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CILEGON COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

AUXILIARY BOILER – PLN PROJECT


MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES LTD.

Training Program
Auxiliary Boiler 12 Ton/Hr , 12 Barg
By. PT Basuki Pratama Engineering

1
Items of Training
I. Preface
II. Utilizing Equipments
III. System Description
IV. Operation Sequence
V. Maintenance
VI. Boiler Operation Water Treatment

PREFACE

2
What is that Steam Boiler BHS-12000-LO ?

II. Utilizing Equipments

3
„ 1 Unit Steam Boiler BHS-12000-LO (10QHA01AC101)
Capacity : 12 Ton/Hr , 12 Barg
Design / Operating Pressure : 12 Barg / 9 Barg
Efficiency : 89 % (min)
Type of Fuel : Diesel Oil
Max Fuel Consumption @ Full load : 812 Kg/Hr

„ 1 Unit Diesel Oil Burner (10QHH01AV101)


Brand / Type : OILON / KP-700 M-II
Capacity (max) : 812 Kg/Hr
Driving Motor : 26 KW
Control : Fully – Automatic
Regulation : Fully – Automatic

4
„ 1 Unit Superheater (10QLB11AC001)
Steam Capacity : 10,000 Kg/Hr
Steam Temperature : 260 oC
Operating Pressure : 8 Barg
Design Pressure / Temp. : 12 Barg / 300 oC
Test Pressure : 18 Barg

„ 2 Units Feed Water Pump (10QLA11AP101/102)


Conveying Capacity : 12,000 Liter/Hr
Delivery Head : 132 M
Motor Capacity : 11 KW

5
„ 1 Unit Feed Water Tank w/Deaerator
(10QLA11AC101 / 10QLA11BB101)
Operating Pressure : 0.13 Barg
Design Pressure : 1 Barg
FWT Capacity : 12,000 Ltr
Deaerator Capacity : 12 M3/Hr
FWT Dimension : Dia 1900 x 4200 S/S
Deaerator Dimension : Dia 650 x 1400 S/S

„ 1 Unit Chimney (10QHN01BV101)


Dimension : Dia 785 X 20,000 Height
Accessories : - Insulation & Cladding up to 2 M Height
- Free Standing

6
„ 1 Unit Blow Down Tank (10QHF01BB001)
Dimension : Dia 600 x 1,200 S/S
Design Pressure / Temperature : 1 Barg / 120 oC
Operating Pressure : Atmospheric
c/w : Vent Head & Silincer

„ 1 Unit Daily Fuel Tank (10QHH01BB101)


Capacity : 25,000 Liter
Dimension : Dia 2500 x 5000 S/S
Design Pressure : Atmospheric
Operating Pressure : Atmospheric

7
„ 3 Units Sample Cooler
(10QUA03AC001 ; AC002 ; AC003)

Dimension : Dia 100 x 300 Height


Material : SUS 304
Cooling Water Inlet Valve : 3/8”
Hot Water Inlet Valve : DN6 – PN40

„ 1 Unit FWT Dosing Device (10QLF11AP201)

Diaphragm pump type : Pulsatron – LPD3S2-365


Max. Capacity : 1.9 Ltr/Hr
Working Pressure : 17 Barg
Voltage : 230VAC 50 Hz / 0.5A 1 Phase
C/W Storage Tank
Tank Contents : 650 Liter
Material : Polyethylene
C/W Mixer
Type : MIX6/2 “EMEC”
Motor Rating : 110 W

8
„ 1 Unit Boiler Dosing Device (10QLF11AP201)

Diaphragm pump type : Pulsatron – LPF4S2-365


Max. Capacity : 3.2 Ltr/Hr
Working Pressure : 17 Barg
Voltage : 230VAC 50 Hz / 0.5A 1 Phase
C/W Storage Tank
Tank Contents : 650 Liter
Material : Polyethylene
C/W Mixer
Type : MIX6/2 “EMEC”
Motor Rating : 110 W

III. System Description

9
„ Process Flow Diagram

„ Piping & Instrumentation Diagram


10QHH01BB101 10QHF01BB001 10QLB11AC001 10QLB11BB901 10QUA03AC001,10QUA03AC002 10QHH01AV101 10QHA01AC101 10QLA11AP101/102 10QHN01BV101 10QLA11AC101&10QLA11BB101 10QLA11BB901 10QLF11AP201
DAILY FUEL TANK BLOW DOWN TANK SUPERHEATER CONDENSATE POT 10QUA03AC003 DIESEL OIL BURNER STEAM BOILER BHS-12000-LO FEED WATER PUMP CHIMNEY FEED WATER TANK WITH DEAERATOR CONDENSATE POT FWT DOSING DEVICE
SAMPLE COOLER

10QLF11AP101
BOILER DOSING DEVICE

10
Front Control Panel

Inside Control Panel

11
„ Feed Water System

Logic Diagram
Feed Water Tank
FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

BY PASS LEVEL DRY RUN


INDICATOR
FEED PUMP
10QLA11CL01QN
LIS 144
WATER LEVEL REACH H10 AUDIBLE
THE ELECTRODE = CLOSED ALARM
L5 BS
NAND
DISTURBANCE

WATER LEVEL REACH


THE ELECTRODE = CLOSED NAND
L4
HW ALARM F.W. PUMP 1 & 2
FW TANK
Off
10QLA11 AP001
H11 AUDIBLE 10QLA11 AP002
ALARM
WATER HIGH
L1 BS
DISTURBANCE
NAND

SOLENOID VALVE #1
HIGH LEVEL REGULATION NAND ON
L2
WATER INLET VALVE 1
AUTO/OFF/MANUAL L13
S7 AND
1
AUTO SOLENOID VALVE 1
OPEN
OR S
10QLA11 AA002
FCV 159
MANUAL R
SOLENOID VALVE 1
WILL CLOSE WHEN
LEVEL REACH L2
OFF

MIDDLE LEVEL REGULATION


L3

LOW LEVEL REGULATION


L4
NAND

SOLENOID VALVE #2
NAND ON
WATER INLET VALVE 2
AUTO/OFF/MANUAL L14
S8 AND
2
AUTO SOLENOID VALVE 2
OPEN
OR S
10QLA11 AA007
FCV 161
MANUAL R
SOLENOID VALVE 2
WILL CLOSE WHEN
LEVEL REACH L3
OFF

12
Feed Water Tank
L1

Instrument
L2
„ By-pass level indicator 5 switch (LIS 144) :
Used for control level feed water tank and level indicator
„ Solenoid valve 1 (FCV 159) and Solenoid valve 2 (FCV 161) :
Valve water inlet feed water tank
L3
„ Pressure switch (PSL145) :
Used for monitoring of pressure in water tank.
L4
System Description
Pressure switch
Water inlet valve can operate manually and automatically with selector switch
L5
water tank valve in control panel. Auto status, valve operate depend on level
switch. If water level :
„ Above L1; valve1 & valve2 close, alarm FWT high, digital input FWT on, and
disturbance indicator FWT high ON.
By-pass level
„ Above L2; valve1 & valve2 close. indicator
„ Above L3; valve1 open & valve2 close
„ Below L4; valve1 & valve2 open
„ Below L5; valve1 & valve2 open, alarm FWT low, FWP off, digital input FWT
low, disturbance indicator FWT ON.

