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The revolt of the medievalists.


Directions in recent research on the
twelfth-century renaissance
Leidulf Melve

Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Bergen ,


Villaveien1a, 5007 Bergen, Norway
Published online: 03 Jan 2012.

To cite this article: Leidulf Melve (2006) The revolt of the medievalists. Directions in recent
research on the twelfth-century renaissance, Journal of Medieval History, 32:3, 231-252, DOI:
10.1016/j.jmedhist.2006.07.006
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Journal of Medieval History 32 (2006) 231e252


www.elsevier.com/locate/jmedhist

The revolt of the medievalists. Directions in


recent research on the twelfth-century
renaissance
Downloaded by [179.218.20.2] at 19:40 09 November 2014

Leidulf Melve
Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Bergen, Villaveien1a,
5007 Bergen, Norway

Abstract
This historiographical article contains two basic parts. First, it discusses recent approaches to the
twelfth-century renaissance in the last two decades by focusing on some selected themes. These themes
basically derive from Charles Homer Haskins notion of the renaissance and include individualism, rationality, secularisation, and the question of the emergence of a critical mentality. From this point of departure, the article addresses the question of thematic innovation with regard to the twelfth-century
renaissance. The second part of the article discusses the effect of the so-called linguistic turn on renaissance studies in general and on the twelfth-century renaissance in particular. In conclusion, some suggestions for further research are singled out.
2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Historiography; Twelfth-century renaissance; Linguistic turn

Ever since Wallace K. Ferguson contributed to making the revolt of the medievalists1 a slogan for the medievalists attack on the modernity of Jacob Burckhardts Italian renaissance,2 the

E-mail address: leidulf.melve@hi.uib.no


Wallace K. Ferguson, The renaissance in historical thought: five centuries of interpretation (Boston 1948). The author extends thanks to Lars Boje Mortensen and Sverre Bagge for comments on this present article.
2
Jacob Burckhardt, The civilization of the renaissance in Italy, vols 1 and 2 (New York, 1958).
1

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L. Melve / Journal of Medieval History 32 (2006) 231e252

question of renaissance or renaissances has been much discussed.3 Needless to say, Charles
Homer Haskins and his The renaissance of the twelfth century played a leading part in Fergusons presentation of the revolt.4 Between Fergusons historiographical outline of five centuries
of interpretation from 1948 and the present stress on alterity in medieval research,
approaches to the twelfth-century renaissance have developed immensely.5 The half century
which has passed since Fergusons much-quoted characterisation has not only seen a virtual
explosion of research into the twelfth-century renaissance, but also felt the methodological
implications of the so-called linguistic turn.
These two aspects are from one perspective two sides to the same coin; the liberation of
medieval studies from the methodological and thematic straight jacket imposed by the heritage
of Ranke has led to a stress on alterity. If the ideological concern of Haskins and his followers was to modernise the middle ages, much of the present concern with the twelfth century can be called de-modernisation.6 According to R. I. Moore, the first European
revolution e including the cultural developments of the twelfth-century renaissance e also
witnessed the formation of a persecuting society, creating a less tolerant and more hostile
society.7 The same story can be told for post-war renaissance studies.8 As for the middle
ages, new themes and approaches have emerged next to the old, creating a middle ages
more diverse and pluralistic. Needless to say, the once central question e the middle

For general descriptions of the different renaissances, see R.R. Bolgar, The classical heritage and its beneficiaries
(Cambridge, 1954); Marcia L. Colish, Medieval foundations of the western intellectual tradition, 400-1400 (New Haven
and London, 1998). Bolgar presents a balanced view, stressing both the strength and weaknesses of the Carolingian and
the twelfth-century renaissance as compared with the later Italian renaissance. Colish, however, is overtly positive as to
the contribution of the middle ages in general and the twelfth century in particular and in terms of laying the foundation
for the Italian renaissance. See also Frederick B. Artz, The mind of the middle ages. An historical survey A. D. 200-1500
(Chicago and London, 1980); Jacques Le Goff, Medieval civilization 400-1500 (Oxford, 1988 (first pub. 1964)). For
a bibliography, see Chris D. Ferguson, Europe in transition. A select, annotated bibliography of the twelfth-century renaissance (New York, 1989).
4
Charles H. Haskins, The renaissance of the twelfth century (Cleveland and New York, 1957 (first pub. 1927)).
5
P. Freedman and G. Spiegel, Medievalisms old and new: the rediscovery of alterity in North American medieval
studies, The American Historical Review, 103 (1998), 677: Thus we are especially interested in the shift over the
last 20 years from a middle ages represented as being in tune with modernity.to a more vivid and disturbing image
of medieval civilization as the wests quintessential other, in which the salient traits of the middle ages derive from its
marginal and unsettling character, its hard-edged alterity in the words of one scholar, a view radically different for the
confident foundationalism in the vogue during most of the twentieth century.
6
Freedman and Spiegel, Medievalisms old and new, 693.
7
R.I. Moore, The formation of a persecuting society. Power and deviance in western Europe, 950-1250 (Oxford
1987). R.I. Moore, The first European revolution, c. 970-1215 (Oxford, 2000).
8
The alleged modernity of the renaissance both in its medieval and early medieval form has been considered
largely an American invention. The civic and humanistic sides to the renaissance were a meta-theoretical guiding
line underlying the conception of Haskins and his followers, as well as prominent American renaissanists such
as Hans Baron and Erwin Panofsky, see Freedman and Spiegel, Medievalisms old and new, 682: The progressive
middle ages in its American guise is essentially the creation of Haskins.; Carl Landauer, Erwin Panofsky and the
renascence of the renaissance, Renaissance Quarterly, 47 (1994), 267: Panofskys American writings, I would argue, form part of the American discourse on the renaissance, a discourse which idealized the renaissance for its classical erudition and its celebration of the human.; See also Edward Muir, The Italian renaissance in America,
American Historical Review, 100 (1995), 105-118. However, there are not many, if any, that subscribe to the Baron
thesis today, particularly after the devastating critique of James Hankins, Plato in the Italian renaissance (Leiden
1991).

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233

ages e romantic or rationalistic?9 e is no longer a viable point of departure for medieval studies. Likewise, renaissance studies have also questioned the viability of taking the modernity
of the renaissance as a guiding line.10
The following sketch will not deal with the alterity of the twelfth-century renaissance, but
rather provide an overview of directions in research over the past two decades that more or less
continues the revolt of the medievalists and thus also Haskins approach to the renaissance. I
will start by briefly sketching the most important aspects of the early treatments of the twelfthcentury renaissance.11 Thereafter, I will focus on the revisions of Haskins understanding at the
fiftieth anniversary of his book in 1977.12 In the first main part of this article, I will discuss
research undertaken in the last 30 years with regard to important aspects of the twelfth-century
renaissance, namely individualism, the question of rationality, secularisation, and the extent to
which the period witnessed a new critical mentality.13 From this point of departure, I will
briefly address some thematic innovations in recent research into the twelfth-century renaissance,14 before discussing the question of new methodical insight.15 Although this last section
touches upon general problems in medieval studies e periodisation and categorisation e and I
will relate these problems to the relationship between the different medieval renaissances on the
one hand and to the much-discussed connection between the twelfth-century renaissance and
the Italian renaissance on the other. In conclusion, I will offer some suggestions for further
research.16
The renaissance in the historical consciousness
Burckhards renaissance takes place in northern Italy. It starts in the fourteenth century
and reaches its culmination a hundred years later. This event is presented as the real cultural bloom in western history, marking the birth of several traits characteristic of earlymodern Europe: individualism, a secularised worldview, and the creation of the state as
a work of art.17 Burckhards understanding of the renaissance is also the story of an
emerging critical historical approach. Basically, a new secular and rational understanding
of the historical past was a direct result of how the past ceased to be regarded as a static
God-given order. According to Burckhardt, the past was conceptualised and contextualised
in terms of its individual properties. The renaissances grasp of the past was thus no uncritical imitation of the ancient way of life, but a conscious adaptation of some traits of the
historical past.18

J.S. Tatlock, The middle ages e romantic or rationalistic?, Speculum, 8 (1933), 295-304.
See for instance, William J. Bouwsma, The renaissance and the drama of western History, American Historical
Review, 84 (1979), 1-15.
11
See section, The renaissance in the historical consciousness.
12
See section, Beyond Haskins?
13
See section, Thematic continuity?
14
See section, Thematic innovation?
15
See section, New methodological insight?
16
See section, Concluding remarks: suggestions for further research.
17
Burckhardt, The civilization of the renaissance in Italy.
18
Erwin Panofsky, Renaissance and renascences in western art (Stockholm, 1960), 108.
10

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L. Melve / Journal of Medieval History 32 (2006) 231e252

Long before Haskins, medievalists encountered Burckhardts interpretation,19 using terms


such as a period of new life20 and an open society21 to characterise the twelfth century.
This revisionism reached a preliminary climax in 1928 as Haskins published The renaissance
of the twelfth century. Haskins presents the renaissance as the period in which several of the
traits which Burckhardt assigned to the fifteenth century originated. By focusing mainly on
the classical literary revival, Haskins maintained that it was not the Italian cities, but rather
the medieval monasteries and cathedral schools that laid the groundwork for rationalisation
as well secularisation.22 Haskins, then, made the renaissance the cultural hallmark of the middle
ages, only to be replaced by scholasticism around 1250.23
In the post-war period, several facets of Haskins renaissance were further elaborated. In his
remarkable book, The making of the middle ages (1953), Richard W. Southern describes this
making as a quiet revolution. He stresses the historical problem in portraying such a development, namely that its profound depth is only manifested through a diffusion of social structures
and processes. Still, the twelfth century witnessed, according to Southern, nothing less than an
emerging civilisation.24 Research in the 1960s continued to regard this predominantly Latin
renaissance and its concomitant humanism as the culmination of the Latin high cultures selfaggrandizement and as a hallmark of the cultural life of the period.25 However, variations on
Haskins renaissance did occur.26 Jean Leclercq, for instance, underlined the continuity between the ancient culture and the culture of the twelfth century, thus questioning the singularity

