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Technology in the Classroom

The ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) is an observation tool developed by the
International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). The ISTE is a membership association
for educators and education leaders. The associations purpose is to engage in advancing
excellence in learning and teaching through technology. The association is also responsible for
developing the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for students, teachers, and
administrators. The classroom observation tool was designed to evaluate the amount of
technology being used in the classroom as well as its effective use based on the NETS.
Educators can download the ICOT application by registering free online. Once the educator
is has registered and downloaded the application, classroom observations of both teachers and
students can be conducted using a lap top computer off line, upload the data to a secure online
account, where the data can be aggregated to generate reports.
Why use ICOT as an Observation Tool?
There are several good reasons for using an observation tool such as ICOT to evaluate the
effective use of technology in the classroom. For one, Moskowitz & Martabano (2009) argue that
todays district and building level administrators are busier than ever. In addition, administrators
are being asked about the use of technology or evaluated themselves based on the amount of time
and quality of technology being used in their classrooms. In fact, one of the NETS for
administrators, according to the ISTE website is to create, promote, and sustain a dynamic,
digital-age learning culture at their school or district. Another reason to use an observation tool
such as ICOT, according to the authors, is because larger amounts of school and district budgets

are being earmarked for technology in the classrooms. The authors report that technology
spending in education will reach $56 billion by 2012. Being able to document and retain the
effective use of technology in the classroom using observation tools such as ICOT will give
administrators much more confidence in requesting funds from the district or grants. A final
reason for using such technology to evaluate the use of technology in the classroom is for
administrators to better prepare and plan professional development for teachers in the use of
technology. Collier, Weinburgh, & Rivera (2004) imply that the majority of teachers do not feel
comfortable using computers in the classroom for instruction. The authors go on to say that
educators must focus more attention on how to effectively use technology in the classroom.
About the Instrument
The components of the ICOT instrument consist of setting, groups, activities, technology,
NETS, and charts. There are a series of questions, calendars, timelines, or charts for each of the
components. For example, the setting consists of a series of questions about the subject, grade,
time of day, and number of students. The group component asks questions concerning what type
of grouping (i.e. individual, pairs, small groups, whole class) as well as engagement in the
activity. The activity component touches on what the students and teacher are doing during the
lesson (i.e. researching, writing, test taking, simulations, etc). The technology component is
the meat of the observation tool. In this section, the observer reports on what type of technology
is being used, who is using it and how they are using the technology. The NETS component
reports on what teacher or student standards are being taught or used during the lesson. Finally,
the chart section reports on how long technology was being used, who was using it, and for what
purpose (i.e. used for learning or used for something else). The charts are arranged for the
observer to report who is using the technology and for what purpose in increments of 3 minutes
for the duration of the lesson.

For the practical purposes of this article the writer used the ICOT instrument to observer a
fifth grade teacher at the writers school. The teacher is a fifth year teacher who has taught
traditional classes as well as boys single gender classes. The school is located in central South
Carolina and has approximately 640 students. There are five fifth grade classes containing
approximately 23 students per class. All of the fifth grade classes have one to one computing
using wireless lap tops provided by the school. Each class also has a mounted interactive board
as well as a mounted projector. Teachers are encouraged to engage students in the use of
technology at least on a daily basis.
The writer observed the teacher teaching a single gender boys class during a social
studies lesson for 30 minutes. The teacher was having the students research and report on the
Reconstruction period of United States history. There were 23 students in the classroom at the
time. The environment was uncluttered and purposefully organized for movement and
collaborative work. Each student had their own lap top computer provided by the school. This
was the teachers first year having one to one computing in his classroom. Each pair of students
was working on a Power Point presentation. One hundred percent of the students were focused
and actively engaged in the activity. The teachers role was to facilitate and coach the boys as
they researched and created a presentation. Students were creating, researching, collaborating
during the lesson. The teacher also used an interactive board to model what he expected from the
There were a number of NET standards for teachers that the writer observed. One was the
fact that the teacher was using curriculum-based presentations to engage the students. Second,
the teacher created a developmentally appropriate learning activity for fifth grade boys. Third,

the technology used during the lesson enhanced instruction. Fourth, the technology supported
learner-centered strategies. Fifth, the teacher applied technology to develop students creativity.
Finally, the teacher modeled legal and ethical technology practices by using the interactive board
to show examples.
After conducting the observation, the observer and the teacher were able to sit down and
discuss the lesson. The observer was able to walk through the observation question by question
and praise the teacher as well as offer constructive suggestions. For example, the observer
suggested that since the boys were using wireless lap tops to let them sit on the floor, at their
desk, or stand at the bookcase to work on their project. The observer felt that this is one of the
benefits of using a wireless lap top to complete a task.
ICOT is a useful tool for administrators to safely document the effective use of technology
in the classroom. The tool allows educators to observe technology being used by both students
and teachers based on the NETS. The data gathered is aggregated and stored for future reference.
This data can be used to track effective practice, track the amount of technology use, and
compare the use of technology to national standards. This information can be useful as
administrators are competing for grants and other district funding for additional technology. The
observation tool itself is user-friendly and is easily accessible by anyone.
It is important for educators to be able to observe a classroom for the purpose of
evaluating the use of technology in the classroom specifically. Many general classroom
observation tools touch on technology in the classroom, but very few if any go in to as much
detail as the ICOT does. The writer suggests that the ICOT instrument be used in isolation to
evaluate the effective use of technology in addition to the more general observation tools.