If pressure feed water tank below setting (set=0.1 bar), pressure switch signal
to digital input feed water tank pressure to low

Solenoid valve

Logic Diagram
Dosing System

FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

Solenoid Valve
Service Water Inlet
DOSING PUMP 2
FCV 159 1 ON
2 FCV 161
DOSING PUMP 2
AUTO/OFF/MANUAL OR L2
S2 AND

AUTO DOSING PUMP 2


START
OR S
10QLF11 AP201
HV 177
MANUAL R

OFF

13
Feed Water Tank Dosing Pump

Instrument
„ Dosing pump :
Supply hydrazine and amine from feed water tank
dosing to feed water tank
„ Mixer pump :
Mix hydrazine and amine in feed water tank dosing

System Description
Dosing device can operate manually and
automatically with selector switch dosing pump2 in
control panel. Auto status, dosing device operate
depend on solenoid valve1 water inlet feed water
tank. Dosing pump

Mixer

„ Fuel Oil System

14
Logic Diagram
Daily Fuel Tank
FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

BY PASS LEVEL
INDICATOR
10QHH01
OIL LEVEL
HIGH
OIL HIGH
L1 L16

HIGH LEVEL REGULATION


L2 AND

OIL LEVEL
LOW LEVEL REGULATION
LOW
L3
L17
INTERLOCK
TO BURNER
OIL LOW (OFF BURNER)
L4

OIL INLET VALVE VALVE OIL INLET


AUTO/OFF/MANUAL ON

S9 AND L15
LCV 239

AUTO
10QHH01
OR S AA002

MANUAL R SOLENOID VALVE


OIL INLET

OFF

Daily Fuel Tank Level L1

L2

Instrument

„ By-pass level indicator (LI 215) with 5 switch (LT 218) : L3


Used for control level fuel oil and level indicator
„ Solenoid valve (LCV 239) :
L4
Valve fuel oil inlet daily fuel tank
L5
System Description
Fuel oil inlet valve can operate manually and automatically with selector switch oil
inlet valve in control panel. Auto status, valve operation depends on level switch. If By-pass level
oil level : indicator

„ Above L1; valve close, digital input fuel oil tank level high on, and indicator oil to
high on.
„ Above L2; valve close
„ Above L3; valve open
„ Below L4; valve open, indicator oil to low on, alarm oil tank to low, burner off
(manual ON)
„ Below L5; valve open, digital input fuel oil tank level to low on

Solenoid valve

15
Oil Measurement

Instrument
„ Oil flow meter (FQI 190) :
Used for measuring oil flow daily fuel tank to boiler
„ Oil totalizer :
Display water totalizer in control panel
„ Oil flow rate :
Recorder
Display water flow in control panel
„ Recorder :
Record oil flow in control panel.

System Description
Flow meter signal to oil totalizer, oil flow rate, oil flow recorder, and
auxiliary analog output (4-20mA) fuel firing rate (terminal X3 74;75).

Flow rate Totalizer

„ Steam Outlet & Start-up Line

16
Saturated Steam Temperature

Instrument
„ Temperature sensor PT 100 ( TE 221) :
Measuring saturated steam temperature
„ Temperature display (TI 141) :
Display saturated steam temperature in control panel

System Description
Temperature sensor signal to temperature display for saturated steam
temperature. Sensor PT 100

Temperature Display

Logic Diagram
Blow out
FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

S12

SELECTOR
OPEN

OFF
10QLB11
AA903

SERVO MOTOR
CLOSE
BLOW OUT
BLOW OUT
10QLB11AA903

10QLB11
CF01 P
FT I
137
FT 137 BUILT IN SET POINT=2 Bar
D
Press. After
PRESS. TRANSMITTER
FOR TEMP. Super Heater
COMPENSATION
START
PID CONTROL

Controller Burner

17
Steam Flow Meter and Blow Out Steam

Instrument
„ Steam flow meter (FT 137) :
Used for measuring steam from boiler
„ Steam display and controller (FC139) :
Steam display
Display steam flow in control panel and controller
„ Valve blow out (FCV 224) :
Valve for steam start up

System Description
Flow meter signal to steam totalizer, steam display controller, and steam
flow recorder in control panel. Blow out valve can operate manually and
automatically with selector switch blow out in control panel. Auto status,
valve open (blow out steam) if pressure super heater not reach (set = 2
bar) and burner not OK.

Actuator valve Valve

Logic Diagram
Super Heater

FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

TEMPERATURE SUPER HEATER


REGULATION
10QLB11 CT09QN
10QLB11
CT14QP P
TE 260ºC 10QLB11
211 I AA008
D SERVO MOTOR
SUPER HEATER FLAP
SET POINT
10QLB11
CP01QB
> 7.7 barg PRESSURE
PT
207

10QLB11
CF01
> 960 kg/hr FLOW
FT
137

18
Super heater

Instrument
„ Temperature sensor PT 100 ( TE 211) :
Measuring super heater temperature steam
„ Temperature display and controller (TIC 213;TI 210) :
Display temperature super heater steam in control panel
and control damper super heater Actuator damper
„ Actuator damper super heater : super heater

Damper for control temperature super heater steam


Sensor PT 100

System Description
Temperature sensor signal to temperature super heater display in control panel
and auxiliary analog output (4-20mA) super heater steam temperature (terminal
X3 76;77).
Damper operate regulation if flow steam reach 960 kg/h and pressure > 7.7 bar. Temperature steam display
and controller
If temperature 280°C digital input super heater temp. high on.
If temperature 300°C disturbance indicator super heater temp. to high on

Main Steam Valve

Instrument
„ Pressure Transmitter :
Pressure Transmitter are used to measure pressures in liquids
and gases. The pressure is converted into an electrical signal
„ Pressure super heater display and controller :
Display Pressure super heater steam in control panel
and control damper burner
„ Actuator steam out : Pressure super heater steam
display and controller
Actuator for control valve saturated steam out Pressure Transmitter

„ Valve saturated steam out :


Valve for saturated steam out

System Description
Valve saturated steam out operate with selector switch main
steam valve in control panel ( open-close valve ).
if pressure reach 8 bar in pressure display control panel operator
can operate this switch.

