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Titre original : Flowrate & Pipe size.pdf

Transféré par Samuel Johnson

- Dynamic Pressure (Hazen-Williams Formula)
- Pipe System Friction Loss Calculation
- Design of irrigation structures
- Equal Friction Method
- Fluid mechanics water hammer report
- ESP Problem
- 10 VEN Duct Design
- Hunter Irrigation systems design guide_student_guide_dom.pdf
- Dg Student Guide Dom
- Bernoulli's principle experiment
- Water Hammer. Water and Slurry Hammer
- Etanorm Curva 60hz
- 21 Chap21
- Proračun trenja u vatrogasnom crevu
- Ksb Meganorm 60hz-Mexico
- Designing Air Flow Systems
- Fluid Flow Pipe Lab
- 1CS166646 B Utility Requirements
- Basic Load Calculation Spreadsheets
- Design and Management Considerations for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

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by Brian Boman

Hydraulic Principles

A couple of basic hydraulic concepts related to

water movement through pipes are particularly important to the design and proper operation of

microirrigation systems. Water weighs about 62.4

pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3). This weight exerts a

force on its surroundings, which is expressed as

force per unit area of pressure (pounds per square

inch or psi). The relationship between the height of

a column of water and the resulting pressure it exerts is: 2.31 ft of water produces 1 psi.

Ht = P x 2.31

Eq. 21-1

where,

Ht = elevation in ft

P = pressure in psi

The column of water does not have to be vertical.

To calculate the static pressure between two points

resulting from an elevation difference, only the

vertical elevation distance between the two points

needs to be known. However, other factors such as

friction affect water pressure when water flows

through a pipe.

Example:

Determine the height of water in a column that

produces a gauge pressure of 10 psi.

for a full-flowing pipe.

and excessive potentially damaging surge pressures, most irrigation systems are designed to

avoid velocities that exceed 5 ft/sec.

Flow

The relationship between flow rate and velocity is

given by the equation of continuity, a fundamental

physical law. The equation of continuity states that

flow rate can be calculated from the multiple of the

velocity times the cross-sectional area of flow.

Q =AxV

Eq. 21-2

or

V= Q/A

Eq. 21-3

where,

Ht = P x 2.31 = 10 (psi) x 2.31 (ft/psi)

= 23.1 ft

Velocity

Velocity (v) is the average speed at which water

moves through a pipe. Velocity is usually expressed in units of feet per second (ft/sec or fps).

Water velocity in a pipe (Fig. 21-1) is greatest in

the middle of the pipe (Vmax) and smallest near the

pipe walls. Normally, only the average velocity of

water in the pipe is needed for calculations.

A = cross-sectional area of flow in ft2

(A = x D2/4, = 3.1416)

V = velocity in ft/sec

If pipe diameters change in adjoining pipe sections

with no change in flow rate (Fig. 21-2), the relationship between flow and velocity can be calculated by:

A1 x V1 = A2 x V2

Eq. 21-4

217

21

where,

A1 = cross-sectional area of flow for first

section (ft2)

V1 = velocity in first section (ft/sec)

A2 = cross-sectional area of flow for

second section (ft2)

V2 = velocity in second section (ft/sec)

If the velocity is the same in both a 2-inch and a

4-inch diameter pipe, the flow rate with the 4-inch

pipe would be four times as large as the flow rate

from the 2-inch diameter pipe. Note that the crosssectional area is proportional to the diameter

Therefore, doubling the pipe diameter increases the

carrying capacity of a pipe by a factor of 4.

Figure 21-2. Diameter (D) and velocity (V) relationships for adjoining pipe sections with a constant flow rate.

Table 21-1. Maximum allowable flow rate and friction losses per 100 feet for PVC Class 160 IPS pipe.

Flow rate is based on maximum velocity of 5 fps (friction loss calculated at maximum flow rate by

Hazen-Williams equation).

218

Size

O.D.

(in.)

I.D.

(in.)

Wall

thickness

(in.)

