Arrangements and Special Considerations for
BTEC and Edexcel NVQ Qualifications, which is on the Edexcel website
(www.edexcel.org.uk). This policy replaces the previous Edexcel policy (Assessment of
Vocationally Related Qualification: Regulations and Guidance Relating to Learners with
Special Requirements, 2002) concerning learners with particular requirements.

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121

122

Entry

NQF
Level

Entry Level Science

BTEC Short Courses

NVQ Laboratory and Associated


Technical Activities

NVQ Laboratory and Associated


Technical Activities

NVQ Laboratory and Associated


Technical Activities

NVQ/Occupational

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BTEC First Certificate and


Diploma in Applied Science

GCSE Science;
Additional
Science;
Astronomy;
Chemistry;
Physics;
Biology

GCSE Applied
Science

BTEC National Awards,


Certificates, Diplomas in
Applied Sciences (Laboratory
and Industry, Medical Science,
Forensic Science)

BTEC Higher Nationals in


Applied Sciences

BTEC Full VRQ Courses

GCE Sciences: Chemistry, Physics,


Biology/Human Perspectives on
Science; Psychology

General Qualifications

Progression opportunities within the framework are available vertically, diagonally and horizontally.

The Edexcel BTEC Qualification Framework for the science sector

Further information
For further information please call Customer Services on 0870 240 9800 (calls may be recorded
for training purposes) or visit our website at www.edexcel.org.uk.

Useful publications
Further copies of this document and related publications can be obtained from:
Edexcel Publications
Adamsway
Mansfield
Nottinghamshire NG18 4FN
Telephone: 01623 467 467
Fax: 01623 450 481
Email: publications@linneydirect.com
Related information and publications include:
Accreditation of Prior Learning available on our website: www.edexcel.org.uk
Guidance for Centres Offering Edexcel/BTEC NQF Accredited Programmes (Edexcel,
distributed to centres annually)
key skills publications specifications, tutor support materials and question papers
The Statutory Regulation of External Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland
(QCA, 2004).
the current Edexcel publications catalogue and update catalogue
Edexcel publications concerning the Quality Assurance System and the internal and external
verification of vocationally related programmes may be found on the Edexcel website and in the
Edexcel publications catalogue.
NB: Most of our publications are priced. There is also a charge for postage and packing. Please
check the cost when you order.

How to obtain National Occupational Standards


Science, Engineering, Manufacturing Technologies Alliance (SEMTA)
Westminster Office
22 Old Queen Street
London
SW1H 9HP
Telephone: 020 7222 0464

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123

Professional development and training


Edexcel supports UK and international customers with training related to BTEC qualifications.
This support is available through a choice of training options offered in our published training
directory or through customised training at your centre.
The support we offer focuses on a range of issues including:

planning for the delivery of a new programme

planning for assessment and grading

developing effective assignments

building your team and teamwork skills

developing student-centred learning and teaching approaches

building key skills into your programme

building in effective and efficient quality assurance systems.

The national programme of training we offer can be viewed on the Edexcel website
(www.edexcel.org.uk). You can request customised training through the website or by
contacting one of our advisers in the Professional Development and Training team via Customer
Services on telephone 0870 240 9800 (calls may be recorded for training purposes) to discuss
your training needs.
The training we provide:

is active ideas are developed and applied

is designed to be supportive and thought provoking

builds on best practice.

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Annexe A
QCA codes
The QCA National Qualifications Framework (NQF) code is known as a Qualification
Accreditation Number (QAN). This is the code that features in the DfES Funding Schedules
Section 96 and Section 97 and is to be used for all qualification funding purposes. Each unit
within a qualification will also have a QCA NQF unit code.
The QCA qualification and unit codes will appear on the learners final certification
documentation.
The QANs for this publication are:
100/5811/4

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate in Applied Science

100/5558/7

Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science

These qualification titles will appear on the learners certificates.


Learners need to be made aware of this when they are recruited by the centre and registered
with Edexcel. Providing this happens, centres are able to describe the programme of study
leading to the award of the qualification in different ways to suit the medium and the target
audience.

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126

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Evaluate concepts/ideas/actions.
Analyse/research and make recommendations.
Judges implications of application of knowledge/
understanding.

Apply and/or select relevant concepts.

Apply knowledge to different contexts.

Apply knowledge to non-routine contexts (ie assessor


selection).

Make comparisons.

Show relationships between p criteria.

Act under limited supervision/ demonstrate independence


(note: pass cannot require support).

Apply to non-routine activities.

Demonstrate within time and/or resource constraints.

Produce varied solutions (including non-routine).

Modify techniques/processes to situations.