19
We should distinguish between Burckhardts original conception and its later elaboration. Burckhardt himself admired several facets of the medieval period, and there has been a tendency to interpret certain passages as indicating
an antithesis between the two periods on the part of Burckhardt. See for instance the highly acclaimed analysis of
Thomas M. Greene, The light in Troy: imitation and discovery in renaissance poetry (New Haven, 1982), 8-12, 36
and 143. Greene applauds the renaissance for its humanistist piety and attributes to the middle ages only a certain
charm and distinction. See also Roberta Garner, Jacob Burckhardt as a theorist of modernity: reading the civilization
in Italy, Sociological Theory, 8 (1990), 48-57.
20
Dana C. Munro, A period of new life, in: The twelfth-century renaissance, ed. C.R. Young (New York, 1969), esp.
7-9.
21
Friedrich Heer, An open society, in: The twelfth-century renaissance, ed. Young, 16.
22
Haskins, The renaissance of the twelfth century. See also Charles H. Haskins, The Greek element in the renaissance
of the twelfth century, The American Historical Review, 25 (1920), 603-15; Studies in the history of mediaeval science
(Cambridge, 1929); Studies in mediaeval culture (Oxford, 1929).
23
Charles Young, Introduction, in: The Twelfth-Century Renaissance, ed. Young, 1-2: Haskins places the origins of
his renaissance before 1100 and holds that it ended about 1250, when it was replaced by the scholasticism of the later
thirteenth century. In so doing, he emphasizes only cultural trends, omitting all mention of the other changes and developments that characterized the age.
24
Richard W. Southern, The making of the middle ages (New Haven, 1953); See also Christopher Brooke, The twelfthcentury renaissance (London, 1969).
25
For different perspectives on twelfth-century humanism, see R.W. Southern, Medieval humanism and other studies
(Oxford, 1970); John D. Baldwin, The scholastic culture of the middle ages, 1000-1300 (Massachusetts, 1971); Rodney
Thompson, John of Salisbury and William of Malmesbury: currents in twelfth-century humanism, in: The World of
John of Salisbury, ed. M. Wilks (Oxford, 1984), 117-27; R.W. Southern, Scholastic humanism and the unification of
Europe. Vol. 2, Foundations (Oxford, 1995) and Scholastic humanism and the unification of Europe. Vol. 2, The heroic
age (Oxford, 2001). For a dated, but still valuable sketch of the debate, see Denys Hay, The renaissance debate (New
York, 1965).
26
For analyses that stress clear lines of continuation between the twelfth-century renaissance and the Italian renaissance, see for instance Paul Renucci, The Italian renaissance an outgrowth of the twelfth-century renaissance, in:
The twelfth-century renaissance, ed. Young 107; Walter Ullmann, Medieval foundations of renaissance humanism
(London, 1977). For a more negative view upon the elements of continuation, see Eva M. Sanford, The twelfth century
renaissance or proto-renaissance, in: The twelfth-century renaissance, ed. C.W. Hollister (New York, 1969), 38, 43.

L. Melve / Journal of Medieval History 32 (2006) 231e252

235

and innovatory character of the renaissance.27 Etienne Gilson as well as David Knowles
stressed that the scholastic culture underwent a humanisation too. Hence, they thereby questioned Haskins sharp termination of the renaissance in the middle of the thirteenth century
as a result of the dominance of a sterile and inhuman scholasticism.28

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Beyond Haskins?
The arguably most forceful reflection of Haskins understanding of the renaissance, however, appeared in 1977 at a conference organised to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of
the appearance of Haskins book. The conference aimed at constructing a conceptual framework for reflection based on modifications of Haskins scheme.29 First, rather than offering
a definition of the renaissance, the contributors attempted a more contextualised understanding
of the renaissance as a historical process.30 Second, where Haskins presented secularisation as
the most distinct trait of the renaissance, the focus in 1977 was on a new approach to the
sacred. The religious worldview in itself did not alter significantly; rather it was approached
in a more critical fashion. Differentiation into several theologies e a monastic, a scholastic,
and a speculative theology e was a vital side to this new religious worldview.31 Third, several
contributors considered the more extensive use of reason to be the key for grasping the new
critical approach. Reason in this case denoted a capacity to perform a critical evaluation as
well as to draw conclusions from a past which earlier had been regarded as the immutable
source of truth. This use of reason took many forms, one being the increasing use of interpretation in theology,32 in jurisprudence,33 and in logic.34 Another use of reason was manifested in
new approaches to dialectical reasoning.35 Fourth, this new critical approach, in its turn, was
considered as paving the way for a new conception of historical time on the one hand,36 and
an awareness of the specific historical periods defining traits on the other.37 Fifth, the
27

Jean Leclercq, The love of learning and the desire for God. A study in monastic culture (London, 1978).
Etienne Gilson, History of Christian philosophy in the middle ages (London, 1955); David Knowles, The evolution of
medieval thought (London, 1962).
29
Renaissance and renewal in the twelfth century, ed. Robert L. Benson and Giles Constable (Toronto, 1991), xvii-xxx.
30
See the discussion of methodical issues regarding terms of renewal: Gerhard B. Ladner, Terms and ideas of renewal, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson and Constable, 1-33.
31
Jean Leclercq, The renewal of theology, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson and Constable, 68-87.
32
Nikolaus M. Haring, Commentary and hermeneutics, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson and Constable,
173-200; Richard H. Rouse and Mary A. Rouse, Statim invenire: schools, preachers, and new attitudes to the page,
in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson and Constable, 201-25.
33
Stephan Kuttner, The revival of jurisprudence, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson and Constable, 299-323.
34
Normann Kretzmann, The culmination of the old logic in Peter Abelard, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson
and Constable, 488-511.
35
Leclerq, The renewal of theology, 68-88.
36
John F. Benton, Consciousness of self and perceptions of individuality, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson
and Constable, 284: A heightened sense of history is a form of self-consciousness, and in both theology and in the study
of res gestae the twelfth century was a great age of historical awareness.
37
Robert L. Benson, Political renovatio: two models from Roman antiquity, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson and Constable, 383: In short, political struggle and legal thought e not least, disputes over the legacy of ancient
Romes governing authority e led the twelfth century to an intensified consciousness of historical period. For the
twelfth century was cultivating a new and sharpened sense of modernity (one encounters the term modernitas late
in the century), of the distance between past and present, as well as between a more remote and a more recent past,
or, as we would say, of the break between antiquity and middle ages. See also Peter Classen, Res gestae, universal
history, apocalypse: visions of past and future, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson and Constable, 387-417.
28

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L. Melve / Journal of Medieval History 32 (2006) 231e252

modification of Haskins scheme resulted in the fact that the process of individualisation was
extended also to affect theological38 and artistic39 as well as political conceptions.40
In conclusion, the conference also recommended three points for further research. A first
suggestion was to look towards the reform movement and the Investiture Contest, and search
for possible links between this struggle and aspects of the renaissance.41 A second guideline
was to investigate the connection between the ecclesiastical development and the wider social
and cultural evolution.42 The final suggestion was in fact a reiteration of Haskins own advice e
to push the research back to the dark period of origin in the eleventh century.43

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Thematic continuity?
To what extent have these modifications of Haskins renaissance been elaborated? What
about new approaches to the cultural history of the twelfth century since the late 1970s?
And finally, have the recommendations for further research proposed at the 1977 conference
been followed up? In the following section, the main trends in recent research into the
twelfth-century renaissance are discussed from a thematic as well as from a methodological
point of view.
a. Individualism
Individualism constitutes one area of interest over the last 20 years. Earlier contributions by
Walter Ullmann,44 Peter Dronke,45 and Karl J. Weintraub46 all found a dynamic and developing
individualism in the middle ages. Ullmanns political individualism was a direct result of the
reception of the Aristotelian corpus of political writings in the middle of the thirteenth century
and the concomitant political vocabulary available for describing the individual as a source of
political power. Dronke, on the other hand, traced the emergence of a poetic individualism
starting in France around 1050 and reaching a culmination in the twelfth century. As for
Weintraubs search for the individual in biographies from the antiquity to the modern times,
writers in the high middle ages composed autobiographies of greater complexity than those
few from the early middle ages. However, it is only with Petrarch (1303-74) in the early Italian
38
Chrysogonus Waddell, The reform of the liturgy from a renaissance perspective, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed.
Benson and Constable, 91, 95: What commanded the perspectives of our twelfth-century humanist was not only the
fact that man had been created in the image and likeness of God, but that God himself had become man e no slight
source of dignity for the thinking believer.The twelfth century is characterized by a tendency toward individuation
of groups, with a concomitant sensitivity in those areas which render each group distinct.
39
See the contributions on literature and the arts in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson and Constable, 537-727.
40
Benton, Consciousness of self and perceptions of individuality, 263-93.
41
See for instance, Giles Constable, Renewal and reform in religious life: concepts and realities, in: Renaissance and
renewal, ed. Benson and Constable, 37-67; Waddell, The reform of the liturgy, 88-109; Robert L. Benson, Political
renovatio, 339-86.
42
See for instance Dubys analysis of the intellectualisation of the courtly culture in the eleventh and twelfth centuries:
Georges Duby, The culture of the knightly class. Audience and patronage, in: Renaissance and renewal, ed. Benson
and Constable, 248-62.
43
Benson and Constable, Renaissance and renewal, xvii-xxx.
44
Walter Ullmann, The individual and society in the middle ages (London, 1966).
45
Peter Dronke, Poetic individuality in the middle ages. New departures in poetry 1000-1150 (Oxford, 1970).
46
Karl J. Weintraub, The value of the individual. Self and circumstance in autobiography (Chicago, 1978).