In addition, district office administrators and directors of IT departments could definitely

use the ICOT to evaluate instructional technology district wide. As administrators observe in
classrooms and upload data to the website, district administrators can generate and view reports
that can guide professional development and future purchases.

Collier, S., Weinburgh, M. H., & Rivera, M. (2004). Infusing technology skills into a teacher
education program: Change in students knowledge about and use of technology. Journal
of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(3), 447-468.

Moskowitz, S. & Martabano, S. (2009). Administrators accessing the effectiveness of

technology. Retrieved from http://www.schoolcio.com/default.aspx.

View PDF (printable) version

About the Author

David Holzendorf is candidate for a doctorate in educational leadership from Nova
Southeastern University. He is currently serving as an assistant principal in a prekindergarten through fifth grade school in central South Carolina. He was a sixth grade
teacher for eleven years prior to going in to administration. As a classroom teacher, the
author implemented what would have been considered at the time cutting edge technology
in his instructional practice.

AlviaOctober 26, 2011 Reply
Dear dholzendorf,
I am a student from Indonesia,,,I want to ask your permition to copy your article. Because I have
homework to find some article about education. I will put this link to your article was I copied.

Regards, Alvia
Rosana C. TalaJune 13, 2011 Reply
Im interested in using tool. I might use it to have a more effective instruction using the
computers. Im also interested in conducting a study about it to my students.


David Holzendraft merupakan seorang calon kedoktoran telah mendapat pendidikan dari
Universti Southestern Nova.Beliau telah berkhidmat sebagai ketua pembantu di sebuah tadika

yang terletak di selatan Carolina.Sebagai seorang guru darjah beliau telah telah membuat
pemerhatian untuk melaksanakan kaedah pengajaran yang lebih berkesan.
Beliau telah menghasilkan sebuah artikel yang bertajuk Teknologi di Dalam Kelas.Artikel
ini menceritakan bagaimana sesuatu teknologi itu mampu mengubah teknik pembelajaran di
dalam kelas berbeza dengan pengajaran yang lazimnya dilakukan oleh para guru sebelum
ini.Melalui pemerhatian yang telah dibuat olehnya terdapat sejenis Alat Pemerhati Bilik
Darjah(ICOT) telah dibangunkan oleh Persatuan Antarabangsa untuk teknologi dalam
pendidikan(ISTE). ISTE adalah persatuan keahlian bagi pendidik dan pemimpin pendidikan.
Tujuan persatuan itu adalah untuk melibatkan diri dalam memajukan kecemerlangan dalam
pengajaran dan pembelajaran melalui teknologi. Persatuan itu juga bertanggungjawab untuk
membangunkan Standard Teknologi Pendidikan Kebangsaan (NETS) untuk pelajar, guru, dan
pentadbir. Alat pemerhatian bilik darjah direka untuk menilai jumlah teknologi yang digunakan
di dalam bilik darjah serta keberkesanan penggunaan berdasarkan kepada NETS.
Menurutnya Pendidik boleh memuat turun aplikasi ICOT dengan mendaftar secara
online tanpa dikenakan cas. Pendaftaran hanya perlu dilakukan sekali sahaja.Seterusnya,
pemerhatian bilik darjah dapat dilakukan oleh guru dan pelajar hanya menggunakan komputer
atau lap top secara luar talian dan dapat memuat naik data akaun dalam talian dengan selamat, di
mana data boleh diagregatkan untuk menjana laporan.

Seterusnya,terdapat beberapa alasan yang baik untuk menggunakan alat pemerhatian

seperti ICOT iatu untuk menilai keberkesanan penggunaan teknologi dalam bilik darjah. Oleh

sebab itu, Moskowitz& Martabano(2009) berhujah bahawa daerah dan pentadbir tahap
pembangunan hari ini sibuk berbanding sebelum ini. Selain itu,pentadbir juga ditanya mengenai
penggunaan teknologi atau penilaian sendiri berdasarkan jumlah masa dan kualiti teknologi yang
digunakan di dalam kelas mereka. Malah, salah satu NETS untuk

pentadbir, mengikut ke

laman web ISTE adalah untuk mencipta, mempromosi, dan mengekalkan budaya pembelajaran
era digital yang dinamik, di sekolah atau daerah mereka.
Satu lagi sebab mengapa alat pemerhatian seperti ICOT perlu digunakan kerana ia
mampu memudahkan banyak tugasan dan bebanan para guru walaupun ianya memerlukan modal
yang agak besar.Pengarang telah melaporkan bahawa perbelanjaan teknologi dalam pendidikan
akan mencapai $ 56 bilion menjelang 2012.Namun begitu, ia mampu untuk mendokumentasi dan
mengekalkan keberkesanan penggunaan teknologi di dalam kelas dengan menggunakan alat
pemerhatian seperti ICOT. Sebab terakhir untuk menggunakan teknologi itu untuk menilai
penggunaan teknologi dalam bilik darjah adalah untuk pentadbir untuk mempersiapkan dan
merancang pembangunan profesional untuk guru-guru dalam penggunaan teknologi. Collier,
Weinburgh, membayangkan bahawa majoriti guru tidak berasa selesa menggunakan komputer di
dalam bilik darjah semasa menyampaikanpengajaran.Oleh sebab itu, Penulis menyatakan
bahawa pendidik harus menumpukan perhatian yang lebih tentang bagaimana untuk
menggunakan teknologi secara berkesan dalam bilik darjah.

