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Learning and Learners Environment.

Watson's classical learning theory

study of emotions
practical applications
introduces stategy for desensitilization
fear of white mouse...(little Albert)
then fear of white rabbit...
to lessen the fear, firstly increase the distance....
then, slowly decrease the distance while letting little Albert eat ate the same time...
teaching implication for watson
-->teacher must show love and care
-->teacher must create a condusive a environment (safe for physical and emotion)
-->create a sense of belonging in the classroom.
Behavioural theory as a whole
-->teachers need to give a lot of exercises
-->reinforce learning through a lot of positive reinforcement
-->tcher can weaken negative behaviour by gving all negavitve behaviour all punishment
-->tcher must create condusive environment so that tudents be happy to learn.
-->tcher must concern of children's previous knowledge

-->tcher must prepare a good set of induction in order to arouse the curiosity among the learners.
-->tcher needs to give lots of example in teaching n learning to help the students to make correct
-->tcher needs to teach the students to discriminate one distinct feature with another.
-->tcher needs to shape students behaviour by giving reinforcements to small skills and break the
lessons into small parts.

Principles of Behavioral Learning

*Shaping - guiding behavior toward goals by reinforcing th many steps that lead to success.
*Extinction - removing reinforcers from previously learned behavior until the behavior
*Extinction burst - the increase in levels of behavior in the early stages of extinction.
*Positive Reinforcement - are usually things
*Negative Reinforcement
*Punishment - consequencs that weaken beahvior; punishment like reinforcement is in the eye of
the receiver and the impact on behavior
*Removal punishment - forbidding a desirable task or situation.
*Presentation punishment (aversive stimulus) - imposing an undesirable task or situation; and
*No reinforcement discourage behaviors.
However, positive reinforcement generally works better to shape behavior than punishment.
*Premack principle (Grandma's rule) - you can encourage less-desired (to the individual by
liking them to a desired behavior.
*Intrinsic motivators - behaviors that people enjoy for the pleasure of the behavior.
*Extrinsic motivators MAINTENANCE
*Some behaviors that have been acquired through reinforcement become intrinsically
motivating, e.g, reading soccer
*Cueing - antecedent behavior or cues tell people what behavior will be reinforced
*Discrimination is the use of the cuess, signals, or information to know
* Is the transfer of behavior under one set of conditions to other situations.
*Generalization must be planned for, it is most likely to occur across similar settings or similar

*It is more likely to occur is using many relevant examples.

*The basic principles are as firmly established as any in psychology and have been demonstrated
under many different conditions.
*However, the theories only deal with observable behavior.
*In some ways in complements cognitive theories of learning.
*Slavin, R.E. (2003). Educational

3 Cognitive Learning Theories

-cognition is defined as the act of knowing or acquiring knowledge
- the mental processes include perceiving, attention, reasoning, judging, problem solving,
-focusses on
how people think
how people understand
how people know
-Emphasizes on
Learning how people comprehend and represent the outside world within themselves and
how our ways
*Cognitive processes escribe and explain the mental processes involved in learning.
* Proponents of Cognition:
--> Gestalt Psychologists (e.g Kohler, Wertheimer, etc)
--> Jean Piaget

Behaviorist Theory
-->Behaviorist thinks that there is no need to .....
-->Experiment with cimpanzi
Insight Learning
--> various alternatives are used
--> the relationship between what is given in the environment with the problem.
--> learning occurs with a realisation of a new relationship.
--> never restrict thinking with only one solution.
--> you should have a variety of ways of doing things.
--> teacher should teaches the students to apply whatever knowledge in a new and different

Bruner's Theory
--> learners construct new ideas
4 key themes on the process of education
--> The role of structure in learning and how it may be made clear in teaching ( clear relation
between earlier learning and later learning )
--> Readiness for learning ( Spiral Curriculum )
--> Intuitive and analytical thinking (create the conditions for intition to flourish)
--> Motives for learning (interest in the material to be learned is the best stimulus to learning)
4th bullet is related to 2nd bullet. when both theme is accepted, the learning would be