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237

renaissance that a modern biography emerges. These approaches e concerned with political,
poetic, and literary individualism respectively e underline continuity rather than a break
between the medieval individualism and Burckhardts new man of the renaissance.
Colin Morris set the terms for much of the more recent discussion through his The discovery
of the individual (1973),47 arguing for the origin of the individual and individualism in the period 1050-1200. Summing up the preliminary results of this discussion, the different facets of
the particular medieval individualism have been further stressed. These include political,48
poetic,49 literary50 and intellectual individualism,51 as well as efforts to come to terms
with the different mentalities of medieval Europe.52 Another manifestation of this individualism is the new view of love in the twelfth century. Accompanied by an extensive literature
on the subject, love became a form of aristocratic self-presentation. It also started to include
women in a public discourse on love, immortalized by the love letters of Abelard and Heloise.53
From a communicative point of view, the letter emerged as the prime means for expressing
inner thoughts, either in form of letter-poems54 or love letters.55 The twelfth century also
experienced a reassessment of Latin verse and poetry56 e providing one point of departure
for the culture of courtly love, a feature of the lay culture of the twelfth century and beyond.57
This recent focus on numerous variants of individualism notwithstanding, several warnings
against such an approach to twelfth-century individualism have been put forward. First, and
from a methodological perspective, recent research has pointed to terminological difficulties
in the use individualism, individual, and individuality on the medieval period,58

47

Colin Morris, The discovery of the individual 1050-1200 (Toronto, 1987).


Janet Coleman, The individual and the medieval state, in: The individual in political theory and practice, ed. J.
Coleman (Oxford, 1996), 1-33.
49
Haijo Westra, Individuality, originality and the literary criticism of medieval Latin texts, in: Poetry and philosophy
in the middle ages. A festschrift for Peter Dronke, ed. J. Marenbon (Leiden, 2001), 281-93.
50
Sverre Bagge, The individual in medieval historiography, in: The individual in political theory and practice, ed.
Coleman, 35-57.
51
Sverre Bagge, The autobiography of Abelard and medieval individualism, Journal of Medieval History, 19
(1993), 327-50; Peter Dinzelbach, Ego non legi.. Bernhard von Clairvaux zwischen modernem Individualism
und traditoneller Autoritatsgebundenheit, in: Individum und Individualitat im Mittelalter, ed. J.A. Aertsen and A. Speer
(Berlin, 1996), 722-47.
52
John F. Benton, Consciousness of self and perceptions of individuality, in: J.F. Benton, Culture, power and personality in medieval France (London, 1992), 327-56 and, Individualism and conformity in medieval western Europe,
in: Culture, power and personality, Benton, 313-26.
53
For recent analyses, see C. Stephen Jaeger, Ennobling love. In search of a lost sensibility (Philadelphia, 1999);
Listening to Heloise. The voice of a twelfth-century woman, ed. B. Wheeler (Basingstoke, 2000).
54
Gerald A. Bond, Iocus amoris: the poetry of Baudri of Bourgueil and the formation of the Ovidian subculture,
Traditio, 42 (1986), 143-93 and The loving subject: desire, eloquence, and power in Romanesque France (Philadelphia,
1995).
55
Brian Patrick McGuire, Friendship and community: the monastic experience 350-1250 (Kalamazoo, 1988);
C. Stephen Jaeger, Ironie und Subtext in lateinischen Briefen des 11. und 12. Jahrhunderts, in: Gesprache, Boten,
Briefe: Kopergedachtnis und Schriftgedachtnis im Mittelalter, ed. H. Wenzel (Berlin, 1997), 177-92.
56
See T.M.S. Lehtonen, Fortuna, money, and the sublunar world. Twelfth-century ethical poetics and the satirical poetry of the Carmina Burana (Helsinki, 1995); P. Methonen, Old concepts and new poetics. Historia, argumentum, and
fabula in the twelfth- and early thirteenth-century Latin poetics of fiction (Helsinki, 1996).
57
See C. Stephen Jaeger, The origins of courtliness. Civilizing trends and the formation of courtly ideals 939-1210
(Philadelphia, 1985).
58
Christian Strub, Singularitat des Individuums? Eine begriffgeschichtliche Problemskizze, in: Individuum und
Individualitat im Mittelalter, ed. Aersten and Speer (Berlin, 1996), 37-56.
48

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L. Melve / Journal of Medieval History 32 (2006) 231e252

particularly with regard to the anachronistic implications of applying a modern notion of the
individual as comparative point of departure.59 Second, Caroline Walker Bynum has criticized
Colin Morris approach to individualism for neglecting the community-context of twelfthcentury individualism. According to Bynum, twelfth-century religion was characterised by
the discovery of the group and the outer man as well as by the discovery of the interior landscape and of the self.60 Bynums contribution to the discussion is important because she not
only criticises the anachronistic use of terms such as individualism, but also puts forward alternative definitions that seem to fit better the characteristics of the religious life of the period.61
Fortunately, these timid warnings seem to have been followed by recent research.62

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b. Rationality in science, law, theology, and philosophy


Recent research has discussed reason or rationality in relation to medieval science on the
one hand, and in connection with developments in canon law, Roman law, theology, and philosophy on the other. Already Lynn Whites pioneering efforts to understand medieval science
came to the conclusion that the twelfth century witnessed numerous technical innovations that
in turn affected the mental fabric.63 The continuous interest in the theme is reflected in works
by M. D. Chenu,64 Alexander Murray,65 Brian Stock,66 Robert Bartlett,67 Tina Stiefel,68 and
Andreas Speer,69 in addition to several collections of essays dealing with the subject.70 All
the investigations underline the extent to which the twelfth century experienced an intellectual
renaissance in terms of the conception of the relationship nature-man; rather than taking the
divinely instituted nature for granted, contemporary intellectuals began to ask questions as to
possible laws of nature. However, medieval science did not suddenly become modern;
Christianity imposed restrictions on the dominating Platonic worldview. Consequently, several
59
Jan A. Aertsen, Einleitung: Die Entdeckung des Individuums, in: Individum und Individualitat im Mittelalter,
Aersten and Speer (Berlin, 1996), xiv-xvii.
60
See C.W. Bynum, Did the twelfth century discover the individual?, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 31 (1980),
1-17.
61
Consequently, Walter suggests that the phrase the discovery of the individual should be replaced by the phrase the
discovery of the self in which the latter phrase should be given two precise meanings: first, the twelfth century
discovers the self in the sense that interest in the inner landscape of the human being increases after 1050; second,
the twelfth century discovers the self in the sense that knowing the inner core of human nature within ones own
self is an explicitly theme and preoccupation in literature of the period: Bynum, Did the twelfth century discover
the individual?, 4.
62
See for instance C.W. Hollister, Introduction, in: Anglo-Norman political culture and the twelfth-century renaissance. Proceedings of the Borchard conference on Anglo-Norman history, 1995, ed. C.W. Hollister (Woodbridge,
1997), ix. Hollister mentions that the birth of individualism was considered a misleading characterisation of the
twelfth century (as well as of the Italian renaissance) by the participants at the conference.
63
Lynn T. White, Medieval technology and social change (New York, 1964).
64
M.D. Chenu, Nature, man, and society in the twelfth century. Essays on new theological perspectives in the Latin
west (Chicago and London, 1979 (first pub. 1968)).
65
Alexander Murray, Reason and society in the middle ages (Oxford, 1978).
66
Brian Stock, Myth and science in the twelfth century. A study of Bernard Silvester (Princeton, 1972).
67
Robert Bartlett, Gerald of Wales 1146-1223 (Oxford, 1982).
68
Tina Stiefel, The intellectual revolution in twelfth-century Europe (New York, 1985).
69
Andreas Speer, Die entdeckte Natur. Untersuchungen zu Begrundungsversuchen einer scientia naturalis im 12.
Jahrhundert (Leiden, 1995).
70
Die Renaissance der Wissenschaften im 12. Jahrhundert, ed. Peter Weimar (Zurich, 1981); Adelard of Bath. An
English scientist and Arabist in the early twelfth century, ed. Charles Burnett (London, 1987).