Bagi tujuan praktikal artikel ini, penulis telah menggunakan instrumen ICOT kepada
pemerhati seorang guru gred kelima di sekolah penulis. Guru tersebut adalah guru tahun kelima
yang telah mengajar kelas tradisional serta kelas lelaki sahaja. Sekolah ini terletak di tengahtengah South Carolina dan mempunyai kira-kira 640 pelajar. Terdapat lima kelas gred 5 yang

mempumyai kira-kira 23 orang pelajar bagi setiap kelas. Semua kelas gred 5 tersebut
menggunakan komputer puncak pusingan tanpa wayar yang disediakan oleh pihak sekolah.
Setiap kelas juga mempunyai laman interaktif yang telah dilengkapi dengan sebuah projektor .
Guru-guru digalakkan untuk melibatkan pelajar dalam penggunaan teknologi sekurangkurangnya sehari sekali. Penulis mengamati guru yang mengajar kelas kanak-kanak lelaki jantina
tunggal 'semasa pelajaran sains sosial selama 30 minit. mempunyai hasil penyelidikan pelajar
dan laporan mengenai tempoh Semula sejarah Amerika Syarikat,dengan adanya teknologi sperti
ini dapat memudahkan tugas guru.Guru hanya perlu menjadi pemudah cara sahaja.Secara tidak
langsung teknologi seperti ini dapat memberi keyakinan kepada murid untuk belajar kerana
mereka telah dibekalkan satu komputer untuk seorang pelajar
Terbukti dengan cara ini bahawa guru yang menggunakan persembahan berasaskan
kurikulum teknologi dapat melibatkan semua pelajarnya. Selain itu, guru juga dapat mencipta
aktiviti pembelajaran dan perkembangan yang sesuai untuk kanak-kanak lelaki gred lima
tersebut. Teknologi yang digunakan semasa pembelajaran tersebut dapat dipertingkatkan. Selain
itu,, teknologi ini juga menyokong strategi berpusatkan pelajar. Guru yang menggunakan
teknologi ini juga mampu membangunkan kreativiti pelajar. Akhir sekali, guru juga dapat
menjadi model yang terbaik dalam mengamalkan bidang teknologi.

Kesimpulan ICOT adalah alat yang berguna untuk pentadbiran yang selamat kerana
dapat mendokumenkan keberkesanan penggunaan teknologi dalam bilik darjah. Selain itu. ICOT
juga dapat menjadi alat yang membolehkan pendidik untuk melihat teknologi yang digunakan
oleh kedua-dua pelajar dan guru-guru berdasarkan NETS. Data yang diperolehi juga dapat
diagregatkan dan disimpan untuk rujukan pada masa hadapan. Data ini boleh digunakan untuk

mengesan amalan yang berkesan, mengesan jumlah penggunaan teknologi, dan membandingkan
penggunaan teknologi standard kebangsaan. Maklumat ini amat berguna kepada pentadbir untuk
meningkatkan keberkesanan pengajaran dan pembelajaran di setiap sekolah. Alat pemerhatian itu
sendiri adalah mesra pengguna dan mudah diakses oleh sesiapa sahaja dan di mana jua. Adalah
penting bagi pendidik untuk memerhatikan bilik darjah bagi tujuan menilai penggunaan
teknologi dalam bilik darjah. Pemerhatian bilik darjah secara umum banyak menyentuh alat
teknologi dalam bilik darjah. Penulis mencadangkan bahawa instrumen ICOT digunakan secara
berasingan untuk menilai keberkesanan penggunaan teknologi sebagai tambahan kepada alat
pemerhatian yang lebih umum. Di samping itu, pentadbir pejabat daerah dan pengarah jabatanjabatan teknologi maklumat pasti dapat menggunakan ICOT untuk menilai perkembangan
teknologi pengajaran yang lebih luas. Sebagai pentadbir yang sentiasa melihat di dalam bilik
darjah dan memuat naik data ke laman web, pentadbir juga boleh menjana dan melihat laporan
yang boleh membimbing pembangunan profesional dan pembentukkan masa depan para pelajar.


Dholzendorf (2010) Technology In The Classroom

Retrieved from http://www.edarticle.com/profile.php?a

Moskowitz, S. & Martabano, S. (2009). Administrators accessing the effectiveness of

technology. Retrieved from http://www.schoolcio.com/default.aspx.









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