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Use advanced techniques/processes/skills successfully.

Development of practical
and technical skills

Innovates or generates of application of techniques/processes


for new situations.

127

Makes judgements about risks and limitations of


techniques/processes.

Justifies application of skills/methods.

Reflects on skill acquisition and application.

Select and use successfully from a range of advanced


techniques/processes/skills.

Apply skill(s) to achieve higher order outcome.

Demonstrate creativity/originality/own ideas.

Indicative characteristics distinction

Indicative characteristics merit

Grading domain 2

Applies knowledge and understanding to complex


activities/contexts.

Synthesise knowledge and understanding across p/m criteria.

Show depth of knowledge and development of understanding


in given situations (eg explain why, make judgements based
on analysis).

Application of knowledge
and understanding

Indicative characteristics distinction

Indicative characteristics merit

Grading domain 1

Grading domains

Annexe B

Takes responsibility in planning and undertaking activities.

Reviews own development needs.

Finds and uses relevant information sources.

Acts within a given work-related context showing


understanding of responsibilities.

Identifies responsibilities of employers to the community and


the environment.

Applies qualities related to the vocational sector.

Internalises skills/attributes (creating confidence).

Personal development for


occupational roles

Applies initiative appropriately.

Explains how to contribute within a team.

Makes adjustments to meet the needs/expectations of others


(negotiation skills).

Select and justify solutions for specified problems.

128

Makes judgements in contexts with explanations.

Generate new or alternative solutions to specified problems.

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Reflects on own contribution to working within a team.

Produces outputs subject to time/resource constraints.

Takes decisions in contexts with justifications.

Communicates using appropriate technical/ professional


language.

Application of generic and


key skills

Presents self and communicates information to meet the


needs of a typical audience.

Indicative characteristics distinction

Indicative characteristics merit

Understands interdependence.

Grading domain 4

Applies divergent and lateral thinking in work-related


contexts.

Takes decisions related to work contexts.

Assesses how different work-related contexts or constraints


would change performance.

Analyses and manipulates information to draw conclusions.

Plans for own learning and development through the


activities.

Manages self to achieve outcomes successfully.

Indicative characteristics distinction

Indicative characteristics merit

Grading domain 3

Annexe C
Key skills
All BTEC First qualifications include mapping and/or signposting of key skills. These are
transferable skills, which play an essential role in developing personal effectiveness for adult
and working life and in the application of specific vocational skills.
In each unit the opportunities for the generation of evidence for key skills are signposted. These
are indicative links only. Tutors will need to become familiar with key skills specifications and
their evidence requirements and they are advised not to rely on the signposting in the units when
presenting key skills evidence for moderation. Centres should refer to the QCA website
(www.qca.org.uk) for the latest key skills standards.
Key skills provide a foundation for continual learning. They enable and empower individuals
who inevitably face a series of choices in work, education and training throughout their lives.
Current and future initiatives such as learndirect, lifelong learning and widening participation all
require a more flexible population in the workplace and key skills play a role in setting the
framework.
Learners need the chance to show current and future employers that they can:
communicate effectively, in a variety of situations, using a wide range of techniques
work well with others individuals or teams so that work can be properly planned and
targets met
manage their own development, so that they are always ready to take on the challenges of
change and diversification
use number, not just within routine tasks and functions but to help them be more effective
and efficient in all they do
use ICT in a range of applications to support all aspects of their role
solve problems in a variety of circumstances.

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129

N2.1
N2.2
N2.3
C2.1a
C2.1b
C2.2
C2.3
ICT2.1
ICT2.2
ICT2.3
LP2.1
LP2.2
LP2.3
PS2.1
PS2.2
PS2.3
WO2.1
WO2.2
WO2.3

130

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Unit 11

Unit 10

Unit 9

Unit 8

Unit 7

Unit 6

Unit 5

Unit 4

Unit 3

Unit 2

Key skills

Unit 1

Key skills mapping summary of opportunities suggested in each unit

#
#
#

1.01b

1.01c

1.01d

#
#
#
#

1.02b

1.02c

1.02d

1.02e

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
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1.02g
#

1.02a

1.02f

1.01f

1.01e

1.01a

Level 2 NVQ in Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities

Units

KEY
indicates that the Edexcel Level 2 covers all of the underpinning knowledge of the NVQ unit
# indicates partial coverage of the NVQ unit
a blank space indicates no coverage of the underpinning knowledge

The following grid maps the knowledge covered in the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science against the
underpinning knowledge of the Level 2 NVQ in Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities, SSC National Occupational Standards.