3 modes of representation
--> Enactive representation (action-based )
--> Iconic representation ( image-based )
--> Symbolic representation ( symbol-based )
Enactive representation (0-1 years)
Iconic representation (1-6 years)
Symbolic representation ( 7 years onwards)
Implication on the learning process.
*Instruction must be appropriate
*Feel free to re-introduce vocabulary, grammar points, and other topics now and then in order to
push the students to a deeper comprehension.
*Help students to catogorize new information in order to be able to see similarties and
differences between items.
*inceptive learning

*the students discover their own learning.

Implication (Pn Faridah)
*Teacher's job is to provide lots and ots of experences to the students.
*Teacher must provide lots and lots of student centered activity
*Teacher must emphasize / give students to venture learning. (gives lots of reinforcements)
*under buner, lots of principles are being emphasizes.
*Bruner focuses on the readiness of the students to learn.
p/s: must always compare piaget and vygotsky

Robert Gagne's theory

teach according to sequence levels
use reinforcement
guide pupils to discriminate between important facts and unimportant facts.
use many of comparison...analogy...and also application in your teaching...
Robert Gagne's theory
(Information Transfer system)
Environment / Stimulus --> (give full attention) Sensory Register --> STM (Short Term
Memory) --> LTM (Long Term Memory) --> (Retrieval) Transfer Of Learning
*teacher can help the students to achieve LTM by practice, practice and practice.
*contructivism is good because the students learn to build up something based on their own
*Environment/stimulus--> teaching aids : pictures, videos, concrete object, reading materials,
graph, one statement.
*Sensory stimulus: object: let them touch, food: let them taste.
Why the students could not retrieve information?
-->they did not organize their information well.
(keywords play an important role) --> teacher needs to repeat, repeat and repeat so that the
students could remember it well.
How to retrieve information easily?
--> acronym
--> mnemonics
--> chunking
What is the major problem for the students?
--> Transfer of Learning does not happen. (they're used to remember / memorising only )

Bandura Theory
observational learning / vicarious learning --> observing another person modelling another
concept: imitation, modelling,
Social learning theory
I <--> E <--> B <--> I (pyramid shaped, main point : SLT)
I: Intrinsic motivation, feelings (watching someone to be the role model)
B: Behaviour, (following the role model, how he/she talks, pakaian, etc)
E: Environment
Modelling--> name of technique ( demonstration ) --> social learning theory's application.
students would watch and copy and do n their own. ex: experiment in lscience lab.
students interest are also needed.
teacher must demonstarate it step by step using the right procedures.
students must give their FULL attention when the teacher demonstrating something.
the teachers need to ensure that all the students can see / observe how the teacher demonstrate (
no physical barrier) or called representative from 5 / 6 groups.
calssroom management is important. (learning should be fun)
what should a teacher has to be a good role model?
--> communication skills.
--> physical appearances.
--> teacher's attitude
If the teacher wants the students to be srious in learning, the teacher also should be serious in
teaching. (walk the talk)
teacher's credibility should be high: teacher should have a strong knowledge about the subject so
that the students can imitate the right thing from teachers especially for English Languages.

Process of learning according to Bandura

4 processes.
1. Attention
2. Retention (how you retain the information)
3. Reproduce
4. Reinforcement (giving rewards)
Bandura is a cognitivist and also a behaviorist.
-->teacher's presentation should be interesting
--> '' demonstration should be clear.
--> '' work should be of good quality
--> invite pupils who perform well to become the role model.
--> '' should impart noble values.
--> '' should gives rewards for good model behaviours.
It is not a matter of just imitating but also there's a room of improvement set by the pupil
themselves. (mind set) --> what to imitate and what's not to imitate.
Ex: making sandwich
maybe the students want to add something after what the teacher had teach them, let them do it.
as long as the end product is a sandwich.