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of the studies maintain that a new and more scientific approach only appeared in the thirteenth
century, largely as a consequence of the rediscovery of the Aristotelian corpus. This corpus provided contemporaries with an approach more oriented toward empirical analysis. The general
impression gathered from recent research is that twelfth-century science was characterised by
an uneasy relationship between a wide array of methodologies e inductive, deductive, empirical, and mathematical. The result was relatively isolated intellectual innovations that achieved
institutional form only with the university in the later middle ages.
While the new initiatives in relation to canon and Roman law will be treated below in
relation to the conferences suggestions for further research,71 our knowledge of scholastic theology has been enlarged by a number of works dealing with prominent intellectual figures.
These include Abelard,72 Berengar of Tours,73 Anselm of Canterbury,74 Lanfranc of Bec,75
Rupert of Deutz,76 Allan of Lille,77 Gilbert Porreta,78 Gerhoh of Reichesbach,79 Peter
Lombard,80 and Bernard of Clairvaux.81 This research has broadened our understanding of
mainly three aspects of the renaissances approach to theology. First, not only has the differentiation into several strands of theology been confirmed. In addition, the studies have also
specified these new approaches to religion, particular in relation to their influence upon later
medieval schools of thought.82 Moreover, the studies have shown the extent to which these
intellectuals worked within loosely defined intellectual communities, borrowing, elaborating,
and criticising each others work. Finally, this research has underlined the fact that the notion
of systematic theology hardly can be considered unitary; during the twelfth century, several
interpretative approaches competed for hegemony. As such, there seems to be agreement on
the fact that the intellectual innovations, in science as well as in theology, were the result of
individual efforts rather than the outcome of a collective effort on the part of an institutionalised
environment. Consequently, the innovations in the renaissance cannot be said to function in accordance with the paradigmatic characteristics of modern science.
The intellectual heritage of Anselm can serve as an example. From one side, the innovative
elements of his method have been hailed by modern research, predominantly by referring to the
pioneering effort to apply a rational method to scripture. But Anselm was scarcely read in the

71

See section, New thematic approaches? Thematic innovations.


Michael T. Clanchy, Abelard. A medieval life (Oxford, 1997); Constant J. Mews, Peter Abelard on dialectic, rhetoric, and the principles of argument, in: Rhetoric and renewal in the Latin west 1100-1540. Essays in honour of John
O. Ward, ed. C.J. Mews, C.J. Nederman and R.M. Thompson (Turnhout, 2003).
73
Toivo J. Holopainen, Dialectic and theology in the eleventh century (Helsinki, 1995).
74
G.R. Evans, Anselm and a new generation (Oxford, 1980); R.W. Southern, Saint Anselm: a portrait in a landscape
(Cambridge, 1990); Giles E.M. Gasper, Anselm of Canterbury and his theological inheritance (Aldershot, 2004).
75
Margaret Gibson, Lanfranc of Bec (Oxford, 1978); H.E.J. Cowdrey, Lanfranc. Scholar, monk, and archbishop
(Oxford, 2003).
76
John H. Van Engen, Rupert of Deutz (Berkeley, 1983); Maria Lodovica Arduini, Rupert von Deutz (1076-1129) und
der Status Christianitatis seiner Zeit. Symbolisch-prophetische Deutung der Geschichte (Koln, 1987).
77
G.R. Evans, Alan of Lille. The frontiers of theology in the later twelfth century (Cambridge, 1983).
78
Olaf Nielsen Lauge, Theology and philosophy in the twelfth century. A study of Gilbert Porretas thinking and the
theological expositions of the doctrine of the Incarnation during the period 1130-1180 (Leiden, 1982).
79
Erich Meuthen, Kirche und Heilsgeschichte bei Gerhoh von Reichersberg (Leiden, 1959); Peter Classen, Gerhoch
von Reichersberg: eine Bibliographie mit einem Anhang uber die Quellen, ihre handschriftliche Uberlieferung und ihre
Chronologie (Wiesbaden, 1960).
80
Marcia L. Colish, Peter Lombard, vols 1 and 2 (Koln, 1994).
81
G.R. Evans, Bernard of Clairvaux (New York, 2000).
82
See section, Beyond Haskins? Thematic continuity.
72

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twelfth century, and it is only with the scholasticism of the thirteenth century that Anselm
seems to exert influence. The reason for this is mainly institutional; those whom Anselm influenced in his own day worked within monastic environments and not in the schools.83 In addition to attest to the difficulties in measuring influence in a context where the institutions of
learning were rudimentary, the example also contains a methodological reminder. From
a twelfth-century point of view, Anselm hardly deserves to figure among the leading theologians of the age. It is only when a receptionist approach is replaced by one focusing on the history of ideas or intellectual history that the theological innovations of the monk of Bec become
visible. Both approaches are necessary, but they ought to be distinguished in order to differentiate between the contemporary renaissance on the one hand, and the renaissance in the historical consciousness on the other.84
The research into the philosophical side to the twelfth-century renaissance has lagged behind, largely as a consequence of its ambivalent relationship to theology.85 In fact, it has
been questioned whether it makes much sense to distinguish not only between philosophy
and theology in this period, but also between philosophy on the one hand and other types of
thought, including logical, grammatical, or scientific on the other.86 The overlap between the
disciplines is reflected in the fact that several of the prominent intellectuals of the period e Anselm of Canterbury, Abelard, Alan of Lille, and Gilbert Porreta e also wrote philosophy. The
great philosophical movement of the twelfth century was the Neo-Platonism initially associated
with the school of Chartres.87 By adding religious motifs to the Platonic heritage, the
philosophical heritage achieved a particular complexion,88 seen for instance in the works of
Thierry of Chartres89 and William of Conches.90 The influence of Stoicism, another important
ancient philosophical school, was restricted.91 This is also the case with the Aristotelian

83

Evans, Anselm and a new generation, 7.


For an elaboration of this theoretical point, See Leidulf Melve, Intentions, concepts, and reception. An attempt to
come to terms with the materialistic and diachronic aspects of the history of ideas, History of Political Thought
(forthcoming).
85
Peter Dronke, Introduction, in: A history of twelfth-century western philosophy, ed. P. Dronke (Cambridge, 1988),
1, 13, 17: Till now, the histories of philosophy have lagged behind. . There are a number of anonymous philosophical
texts of which, in our present state of knowledge, we cannot even say with confidence that they originated in a secular or
a monastic milieu. . What we can offer, however, is something for circulation, not for hoarding; not a fixed corpus of
information that will somehow encapsulate twelfth-century philosophy, but above all an opening-up of problems, and an
invitation to take them further.
86
John Marenbon, Early medieval philosophy (480-1150). An introduction (London, 1983), vii.
87
Winthrop Wetherbee, Platonism and poetry in the twelfth century. The literary influence of the school of Chartres
(Princeton, 1972).
88
Tullio Gregory, The Platonic inheritance, in: A history of twelfth-century western philosophy, ed. Dronke
(Cambridge, 1988), 56-80.
89
Peter Dronke, Thierry of Chartres, in: A history of twelfth-century western philosophy, ed. Dronke (Cambridge,
1988), 384: Thierrys originality lay in combining an extreme Platonism.with a far-reaching naturalism.
90
Dorothy Elford, William of Conches, in: A history of twelfth-century western philosophy, ed. Dronke (Cambridge,
1988), 308-27.
91
Michael Lapidge, Stoic inheritance, in: A history of twelfth-century western philosophy, ed. Dronke (Cambridge,
1988), 112: It is fair to say in general, however, that these twelfth-century thinkers treated the question of fate as a cosmological notion only; they did not go on to explore the role of mans free will in a universe so strictly ordered. That
exploration was left to theologians of a later period: Albertus Magnus, Ulrich of Strasbourg, Duns Scotus and Thomas
Aquinas. See also Marcia L. Colish, The Stoic tradition from antiquity to the early middle ages. II. Stoicism in Christian
Latin thought through the sixth century (Leiden, 1990).
84

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corpus: reception of Aristotle is mainly found in the political philosophy of John of Salisbury92
and in medical thought.93
The problem of distinguishing between philosophy and theology in the twelfth century is put
into perspective when it is remembered that only in the late middle ages did intellectuals become
guided by a philosophical system. Not even the scholastics of the thirteenth century succeeded in
placing philosophy safely among the artes.94 However, it is wrong to say that the twelfth century
failed to contribute to the development of medieval philosophy. In particular two figures have
been considered as offering philosophical solutions to Christological problems. One is Anselm
whose main contribution was a rational approach to the questions of the existence of God, Trinity,
divine omnipotence and free will, and the origin of the soul. Abelard is the second twelfth-century
intellectual that made significant philosophical contributions, particularly in the fields of ethics
and logic. Although logic experienced a short upsurge in the Carolingian period, the twelfth century witnessed a great leap forward in terms of complexity and consistency.95 John Marenbon has
recently offered a convincing argument for regarding Abelard not only as mainly a critical
thinker, using the methods of logic in treating Christian doctrine. Abelard was also a constructive
and systematic philosopher both in ontology, epistemology and ethics. Consequently, Marenbon
suggests that earlier researchs concern with two disparate profiles e Abelard the logician and
Abelard the humanist e should be turned into a fuller portrait of Abelard the philosopher.96
How, then, are we to summarise the findings of recent research in this respect? First, the numerous works on individual twelfth-century scholars have underlined the variations between
the different scholars, in spite of their working in a common discursive framework. Second,
these detailed investigations of individual scholars have contributed to a vastly greater knowledge as to the textual culture of the twelfth century. In other words, the arguably most important
aspect of Haskins renaissance e the new reception of the ancient Latin culture e has been
underlined by showing the details and variation in twelfth-century intellectuals approach to
the textual past. Third, there seems to be agreement on the fact that the period witnesses the
development of a systematic, argumentative method of theology as well as more sophisticated
logical techniques for semantic analysis and for the study of argument.
c. Secularisation and a new critical mentality?
Whereas the rational surge of the twelfth century has been confirmed by recent research, this
is hardly the case in regard to secularisation and to the question whether the period witnessed
92

Cary J. Nederman, Aristotelianism and the origins of political science in the twelfth century, Journal of the History of Ideas, 52 (1991).
93
See Danielle Jacquart, Aristotelian thought in Salerno, in: A history of twelfth-century western philosophy, ed.
Dronke (Cambridge, 1988), 427: True, the teachers in the famous school directed medicine decisively towards philosophy, but their recourse to Aristotle appears more as a consequence of this trend than as a determinant impulse. See also
Enzo Maccagnolo, David of Dinant and the beginnings of Aristotelianism in Paris, in: A history of twelfth-century
western philosophy, ed. Dronke (Cambridge, 1988), 429-42. For a recent historiographical overview, see Christoph
Flueler, Politischer Aristotelismus im Mittelalter. Einleitung, Vivarium, 40 (2002), 1-13.
94
G.R. Evans, Philosophy and theology in the middle ages (London, 1994), 7.
95
John Marenbon, The twelfth century, in: Medieval philosophy, ed. J. Marenbon (London, 1998), 180: The great
writers of the first half of the century e Abelard, Gilbert of Poitiers (and some would wish to add William of Conches
and Thierry of Chartres) e posed and tackled philosophical questions with an originality which makes the model of
assimilation inappropriate. The second half of the century did not produce any philosophers of the same stature. .
96
John Marenbon, The philosophy of Peter Abelard (Cambridge, 1997).