National Occupational Standards/mapping with NVQs

Annexe D

10

131

11

132

2.06.2

2.06.1
#

#
#

10

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
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2.05.1
#

2.04.3

2.04.2

#
#

2.04.1

2.03.4

2.03.3

2.03.2

1.03.2

2.03.1

1.03.1

Level 2 NVQ in Laboratory and Associated Technical Activities

Units

11

Annexe E
Wider curriculum mapping
Study of the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Applied Science provides opportunities for the
learner to develop an understanding of spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues as well
as an awareness of environmental issues, European developments, health and safety
considerations and equal opportunities issues.
The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Applied Science make a positive contribution to wider
curricular areas as appropriate.

Spiritual, moral, ethical, social and cultural issues


The specification contributes to an understanding of:
spiritual issues when science is dealt with in an historical context in Units 4, 5 and 6
moral and ethical issues are encountered in dealing with people and in the public
understanding of science issues and will always involve the learner engaging in moral and
ethical issues. A more detailed analysis can be found in Units 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 11
social and cultural issues are encountered in Units 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11 and 12.

Environmental issues
Learners are led to appreciate the importance of environmental issues through the experience of
the applied science sector, in Units 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 11.

European developments
Much of the content of the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Applied Science applies throughout
Europe even though the delivery is in a UK context. The European dimensions of health and
safety are specifically addressed in Units 2 and 6.

Health and safety considerations


The Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Applied Science are practically based and so health and
safety issues are encountered throughout the units. Learners will develop awareness of the
safety of others as well as themselves in all practical activities. Learners will also explore health
and safety issues across the Applied Science sector, particularly in unit 6.

Equal opportunities issues


Equal opportunities issues are implicit throughout the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC Firsts in Applied
Science.

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Spiritual
Moral and ethical
Social and cultural
Environmental issues
European developments
Health and safety
considerations
Equal opportunities
issues

134

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Unit 11

Unit 10

Unit 9

Unit 8

Unit 7

Unit 6

Unit 5

Unit 4

Unit 3

Unit 2

Unit 1

Wider curriculum mapping

i
d

i
e

i
a

ii
b

ii
c

ii

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Unit 5:o/c 4

Unit 5:o/c 3

Unit 5:o/c 2

Unit 5:o/c 1

Unit 4:o/c 4

Unit 4:o/c 3

Unit 4:o/c 2

Unit 4:o/c 1

Unit 3:o/c 4

Unit 3:o/c 3

Unit 3:o/c 2

Unit 3:o/c 1

BTEC FC/FD
Units/ QCA
criterion 3.7
d

ii

indicates coverage of the QCA criteria when delivering BTEC First Diploma Units 3 to 5

iii
b

iii
c

iii

Mapping BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science to new KS4 Science criteria

Annexe F

iii
a

iv
b

iv

iv

135

Criterion
3.6

136

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Annexe G
Useful websites
Chemistry
Platolearning (multimedia website)
www.abpi.org.uk

The Association of the British


Pharmaceutical Industry

www.ase.org.uk

The Association for Science Education

www.bbc.co.uk

BBC (BBC resources)

www.bpes.com

BP Amoco

www.bpf.co.uk

British Plastics Federation

www.chemindustry.com

Chemical Industry

www.ChemWeb.com

Chem Web (web links)

www.cia.org.uk

Chemical Industries Association

www.echalk.co.uk

Science teaching resources

www.esso.co.uk

Esso

www.glaxowellcome.co.uk

Glaxo Wellcome

www.howstuffworks.com/smart-structure.htm

How Stuff Works

www.iom3.org/

Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining


(information source for smart materials)

www.lgc.co.uk

Laboratory of the Government Chemist

www.materials.ac.uk

UK Centre for Materials Education

www.mond.org

Society of Chemical Industry

www.mutr.co.uk

Middlesex University Tutor Resources


(smart materials etc)

www.philipallan.co.uk

Philip Allan Updates (publisher of science


magazines)

www.rsc.org

The Royal Society of Chemistry

www.scienceconsortium.co.uk

The Science Consortium (online resources)

www.sciencemuseum.org.uk

The Science Museum

www.sep.org.uk

Science Enhancement Programme

www.shell.co.uk

Shell

www.uyseg.org/ciec_home.htm

Chemical Industry Education Centre


(information source for industrial
application of chemistry)

www.york.ac.uk

Support for Science Education (University


of York)

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Physics
http://planetary.org/