Valve

Actuator steam out

19
„ Blow Down Tank & Drain System

Logic Diagram
Blow Down Tank

FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

TEMPERATURE CONTROL
10QHF01
TIC231

10QHF01 Temperature Controller will Open/Close


CT01
TE TEMPERATURE HIGH ON Solenoid Valve automatically at set point value
Below Set Point = Logic 0
232
Above Set Point = Logic 1
OFF
SET POINT= 50 C
SET POINT

BLOWDOWN TANK
S3 ON
BLOWDOWN TANK
AUTO/OFF/MANUAL L3
AND

AUTO
OR S 10QHG01
AA002

MANUAL R SOLENOID VALVE


COOLING WATER IN
OPEN

OFF

20
Blow Down Tank

Instrument
„ Temperature sensor PT 100 ( TE 232) :
Measuring blow down tank temperature
„ Temperature controller (TIC 231) :
Control for blow down tank temperature
„ Solenoid valve (TCV 233) :
Valve service water inlet blow down tank

Temperature controller

System Description
Service water inlet valve can operate manually and automatically Sensor PT 100

with selector switch blow down tank valve in control panel. Auto status, valve
operation depends on setting temperature (set = 50°C). If temperature over
setting valve open and conversely.
if temperature increase (>60°C), digital input blow down tank discharge
temperature high on.

Solenoid valve

„ Steam Boiler System

21
Steam Boiler System

1. Bottom Blow Down

Instrument
„ Blow down controller (PRS-7b) :
Generates a control pulse which, after the preset blow down
interval, operates the three way solenoid valve.
„ Three way solenoid Valve :
Solenoid for control valve intermittent blow down Schematic layout
„ Valve intermittent blow down (BDV 115) :
Intermittent blow down valve boiler
„ Sightglass (FG123) :
Visual supervision of condensate conditions in heat
exchangers and flow conditions pipelines. It clearly indicates
loss of live steam, banking up of condensate or the presence
of air.

System Description Three way solenoid valve


And strainer
Controller turn actuates the rapid action blow down valve by
means of compressed air and closes it again at end of the
pulse (blow down) duration. The blow down intervals can be
adjusted.

Sightglass

Logic Diagram
Surface Blow Down

FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

10QHA01
CT01QP DESALTING
REGULATOR AND
CE CONDUCTIVITY
124 LIMITER
SWITCH
LKER 1
ELECTRODE DESALTING ON/OFF OPERATION
CONDUCTANCE
10QHA01
BT001 10QHA01
AA005
SERVO MOTOR
DESALTING VALVE

22
Steam Boiler System

2. Surface Blow Down

Instrument
„ Conductivity Electrode (CE 124) :
Monitoring of condensate return to boiler to detect water any
penetration of acid, alkalis etc.
„ Continuous blow down controller (LRR 1-5b) :
Automatically controlled continuous blow down to reduce blow
down wastage and increase operating safety.
„ Control Valve (CCV 122) :
Motorized control valves for continuous blow down system of
steam boiler. Conductivity
electrode

System Description
Surface blow down can operate manually and automatically with
selector switch blow down valve in control panel.
Automatic system work depends on value setting. If condensate
boiler over setting value, valve open and operate conversely

Logic Diagram
Boiler Water Level Control
FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

HIGH WATER
LEVEL
10QHA01
CL05QN L7 AUDIBLE
ALARM
LEHH BS
103 HIGH & LOW WATER
LEVEL CONTROL LOW WATER
HIGH WATER NRS 1-2b LEVEL
ELECTRODE
10QHA01 L6
CL04QN
10QHA01
LELL
104
ELECTRODE

10QHA01
CL07QN OFF Burner (Auto ON)

LT CONTINUOUS
WATER LEVEL
106 CONTROL 10QHA01
NRR 2-2e AA026
CONTINUOUS WATER
LEVEL PROBE
A MOTORIZED VAVE
SERVO MOTOR
10QHA01
CL08QN

10QHA01 AND Feed Water Pump


AND Control
AA026

ZS

SWITCH OFF DELAY


MIN. POSITION SWITCH
SERVO DRIVE EXTRA LOW
WATER LEVEL
10QHA01
CL06QN L8 AUDIBLE
ALARM
LELL WATER LEVEL
105 CONTROL BS
NRS 1-7b
ELECTRODE
BOILER
10QHA01
OFF Burner (Manual ON)

23
Steam Boiler System

3. Boiler Water Level Control

Instrument
„ Level electrode (LELL 104; LEHH 103) :
Signaling of level conductive (Low level alarm, high level alarm).
„ Level electrode (LELL 105) :
Signaling of level conductive (Extra low level alarm).
„ Level Probe (LT 106) :
Level probe for modulating level control boiler.
„ Level Switch (NRS 1-2b) :
Control for low level and high level boiler
„ Level Switch (NRS 1-7b) :
Control for extra low level boiler
„ Level controller (NRR 2-2e) :
Control valve for feed (fill) or drain (discharge) for modulating level
boiler
„ Actuator Valve (LCV 184) :
Motorized control valve modulating level boiler.
„ Lamp indicator (LI 107) :
Indicator for dangerous level water in boiler.
„ boiler level :
Indicator level boiler in control panel

Steam Boiler System

System Description
„ Control valve

Sensor Controller Valve

LT 106 NRR 2- LCV 184


2e

Valve open regulation depend on monitoring probe


LT 106 in boiler.
„ If low level (LELL 104 ) reach, burner auto interlock, lamp indicator water
level low and Digital input boiler water level low on.
„ If high level (LEHH 103) reach feed water pump interlock, lamp water
level high on, Digital input boiler water level high on and alarm high level Valve
boiler. Actuator valve

„ If extra low level (LELL 105) reach, lamp water level extra low on, digital
input boiler water level to low on, alarm extra low level boiler, and extra
low level indicator in panel.

Indicator lamp
Level boiler

24
Steam Boiler System

4. Pressure Switch and Pressure Limiter

Instrument
„ Pressure switch regulation (PSHL 110) and Pressure switch limiter
(PSHH 111) :
Used for controlling and monitoring of pressure in steam boiler.