Maximum

flow

(gpm)

Friction

loss

(psi/100 ft)

1.0

1.315

1.195

0.060

16

3.0

1.25

1.660

1.532

0.064

28

2.6

1.5

1.900

1.754

0.073

38

2.0

2.0

2.375

2.193

0.091

60

1.8

2.5

2.875

2.655

0.110

85

1.4

3.0

3.500

3.230

0.135

125

1.1

3.5

4.000

3.692

0.154

165

0.95

4.0

4.500

4.154

0.173

215

0.80

5.0

5.563

5.133

0.214

325

0.67

6.0

6.625

6.115

0.225

460

0.54

8.0

8.625

7.961

0.332

775

0.39

10.0

10.750

9.924

0.413

1200

0.30

12.0

12.750

11.770

0.490

1700

0.25

21

Table 21-2. Maximum allowable flow rate and friction losses per 100 feet for polyethylene (PE) SDR 15

(80 psi pressure-rated) tubing based on maximum velocity of 5 fps (friction loss calculated at maximum

flow rate by Hazen-Williams equation, C = 140).

Size

O.D.

(in.)

I.D.

(in.)

Wall

thickness

(in.)

Maximum

flow

(gpm)

Friction

loss

(psi/100 ft)

0.50

0.682

0.622

0.060

4.5

8.0

0.75

0.884

0.824

0.060

8.5

6.6

1.00

1.119

1.049

0.070

13

4.5

1.25

1.472

1.380

0.092

23

3.4

1.50

1.717

1.610

0.107

32

2.9

Example:

Determine the flow rate (gpm) in a 4-inch

Class 160 PVC pipe if the average velocity is

5 ft/s.

Solution:

From Table 21-1, the I.D. for 4-inch pipe is

4.154 inches

D=

A=

Q=

Q=

x D2/4 = (3.14 x 0.3462)/4 = 0.094 ft2

A x V = 0.094 ft 2 x 5 ft = 0.47 ft3/s (cfs)

0.47 cfs x 448 gal/cfs = 211 gpm

What would be the velocity if there was a transition to a 3-inch Class 160 PVC with the

same flow rate?

From Table 21-1, D2 = 3.230 inches

D2 = 3.230 in./12 = 0.269 ft

A2 = x D2/4 = (3.14 x 0.2692)/4 = 0.094 ft2

Rearranging Eq. 21-4 results in:

V2 =

A1 x V1

A2

As water moves through any pipe, pressure is lost

because of turbulence created by the moving water.

The amount of pressure lost in a horizontal pipe is

related to the velocity of the water, the inside diameter of the pipe, and the length of pipe through

which the water flows. When velocity increases,

the pressure loss increases. For example, in a

1-inch Sch 40 PVC pipe with an 8-gpm flow rate,

the velocity will be 2.97 fps with a pressure loss

of 1.59 psi per 100 ft. When the flow rate is increased to 18 gpm, the velocity will be 6.67 fps,

and the pressure loss will increase to 7.12 psi per

100 ft of pipe.

Increasing the pressure in the system increases the

flow rate. In Fig. 21-3, the flow rate in a 2-inch

pipe increases by 100 gpm when the pressure is increased from 20 psi to 50 psi. Using a smaller pipe

size does not increase the flow. Note that the

smaller pipe sizes have considerably less flow at

any given pressure. Since decreasing the pipe size

does not increase the pressure at the source, the result of decreased size is reduced flow.

219

21

of water to convert to ft

Hv = Velocity head (ft)

Hv = V2/2g

Eq. 21-6

where,

V = velocity in ft/s

g is the gravitational constant 32.2 ft/s2

Hf = friction head (ft) usually calculated by

Hazen-Williams equation

and flow through unrestricted 100-ft-long sections

of pipe (with 4 couplings) for 1/2-,1-, and 2-inch

Class 315 PVC pipe. Pressure losses include friction losses in pipe and couplings, as well as velocity head and entrance losses, but do not include

exit losses.

Using a smaller pipe size does not increase pressure. In contrast, it will result in lower pressure because there will be greater pressure loss in the

lines. In Fig. 21-3, a flow of 20 gpm would require

about 9 psi pressure in a 1-inch pipe. In order to

maintain a 20-gpm flow in a 1/2-inch pipe, over 50

psi would be required at the source. Smaller pipes

result in greater pressure loss, not higher pressure.