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a new critical mentality. As for secularisation, an extensive discussion would go beyond the
scope of this article, and only a few reflections will be offered. At the outset, parts of the discussion have been based on wrong premises; in terms of the previous discussion of rationality,
it should be evident that secularisation cannot be treated as separate from other intellectual
currents in the period.97 Instead of framing the discussion in terms of mutually exclusive categories, authorityereason, revelationeauthority, the intellectual pluralism of the period
should be taken as a point of departure.98 Second, there is a danger in deriving general intellectual currents from a particular historical incidence. For instance, J. R. Strayers much-quoted
claim that the Investiture Contest demanded the creation of the secular state and his concomitant advocacy for the secularisation thesis should not be taken prima facie as evidence for
a general secularisation.99 Similar, P. E. Schramms secularisation thesis that still provides
interesting reading should be considered a thesis more than a statement of a fact.100 Rather,
if secularisation is a valid description of the period, it should be regarded as only one of several
factors that together gave the period its characteristic ring.
Those arguing for the emergence of a new critical mentality have found both defenders and
critics. Perhaps the boldest claim for a change of mentality is put forward by Charles M.
Radding. According to Radding, western Europe experienced a profound change of mentality
around 1050, the result of which lasted until the mechanical revolution of the seventeenth
century. The main reason for its long duration was its intellectual sophistication: critical apprehendingof the textual past, abstract reasoning, logical deduction, and argumentative sophistication.101 Few, if any, seem to follow Raddings bold claims. Instead, recent research has, as we
have seen, largely traced intellectual innovation within particular fields and subjects such as
science and law on the one hand and with individual scholars on the other. What can be said
with regard to the critical impetus of the historical writing of the twelfth century? As in
most cases, opinions are divided. Beryl Smalley, for instance, argues that twelfth-century historians were too concerned with authorities and lacked a proper scheme of periodisation in order to approach history in a relatively objective manner.102 Smalley wrote her book in 1974, and
it is indicative of more recent approaches to twelfth-century historiography that modern criteria
only rarely are used as points of comparison. Partly as a result of an effort to understand

97
Thomas N. Bisson, Conclusion, in: Cultures of power. Lordship, status, and process in twelfth-century Europe, ed.
T.N. Bisson (Philadelphia, 1995), 330: It has often been suggested that the religious peace was secularized in the
twelfth century, yet it may prove instructive to think of pacification as a persistently clerical and cultural influence
on the remodelling of justice in the twelfth century. . What happened in the twelfth century was that ways of interacting and of thinking about power were juxtaposed or run together more easily than in societies with well developed
and specialized institutions and discourses. See also Giles Constable, The reformation of the twelfth century
(Cambridge, 1996).
98
The problem of categorisation is treated in the section, New methodological insight? Categorisation.
99
J.R. Strayer, On the medieval origins of the modern state (New Jersey, 1970). See also J.R. Strayer, Medieval statecraft and the perspectives of history (New Jersey, 1971).
100
P.E. Schramm, Kaiser, Rom, Renovatio. Studien zur Geschichte des romischen Erneuerungsgedankens vom Ende des
karolingischen Reiches bis zum Investiturstreit (Leipzig, 1929).
101
Charles M. Radding, A world made by men: cognition and society, 400-1200 (Chapel Hill, 1985). See also Radding,
Evolution of medieval mentalities: a cognitive-structural approach, American Historical Review, 83 (1978), 597: In
general then, focusing on logical structure helps us to realize the dimensions of the break that began in the eleventh and
twelfth centuries. Renaissance is too weak a word to characterize this shift, which comprised much more than a return
to antique canons of style or the recovery of classical texts. See also Harald Kleinschmidt, Understanding the middle
ages. The transformation of ideas and attitudes in the medieval world (Woodbridge, 2000).
102
Beryl Smalley, Historians in the middle ages (London, 1974).

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medieval writers on their own terms, the historiography of the period has been appreciated
anew. While some have spoken of a new conception of historical time,103 others have focused
on the source-critical method of William of Malmesbury104 or Otto of Freisings sophisticated
treatment of historical schemes.105 Aware of the great variety of historical writing appearing in
the twelfth century,106 several studies have also looked critically at old categorisations, for instance that distinguishing between a secular and a monastic historiography. John O. Ward,
although admitting that it still makes sense to talk about a new critical methodology in the
monastic historiography of the twelfth century, underlines the innovative contributions from
archdeacons and others on the fringes of the Church. Basically, it was the tension between archdeacons and monks that paved the way for a new critical historical methodology.107 C. Warren
Hollister has similarly argued that the burgeoning of history in the Anglo-Norman world should
be considered as a result of a number of factors, not only Benedictine strength.108
The thematic continuity with Haskins renaissance, then, is hard to overlook. As such, the
book certainly has aged well, still providing a framework for research. This being said, the
cultural achievements of the period have been found to be much less unitary than Haskins
imagined; the period was not strictly rational or secular, and neither did a full-blown individualism emerge. Instead, the period is characterised by the uneasy coexistence between traditional themes and a plurality of new approaches. The lasting achievement of the renaissance
varied markedly from subject to subject. This last point is nicely illustrated by the discussion as
to whether the historiography of the twelfth century can be deemed critical. Not only is there
a lack of agreement as to what should be used as criteria when measuring the critical impetus,
in addition, even if agreed-upon criteria for measurement were established, recent research has
only started to come to terms with a diversity that rarely admits general characterisations such
as critical.
Thematic innovations?
The three suggestions for further research mentioned at the 1977 conference e looking
at the Investiture Contest, investigating the relationship between the ecclesiastical and the
secular culture, and searching for the origin of the renaissance in the eleventh century e
have all been followed up. Not surprisingly, the relatively few thematic innovations in
103

For a general positive view upon the historical writing of the twelfth century, see Franz-Josef Schmale, Funktionen
und Formen mittelalterlicher Geschichtsschreibung. Eine Einfuhrung (Darmstadt, 1985); Lars Boje Mortensen, Working with ancient Roman history: a comparison of Carolingian and twelfth-century scholarly endeavours, in: Gli umanesimi medievali, ed. C. Leonardi (Firenze, 1998), 411-20; Hans-Werner Goetz, Geschichtsschreibung und
Geschichtsbewutsein im hohen Mittelalter (Berlin, 1999). More negative views are those of Smalley, Historians of
the middle ages.
104
Rodney Thompson, William of Malmesbury (Woodbridge, 1987).
105
Hans-Werner Goetz, Das Geschichtsbild Ottos von Freising: Ein Beitrag zur historischen Vorstellungswelt und zur
Geschichte des 12. Jahrhunderts (Koln, 1984); Sverre Bagge, Ideas and narrative in Otto of Freisings Gesta Frederici,
Journal of Medieval History, 22 (1996), 345-77.
106
Paul Magdalino, Introduction, in: The perception of the past in twelfth-century Europe, ed. P. Magdalino (London,
1992), xiv: The overall impression that emerges, at least from old Europe is one of great variety.
107
John O. Ward, The monastic historiographical impulse c. 1000-1260. A re-assessment, in: Historia. The concept
and genres in the Middle Ages ed. T.S. Lehtonen and P. Mehtonen (Helskinki, 2000), 71-100.
108
C. Warren Hollister, Anglo-Norman political culture and the twelfth-century renaissance, in: Anglo-Norman political culture and the twelfth-century renaissance, ed. Hollister, 1-16.

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recent research are found within the confines of these recommendations. Three in particular
deserve a mention: a new interest in medieval communications, the Investiture Contest
seen as the dark period of origin, and a focus on the non-Latin culture of the twelfth
century.