System Description
„ If pressure boiler over pressure switch regulation setting (9.5 bar); burner interlock Pressure switch
(auto operate), pressure high indicator panel on, display fault in panel, and digital
input steam pressure high on.
„ If pressure boiler over pressure switch limiter setting (10 bar); burner interlock
(manual operate), pressure high indicator panel on, digital input steam pressure to
high on

Pressure limiter

Logic Diagram
Operation Burner
FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

BURNER
ON
AUTOMATIC
BURNER
CONTROLLER
BURNER START/ LAL 2.25 L21
FAILURE RESET
10QHH01
10QHA01 DPOO1
CP03QN * MANUAL RESET ON
PSHL PRESSURE SWITCH
110 AND
PRESSURE BOILER DISTURBANCES
NOT HIGH
10QHH01
WATER LEVEL AV101
EXTRA LOW
BLOWER MOTOR

OIL LEVEL LOW

10QHH01
AND AV101
WATER LEVEL LOW

COMPOUND REGULATOR
SERVO MOTOR
S13

START PID
CONTROLLER
AUTO
1. Control Blow Out
BURNER CONTROL

2. Pressure saturated
steam control

DECREASE OR S
10QHH01
R AV101

STEADY OIL PUMP MOTOR

INCREASE

OFF 10QHH01
AV101
10QHH01
CR001 IGNITION TRANSFORMER

FLAME SENSOR
FLAME INTENSITY

25
Logic Diagram
Control Damper Burner

FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

PRESSURE CONTROLLER BURNER


10QHH01
AV101

10QLB11
CP01QB P
PT I T 10QHA01
207 AV101

PRESSURE D COMPOUND REGULATOR


TRANSMITTER SET POINT= 8.5 Bar SERVO MOTOR
SET POINT

COMPOUND
REGULATOR
POSITION

START
START CONTROLLER PID CONTROL
Burner controller
CONTROLLER IN MANUAL MODE
OPEN/STOP/CLOSED
A
Control blow Out
REF. SH. NO. 33
SWITCH S13

Steam Boiler System

5. Burner

Instrument
„ Automatic burner controller :
Used to control Burner of steam boiler.
„ Light oil Burner
Burner Controller

System Description
„ Burner operate with push button (start / stop burner).
Damper burner can operate manually and automatically with selector
damper switch in control panel.
„ Burner off if one of this condition happens : Boiler pressure too high,
boiler extra low, and oil low level and must start again.
„ Operating burner control with automatic burner controller.
Time sequence diagram shows burner operation system
„ Regulation burner depends on pressure saturated steam

Burner

26
Time Sequence Diagram

Boiler Dosing Pump

FIELDINPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES L OGI C LAMPINDICATORS(LCP) FIELDOUTPUT

DOSINGPUMP1
FWP1 3 ON
4 FWP2
DOSINGPUMP1
AUTO/OFF/MANUAL OR L1
S1 AND

AUTO DOSINGPUMP1
START
OR S
10QLF11 AP101
HV177
MANUAL R

OFF

27
Boiler Dosing Pump

Instrument
„ Dosing pump :
Supply phosphate from boiler dosing to feed water
tank
Dosing pump
„ Mixer pump :
Mix phosphate in boiler dosing

System Description
Dosing device can operate manually and
automatically with selector switch dosing pump2 in
control panel. Auto status, dosing device operation
depends on solenoid valve1 water inlet feed water
tank.

Mixer

Logic Diagram
Feed Water Pump Operation
FIELD INPUTS CONTROL SWITCHES LOGIC LAMP INDICATORS (LCP) FIELD OUTPUT

S5 F.W PUMP 1
OPERATION
SELECTOR FEED WATER
AUTO/OFF/MANUAL L9
AND F.W. PUMP 1 3
AND F.W. PUMP 1
AND S 10QLA11 AP101
AUTO

R
AND OR OR
MANUAL

OFF

S6
SELECTOR FEED WATER
PUMP1/OFF/ PUMP2

OR F.W PUMP 2
OPERATION

PUMP 1
L10
F.W. PUMP 2 4
PUMP 2 F.W. PUMP 2
OR AND S 10QLA11 AP102

OFF OR R

DEAERATOR
LEVEL NOT LOW

BOILER
LEVEL NOT HIGH AND

AND
AND

AND

PUMP 1 TRIP

PUMP 2 TRIP

28
Feed Water Pump

Instrument
„ Feed water pump (130) :
Pump from feed water tank to boiler
„ Pressure Indicator (PI 131) :
Indicate pressure in line feed water pump

System Description
There has two feed water pump operate interlock.
Feed Water Pump
Each feed water pump can operate manually and automatically with selector
feed water pump in control panel.
In auto status, pump operation depends on high level boiler, and feed water
tank level low.
If a pump trips, trip pump indicator in control panel on, display feed water
pump trip in control panel, digital input feed water pump trip on.
pressure gauge shows pressure in line of feed water pump

Pressure Indicator

Flue Gas Temperature

Instrument
„ Temperature sensor PT 100 ( TE 140) :
Measuring flue gas temperature
„ Temperature display (TI 141) :
Displaying flue gas temperature in control panel

System Description
Temperature sensor signal to temperature display for flue gas
temperature. Sensor PT 100

Temperature Display

29
Feed Water Measurement

Instrument
„ Feed water flow meter (FQI 175) :
Used for measuring water flow from feed water tank to boiler
„ Water totalizer :
Display water totalizer in control panel
„ Water flow rate :
Recorder
Display water flow in control panel
„ Recorder :
Record water flow in control panel.

System Description
Flow meter signal to water totalizer, water flow rate, and water flow
recorder.

Flow rate
Totalizer

IV. Operation Sequence

30
Control Panel

1. Operate Main Switch (Q0) to ON position


View Voltage (R-S; R-T; S-T; =380 Volt) in KWH meter
2. Pull Emergency Switch (ES)
View lamp Power On (L0) operate
3. All Breaker in ON position (inside control panel)
- Feed water pump 1 (-Q1)
- Feed water pump 2 (-Q2)
- Burner Fan (-Q3)
- Oil pump (-Q4)
- Dosing pump boiler (-Q5)
- Dosing pump feed water tank (-Q6)
- Socket 220 volt (-Q7)
- Transformer for heater (-Q8)
4. Operate feed water tank
- Selector switch water tank valve 1(-S7) in auto position
- Selector switch water tank valve 2(-S8) in auto position
feed water valve 1 and valve 2 indicator ON, feed water valve 1 and valve 2 will off when level
water tank reach high level
5. Operate dosing pump 2 (dosing boiler)
- Selector switch dosing pump 2 in auto position
6. Operate oil inlet valve
- Selector switch oil inlet valve in auto position
7. Operate feed water pump
Wait after feed water tank level high
- Selector switch operational pump in auto position
- Selector switch feed water pump in position pump1 or pump2

31
8. Operate dosing pump 1(dosing feed water tank)
- selector switch dosing pump 1in auto position
9. Operate blow down tank
- selector switch blow down tank valve in auto position
10. Check alarm and disturbance indicator
No sound/indicator alarm and disturbance indicator no fault.

