Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 11

Cambridge University Press

978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition


William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

METAL FORMING, FOURTH EDITION

This book is designed to help the engineer understand the principles of metal forming and to analyze forming problems both the mechanics of forming processes
and how the properties of metals interact with the processes. In this book, an entire
chapter is devoted to forming limit diagrams and various aspects of stamping and
another to other sheet forming operations. Sheet testing is covered in a separate
chapter. Coverage of sheet metal properties has been expanded. Interesting endof-chapter notes have been added throughout, as well as references. More than
200 end-of-chapter problems are also included.
William F. Hosford is a Professor Emeritus of Materials Science and Engineering
at the University of Michigan. Professor Hosford is the author of more than
80 technical articles and numerous books, including Mechanics of Crystals and
Textured Polycrystals; Physical Metallurgy, Second Edition; Mechanical Behavior
of Materials, Second Edition; Materials Science: An Intermediate Text; Materials
for Engineers; Reporting Results (with David Van Aken); and Wilderness Canoe
Tripping.
Robert M. Caddell was a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University
of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

in this web service Cambridge University Press

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

METAL FORMING
Mechanics and Metallurgy
FOURTH EDITION

WILLIAM F. HOSFORD
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

ROBERT M. CADDELL

in this web service Cambridge University Press

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,


Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Tokyo, Mexico City
Cambridge University Press
32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA
www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107004528

C William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell 2011

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception


and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without the written
permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2011
Printed in the United States of America
A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data
Hosford, William F., 1928
Metal Forming : Mechanics and Metallurgy / William F. Hosford, Robert M. Caddell. 4th edition.
p. cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-107-00452-8 (hardback)
1. Metal-work. 2. Deformations (Mechanics) 3. Metals Plastic properties.
I. Caddell, Robert M., 1925 II. Title.
TS213.H66 2011
671.3dc22
2010044821
ISBN 978-1-107-00452-8 Hardback
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or thirdparty Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites
is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

in this web service Cambridge University Press

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition

page xii

1 Stress and Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11

Stress
Stress transformation
Principal stresses
Mohrs circle equations
Strain
Small strains
The strain tensor
Isotropic elasticity
Strain energy
Force and moment balances
Boundary conditions

1
2
4
5
7
9
10
10
11
12
13

NOTES OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

APPENDIX EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

2 Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

Yield criteria
Tresca criterion
Von Mises criterion
Effective stress
Effective strain
Flow rules
Normality principle
Derivation of the von Mises effective strain

17
18
20
21
22
23
24
26

NOTES OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

in this web service Cambridge University Press

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

vi

CONTENTS

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

3 Strain Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10

The tension test


Elastic-plastic transition
Engineering vs. true stress and strain
Power-law expression
Other strain-hardening approximations
Behavior during necking
Compression testing
Bulge testing
Plane-strain compression
Torsion testing

30
32
32
34
36
36
38
38
39
40

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

4 Plastic Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Uniaxial tension
Effect of inhomogeneities
Balanced biaxial tension
Pressurized thin-wall sphere
Signicance of instability

43
44
45
47
48

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49

5 Temperature and Strain-Rate Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9

Strain rate
Superplasticity
Effect of inhomogeneities
Combined strain and strain-rate effects
Alternative description of strain-rate dependence
Temperature dependence of ow stress
Deformation mechanism maps
Hot working
Temperature rise during deformation

52
55
58
62
63
65
69
69
71

NOTES OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

6 Work Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.1

Ideal work

in this web service Cambridge University Press

76

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

vii

CONTENTS

6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6

Extrusion and drawing


Deformation efciency
Maximum drawing reduction
Effects of die angle and reduction
Swaging

77
78
79
80
81

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

7 Slab Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13

Sheet drawing
Wire and rod drawing
Friction in plane-strain compression
Sticking friction
Mixed sticking-sliding conditions
Constant shear stress interface
Axially symmetric compression
Sand-pile analogy
Flat rolling
Roll attening
Roll bending
Coining
Reducing the area of contact

85
87
88
90
90
91
92
93
93
95
99
101
101

NOTES OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102


REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

102

8 Friction and Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

General
Experimental ndings
Ring friction test
Galling
Ultrasonics

106
109
110
111
111

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

112

9 Upper-Bound Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113


9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8

Upper bounds
Energy dissipation on plane of shear
Plane-strain frictionless extrusion
Plane-strain frictionless indentation
Plane-strain compression
Another approach to upper bounds
A combined upper-bound analysis
Plane-strain drawing

in this web service Cambridge University Press

113
114
115
119
119
122
123
124

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

viii

CONTENTS

9.9

Axisymmetric drawing

124

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126

10 Slip-Line Field Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12

Introduction
Governing stress equations
Boundary conditions
Plane-strain indentation
Hodographs for slip-line elds
Plane-strain extrusion
Energy dissipation in a slip-line eld
Metal distortion
Indentation of thick slabs
Plane-strain drawing
Constant shear stress interfaces
Pipe formation