The Planetary Society


(information on the planets)

www.ase.org.uk

The Association of Science Education


(information for science tutors)

www.bbc.co.uk

BBC (information on science, and current


science and technology news)

www.iop.org

Institute of Physics (information about


education and careers)

www.learningschools.net

Learning Schools Programme (OU


information on ICT training for tutors)

www.nationalgrid.com

National Grid Transco (network utility


with information on careers)

www.practicalphysics.org/

Practical physics
(suggestions for practical work)

www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/index.asp

School Science (information that links


science to the world of work)

www.scienceconsortium.co.uk

The Science Consortium


(online CPD for tutors)

www.sciencemuseum.org.uk

The Science Museum (current science


information, for tutors and learners)

www.scienceonestop.com/html/main.htm

Resources for tutors

www.sep.org.uk

Science Enhancement Programme


(education resources and projects)

www.space.com/

Space (information on astronomy)

Biology
http://sln.fi.edu/tfi/units/life/classify/classify.html

The Franklin online


(classification website)

www.ase.org.uk

Association of Science Education

www.bbc.co.uk

BBC website resources

www.iob.org

Institute of Biology

www.new-media.co.uk

Plato Learning
(multimedia science) website

www.nutritiondata.com/index.html

Nutrition Data
(interactive nutritional data website)

www.philipallan.co.uk

Philip Allan Updates


(publisher of learner magazines)

www.schoolscience.org.uk

Virtual Visits
(virtual tours of science-related sites)

www.scienceconsortium.co.uk

The Science Consortium


(online resources and CPD for tutors)

www.sciencemuseum.org.uk

The Science Museum

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Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

www.scilinks.org/default.asp

SciLinks
(online database of science websites)

www.streetdrugs.org/

Street Drugs (drugs website)

www.york.ac.uk

University of York

www2.gsu.edu/~wwwfit/index.html

The Exercise and Fitness Page


Georgia University (American university
site for health and fitness)

Forensic
www.bbc.co.uk/crime/fighters/fss.shtml

BBC Crime Fighters

www.forensic.gov.uk

The Forensic Science Service

www.forensic-science-society.org.uk

The Forensic Science Society

www.fsni.gov.uk

Forensic Science Northern Ireland

www.koshlandscience.org/exhibitdna

Koshland Science Museum of the National


Academy of Sciences

www.m-scan.com/services/ofec/forensic

Mass spectrometry consultants and


analysts

Medical
www.abpi.org.uk

The Association of the British


Pharmaceutical Industry

www.ase.org.uk

The Association for Science Education

www.astrazeneca.co.uk

AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals

www.bbc.co.uk

BBC (BBC resources)

www.bupa.co.uk

BUPA Health Information

www.gsk.com/

Glaxo Wellcome

www.iob.org

Institute of Biology

www.philipallan.co.uk

Philip Allen Updates


(publisher of science magazines)

www.platolearning.co.uk/

Plato Learning (multimedia website)

www.rcr.ac.uk

Royal College of Radiologists

www.scienceconsortium.co.uk

The Science Consortium


(online resources)

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Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

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140

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

Annexe H
Edexcel website generic and specific course materials
All the below materials are available on the Edexcel website (www.edexcel.org.uk) to support
centres and teaching staff in starting and running BTEC First programmes in the generic list and
the BTEC First in Applied Science in the specific list.
Generic
1

BTEC NQF Approval (centre and qualification approval information)

The Assessment and Grading of BTEC Firsts

Overall Grading of BTEC Firsts

Getting Started Guide

Understanding the unit content of BTEC NQF qualifications

Summary of Age Restrictions and Funding of BTEC First Diplomas

BTEC Recording Your Achievement Quick Guide

Recording Your Achievement Letter to Centres January 2003

Access and Recruitment onto the revised BTEC Firsts Issue 1

10 Key Features of BTEC Firsts Issue 1


11 Key skills and the Wider Curriculum and BTEC Firsts
12 Mapping of Work Related Learning to BTEC First Certificates and First Diplomas
13 The revised National Qualifications Framework
14 BTEC First Certificates and First Diplomas First Steps for Schools
15 Centres must have approval for each BTEC qualification
16 Centre Handbooks 2004/5
17 Revisions to Assessment and Quality Assurance arrangements for BTEC NQF
Qualifications 2004/5
18 BTEC Qualifications A Guide for Parents
Specific
1

Unit Structure

Tutor Support Materials

Learners Achievement Tracking Document

Learners Achievement Tracking Documents (RTF)

A Learners Guide to SI Units and their Conversion: Workbook for Learners

Specification Diploma in Applied Science

1362ma210307\LT\PD\Firsts\BF017257 Applied Science FCD L2 - Iss2.doc.1-148/0

BF017257 Specification Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate and BTEC First Diploma in Applied Science
Issue 2 March 2007 Edexcel Limited 2007

141

Further copies of this publication are available from


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Publications Code BF017257 March 2007
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