Alarm Disturbance indicator


1. Emergency switch 1. Emergency switch
2. High level boiler 2. High water level
3. Boiler extra low level 3. Burner Disturbance
4. Pressure to high 4. Extra low level
5. Burner fail 5. Over load F.W.P 1
6. Fuel oil tank to low 6. Over load F.W.P 2
7. Feed water tank high 7. Over load burner
8. Feed water tank low 8. Steam pressure high
9. S.H steam temperature to high
10. Feed water tank low
11. Feed water tank high
11. Operate boiler
- push start burner
12. Operate blow out
- selector switch blow out in auto position
13. Operate main steam
- if pressure reach 8 bar in display pressure and temperature reach 260 °C in control
panel, selector switch main steam can operate in open position.

V. Maintenance

32
Operating Log Book

A. Records of daily checks and servicing operations as well as other checks must be
kept in an operating log book and signed daily by the responsible boilerman
(operating personnel). In the case of some installation, this operating log book may
be demanded as a prerequisite for the operating permit. Recurring test carried out
by the technically competent person must also be entered in this operating log
book. The forms appended to these operating instruction should be used for this
purpose. When using boilers with superheaters, the operator must enter details of
the hot steam temperature at brief intervals (at least every 30 minutes) in a
separate sheet, along with details of the date and time, if no use has been made of
a hot steam temperature control and if the superheater is installed in the are of high
exhaust gas temperature. Here damage may occur if operation is not carried out
conscientiously.

B. The boilerman’s superior must convince himself at least weekly of proper operation
and servicing of the steam boiler installation and must note this on the rear of the
sheet in the operating log book along with his signature and the date

Daily Checks and Servicing

A. Prior to start up of the installation and when each shift commences, the operating personnel (boilerman) must convince themselves of
the installation’s proper operating condition.

B. The function of the water level limiters must be checked daily and at the start of each shift, unless they are self monitoring,i.e. special-
design, devices. External devices must be blown out
C. Temperature and pressure limiters need not be checked daily. The intervals for these units depend on their nature-refer to weekly
checks and servicing.
D. The time intervals for checking safety valves must be agreed by the operator and technical expert considering the service life of the
sealing faces, daily checking is not recommended.
E. Blowing out
Water level indicators and external feed water controllers and limiters must be blown out, attention being paid to the necessary
operating sequence for shut-off and blown out valves.
F. Checks of all fire systems
f.1. Keep the fire chamber free from residues and coke sediment
f.2. Smoke-free combustion
f.3. Correct oil temperature – when using heavy fuel oil
f.4. Suitable oil pressure
G. Checks to be carried out when using heavy fuel oil
g.1. Gas pressure
H. Water analysis
Refer to the operating log book and the water directives
Note
Pay attention to the operating instructions issued by the supplier of the water treatment plant. Devices or checking the feed water
generally do not suffice for checking the boiler water. Please enquire in cases of doubt.
I. Boiler blow down
J. Check sealing points and lock them and, if necessary, retighten them and renew the packings
K. Important note
If controllers are rendered inactive by malfunction, the installation must be observed continuously if its operation is continued. If safety
devices should fail, please inform our Customer Service and, if necessary, shut down the installation and inform the installer for the
installation of BASUKI representative in your area, or directly to us (refer to our contact address & phone/fax numbers)

33
Weekly Checking and Servicing

A. Maximum water level ensuring facility in the case of hot steam boilers.

B. Safety temperature limiters need only be checked on special circumstances


C. Pressure limiters if they are not preceded by safety valves of a special design
devices.
D. If necessary, temperature and pressure controllers are tested by pressing the by-
passing push button
E. Seals, locks and packings
F. Shaft bearing (noise and heat development)
G. Stand by feed pumps and oil pumps etc. must be started-up briefly/valves must be
switched over.
H. Firing parts, flame monitors

Semi-annual Checks

Controllers and safety devices must be serviced and


checked by a technically competent person after every
period of 6 months. We recommend our customer
service for this purpose.

34
Operating Logbook for Aux. Steam Boiler

Operating Logbook for Aux. Steam Boiler

35
Operating Instruction for Aux. Steam Boiler

VI. Boiler Operation Water Treatment

36
„ Phosphate Dosing System Line

„ Hydrazine & Amine Dosing System Line


„ Feed Water Sample Line

37
„ Blow Down System Line & Boiler Sample Line

Origin of the Problem


The water quality control system required
shall be controlled by hydrazine & neutralizing
amine which supplied by chemical dosing
system consist of injection pumps, dosing
tanks & motorized agitator

„ Source of corrosion :
Dissolved gas: oxygen,
carbon dioxide, and ammonia.
„ Oxygen is the most aggressive.
„ Cause pitting corrosion
• Make-up water introduces soluble oxygen.
• The condensate return system contains soluble
oxygen

38
Boiler Waterside Corrosion

„ Contributors: dissolved oxygen, acid


or caustic in the water and a high
temperature. Cause severe pitting,
gouging and embrittlement Æ
FAILURE

„ Water will rapidly corrode mild steel;


as the temperature increases, the
reaction accelerates.
Reaction :

„ Anode : Fe Æ Fe2+ + 2e-

„ Cathode: 1/2O2 + H2O + 2e- Æ 2OH-

„ Overall: Fe + 1/2O2 + H2O Æ Fe (OH)2

Waterside Deposition

Boiler deposits result from hardness salts, metallic oxides, silica and a number
of other feed water contaminants that can enter the system.
Minimizing the adverse impact of these contaminants is the role of the boiler
water treatment program.

Even the best controlled systems occasionally have upsets that cause
excessive amounts of contamination to pass into the boiler. Some examples
would be:

• Excess leakage from an ion exchange system


• Contamination from leakage into condensate systems
• Inadequate steam condensate protection programs resulting in high levels of
corrosion products returning to the boiler

An internal boiler water treatment program must be forgiving enough to handle


not only normal operating conditions but periodic upsets as well.

39
Mechanism of Deposition
• Reaction:
10Ca2+ + 6PO43- + 2OH- Æ 3Ca3(PO4)2·Ca(OH)2 Calcium hydroxyapatite

3Mg2- + 2SiO32- + 2OH- + H2O Æ 2MgSiO3Mg(OH)2H2O Serpentine

“More deposit will decrease Boiler

efficiency and subject to overheating”

A Partial List of Boiler Deposits


Name Formula
Acmite Na2O·Fe2O3·4SiO2
Analcite Na2O·Al2O3·4SiO2·2H2O
Anhydrite CaSO4
Aragonite CaCO3
Brucite Mg(OH)2
Calcite CaCO3
Cancrin 4Na2O·CaO·4Al2O3·2CO2·9SiO2·3H2O
Hematite Fe2O3
Hydroxyapatite Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6
Magnetite Fe3O4
Noselite 4Na2O·3Al2O3·6SiO2·SO4
Pectolite Na2O·4CaO·6SiO2·H2O
Alpha-Quartz SiO2
Serpentine 3MgO·2SiO2·2H2O
Thenardite Na2SO4
Wallastonite CaSiO3
Xonotlite 5CaO·5SiO2·H2O

40
Embrittlement

„ Caustic embrittlement or
intercrystalline cracking

„ Undetectable during operating


conditions

„ Catastrophic results

Causes:
1. Leakage of boiler water
2. Concentrated caustic soda occurs from the concentrated boiler
water.
3. There is high metal stress in the area of caustic concentration and
leakage.