Bernoulli's Theorem

At any point within a piping system, water has energy associated with it. The energy can be in various forms, including pressure, elevation, velocity,

or friction (heat). The total energy of the fluid at

one point in the system must equal the total energy

at any other point in the system, plus any energy

that might be transferred into or out of the system.

This principle is known as Bernoulli's Theorem

and can be expressed as:

He1 + Hp1 + Hv1 = He2+ Hp2+ Hv2 + Hf

Eq. 21-5

where,

He = Elevation in feet above some reference

point (ft)

220

In irrigation systems, the amount of energy associated with velocity is usually small compared with

elevation and pressure energy; thus, it is often ignored. If there isn't a pump (which adds energy) in

the piping network, total energy remains the same

at all points in the system.

Example:

The pressure at the pump of an irrigation system is 30 psi. A microsprinkler is located at

another location, which is 10 ft higher than the

pump. What is the static water pressure at the

microsprinkler (assume no flow and thus no

friction loss)? For convenience, we can use

the pump as the elevation datum.

The total energy at the pump is determined:

H= Pxc+E

Eq. 21-7

where,

H = energy head (ft)

P = pressure (psi)

E = elevation (ft)

c = conversion constant (2.31 ft/psi).

In this example, since there is no water flowing, the energy at all points of the system is the

same. Pressure at the microsprinkler is found

by solving this equation for P:

Energy head at the pump (H) =

30 psi x 2.31 ft/psi = 69.3 ft

Reorganize Eq. 21-7 = > P = (H - E)/c

P = (69.3 ft -10 ft)/2.31 ft/psi = 25.7 psi.

21

Hazen-Williams Equation

Water flowing in a pipe loses energy because of

friction between the water and pipe walls and turbulence. In the above example, when the microsprinkler is operating, pressure will be less than the

25.7 psi due to friction loss in the pipe and the

microtubing. It is important to determine the

amount of energy lost in pipes in order to properly

size them. The friction loss calculations in Tables

21-1 and 21-2 are based on the Hazen-Williams

equation, and they provide usable results from

most pipe sizes and water temperatures encountered under irrigation system conditions. A more

accurate equation, Darcy-Weisbach, is sometimes

used for smaller pipes or when heated water is being piped; however, the computations are more difficult. The Hazen-Williams equation, with C = 150

(for plastic pipes), is generally suitable for irrigation systems and can be expressed as:

0.000977 x Q

D 4.871

where,

Hf =

1.852

xL

Eq. 21-8

Q = flow rate (gpm)

D = inside pipe diameter (inches)

L = length of pipe (feet)

Friction loss in pipes depends on flow (Q), pipe diameter (D), and pipe smoothness (C). The

smoother the pipe, the higher the C value. Increasing flow rate or choosing a rougher pipe will increase energy losses, resulting in decreased pressure downstream. In contrast, increasing inside

diameter will decreases friction losses and provides

greater downstream pressure.

Example:

Determine the pipe friction loss in 1000 ft of

8-inch Class 160 PVC pipe if the flow rate is

800 gpm.

Solution:

From Table 21-1, the I.D. of 8-inch pipe is

7.961 inches

Hf = 0.000977 x (800)1.852/7.9614.871 x 1000

Hf = 9.5 ft

water passes through fittings, such as tees, elbows,

constrictions, or valves. The magnitude of the loss

depends both on the type of fitting and on the

water velocity (determined by the flow rate and fitting size). Pressure losses in major fittings such as

large valves, filters, and flow meters, can be obtained from the manufacturers. To account for minor pressure losses in fittings such as tees and elbows, refer to Appendix 9. Minor losses are

sometimes aggregated into a friction loss safety

factor (10% is frequently used) over and above the

friction losses in pipelines, filters, valves, and other

elements.

