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SOLID MECHANICS PRATICAL REPORT


MODULE B
THEORY OF A STATICALLY INDETERMINATE
BENDING BEAM

GROUP PI
Adam Yuta Prayoga
Asti Diar Safitri
Bimasena Heribowo
Christopher Kevinly
Nathan Djumali
Wednesson Lawijaya

Date of experiment
Experiment Assistant
Approval date
Score
Assistant Signature

( 1206292370 )
( 1206292414 )
( 1206292351 )
( 1206223846 )
( 1206292420 )
( 1206230593 )

: 17 04 2014
: Aulia Rizky Tansir
:
:
:

SOLID MECHANICS LABORATORY


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
DEPOK 2014

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A. THEORY OF STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BENDING BEAM

I.

PURPOSE
1. Check the accuracy of the simple bending theory by comparing the value
of E (modulus of elasticity) were obtained from existing experiments with
E literature to concentrated loads and moment loads on the structure
statically indeterminate structure.
2. Check the accuracy of the use of Theorem moment by finding the value of
k (constant) for load moment at midspan on statically indeterminate
structure

II.

THEORY
The deflections and rotation angle of the beam or cantilever can be
analyzed by several theories. As an example:
-

Unit load Method

Area of moment or conjugate beam Method

Integration

Method

For further information, there has been adviced reading the further
structural analysis from C.K. Wang.
III.

APARATUS
1 HST. 601 Cantilever End and Fixed End
1 HST. 602 Cantilever End and roller
1 HST. 603 Complete moment used
2 HST. 604 Double Pulley
2 HST. 605 Wire Collection
3 HST. 606 Hanger Clamp
2 HST. 607 Hanger Connector
2 HST. 608 Big Hangers
7 HST. 609 Small Hangers
1 HST. 610 Hanger Balancer
1 HST. 611 Adjustable Cantilever

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1 HST. 6m Watch Gauges


1 HST. 6c Metal
1 HST. 6d Perspective Beam Test

1/2L

1/2L

HST.
603

HST.
610

HST.
607
HST.
608 load and load moment.
Figure B.1 props structure with upward

Figure B.1 shows the application of a concentrated load to the top (upward load)
and the load torque on statically indeterminate structure. Many variations can be
made as shown round the corner and deflection on the placement, hanging load or
load evenly split, the theory of reciprocity, and others.
IV.

Experiment 1. Expense Focused Amid Placement Landscape With


Pinch-Joints
P

L/2

L/2

C
D
Figure B.2 Experiment 1 Condition
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A. How it Works
1. Setting spans two buffers at 0.9 m thick iron rod and insert the tip of the
tool. Measure the dimensions of the steel plate and the distance x
2. Locking arm drive at point C to produce a state-flops placement and attract
key mover arm at point D to produce a joint placement conditions
3. Putting hanger and clamp load at midspan and prepare timepiece gauge to
measure the deflection at the concentrated load. Check that the load on the
buffer, free to rotate in the direction of beam deflection.
4. Adding loads one by one from 2 N to 10 N (load variation can be
determined). Noting watches gauge readings (A and B)
B. Observations and Data Processing
Determining the value of Modulus of Elasticity / Young's Modulus (E) of the lab
results from the deflection formula theoretically calculated by equation
(7PL3/768EI) and from the formula rounds the corner at point D is calculated
according to equation (0.03125 PL2/EI), then the results were compared with
ELiteratur -Steel = 200.000MPa. Round the corner at point D at trial that (DGI readings
on D) / x.
C. Data Processing
From the results of the lab experiments Certain Static Theory of bending beam
with concentrated load at the middle span Pinch-Pinch placement, obtained some
data from a dial readings with each load 2N, 4N, 6N, 8N, and 10N. Dial readings
are then inserted in the formula to get the value of E that magnitude will be
compared with ELiteratur-Steel = 200.000MPa, then proceed with the calculation of
the relative error.