External Treatment
„ To improve the quality of this source prior to its use
as boiler feed water, including reducing contaminants.

„ Applied to water prepared for use as boiler feed water, refers to the
chemical and mechanical treatment of the water source.

„ External treatment normally includes: Clarification, Filtration, Softening,


Dealkalization, Demineralization, Deaeration, Heating

Internal Treatment
„ To minimize impurities after the best and most appropriate external
treatment of the water source, boiler feed water (including return
condensate)

41
Steam Plant Operation- Feed Water Preparation

„ Deaerate the feedwater


By using a deaerator and adding oxygen scavengers (Hydrazine) in the
feed water tank.

„ Minimize hardness
Ex : Calcium and Magnesium, migratory iron, migratory copper, colloidal
silica, consistent with boiler design and operation parameters.

„ Minimize corrosive gases


Ex : Dissolved oxygen and dissolved carbon dioxide
The deposition of these metallic oxides in the boiler is frequently more
troublesome than the actual damage caused by the corrosion.

Deaeration (Mechanical and Chemical)


„ Mechanical and chemical deaeration is an integral part of modern boiler
water protection and control.

Objectives :

• To remove oxygen, carbon dioxide and other non-condensable gases


from feed water

• To heat the incoming makeup water and return condensate to an optimum


temperature

• Minimizing solubility of the undesirable gases

• Providing the highest temperature water for injection to the boiler, from
ambient temperature to 103 ºC to prevent boiler from thermal shock

42
Deaeration (Mechanical and Chemical)

• Designed to minimize
saturated dissolved O2
content in the supplied
de-mineralized water
and to achieve a suitable
O2 content fed to the
boiler

„ Saturated steam (1243 kg/hr, temperature 105-180 ºC, pressure 9 bar (g) )
„ The dissolved oxygen leaving the deaerator will be ± 7 ppb to protect auxiliary
boiler system from corrosion with residual hydrazine approximate 0.1 ppm.

Deaerating Heater Troubleshooting Guide


Symptom Remedy
1. Insufficient venting-increase vent rate by opening the manually operated air vent valve.

Excessive oxygen content in 2. Check steam pressure reducing valve. Check valve for free operation, and see that
deaerator effluent control line is connected to the connection provided in the deaerator.

3. Check water and, if possible, steam flow rates vs. design. Trays or scrubber and inlet
valves are designed for specific flow ranges.

Temperature in storage tank does 1. Improper spray from spray nozzle. Check nozzle for sediment or deposit on seat or
not correspond within 3 º C of broken spring.
saturation temperature of the 2. Excessive free air due to leaking stuffing boxes on pumps upstream of deaerator that
steam have negative suction head. Repair stuffing box or seal with deaerated water.

1. Trays collapsed-possibly from interrupted steam supply or sudden supply of cold water
causing a vacuum.
Excessive consumption of 2. Condensate may be too hot. Water entering the deaerating heater must usually be
oxygen scavenger cooled if the temperature is within 20 º F of saturation temperature of the steam.
Check the design specification to determine what inlet water temperature was originally
intended.
1. Improper operation of inlet control valve. Adjust as necessary.

2. Check faulty operation of steam pressure reducing valve.


High or low water level 3. Check relief valves on the deaerator and in the main steam supply system for proper
operation.

Low pressure 1. Check for improper operation of steam pressure reducing valve.

43
The Effect of pH On Corrosion Rate
Effect of pH on the Corrosion Rate of
Steel. Water Chemistry Upsets Result in
Decrease or Increase of pH of Boiler
Water, Resulting in Tube Deposits or
5 7 Corrosion.
4 9
2 3 6 10 11 12 14 approximate pH
Relative Corrosion Rate

The slowest corrosion


rate In Boiler Water are in
9.5 - 11
3650 365 36.5 0 40 400 4 000 40 000 200 000
3.6 4
0.36 0.4
ppm HCl ppm NaOH

Mineral Carryover

Definition:
Carryover is generally considered to be any
contaminant that leaves a boiler steam drum with
the steam.

Causes:
Mechanical Factor: Priming (sudden pressure
while load rises)
Chemical Factor: Foaming (by alkalinity, organic
and synthetics contaminant), Selective vaporous
carryover

Effects:
1. Deposition in regulators and valving
2. Deposition in superheaters
3. Deposition in control valves and turbines
4. Process contamination

44
Carbon dioxide Corrosion
Source:
„ Alkalinity in feed water
HCO3 Î
CO3 heat Î CO2
„ Air in- leakage
„ Organic material

Characteristics:
„ Reaction:
CO2 + H2O ÍÎ H2CO3
H2CO3 ÍÎ H+ + HCO3-

„ Cause pH drop and grooving on metal surface

Caustic Corrosion

Characteristics :
„ Often occurs in High Pressure Boiler
„ Localized corrosion
„ Contributed by deposit accumulation (Iron,
copper, etc)
„ Boiler operation excess maximum capacity
„ Massive load fluctuation

Reactions :
„ Fe2O3 + 2NaOH Î 2NaFeO2 + H2O
„ FeO + 2NaOH ÎNa2FeO2 + H2O
„ Fe +2NaOH + 2H2O Î 2NaFeO2 + H2O

45
Internal Boiler Water Treatment
Use internal conventional program :
• Hydrazine
Magnetite build up
N2H4 + 6Fe2O3 Æ 4Fe3O4 + N2 + H2O

• Phosphate, An anti-scale agent


3Ca(HCO3)2 + 2Na3PO4 ÆCa3(PO4)2 + 3Na2CO3 + 3CO2

Sludge
Thermally unstable
Corrosive volatile gas

10Ca2+ + 6PO43- + 2OH- Æ 3Ca3+(PO4)2·Ca(OH)2 [Calcium hydroxyapatite]


3Mg2- + 2SiO32- + 2OH- + H2O Æ 2MgSiO3Mg(OH)2H2O [Serpentine]

• Neutralizing Amine, Removing acid


NH3 + CO2 + H2O Æ NH4+ + HCO3-
R-NH2 + CO2 + H2O Æ R-NH3+ + HCO3-
R-ONH + CO2 + H2O Æ R-ONH2+ + HCO3-

Corrosion Control Programs


The basic approach to chemical treatment of condensate systems is through the use
of Hydrazine, Phosphate Program, Neutralizing Amine, combinations of both amines
and hydrazine.