132
132
136
137
138
139
141
141
142
146
150
151

NOTES OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152


REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

157

11 Deformation-Zone Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167


11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7

The  parameter
Friction
Redundant deformation
Inhomogeneity
Internal damage
Residual stresses
Comparison of plane-strain and axisymmetric deformation

167
168
168
170
175
179
182

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

184

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

184

12 Formability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6

Ductility
Metallurgy
Ductile fracture
Hydrostatic stress
Bulk formability tests
Formability in hot working

186
186
190
191
195
196

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

in this web service Cambridge University Press

197

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

ix

CONTENTS

13 Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8

Sheet bending
Bending with super-imposed tension
Youngs modulus on unloading
Reducing springback
Neutral axis shift
Bendability
Shape bending
Forming limits in bending

199
202
204
204
204
206
207
208

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

209

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

209

14 Plastic Anisotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212


14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6

Crystallographic basis
Measurement of R
Hills anisotropic plasticity theory
Special cases of Hills yield criterion
Nonquadratic yield criteria
Calculation of anisotropy from crystallographic considerations

212
214
214
216
217
220

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

15 Cupping, Redrawing, and Ironing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225


15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
15.8
15.9
15.10
15.11
15.12

Cup drawing
Anisotropy effects in drawing
Effects of strain hardening in drawing
Analysis of assumptions
Effects of tooling on cup drawing
Earing
Redrawing
Ironing
Progressive forming
Tapered dies
Drawing boxes
Residual stresses

225
228
229
230
232
233
235
236
238
238
240
241

NOTES OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242


REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

242

16 Forming Limit Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245


16.1 Localized necking
16.2 Forming limit diagrams

in this web service Cambridge University Press

245
249

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

CONTENTS

16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7

Experimental determination of FLDs


Calculation of forming limit diagrams
Factors affecting forming limits
Changing strain paths
Stress-based forming limits

250
252
255
258
260

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

260

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

261

17 Stamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
17.9

Stamping
Draw beads
Strain distribution
Loose metal and wrinkling
Springback
Strain signatures
Die design
Toughness and sheet tearing
General observations

263
263
265
266
268
269
270
272
274

NOTES OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275


REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

275

18 Hydroforming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4

General
Free expansion of tubes
Hydroforming into square cross sections
Bent sections

277
277
279
281

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

283

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

283

19 Other Sheet Forming Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285


19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
19.6
19.7

Roll forming
Spinning
Foldable shapes
Incremental sheet forming
Shearing
Flanging, hole expansion, and beading
Hemming

285
286
288
288
290
291
292

NOTE OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

293

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

in this web service Cambridge University Press

293

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

xi

CONTENTS

20 Formability Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294


20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7

Cupping tests
LDH test
Post-uniform elongation
OSU formability test
Hole expansion
Hydraulic bulge test
Duncan friction test

294
294
297
297
298
299
300

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

301

21 Sheet Metal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304


21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6
21.7
21.8
21.9
21.10
21.11
21.12
21.13
21.14
21.15
21.16

Introduction
Surface appearance
Strain aging
Roller leveling and temper rolling
Properties of steels
Grades of low-carbon steel
Tailor-welded blanks
Special sheet steels
Surface treatment
Stainless steels
Aluminum alloys
Copper and brass
Hexagonal close-packed metals
Tooling
Product uniformity
Scrap

304
305
305
308
309
309
314
315
315
316
317
321
322
323
323
324

NOTES OF INTEREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324


REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Index

in this web service Cambridge University Press

325
327

www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press


978-1-107-00452-8 - Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Fourth Edition
William F. Hosford and Robert M. Caddell
Frontmatter
More information

Preface to the Fourth Edition

My coauthor, Robert Caddell, died in 1990, and I have greatly missed working with
him.
The most signicant changes from the third edition are a new chapter on friction
and lubrication and a major rearrangement of the last third of the book dealing with
sheet forming. Most of the chapters in the last part of the book have been modied, with
one whole chapter devoted to hydroforming. A new section is devoted to incremental
forming. No attempt has been made to introduce numerical methods. Other books
treat numerical methods. We feel that a thorough understanding of a process and
the constitutive relations that are embedded in a computer program to analyze it are
necessary. For example, the use of Hills 1948 anisotropic yield criterion leads to
signicant errors.
I wish to acknowledge my membership in the North American Deep Drawing
Research Group from whom I have learned so much about sheet forming. Particular
thanks are due to Alejandro Graf of ALCAN, Robert Wagoner of the Ohio State University, John Duncan formerly with the University of Auckland, and Thomas Stoughton
of General Motors.
William F. Hosford

xii

in this web service Cambridge University Press

www.cambridge.org