fulfilling ones needs.
hierarchy of needs
pyramid of needs
physiological --> safety --> belongingness --> esteem --> self-actualization
physiological : includes air, food, water, sex, excrution,
safety: environment, resource, halth
love: spouse, friends, family
behavioural model

Personal model (Eric Erikson)
-students self-concept
teaching implications
- give students encouragement
- facilitative teaching (provides lots of room for improvement)
- semantics teaching (development of analogy)
Behavioral model
Information processing model (H.O.T.S)
- storage of information (memory - short and long)
- Gagne
- forgetting
- why students forget?
*the teacher doesn't repeat the previous lesson
*no reinforcement
*the teacher doesn't emphasize on the keywords during teaching and learning process.
*the teacher doesn't relate the new learning and old learning. (the students cannot see the big
*students do not give their full attention when teacher is teaching.
*students do not have the readiness to learn.
*the teacher doesn't provide MEANINGFUL LEARNING...
*the students didn't take notes.(mind maping)

what teachers can do to retain learning? (just pusing balik jawapan atas)
*provide meaningful learning.
*provide reinforcement
- use organizers
-make projects
-problem solving

Approach --> Strategy --> Method --> Techinque

thematic approach
-suitable for early childhood education until year 2 students.
-it helps the students to grow progressively.
-students enjoy learning.
Teacher Centered.
- teacher control all the teaching and learning in the classroom.
-demonstartion, storytelling.
-autocratic teaching style.
-the people become less creative.
to what extend are our Malaysian classroom gets benefits from teacher centered
-learning would be systematic.
student centered.
-students role. (active, primary role, work in groups, environment: students play creatively and
-teachers role. (group the students into individual differences)
- teacher and student's. (teacher as the facilitator).
-student and student. (.................)
-formative test.
task based strategy.
-focus on use of language.
-must have a goal and a product.
-students must be engrossed to do the task.

-role play, group work, debate, drama, experiments. (all about completing a task)
material based.
-focuses more on the teacher.
-having good material enabled the teacher to present in the class more effectively.
-provide meaningful teaching and learning experiences.
-the teacher can present the lesson effectively and students can foster the learning more.

Defining intelligence
* Intelligence
-->An inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from
experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purporsefully, or adapt to changes in the
*g factor
-->A general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mentl abilities
and talents.
-->The measurement of mental abilities, traits and processes.
#individuals with a higher level of a particular intelligence may use it in other way.
The Psychometric Approach
*IQ scores are distributed "normally"
---> Bell-shaped curve
*Very high and low scores are rare
*Cutural values and experiences affect a person's:
-->Attitude toward exams
-->Comfort in the settings required for testing
-->Rapport with test provider
-->Competitiveness and
-->Ease of independent problem solving.

Motivation and intellectual success

*Comparing the 100 most successful men with 100 least successful, researchers found that
motivation, and not IQ made the difference.
*Motivationn to work hard at intellectual tasks differs as a function of culture.
*North American children are as knowledgeble as Asian children on general skills.
Ternberg's Triarchic Theory
*suggests that instruction an assessment should emphasize all types of ability.
*Part of intelligence is ability to achieve personal goals.
*Coponential - a.k.a. "Analytic"
-->Comparing, analysing and evaluating
-->This type of processes correlates best with IQ.
--> Using prior knowledge and cognitive skills to solve problems and learn new info.
*Experiential-a.k.a "Creative"
-->Inveesting or designing solutions to new problems.
-->Transfer skills to new situations.
*Contextual-a.k.a. "Practical"
-->Using (i.x, applying) the things you know in everyday contexts.
*Triarchic theory implies that instruction and testing should be designed to involve memory,
analytical, creative and practical abilities.
*Teaching language art from triarchc perspective:
Memory - remember the name of Tom Sawyer's aunt.