REAKSI HYDRAZINE
„ Oxygen scavenging,
N2H4 + O2 Æ N2 + 2 H2O

„ Stochiometric reaction,
dosage of 35 % solution – 8.6 ppm/1 ppm residual
oxygen

„ Poisonous,
LD50 rating – class 5 toxin – 82 mg/kg

„ Magnetite build up,


N2H4 + 6Fe2O3 Æ 4Fe3O4 + N2 + H2O

46
Neutralizing Amines

Function:
To neutralize the carbon dioxide and then provide small
additional amounts to buffer the pH to 8.5 or 9.5.

„ Neutralizing carbonic acid


NH3 + CO2 + H2O Æ NH4+ + HCO3-
R-NH2 + CO2 + H2O Æ R-NH3++ HCO3-
R-ONH + CO2 + H2O Æ R-ONH2+ + HCO3-

WATER SPECIMENT

• Boiler and feed water must be


checked daily. At least the boiler
water should be sampled by
means of a sample cooler. If
there is a possibility of feed water
hardness, it is also necessary to
check the hardness of the feed
water everyday.

47
QUALITY WATER PARAMETER
1. Demin Water Outlet 2. Boiler Feed Water
Spec. conductivity : < 1.0 uscm Spec. conductivity : < 5.0 us/cm at 25 deg.C
Silica: : < 0.02 ppm SiO2 Silica : < 0.02 ppm SiO2
pH: : 6.5 ~ 7.5 pH : 8.5 ~ 9.5
Sodium: : < 0.005 ppm Na Hydrazine : < 0.2 ppm N2H4
Iron : 0.02 ppm Fe Iron : <0.02 ppm Fe

3. Boiler Water
Spec. Conductivity: < 150.0 us/cm at 25 deg.C
Silica : < 2 ppm SiO2
pH : 9.5 ~ 10.5
Phosphate : 3.0 ~ 10. ppm PO4

4. Steam
Spec. Conductivity: < 5.0 us/cm at 25 deg.C
Silica : < 0.02 ppm SiO2
pH : 8.5 ~ 9.5
Iron : <0.02 ppm Fe

Blow down Definition


Every steam generator must be blow down periodically (recommended every two
hours, at least every one shift). The quantity of blow down water depends on the
degree of thickening. If no desalting fitting is provided, blowing down simultaneously
extracts salt from the boiler

Function:
To maintain the solids content of the boiler water within prescribed limits

Basic Calculation
„ % Blow down :
Concentration of dissolved solids in Feed water =
Concentration of dissolved solids in blowdown
Quantity of blow down/Feed water
„ % Make up :
Concentration of dissolved solids in Feed water =
Concentration of dissolved solids in Make-up water
Quantity of make–up/ Feed water

48
Blow down in Action
„ CR = 1/%blowdown x 100 =

Concentration dissolved solids of blowdown


Concentration dissolved solids of Feed water

Feed water = Make up + Condensate


Feed water = Boiler Capacity + Blow down

• Do open blow down if the quality of water excess limit :


Demin Water Boiler Water
Spec. conductivity : > 10 uscm Spec. conductivity : > 150 uscm
Silica: : > 0.02 ppm SiO2 Silica: : > 2 ppm SiO2
pH: : <6.5 or > 8 pH: : > 10.5

WATER SIDE CONSERVATION


Purpose

The greatest danger to steam boilers is today the uncontrolled absorption of atmospheric oxygen
by the boiler water during shut down periods.

Oxygen has a corrosive effect – particularly during start-up, but also during shut down periods.

Method
1. Wet conservation binds the oxygen of the water held in the boiler.
oxygen binding agents are: Hydrazine & Sodium sulphite

2. Dry conservation ensures that no moisture remains in the boiler effectively preventing
corrosion of the steel

49
HYDRAZINE WET CONSERVATION PROCEDURE
1 g (atmospheric) oxygen in the water is bound by 1 g hydrazine (N2H4) = 7
g commercial, approx. 24% hydrazine hydrate (N2H4.H2O)

The additionally required hydrazine excess is shown in the table:

Hydrazine excess based on the N2H4 N2H4.H2O 24%


length of the rest period

g/m3 g/m3
Boilers with alkalinization and
fully demineralized feed
water
≤ 50 h (weekend) 20 - 30 140-210
1 month 50 – 100 350 – 700
longer 100- 350 700 - 2000
Boilers with alkalinization and 150 - 450 1000 - 3000
only softened feed water
irrespective of time

HYDRAZINE WET CONSERVATION PROCEDURE


a, In glass vessels, pure hydrazine reacts only above 60°C with oxygen dissolved in water.
the Fe3O4 of the protective layer is an excellent catalyst.

b. Wet conservation the pH-value of the hydrazine-containing solution should be 10 or


higher.

c. To prevent varying oxygen concentration and therefore the creation of air entrainment
elements, the steam boiler must be completely filled with hydrazine-containing boiler water.

d. All gate – and screwdown stop valves must be closed completely after filling the boiler with
hydrazine-containing boiler water and kept closed during the conservation treatment.

e. If within the shut down period the hydrazine concentration must be topped up.
Circulate the boiler water to ensure through mixing.

f. When the boiler is restarted, the water level is reduced to normal provided that higher N2H4
contents in the initial steam are acceptable.

50
SODIUM SULPHITE WET CONSERVATION
PROCEDURE
1 g (atmospheric) oxygen in the water is bound by 9 g commercial, approx.
92% moisture-free, sodium sulphite (Na2SO3)

The additionally necessary sodium sulphite excess is shown in the table:

Sodium sulphite excess based on the length of the Na2SO3 92%


shut down period
Boiler with alkalinization and fully demineralized feed g /m3
water ≤50 h (week end) 200-300
1 month 450 – 900
longer 900 - 3000
Boiler with alkalinization and only softened feed water 1500 - 5000
independent of time

SODIUM SULPHITE WET CONSERVATION


PROCEDURE
a. Powdered sodium sulphite must be dissolved in warm feed water at 30-40°C before
filling it into boiler. (Per 1 kg sodium sulphite 5 liters water).

b. In the case of wet conservation the pH value of the sodium sulphite – containing solution
should be at 10 or higher. Apart from caustic soda and phosphate, as present in the boiler
water and sufficient for alkalinization, an extra addition of ammonia may also be successful

c. To exclude different oxygen content and therefore the formation of the air entrainment
elements, the steam boiler must be completely filled with sodium sulphite containing boiler
water. In superheaters or feed water preheater the sodium sulphite containing.