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a. Medieval communication
A concern with the communicative framework is strictly speaking not a new theme: the relationship between the so-called high culture in form of the Latin Christian culture and the low
vernacular culture has long been seen as problematic.109 It is only recently, however, that the
communicative interrelationship between these two cultures has been investigated, providing
for new thematic approaches to the twelfth-century renaissance. The most important work in
this respect is Brian Stocks monumental The implications of literacy (1983), presenting the theory of the textual community: according to Stock, in order to understand the intellectual configuration of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, it is necessary to acknowledge the extent to
which the more literate Latin culture of the period laid the premises for intellectual innovations
in law, philosophy, and theology. The increased use of the written word triggered a more critical
approach to the textual past e seen for instance in Berengar of Tours divergent interpretation
of the Eucharist. This new interest in interpretation was not reserved for a tiny intellectual elite
commanding the ability to read and write. In certain cases e the early heretical movement is the
prime example e literate interpreters presented the message to groups of semi- or illiterates by
aural or oral means. Oral and written forms of communication in combination thus bridge the
gap between the high and the low culture, providing for what Stock calls a textual community.
The characteristic trait of this entity is the extent to which the interpretation of a text provides
for the social identity and cohesion of the entire community.110 Stock traces a number of such
communities in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, all displaying an interpretive and critical
approach to the textual past.
Stocks insight has been applied to numerous contexts, such as antiquity,111 the early
middle ages,112 the late middle ages,113 and even to Old Norse culture.114 However, there
is, to my knowledge at least, no other study that deals specifically with the twelfth-century
renaissance in terms of the relationship between oral and written communication.115 This
109

For a recent discussion mainly dealing with the early middle ages, see Michel Banniard, Language and communication in Carolingian Europe, in: The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 2 c. 700-c.900, ed. R. McKitterick
(Cambridge, 1995), 695-708.
110
Brian Stock, The Implications of literacy. Written language and models of interpretation in the eleventh and twelfth
centuries (New Jersey, 1983), See also Brian Stock, Listening for the text: on the uses of the past (Philadelphia, 1996).
111
Thomas F.X. Noble, Literacy and the papal government in late antiquity and the early middle ages, in: The Uses of
Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe, ed. R. McKitterick (Cambridge, 1990), 82-108; Peter Heather, Literacy and power
in the migration eriod, in: Literacy and Power in the Ancient World, ed. A. Bowman and G. Woolf (Cambridge, 1994),
177-97.
112
S. Lerer, Literacy and power in Anglo-Saxon literature (Lincoln, 1991); Martin Irvine, The making of textual culture:
grammatica and literary theory, 350-1100 (Cambridge, 1994).
113
Miri Rubin, Corpus Christi: the Eucharist in late medieval culture (Cambridge, 1991).
114
Gurun Nordahl, Tools of literacy. The role of Skaldic verse in Icelandic textual culture of the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries (Toronto, 2001).
115
Janet Coleman touches the subject in her Ancient and medieval memories, but from a different point of view. See
section, Concluding remarks: suggestions for further research.

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is a bit strange, not only in terms of the wide reception of Stocks work, but also
because the last 20 years have seen a growing interest in medieval patterns of
communication.116

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b. The Investiture Contest


The revolutionary sides to the Investiture Contest have long been recognised.117 Still, it is
only recently that this struggle has been analysed in relation to the twelfth-century renaissance,
resulting in a stress on the German contribution to the renaissance.118 New approaches to legality have been the main focus of interest. In this period, canon law emerged from its previous
unsystematic and customary state by way of systematic attempts at harmonising discordant
canons. Several studies have thus shown the extent to which the canon law activity in the wake
of the Investiture Contest prepared for the later canon law science associated with the canon
law collection of Gratian from about 1140.119 For instance, the works of several of the canonists
writing during the Contest e Ivo of Chartres and Anselm of Lucca in particular e were
included in Gratians collection.
But canon law was not the only legal tradition that developed considerably during the Investiture Contest.120 Also the secular law tradition in the form of Roman law was rediscovered. From one perspective, the subsequent Roman law renaissance of the twelfth century has
been seen as a continuation of the pioneering efforts of the eleventh century.121 Although the
sketchy use of Roman law during the Investiture Contest hardly warrants the label renaissance, it nevertheless showed progress over the few Roman law references found in the early
middle ages. In one case at least e Peter Crassus defence of King Henry IV from 1080 or

116

For an overview of recent research, see Leidulf Melve, Literacy, aurality, and orality. A survey of recent research
into the orality/literacy complex of the Latin middle ages, Symbolae Osloenses, 78 (2003), 143-98.
117
See for instance, Karl Leyser, On the eve of the first European revolution, in: Communications and power in medieval Europe. The Gregorian revolution and beyond, K. Leyser (London, 1994), 1-21.
118
The literature on the Investiture Contest is enormous. A selection includes Uta-Renate Blumenthal, Der Investiturstreit (Stuttgart, 1982); Gerd Tellenbach, Die westliche Kirche vom 10. bis zum fruhen 12. Jahrhundert (Gottingen,
1988); Wilfried Hartmann, Der Investiturstreit (Munchen, 1993).
119
Recent entries include John Gilchrist, Canon law in the age of reform, 11th-12th centuries (Aldershot, 1993); Bruce
C. Brasington, Prologues to canonical collections as a source for jurisprudential change to the eve of the Investiture
Contest, Fruhmittelalterliche Studien, 28 (1994), 242: The compilers reveal the development of canonical jurisprudence from its foundations in late-antique rhetoric and theology to the investiture contest, which ushered in the so-called
renaissance of the twelfth century.; Kathleen G. Cushing, Papacy and law in the Gregorian revolution. The canonistic
work of Anselm of Lucca (Oxford, 1998). For recent investigations on Gratian, see Anders Winroth, The making of
Gratians Decretum (Cambridge, 2000) and the discussion in Revue de droit canonique, 51:2 (2001).
120
For an attempt to push the rediscovery of Roman law back to the late tenth and early eleventh century, see Charles
M. Radding, The origins of medieval jurisprudence: Pavia and Bologna 850-1150 (New Haven, 1988). The attempt has
been met with mixed reception, from total rejections to appraisals for extending the confines of the study of the reception of Roman law. All in all, however, it is probably too early to conclude as to the implications of this revisionist
attempt in relation to the study of medieval Roman law.
121
The arguably most far-reaching claim is that of Harold J. Berman: the Contest led to revolutionary legal changes in
western Europe. The effort of Pope Gregory VII to change practical behaviour through reliance on the written word,
paved the way for legal codification of the whole social fabric, see Harold J. Berman, Law and revolution. The formation
of the western legal tradition (Harvard, 1983). See also Manlio Bellomo, The common legal past of Europe 1000-1800
(Washington, 1995); Maurizio Lupoi, The origins of the legal order (Cambridge, 2000).

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1084 e there are signs of a more profound reception of the legal corpus.122 In general, we
are miles away from the more elaborate reception of the corpus in the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries.123 As for theology, it is indicative that several of the prominent theologians of the
twelfth century e Rupert of Deutz, Anselm of Canterbury, and Gerhoh of Reichersberg e
were involved in the Contest. Is it also indicative that the disciplines that most forcefully
have been seen as manifestations of the twelfth-century renaissance e canon and Roman
law, theology, and political theory e were addressed in the intellectual debate during the Investiture Contest. Philosophy, however, was only rudimentarily dealt with during the Contest,
although the contribution of Peter Damian and Manegold of Lautenbach are two notable
exceptions.124

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c. The non-Latin renaissance


The contributions to the third thematic innovation are in fact a mixed bag, the common element being a focus on the non-Latin culture. As such, it not only goes beyond Haskins renaissance, but also the modifications at the 1977 conference. One such approach has been called the
vernacular renaissance and treats the vernacularisation of written discourse in the twelfth
century.125 Four contributions illustrate different facets of this renaissance: Peter Damian-Grint,
in analysing the English translation literature of the twelfth century, argues that this process of
vernacularisation was one of the most lasting legacies of the twelfth-century renaissance.126
Suzanne Reynolds, in dealing with vernacular reading practices and the uneasy relationship
between vernacular texts, finds that this led to the discovery of intention as one of the central
categories of twelfth-century thought.127 Sarah Spence, in focusing on the function of the
vernacular in forging new conceptualisations of self and reality, maintains that the use of the
vernacular enabled identification between the text and the body which in turn resulted in a definition of the self through the process of identity and difference.128 Finally, Rita Copeland
discusses vernacular translations of Latin texts within an academic environment and the way
the ideas of translation were shaped in the actual strategies of academic practice.129 Common
to these entries is a concern with the cultural diffusion between the Latin and the vernacular
cultures, the social context of the use of the text, and the social implications of the emergence
of a vernacular culture.
A second new thematic approach addressing non-Latin refers to cross-cultural interaction
between Christians on the one hand and Jews and Arabs on the other. The main emphasis has
been on how these cross-cultural currents offer a means to explain the Latin renaissance. In the
122
For an analysis of the Roman law reception in the Investiture Contest, See Leidulf Melve, The medieval public
sphere. Continuity and innovation in the polemical literature of the Investiture Contest (Ph.D. thesis, Bergen 2004).
123
See Johannes Fried, Die Entstehung des Juristenstandes im 12. Jahrhundert. Zur sozialen Stellung und politischen
Bedeutung gelehrter Juristen in Bologna und Modena (Koln, 1974); Hermann Lange, Romisches Recht im Mittelalter.
Band I. Die Glossatoren (Munchen, 1997).
124
See Melve, The medieval public sphere. See also section, New thematic approaches? Thematic continuity.
125
In her treatment of the twelfth-century renaissance, Colish has drawn attention to the increasing two-way traffic between Latin and vernacular literature, see Colish, Medieval foundations of the western intellectual tradition, 176
126
Peter Damian-Grint, The new historians of the twelfth-century renaissance (Woodbridge, 1999).
127
Suzanne Reynolds, Medieval reading. Grammar, rhetoric and the classical text (Cambridge, 1996).
128
Sarah Spence, Texts and the self in the twelfth century (Cambridge, 1989).
129
Rita Copeland, Rhetoric, hermeneutics, and translation in the middle ages. Academic traditions and vernacular texts
(Cambridge 1995), 6.