Hydraulics of Multiple Outlet Pipelines

If the pipeline has multiple outlets at regular spacing along mains and submains, the flow rate downstream from each of the outlets will be effectively

reduced. Since the flow rate affects the amount of

pressure loss, the pressure loss in such a system

would be only a fraction of the loss that would occur in a pipe without outlets. The Christiansen lateral line friction formula is a modified version of

the Hazen-Williams equation. It was developed for

lateral lines with sprinklers or emitters that are

evenly spaced with assumed equal discharge and a

single pipe diameter.

kx

Hf(L) = F x

L

x

100

()

Q

C

D 4.871

1.852

Eq. 21-9

where,

Hf(L) = head loss due to friction in lateral with

evenly spaced emitters (ft)

L = length of lateral (ft)

F = multiple outlet coefficient (see Table 21-3)

[1/(m + 1)] + [1/2n] + [(m + 1)0.5/(6n2)]

m = velocity exponent (assume 1.85)

n = number of outlets on lateral

Q = flow rate in gpm

D = inside pipe diameter in inches

k = a constant 1045 for Q in gpm and D in

inches

C = friction coefficient: 150 for PVC or PE pipe

(use 130 for pipes less than 2 inches)

221

21

Example:

Determine the friction loss in a 3/4-inch polythylene lateral that is 300 ft long with 25

evenly spaced emitters. Each emitter has a discharge rate of 15 gph.

Solution:

Flow rate into the lateral is:

25 emitters x 15 gph each = 375 gph

or 375 gph/60 min = 6.3 gpm

From Table 21-2, the I.D. of 3/4-inch poly

tubing is 0.824 inch

From Table 21-3, F = 0.355

C = 130 for 3/4-inch poly tubing

Hf(L) = 0.355 (300/100)(1045 x (6.3/130)1.852)

/0.8244.87 = 10.5 ft = 10.5 ft/2.31 psi/ft

= 4.6 psi

Hydraulic Characteristics of Lateral Lines

The goal of uniform irrigation is to ensure, as

much as feasible, that each portion of the field receives the same amount of water, as well as nutrients and chemicals. As water flows through the lateral tubing, there is friction between the wall of the

tubing, and the water particles. This results in a

gradual but nonuniform reduction in the pressure

within the lateral line. The magnitude of pressure

loss in a lateral line depends on flow rate, pipe diameter, roughness coefficient, changes in elevation, and the lateral length.

flow rate decreases most rapidly. This is due to the

combined influence of elevation and friction loss.

Where topography allows, running the lateral line

downslope can produce the most uniform flow

since friction loss and elevation factors cancel each

other to some degree.

Friction loss is greatest at the beginning of the lateral. Approximately 50% of the pressure reduction

occurs in the first 25% of the laterals length. This

occurs because as the flow rate decreases, friction

losses decrease more rapidly. Lateral length may

have a large impact on uniform application. Lateral

lengths that are too long, given the pipe diameter

and the emitter flow rate, are one of the most commonly observed sources of nonuniformity in

microirrigation systems. Flow rates are less uniform, in general, with longer lateral length.

Table 21-4 gives the fractional values (called the

F value in Eq 21.6) of a system with multiple

outlet pipes. A pipe with ten regularly spaced outlets, for example, would have 0.39 times the pressure loss of an equivalent pipe with no outlets.

Water Hammer

Water hammer is a hydraulic phenomenon that is

caused by a sudden change in the velocity of the

water. This velocity change results in a large pressure fluctuation that is often accompanied by a

loud and explosive noise. This release of energy is

caused by a sudden change in momentum followed

Number of Outlets

222

Number of Outlets

12

0.38

0.63

15

0.37

0.47

20

0.36

0.42

30

0.35

0.41

50

0.34

10

0.39

100 or more

0.33

21

by an exchange between kinetic and pressure energy. The pressure change associated with water

hammer occurs as a wave, which is very rapidly

transmitted through the entire hydraulic system.

Severe or repeated water hammer events can lead

to pipe failure.

The sudden change in velocity caused by the rapid

closing of a valve can produce very high pressures

in the piping system. These pressures can be several times the normal operating pressure and result

in burst pipes and severe damage to the irrigation

system. The high pressures resulting from the

water hammer cannot be effectively relieved by a

pressure relief valve because of the high velocity

of the pressure wave (pressure waves can travel at

more than 1000 ft per second in PVC pipe). The

best prevention of water hammer is the installation

of valves that cannot be rapidly closed and the selection of air vents with the appropriate orifice that

do not release air too rapidly. Pipelines are usually

designed so that velocities remain below 5 fps in

order to avoid high surge pressures from occurring.