d. All gate and screw down stop valves must be closed after the boiler has been filled with
sodium sulphite containing boiler water and kept closed during the conservation treatment.

d. If within the shutdown period the sodium sulphite excess drops below 500 g/m3, the sodium
sulphite concentration must be topped up.

e. Before restarting the boiler, the boiler water condition must be adjusted to the specified values
(pH-value, sodium sulphite content)

51
Test Procedure Wet Conservation
• Purpose

Testing for excess of oxygen binding agent in the case if wet conservation

i. Hydrazine measurement
Hydrazine forms in an acid solution with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, depending on
concentration, a yellow to red colored quinoid compound for color comparison

• Reagents

Sulphuric 2% p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde solution Colour comparison ampoules


(Both available from Farbenfabriken Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany, or their agents)

Test Procedure Wet Conservation


• Procedure

1. The water sample to be tested for hydrazine content must first be cooled to < 40°C
(sampling is best carried out with a cooling agreement). The boiler water may first have to
be filtered.

2. 5 ml of this water sample is filled up to the first calibration mark into the empty ampoule, 5
ml hydrazine reagent is filled in to reach the second calibration mark, and then shaken
twice. The test liquid will turn yellow. Now the reference ampoule or color comparison
sheet nearest to this color shade is determined. The value shown on this ampoule or the
sheet indicates the hydrazine (N2H4) content in kg/l of the water sample.

3. If the test liquid shows yellow color shades which are not covered by the comparison
scale, the N2H4 – content is situated above 1 mg/l. These values, too, can be determined
more accurately by first diluting 1 ml of the water to be tested with 99 ml cold tap water,
mixing 5 ml of this diluted water with 5 ml reagent and comparing against the color scale.
The value found must then depending on the dilution used – be multiplied by 100.

4. The reagent must always be stored in a dark and cool place. Storage life approximately 1
year (see use-by date printed on the label). The effectiveness of the reagent solution can
be verified at any time by mixing 5 ml tap water with 5 ml reagent, after which there must
be, no coloration exceeding the zero value of the color scale.

52
Test Procedure Wet Conservation
ii. Sulphite measurement

The process is intended to provide a simple check of the addition of sodium sulphite
necessary to bind the oxygen in the boiler water
In an acid solution, iodine oxidizes sulphite to sulphate and is then itself reduced to iodide.
Excess iodine produces a blue coloration in combination with starch solution. Nitrites,
sulphides and larger quantities of organic substances have an interfering effect (KMnO4 –
consumption over 60 mg/l)

• Reagents
Phosphoric acid D.1.14 (25%)
0.01 standard iodine solution (Store in a cool place in a brown bottle)
Starch solution, approx. 1%
• Instruments
300 ml Erlenmeyer flask
10 ml graduated pipette
20 ml burette, 0.1 ml graduation

Test Procedure Wet Conservation


• Procedure

1. 100 ml of the sample, cooled to room temperature and filtered clear is filled into a 300
ml Erlenmeyer flask and acidified with 3 ml phosphoric acid (reagent a)

2. After that, add approx. 0.5 to 1 ml of the starch solution (reagent c)

3. Using a burette, 0.01 standard iodine solutions (reagent b) is now added until the
sample turns blue.
4. 1 ml 0.01 standard iodine solution corresponds when using 100 ml sample solution to
approx. 6.3 mg/l sodium sulphite (Na2SO3)

Quick test
Small test sticks can be used for a quick determination of the sulphite content (e.g.
Sulphite Test made by Fa.Merck)

53
Alkaline Boiling Out Procedure
• Purpose
Alkaline boiling is carried out to removal of oils, fat and silica in newly installed
boilers, and drying the heat insulating material of boilers.

• Applicable Item
Auxiliary Boiler BHS-12000-LO

• Measurement Equipment & Safety Equipment


Balance : 1 unit
Hand Pump : 1 unit
Rubber gloves : 4 pair
Masker : 4 pair
pH meter : 1 unit

Alkaline Boiling Out Procedure


• Consumable Material
Sodium hydroxide 100 kg
Sodium Phosphate 200 kg
Sodium Sulfite 60 kg

• Application

1. Mixing of the Chemical

• Fill the demineralized water to the Feed Water Tank approximate ½ of volume (6 m3)

• Prepare 7.2 kg Sodium Sulfite, 24 kg Sodium Phosphate & Sodium Hydroxide 12 kg

• Fill the phosphate dosing tank with 500 liter Demineralized Water.

• Slowly through the 1.2 kg Sodium Sulfite, 4 kg Sodium Phosphate and 2 kg of


sodium hydroxide to the phosphate tank than turn on the mixer approximate 15
minutes. Measured the pH

• Transfer the mixing solution to Feed Water Tank by Hand Transfer pump. Measured
the pH of the solution in the feed water tank. The pH of the feed water tank < 11.5
but higher than 10.5

54
Alkaline Boiling Out Procedure

• Repeat point b to point e for six times.


• Open the valves on feed water line to full fill the solution at feed water line the
solution to the boiler.
• Turn on The feed water pump to transfer the solution to the boiler

• Now the solution in the boiler will be approximate ½ of volume of the Boiler.

• Repeat point a to h until the boiler is full of the solution.

2. Closed all the valves attached in the boiler

3. Turn on the burner and heating the boiler until the temperature of mixing
solution is 140 °C – 145 °C or boiler pressure 2.5 bar(g) – 3 bar(g). The rate
of the heating of the boiler must not exceed about 50 °C per hour by
adjusting the burner combustion rate.

4. Maintain the temperature 140 °C – 145 °C or boiler pressure 2.5 bar(g) – 3 bar(g) for 4
hours than cool down the boiler by ambient temperature. The cooling rate must not
exceed 50 °C per hour.

Alkaline Boiling Out Procedure


5. While maintain the temperature or pressure, prepare the solution as per point

6. After the boiler temperature is about 70 °C than slowly drained the solution
up to ¾ solution level of the boiler while take the solution sample for
analyzing than feeding the new solution to the boiler. The concentration of
the cleaning agents while draining & feeding must not fall below ½ of the
initial level.

7. After the boiler water have been drained approximate ¾ the volume of the
boiler, or the Feed Water Tank have transfer the solution approximate 12 m3,
than closed the drained valve, repeat the point j to full fill the boiler with the
solution again.

8. Repeat the point 2 – point 8 for 2 times.

9. Drain out all the water in the boiler and make a new solution to the Feed Water
tank same as point 1 but the pH < 9.5 but not less than 8.5. than full fill the boiler
with this solution. If the boiler ready to run the water level of this solution shall
be at the normal level.

55
THE END

56