Multiple Intelligence
*Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence
*Logical/Mathematical Intelligence
*Spatial Intelligence
*Musical Intelligence
*Bodily-kinesthetuc Intelligence
*Interpersonal Intelligence
*Intrapersonal Intelligence
*Naturalist Intelligence
Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence
*Acquire, form, & process language
*Think symbolically, reason abstractly, create conceptual verbal patterns
*Activities-reading, writing (metaphors, analogies)
*Ability to percieve images
Musical Intelligence
*Ability to create or interprete music
*need music while the study.

Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

*Daniel Goleman - consists of emotional self-awareness, managing emotions, reading
amoticions & handling relationships.
*self awareness - separating feelings from emotions
*Managing emotions - controlling anger
*Reading emotions - taking the perspectives of other.
*handling relationships - solving relationship problems.
*Encourage learners not to repress feelings but to cope with it.
*Communicating - able to express personal concerns

Multiple Intelligence ( Teaching Implications )

-->the teachers select the pupils that have this intelligence to lead the work.
-->teacher prepare a few experiments for the pupils.
-->teacher encourage the students to participate in mathematics quiz or competitions.
-->involve the students with the abilities in science exhibition competition/experiment.
Linguistic Intelligence
-->teacher encourage students to involve in writing competitions.
-->Get them to have journals.
-->Involve them with activities (debate,forum)
-->Gives lots of tasks or activity in terms of games (puzzle)
-->create reading corner
-->send students to workshop to engance writing skills.
-->get students to be facilitator in workshop.
Musical Intelligence
-->get them to be in talentime.
-->use musical instrument in the class. (can ask the students to perform in the class to develop
-->make the teaching and learning more interesting through the use of jazzchant.
-->teacher could assign tasks that involve students creating lyrics about the material being taught
(e.g. clothes, sports, etc)
Spatial Intelligence
-->teacher get the students to come up with 3D models.

-->make activities lie explorace/treasure hunt.

-->use lots of pictures as teaching aids.
-->use concrete material/sculp.
Bodily Kinestetic Intelligence
-->involve students through "hands-on" activities such as gymnastics.
--> encourage students to involve with sports and games.
--> make the students to practice facial expressions.
-->make the students to be active for outdoor activities.
-->encourage the students to involve in groupwork activities.
-->let them to be a leader.
-->pupils make reflection.
-->techer gives space for them to work alone.
--> self-based project
-->pulling their thoughts in writing ( sharing through writing )
-->go to the zoo.
-->teacher puts an aquarium at the back of the class.
-->go for a field trip.
-->teacher can have cactus plants in the class.
-->make an experiment with the pupils. ex.g. bean sprout experiments.

analytical (left brain) and relational (right brain)

left brainers
-->focus for details.
-->sequential order.
-->very impersonal (not personal)
-->working with machines,data, files.
-->abstract thinking
-->they're thinkers
-->very academic task oriented.
-->not affected by opinions.
-->persis in drills. (drilling x3)
-->style matches wiith school environments. (school have rules)
right brainers
-->look things as a whole.
-->not bothered with details.
-->more intuitive
-->very social (people's people)
-->very affected by opinions. (hurts easily by negative comments)
-->withdraw from drill.
-->style doesn't match with schools environment. (doesn't like to follow timetable)

activist learning style

-->high intrinsic motivation
-->need not be oushed by praents or teachers.
-->they want to experience things therefor, the urge to learn is there.
-->activities: brainstorming, discussion, experiments, projects etc.
-->impulsive learners.
-->they are reflective type of person
-->they love to do anything that relates with interpreting and analysing.
-->they are thinkers. (weaknesses and strength, looking at different persepective)
-->solving problems activities.
-->they like something that relates with data.
-->science based students.
-->good listeners.
-->not impulsice learners.
-->a little bit slow in giving feedback.
--> practical person
-->type of students that would ask themselves "why am i learning this, learning that? what are
the importance of this and that?"