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case of the Jews, the pioneering work of Anna Sapir Abulafia has shown the extent to which
the twelfth-century renaissance as a European Latin renaissance defined itself by excluding
Jewish intellectual currents. In fact, recent research has suggested that in several areas e vernacular literature, biblical exegesis, and piety and religious life e there were parallel developments in the Christian and the Jewish cultures. Both cultures went through a transformation in
the twelfth century from a monastic or synagogue- and chapel based practice to a more schoolbased, grounded with reason and logic.130 The questions of influence and of how to explain the
twelfth-century renaissance have also been a focus of attention with regard to the Arabic influence. In one such reading, an important part of the renaissance e the scholasticism e
has been considered dependent on cultural loans from Islam.131 A different type of approach
to the question of explanation, has attempted to explain the more lasting contribution of the
twelfth-century renaissance in Europe, compared to its results in Islam and China. Following
Toby E. Huff, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century was as much a product of the
twelfth century as of the early modern period. The renaissance in the west was able to exert
such an influence largely because it early on became institutionalised in the form of the university, thereby providing an environment for the accumulation and scrutinising of
knowledge.132
In sum, recent research into the twelfth-century renaissance does not abound in new
approaches. Those that exist have, together with the further elaboration of the themes of
Haskins renaissance, made the renaissance more elusive. If one trait stands out from the
numerous works over the last 20 years or so, it can perhaps be called innovation within
continuity; the renaissance was prepared by the spread of literacy in the preceding century
as well as by the new approaches to law evident from the Investiture Contest. The institutionalisation of these beginnings, however, started in the twelfth century by the establishment of environments of learning either in the form of a specific work e Gratians
Decretum or the Roman law corpus e or a place of learning e Bologna, Paris, or
Salerno.133
New methodological insight?
The recent discussions of methodological approaches to the twelfth century have focused
on categorisation and periodisation. These discussions are partly a result of the impact
of the so-called linguistic turn and partly a consequence of the truce reached with the
renaissance specialists concerning the role of the twelfth-century renaissance. Rather than

130
See the contributions in: Jews and Christians in twelfth-century Europe, ed. Michael A. Signer and John Van Engen
(Notre Dame, 2001).
131
This controversial thesis is put forward by George Makdisi, The rise of humanism in classical Islam and the Christian West: with special reference to scholasticism (Edinburgh, 1990).
132
Toby E. Huff, The rise of early modern science. Islam, China, and the west (Cambridge, 1993).
133
For recent studies on the development of the university, see Rebirth, reform and resilience. Universities in transition,
1300-1700, ed. J. M. Kittelson and P. J. Transue (Columbia, 1984); Hilde de Ridder-Symoens, Universities in the middle
ages (Cambridge, 1992). See also C. Stephen Jaeger, The envy of angels. Cathedral schools and social ideas in medieval
Europe, 950-1200 (Philadelphia 1994).

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addressing the discussion of the linguistic turn in its many disguises e the new philology,134 the new cultural history,135 and the cultural turn136 e it should suffice to note
that one result of the discussions has been to stimulate an already existing interest in the
relationship between the text and the social reality within medieval studies.137 Beyond
this, the influence of the linguistic turn can also be found in sub-disciplines concerned
with book history,138 rhetoric,139 literary theory,140 and the visual or aesthetic dimension
to the text.141

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a. Periodisation
Basically, the neat temporal frame to which Haskins assigned the name the twelfth-century
renaissance, 1050-1250, has been questioned. This questioning, moreover, indicates an awareness of the artificial dividing lines between the medieval and renaissance periods. Perhaps paradoxically, the questioning is a result of the new knowledge about its pre-history, leading to an
awareness of the extent to which the twelfth-century renaissance only institutionalised developments of past centuries. In addition, the replacement of Haskins use of the Latin culture as
criterion with one which includes the vernacular cultures has also contributed forcefully
to the fragmentation of the unitary view of the renaissance. Similarly, the introduction of
non-Latin elements in addition to the vernacular cultures e the Hebrew and the Islamic tradition for instance e has shattered the geographical placement of the renaissance in western
Europe. As to the abrupt termination of the renaissance in 1250, Haskins notion relied on
an erroneous view of scholastic culture: the vitality of the renaissance was replaced with a sterile
and pedantic scholasticism. Few today talk about scholasticism as an impediment to the development of medieval thought. Rather, the scholastic theology is now considered a vital and lasting element of the intellectual climate of the middle ages. Scholastic theology, in turn, has been
linked to several of the defining traits of Haskins renaissance: it was, along with canon law, the
prime site for fostering critical thought levelled against authorities on the one hand, and stimulated a new interest in the subjective experience of the faith and intentionalism on the other.142
134

See the discussion by Suzanne Fleichman, Philology, linguistics, and the discourse of the medieval text, Speculum,
65 (1990), 19-37; Siegfried Wenzel, Reflections on the (new) philology, Speculum, 65 (1990), 11-8; R. Howard Bloch,
New philology and Old French, Speculum, 65 (1990), 38-58.
135
See The new cultural history: essays, ed. Lynn Hunt (Berkeley, 1989).
136
See Beyond the cultural turn: new directions in the study of society and culture, ed. Victoria E. Bonnell (Berkeley,
1999).
137
See for instance the work of Gabrielle Spiegel, Romancing the past. The rise of vernacular prose historiography in
thirteenth-century France (Berkeley, 1993).
138
Jesse M. Gellrich, The idea of the book in the middle ages. Language theory, mythology, and fiction (Ithaca, 1985).
139
Milada Buda, Medieval history and discourse. Toward a topography of textuality (New York, 1990); Ruth Morse,
Truth and convention in the middle ages. Rhetoric, representation, and reality (Cambridge, 1991).
140
Irvine, The making of textual culture; Dennis H. Green, The beginnings of medieval romance: fact and fiction,
1150-1220 (Cambridge, 2002).
141
Karl F. Morrison, History as visual art in the twelfth-century renaissance (London, 1992); Mary Carruthers, The craft
of thought: meditation, rhetoric, and the making of images, 400-1200 (Cambridge, 1998), 5: Specifically, the twelfth
century in Europe marks the development of a much larger, much more disparate, more urban audience with a large
contingent of vernacular-speaking, uncloistered, married laypeople. Such a citizenry makes for very different rhetorical
dynamics than does the relatively small, relatively homogenous citizenry of a monastery.
142
Marcia L. Colish, Haskinss renaissance seventy years later: beyond anti-Burchardtianism, The Haskins Society
Journal, 11 (1998), 1-17.

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249

These and other contributions to the evolution of medieval thought, then, have fragmented the
temporal and geographical confines of the once unitary renaissance.
Problems of categorisation are perhaps most severe in relation to the term renaissance. In
general, the term is used in two senses. First, it has been used to refer to a certain kind of
civilisation considered superior to the preceding. Second, renaissance has also denoted developments within the cultural sphere such as innovations in art, science, or literature.143 It goes
without saying that these two senses do not necessarily have the same reference, and they can
therefore not be used indiscriminately. On a terminological level, the term has to be precisely
defined. If not, it becomes useless for comparative purposes and at worst, meaningless.144 But,
even if the term is defined in either of these two senses, it can legitimately be questioned
whether it makes sense to use renaissance as a periodic description at all. The huge regional
differences in medieval Europe coupled with the restricted amount of sources renders such periodic generalisations reductionist at best. In relation to the above sketch of recent research into
the renaissance, there is a good case for dispensing entirely with the general use of the term.145
However, this might be to go too far as we need a conceptual apparatus, in spite of the postmodernist claims to the contrary. If the conceptual apparatus is properly defined it can still
function as a valuable heuristic device.146
A related set of problems have to do with the anachronistic and sometimes tautological attempts at understanding the twelfth-century notion of individualism, rationality, and secularisation based on a transhistorical comparison with the modern terms. The heuristic value of
such terms is obvious. However, the appropriate unit of analysis for studying renaissance society should neither be the individual nor the group, but rather the social relationship that links
individuals to each other and to other groups.147 Adding to these two criticisms, a third criticism deals with the inherent evolutionary idealism of the categories used to characterise the
twelfth-century renaissance. This criticism has been concerned with the question of power;
Haskins modernism has been criticised for neglecting to deal with the disciplinary and forcing aspects of the long twelfth century, and also for failing to reflect upon the all-embracing
effect of what has been called a proto-statist manifestation of power.148 From a similar perspective, the modernist-idealistic approach of Haskins can legitimately be accused of excluding the
contribution of women both in the production and patronage of religious literature and art.149

