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Gas Cycles

Assumptions of air standard cycle


Analyze three cycles
Otto
Diesel
Brayton

Assumptions of Air Standard Cycle


Working fluid is air
Air is ideal gas
Combustion process is replaced by heat addition
process
Heat rejection is used to restore the fluid to its initial
state and complete the cycle
All processes are internally reversible
Constant or variable specific heats can be used
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Gas cycles have many


engineering applications
Internal combustion engine
Otto cycle
Diesel cycle

Gas turbines
Brayton cycle

Refrigeration
Reversed Brayton cycle
3

Some nomenclature before starting internal


combustion engine cycles

More Terminology

Terminology

Bore = d
Stroke = s
2

d
Displacement volume =DV = s
4
Clearance volume = CV
Compression ratio = r
VBDC
DV + CV
=
r=
CV
VTDC
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Mean Effective Pressure


Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) is a fictitious
pressure, that if acted on the piston during the
entire power stroke, would produce the same
amount of net work.

MEP

W net
=
V max V min
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The net work output of


a cycle is equivalent to
the product of the mean
effect pressure and the
displacement volume

Real Otto
Cycle

Real and Idealized Cycle

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Idealized Otto Cycle

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Idealized Otto Cycle


1-2 - Adiabatic Compression (Isentropic)
2-3 - Constant Volume Heat Addition
3-4 - Adiabatic Expansion (Isentropic)
4-1 - Constant Volume Heat Rejection

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Performance of Cycle
Efficiency:

w net
=
q in

Lets start by getting heat input:

q in = u 3 u 2
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Cycle Performance
Get net work from energy balance of cycle:

w net = q in q out
Substituting for qin and qout:

w net = (u 3 u 2 ) (u 4 u1 )
Efficiency is then:

w net
=
q in

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Cycle Performance
Substituting for net work and heat input:

(u 3 - u 2 ) - (u 4 - u1 )
=
(u 3 - u 2 )

We can simplify the above expression:

(u 4 - u1 )
= 1
(u 3 - u 2 )
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Cold Air Standard Cycle


cp, cv, and k are constant at ambient
temperature ( 70 F) values.
Assumption will allow us to get a quick first
cutapproximation of performance of cycle.

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Cycle performance with cold air


cycle assumptions
If we assume constant specific heats:

(u 4 - u1 ) c v (T4 - T1 )
= 1
=
(u 3 - u 2 ) c v (T3 - T2 )
(T4 - T1 )
= 1
(T3 - T2 )
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Cycle performance with cold air


cycle assumptions
Because weve got two isentropic processes in
the cycle, T1 can be related to T2, and T3 can
be related to T4 with our ideal gas isentropic
relationships. Details are in the book!
T2 V1
=
T1 V2

k 1

Thus

=r

k 1

T4 T3
=
T1 T2

T4 V4
=
T3 V3

k 1

1
r k 1

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Cycle performance with cold air


cycle assumptions

T1
1
=1
= 1 k 1
T2
r
This looks like the Carnot efficiency, but it is
not! T1 and T2 are not constant.
What are the limitations for this expression?
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Differences between Otto and


Carnot Cycles
T
2

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2
44
1

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Effect of compression ratio on


Otto cycle efficiency

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Sample Problem
The air at the beginning of the compression stroke of
an air-standard Otto cycle is at 95 kPa and 22C and
the cylinder volume is 5600 cm3. The compression
ratio is 9 and 8.6 kJ are added during the heat
addition process. Calculate:
(a)
the temperature and pressure after the
compression
and heat addition process
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle
Use cold air cycle assumptions.
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Draw cycle and label points


3

r = V1 /V2 = V4 /V3 = 9

P
Q23 = 8.6 kJ
2

T1 = 299 K
1 P = 0.95 bar
1

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Major assumptions

Kinetic and potential energies are zero


Closed system
1 is start of compression
Ideal cycle: 1-2 isentropic compression, 2-3
constant volume heat addition, etc.
Cold cycle constant properties
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Carry through with solution


Calculate mass of air:
P1V1
m=
= 6.29 x 10 -3 kg
RT1

Compression occurs from 1 to 2:


k 1
V1
T2 = T1 isentropic compression
V2

T2 = (22 + 273)K (9 )

1.4 1

T2 = 705.6 K But we need T3!

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Get T3 with first law:


Q 23 W = m(u + ke + pe) = mc v (T3 T2 )
Solve for T3:

3
q
8.6 kJ 6.29x10 kg
T3 = + T2 =
705.6 K
cv
0.855 kJ
kg

T3 = 2304.7 K
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Thermal Efficiency

= 1

1
r

k 1

=1

1
1.4 1

= 0.585
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Lets take a look at the Diesel cycle.

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Idealized Diesel cycle


1-2 - Adiabatic Compression (Isentropic)
2-3 - Constant Pressure Heat Addition
3-4 - Adiabatic Expansion (Isentropic)
4-1 - Constant Volume Heat Rejection

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Performance of cycle
Efficiency:

w net
=
q in

Heat input occurs from 2 to 3 in


constant pressure process:

q in = h 3 h 2 Why enthalpies?
30

Diesel Cycle Performance


Get net work from energy balance of cycle:

w net = q in q out
Substituting for qin and qout:

w net = (h 3 h 2 ) (u 4 u1 )
As we did with the Otto cycle:

w net
=
q in

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Diesel Cycle Performance


Substituting for net work and heat input:

(h 3 - h 2 ) - (u 4 - u1 )
=
(h 3 - h 2 )

We can simplify the above expression:

(u 4 - u1 )
= 1
(h 3 - h 2 )
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For cold cycle analysis

c v (T4 - T1 )
(T4 - T1 )
= 1
= 1
c p (T3 - T2 )
k(T3 - T2 )
Its possible to rewrite this in a simpler form if we
define a new term:

V3
rc =
= cutoff ratio
V2
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Cold cycle efficiency

1 rc 1
= 1 k 1

r k (rc 1)
k

Efficiency is dependent on compression


ratio and cutoff ratio.
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k = 1.4

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The thermal efficiency of the ideal Diesel cycle as a


function of compression and cutoff rates (k=1.4)

36

Comparison between Otto and


Diesel cycles
For same compression ratio

OTTO > DIESEL


For same combustion temperature

DIESEL > OTTO


37

Sample Problem
A Diesel air-standard cycle has a compression ratio
of 15:1. The pressure and temperature at the
beginning of the compression are 100 kPa and 17 C,
respectively. If the maximum temperature of the
cycle is 2250 K, determine:
1. the cutoff ratio
2. the thermal efficiency
3. the mean effective pressure
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Draw cycle

39

Apply assumption as before with


Otto cycle
Cold cycle assumptions
Kinetic and potential energies neglected
Ideal cycle

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Begin analysis
Look at cutoff ratio:

rc = V3 V2 = (mRT3 P3 ) / (m RT2 P2 )

rc = T3 T2 need T2
Get T2 from isentropic relationship:

T2 = T1 (V1 V2 )

k 1

= (17 + 273)K (15)

1.4 1

T2 = 856.7 K
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More analysis
Cutoff ratio is then:

rc = 2250 856.7 = 2.62


Thermal efficiency:
k

rc 1
1
= 1 k 1

r k (rc 1)

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More analysis
Plug numbers into thermal efficiency:

1
= 1 0.4
15

2.62 1

1.4(2.62 1)
1.4

= 0.574
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