Dunn & Dunn's model.

stimuli & elements of D & D's model of learning styles.
*Environment - design, light, sound, temperature
*Emotion - motivation, determination, responsibility
*Social - individual, par, group, adult
*Physiology - perception, learning time, mobility, nutrition
*Psychology - analytical, global, impulsive, reflector, left brain, right brain.
Kolb's learning styles
-able to gather pieces of information and integrate them as a whole
-able to generate ideas
-are imaginative & open-minded
-prefer to work in groups
-are interested in ideas and abstract concepts
-are analytical and good at quantitative tasks
-are good oganisers of informative
are good at problem solving esp. technical tasks
-are good at making decisions
-are good at deductive reasoning
-are able to crete new ways of thinking and doing

-are action and result oriented
-are rsik takers (do not like routine)
-like hands-on and practical learning
-able to adapt to new situations
Field independence vs field dependence
field independence:
generate structure & ideas
internally directed
indicidualistic & intrapersonal
conceptually oriented
field dependent:
global or hollistic

Convergent Thinking
-known as focused or guided thinking.
-the ability to focus in a particular direction in order to search for the one correct answer.
-this process involves the narrowing of the many possibilities to a single answer for a welldefined fixed-solution problem.
-the characteristics of convergent thinking:
1. be able to solve a problem that requires one correct slution.
2. prefer not to guess and would not try to answer the uncertainties.
-a teacher should encourage convergent thinking because it allows pupils to make choices from
many alternatives.
-pupils who are good in convergent thinking are those who combine or converge information
from different sources to form a correct answer.
suitable for science subject.
Divergent Thinking
-known as multiple thinking
-the main purpose - to generate as many ideas as possible about a certain topic in a given time.
-the ability to propose many different ideas or alternative solutions to an open-ended problem.
-simultaneously use bith existing knowldge or experiences
Guildford identified 4 characteristics of divergent thinking. (REMEMBER THIS)
1. Fluidity - able to provide explainations with a lot of ideas or examples.
2. Flexibility - Generate various ideas and ways to solve a problem.
3. Originality - Able to think of new ideas which are smart and unique.
4. Detail - able to explain ideas in great length and details.
Lateral Thinking
-known as analytical thinking

-it is the ability to generate divergent ideas from the barious solutions of a problem.
-it involves the process of thinking 'out-of-a-box' whereby solutiions to a problem are obtained
from unlikely and unrelated sources.
-in lateral thinking, a problem should be viewed from the different perspectives so that it can be
solved easily.
Vertical Thinking
-known as rational or logical thinking
-uses a systematic series or sequence of steps to solve a problem.
-the ability to generate one idea or solution to a problem
-the solution offered is usually more complex and attains more depth.
Critical Thinking
-the ability to evaluate conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem, the
evidence and the solution.
-the use of intellectual skills to analyze and make judgements
the teaching strategies that can encourage critical thinking are probloem solving & inquiry
Skills involved in critical thinking:
-->defining and clarifying the problem.
-identify central issues;
compare similarities and differences;
determine which information is rlevant: and
formulate appropriate questions.
-->judging information related to the problem
-distinguish among fact, opinion, reasoned judgement;
-check cnsistency;

-identify unstated assumptions

-->solving problems/drawing conclusions
Creative thinking
-an imaginative,original thinking or problem-solving ability
-the ability to generate new ideas, find and consider alternatives, explore available options and
challenge options.
Characteristics of Creative Thinking
*FLUENCY - ability to provide responses without barriers
*FLEXIBILITY - not confined to ne method
*ORIGINALITY - personal/unique or unusual
*ELABORATION - the ability
-defiend as "cognition about cognition" or "knowing about knowing".
Reflective Thinking
-Allows you to make decisions about how you would approach similar situations in the future.
-asks WHY the elements or events are described as they are
-Particular kind of analysis
-Always suggests self-analysis
-retrospective consideration of one's practive in terms of this assessment.
-means the process of thinking about your experiences and their implications.

3 types of reflection (remember this)

Reflection-on-action (after event)
Reflection-in-action (during event)
Reflection-for-action (before event) --> good for improvement