143

G.W. Trompf, The concept of the Carolingian renaissance, Journal of the History of Ideas, 34 (1973), 3-26.
Southern claims that the term renaissance has no clearly defined meaning, and characterises the semantics of the
term to be sublime and meaningless, see Richard W. Southern, Medieval humanism, in: Medieval humanism and
other studies, R.W. Southern, 29. Hollister, Introduction, ix maintains that although the term twelfth-century renaissance is a useful term, it should be used with caution. See also Christopher Brooke, The twelfth century renaissance
(London, 1969).
145
See C. Stephen Jaeger, Pessimism in the twelfth-century renaissance, Speculum, 78 (2003), 1183: Renaissance
was in the past century a useful term. It served the purpose of calling attention to the energy and productivity of the
twelfth century.but it is time to scrap it. It is now more trouble than it is worth; it obscures more than it illuminates.
146
R.N. Swanson, The twelfth-century renaissance (Manchester, 1999), 1-7 discusses the question of the definition and
finds that although the great Renaissance has itself fragmented, it is impossible not to search for a definition: The
unitary phenomenon may need to be replaced by a series of more closely defined movements which more accurately
reflect the way in which understanding of the twelfth-century has changed since 1927.
147
Ronald F.E. Weissman, Reconstructing renaissance sociology: the Chicago School and the study of renaissance
society, in: Persons in groups. Social behavior as identity formation in medieval and renaissance Europe, ed. R.C.
Trexler (New York, 1985), 40-52.
148
Thomas N. Bisson, Introduction, in: Cultures of Power, ed. Bisson (Philadelphia, 1995), 2-7.
149
For a short discussion, see Colish, Haskinss renaissance seventy years later, 11.
144

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Fortunately, recent research into the twelfth-century renaissance has become increasingly
aware of at least some of the methodological problems inherent in a comparative framework
which has the Italian renaissance as its polemical counterpart. As such, the prejudice inherent
in the label dark ages has often erected a misunderstood polemical front between the protagonists of the two camps. Partly as a consequence of the linguistic turn and the concomitant
focus on alterity also within renaissance studies, Burckhardts paradigm has been replaced
by a more plural notion of the heritage of the renaissance.150 Burckhardts sense of individualism is still a dominating theme, but the approach has altered, now focusing more on cultural factors.151 Amongst medievalists, direct comparisons between the twelfth-century
renaissance and its Italian counterpart are now few and far between. In this respect, the Italian renaissance has been replaced by the Carolingian renaissance as a point of comparison.152
In relation to the renaissance debate, Randolph Starn has reminded us of the fact that the old
battles of pre-eminence are out of fashion, and suggests the time is ripe for the liberation
from old conventions of periodisation.153 To name only two, Peter Burke154 and Paul Oskar
Kristeller155 have for long shown a willingness to take the practical consequence of such an
advice.
In conclusion, the methodological discussions focusing on periodisation and categorisation
are not only intertwined. They are also linked to the search for origins, and thereby attached to
one of the main concerns of Haskins renaissance. Scepticism towards periodisation is, in turn,
linked to an awareness of origins that often transcends the narrow and inflexible lines of demarcation frequently used in periodisations. Furthermore, a discursive network of power neither
knows nor respects any externally imposed demarcation lines, for example, periodisation. Finally, the search for modalities of power has often taken the form of genealogical approaches
to the cultural origin of the given modality.
Concluding remarks: Suggestions for further research
Before summing up this sketch of directions of recent research into the twelfth-century renaissance in terms of suggestions for further research, there is one vital side to this research that
has not yet been mentioned: the increasing interdisciplinary orientation of recent investigations.
Resulting partly from the acknowledgement of a set of common methodological problems, and
partly as a consequence of the felt need to supplement the traditional source-critical approach
with theoretical frameworks borrowed from sociology, anthropology, archaeology, and communication-studies, the orientation has contributed to knowledge of the necessity of

150

See the papers from the American Historical Review Forum The persistence of the renaissance 103 (1998), which
underline the extent to which renaissance studies e or early modern studies as a less value-ridden term e have been
enriched by the new focus on alterity. Whereas the discipline still clings to a notion of the modernity of the renaissance, the notion is more plural and is less tautological and anachronistic.
151
See for instance, John Martin, Inventing sincerity, refashioning prudence: the discovery of the individual in renaissance Europe, American Historical Review, 102 (1997), 1309-42.
152
See for instance, Carolingian culture: emulation and innovation, ed. Rosamond Mckitterick (Cambridge, 1994).
153
Randolph Starn, Whos afraid of the renaissance, in: The past and future of medieval studies, ed. J.H. Van Engen
(Notre Dame, 1994), 132: For surely one of the most compelling reasons for the relatively peaceful relations between
medievalists and renaissianists is a more or less acknowledged fear that none of us matter very much these days.
154
Peter Burke, The Italian renaissance. Culture and society in Italy (Cambridge, 1987).
155
Paul Oskar Kristeller, Renaissance thought and its sources (New York, 1979).

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a contextualised understanding of a plurality of value e as well as systems of meaning.156


One example of an interdisciplinary approach to the twelfth century has combined history
on the one hand with architecture and art history on the other in an effort to establish the
link between theory and practice.157
The above sketch has shown that innovations primarily have surfaced in terms of methodological elaboration, in spite of certain thematic innovations. This being said, these new methodological departures are probably less radical than they might appear, since some of the
allegedly new insights of the linguistic turn were hardly new to medievalists. For instance,
the knowledge of linguistic particularities and discursive patterns has had, and still has a prominent position within medieval cultural studies.158 The so-called new medievalism is perhaps
not so new after all.159 In short, the explicit thematisation of questions pertaining to periodisation and categorisation are the real departures from the discussion preceding the 1977
conference.
The following three suggestions for further research are partly based on the above sketch,
but also conditioned on a general need for investigating the social function of literary theory
and interpretation at various cultural moments.160 First, there is a need for systematic comparison between the cultural blooms of the Carolingian161 and Ottonian periods and the twelfthcentury renaissance. From a methodological point of view, this suggestion implies a partial acknowledgement of the artificiality of historical periodisation, but for heuristic reasons, it stops
short of discarding all use of periodisation.
Second, an effort to come to terms with the dark period of origin of the eleventh century
could look to Jacques Le Goffs now old, but still valuable outline of the emergence of a new
type of free intellectuals from the urban centres from about 1100; intellectuals characterised
by a relative independence from the secular and the sacerdotal hierarchies, whose later personification is Abelard.162 These intellectuals are important not only as forerunners for the learned
men of the twelfth century, but also because they served as mediators between the early and the
high middle ages. The relationship between the characteristic traits of the twelfth-century renaissance as emerging in recent research could then be properly contextualised, providing
for a fuller understanding of these traits.

156

Marcia L. Colish: Intellectual history, in: The past and future of medieval studies, ed. Van Engen, 190-8, claims
that recent approaches to medieval intellectual history reflects an interdisciplinary trend.
157
Charles M. Radding and William W. Clark, Medieval architecture, medieval learning: builders and masters in the
age of Romanesque and Gothic (New Haven, 1992).
158
John H. Van Engen, Agenda paper: the future of medieval studies, in: The past and future of medieval studies, ed.
Van Engen, 4-5.
159
Stephen G. Nichols, The new medievalism: tradition and discontinuity in medieval culture, in: The new medievalism, ed. M.S. Brownlee, K. Brownlee and S.G. Nichols (Baltimore, 1991), 8: new medievalism tries to contextualize
the concept of modernity as a process of cultural change, and thus to profit from the decline of modernisms hegemony
both as the dominant period and the arbiter of methodological orthodoxy.
160
This point is formulated by Irvine, Making of textual culture, 15-6: What is most needed now is a series of investigations into the social function of literary theory and interpretation at various cultural moments, that is, the function of
literary texts in historical periods defined not by simple chronology and nationality but by shared cultural practices,
methodologies, and texts held in common across national and linguistic boundaries.
161
See Richard E. Sullivan, The Carolingian age: reflections on its place in the history of the middle ages, Speculum,
64 (1989), 304: There are compelling reasons to accept a periodisation paradigm which enfolds the Carolingian age
into a longer period extending from late antiquity to the tenth century. .
162
Jacques Le Goff, Les intellectuels au moyen age (Paris, 1957).

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Third, the thematic innovations of the last two decades e concern with the communicative
framework, the origin in the Investiture Contest, and the focus on the non-Latin sides to the
Latin renaissance e are each promising. Nevertheless, the advantages of conceptualising the
relationship between these new departures should be stressed. For, as John Gilchrist suggested
over a decade ago, the possible relationship between the reform movement, the legal renaissance of the twelfth century and the emergence of textual communities in Stocks sense of
the term is one promising place to start.163 Hence, an awareness of the communicative framework of the period can contextualise the specific aspects of the twelfth-century renaissance. In
addition, such awareness enables a more comprehensive understanding of the non-Latin sides to
the Latin renaissance. For instance, knowledge of the particular interrelationship between Latin
and the vernacular in terms of the written, aural and oral communication can contribute to
a more comprehensive delineation of the dynamics between these two cultures. In the last instance, such a communicative awareness also prepares for an increased understanding of the
peripheral parts of Europe and particularly the extent to which the periphery e Scandinavia
and eastern Europe e adapted and modified the contents of the twelfth-century renaissance.
Leidulf Melve is a post-doctoral fellow at Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Bergen. Earlier research interests
include literacy theory and the relationship between oral and written forms of communication. His publications include
Literacy-aurality-orality: a survey of recent research into the orality/literacy complex of the Latin middle ages in Symbolae Osloenses, 78, (2003) and Intentions, concepts, and reception. An attempt to come to terms with the materialistic
and diachronic aspects of the history of ideas, in History of Political Thought (forthcoming). He is currently preparing
a book arising out of his doctorate entitled The medieval public sphere. Continuity and innovation in the polemical literature of the Investiture Contest.

John Gilchrist, Introduction, in: J. Gilchrist, Canon Law in the Age of Reform, 11th e 12th centuries (Hampshire,
1993), xi-xvi.
163