Surge pressures may be calculated by:

P=

0.028 (Q x L)

D xT

2

Eq. 21-10

= 297 psi

Gate valve (Pgv)

Pgv = 0.028 x (750 x 4500)/(7.9612 x 30)

= 51 psi

Head Losses in Lateral Lines

Microsprinkler field installations typically have 10to 20-gph emitters. Emitters are normally attached

to stake assemblies that raise the emitter 10 to 11

inches above the ground and the stake assemblies

usually have 2- to 3-ft lengths of 4-mm spaghetti

tubing. The spaghetti tubing is connected to the

polyethylene lateral tubing with a barbed or

threaded connector. The amount of head loss in the

barbed connector can be significant, depending on

the flow rate of the emitter and the connector inside diameter. The pressure loss in a 0.175-inch

barb x barb connector is shown in Fig. 21-4. At 15

gph, about 1 psi is lost in the barbed connection

alone.

In addition to the lateral tubing connection, there

will be pressure losses in the spaghetti tubing. Fig.

21-5 shows the pressure required in the lateral line

where,

Q = flow rate (gpm)

D = pipe I.D. (inches)

P = surge pressure (psi)

L = length of pipeline (feet)

T = time to close valve (seconds)

Example:

For an 8-inch Class 160 PVC pipeline that is

1500 feet long and has a flow rate of 750 gpm,

compare the potential surge pressure caused

when a butterfly valve is closed (in 10 seconds) to a gate valve that requires 30 seconds

to close.

Solution:

From Table 21-2, the diameter of 8-inch pipe

is 7.961 inches.

0.175-inch barb x barb connector.

223

21

will friction losses increase and average emitter

discharge decrease, but system uniformity and efficiency will decrease. Figure 21-6 shows the

maximum length of lateral tubing that is possible

while maintaining 5% flow variation on level

ground with a 20 psi average pressure. The discharge gradient is calculated by dividing the emitter flow rate (gph) by the emitter spacing (ft).

The maximum number of microsprinkler emitters

and maximum lateral lengths for 3/4- and 1-inch

lateral tubing are given in Tables 21-4 and 21-5.

Similar information for drippers with 1/2-,

3/4-, and 1-inch lateral tubing is given in Tables

21-6, 21-7, and 21-8. All calculations are based on

5% allowable flow variation on level ground.

By knowing the emitter discharge rate, spacing,

and tubing diameter, the maximum number of

emitters and the maximum lateral length can be

determined.

maintain 20 psi at emitter for various emitter orifice sizes and spaghetti tube lengths.

to maintain 20 psi at the emitter for various emitter

orifices and spaghetti tubing lengths. Note that

with the red base emitters (0.060-in. orifice), an additional 25% to 30% pressure is required in the lateral tubing to maintain 20 psi at the emitter.

It is very important to realize the hydraulic limits

of irrigation lateral lines to efficiently deliver

water. Oftentimes when resetting trees, two or

more trees are planted for each tree taken out. If a

microsprinkler is installed for each of the reset

trees, the effects on the system uniformity and

224

5% flow variation for level ground with 22 psi

inlet pressure (20 psi average pressure) for 1/2-,

3/4-, and 1-inch lateral tubing.

21

Table 21-4. Maximum number of microsprinkler emitters and maximum lateral lengths (ft) for

3/4-inch lateral tubing diameter (5% allowable flow variation on level ground, based on Bowsmith

3/4 in.-50 tubing, I.D. = 0.818 in.).

Spacing on lateral (feet)

Flow

rate

(gph)

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

7.5

10

12.5

15

17.5

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

44

39

34

31

28

26

25

337

293

261

236

217

201

188

40

35

31

28

26

24

22

405

352

313

284

261

242

226

37

32

28

26

24

22

20

467

405

361

327

300

279

261

35

30

27

24

22

20

19

525

455

405

367

337

313

293

33

28

25

23

21

19

18

579

502

447

405

372

345

323

Example:

Using Fig. 21-6, determine the maximum allowable run length for 3/4-inch lateral tubing

with 10-gph emitters spaced at 12 ft intervals.

Maximum lateral length: 405 ft

Example:

Using Tables 21-4 to 21-8, determine the

maximum allowable run length for 3/4-inch

lateral tubing with 1.0 gph drip emitters

spaced at 30-inch intervals.

ft. From Fig. 21-4, the maximum run length

would be about 380 ft (32 trees).

Example:

Using Tables 21-4 to 21-8, determine the

maximum allowable run length for 3/4-inch

lateral tubing with 10 gph emitters spaced at

12.5-ft intervals.

spacing,

Maximum number of emitters: 227

Maximum lateral length: 568 ft

spacing,

Table 21-5. Maximum number of microsprinkler emitters and maximum lateral lengths (ft) for

1-inch lateral tubing diameter (5% allowable flow variation on level ground, based on Bowsmith

1 in.-45 tubing, I.D. = 1.057 in.).

Spacing on lateral (feet)

Flow

rate

(gph)

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

7.5

10

12.5

15

17.5

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

70

60

54

49

45

41

39

526

456

406

368

338

314

293

63

54

48

44

40

37

35

631

548

488

442

406

377

352

58

50

44

40

37

34

32

728

631

562

510

468

434

406

54

47

42

38

35

32

30

817

709

631

572

526

488

456

51

44

39

36

33

30

28

902

782

696

631

580

538

503

225

21

Table 21-6. Maximum number of drip emitters and maximum lateral lengths (ft) for 1/2-inch lateral

tubing diameter (5% allowable flow variation on level ground, based on Bowsmith P720P48 (1/2inch) tubing, I.D. = 0.625 in.).

Spacing on lateral (inches)

Flow

rate

(gph)

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

18

24

30

36

42

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

266

171

132

110

400

257

199

165

240

154

119

99

481

309

239

199

221

142

110

91

554

356

275

229

207

133

103

85

623

400

309

257

196

126

97

81

687

442

341

284

Table 21-7. Maximum number of drip emitters and maximum lateral lengths (ft) for 3/4-inch lateral

tubing diameter (5% allowable flow variation on level ground, based on Bowsmith 3/4 in.-50 tubing, I.D. = 0.818 in.).

Spacing on lateral (inches)

Flow

rate

(gph)

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

18

24

30

36

42

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

424

293

211

176

637

410

317

264

383

246

190

158

766

492

380

317

353

227

175

146

883

568

438

365

330

212

164

136

991

637

492

410

312

200

155

129

1093

703

546

452

Table 21-8. Maximum number of drip emitters and maximum lateral lengths (ft) for 1-inch lateral

tubing diameter (5% allowable flow variation on level ground, based on Bowsmith 1 in.-45 tubing, I.D. = 1.057 in.).

Spacing on lateral (inches)

Flow

rate

(gph)

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

226

18

24

30

36

42

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

No.

Length

662

426

328

274

993

639

493

411

596

383

296

246

1192

767

592

493

549

353

273

227

1374

884

683

569

514

331

255

213

1544

993

767

639

486

312

241

201

1703

1095

846

704

- Dynamic Pressure (Hazen-Williams Formula)Transféré parmeshahan
- Pipe System Friction Loss CalculationTransféré partorbenchr
- Design of irrigation structuresTransféré parJames K. Kirahuka
- Equal Friction MethodTransféré parbala
- Fluid mechanics water hammer reportTransféré parAry Ijam
- ESP ProblemTransféré parRaul Dolo Quinones
- 10 VEN Duct DesignTransféré parAshok
- Hunter Irrigation systems design guide_student_guide_dom.pdfTransféré parew6082
- Dg Student Guide DomTransféré parJawaid Iqbal
- Bernoulli's principle experimentTransféré parThivagar Rajasekaran
- Water Hammer. Water and Slurry HammerTransféré parDdNak Ydk Subang
- Etanorm Curva 60hzTransféré parAmandha Carvalho
- 21 Chap21Transféré parLao Zhu
- Proračun trenja u vatrogasnom crevuTransféré parDejan Kovač
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