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General Formula:

P
P

=Dial A
=

Dial D
X

7PL3
Akibat
768I
0.03125PL2
=
Akibat
I

n
2
Ei-E
i=1

=E
n
7PL3
=
768EI
0.03125PL2
=
EI
E
-E
= Teori Praktik
E
Teori

Praktik

E
K

-E
Teori Praktik
E
Teori

Experiment 1 Practical Calculation Result


A. Calculation of the value of E from (Rotation Angle)
L

= 900 mm

= 100 mm

B Beam

= 25 mm

H Beam

= 2.3 mm

I Beam

= 25.34792 mm4

E Steel

= 200000 N/mm2

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(Ei-)2

No

P (N)

Dial B (mm)

E Due

0.55

0.0055

363128.2829 277299.7

85828.55

1.19

0.0119

335664.7993 277299.7

58365.07

2.71

0.0271

221092.866

277299.7

56206.87

3.22

0.0322

248100.0691 277299.7

29199.66

10

4.57

0.0457

218512.6429 277299.7

58787.09

1386498.66

288387.2

E Average

= 277299.7

( (Ei-)2 ) / n-1

= 72096.81

E Maximum

= 349396.5 MPa

E Minimum

= 205202.9 MPa

E Average

Therefore, Its obtained that E1 = 349396.5 MPa and E2 = 205202.9 Mpa

B. Calculation of the value of E from (Deflection)


L

= 900 mm

= 100 mm

B Beam

= 25 mm

H Beam

= 2.3 mm

I Beam

= 25.34792 mm4

E Steel

= 200000 N/mm2

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No P (N)

Dial A (mm)

(mm)

E Due

E Average

(Ei-)2

1.43

1.43

366619.901

352826

13793.91

3.06

3.06

342657.816

352826

10168.18

4.71

4.71

333927.6805 352826

18898.31

5.98

5.98

350679.9053 352826

2146.09

10

7.08

7.08

370244.674

17418.68

1764129.977

E Average

= 352826

( (Ei-)2 ) / n-1

= 31212.58

E Maximum

= 384038.6 MPa

E Minimum

= 321613.4 MPa

352826

62425.17

Therefore, Its obtained that E1 = 384038.6 MPa and E2 = 321613.4 MPa

C. Theoritical Calculation
L

= 900 mm

= 100 mm

B Beam

= 25 mm

H Beam

= 2.3 mm

I Beam

= 25.34792 mm4

E Steel

= 200000 N/mm2

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No P (N)

(mm)

E Due

E Due

0.009986028 2.621332292 200000

200000

0.019972056 5.242664585 200000

200000

0.029958083 7.863996877 200000

200000

0.039944111 10.48532917 200000

200000

10

0.049930139 13.10666146 200000

200000

D. Relatives Error Calculation (RE%)


L

= 900 mm

= 100 mm

B Beam

= 25 mm

H Beam

= 2.3 mm

I Beam

= 25.34792 mm4

E Steel

= 200000 N/mm2

Practical

No

P (N)

Theory

Relatives Error

Theory (mm)

Practical

Relatives Error

0.009986028 0.0055

44.92304527

2.621332

1.43

45.44759

0.019972056 0.0119

40.41674897

5.242665

3.06

41.63273

0.029958083 0.0271

9.540274348

7.863997

4.71

40.10679

0.039944111 0.0322

19.38736626

10.48533

5.98

42.96793

10

0.049930139 0.0457

8.472115226

13.10666

7.08

45.98167

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E Average

= (352826+ 277299.7) /2
= 315062.8637

Relatives Error Average for E

=|

=|

= 57.53%

Relatives Error Average for = 24.54791001 %


Relatives Error Average for = 43.22734%
V.

Experiment 2. Centralized Load Central In Landscape With Fixed Fixed Placement

L/2

L/2

Figure B.3 Experiment 2 Condition

A. How it Works
1. Setting spans two buffers at 0.9 m thick iron rod and insert the tip of the
tool. Measure the dimensions of the steel plate
2. Locking arm drive at point D to produce a condition of placement flops

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3. Putting hanger and clamp load at midspan and prepare timepiece gauge to
measure the deflection at the concentrated load. Check that the load on the
buffer, free to rotate towards the beam deflection.
4. Adding loads one by one from 2N to 10 N (load variation can be
determined). Record gauge readings watches (A)
B. Observations and Data Processing
Determining the value of Modulus of Elasticity / Young's Modulus (E) of the lab
results from the deflection formula theoretically calculated by equation
(PL3/192EI) then the results were compared with ELiteratur-Steel = 200.000MPa. then
proceed to determine the value of the average elastic modulus obtained from
experimental data processing 1 and 2 and calculate the error literature.
C. Data Processing
From the results of the lab experiments Certain Static Theory of bending beam
with concentrated load at the middle span Pinch-Pinch placement, obtained some
data from a dial readings with each load 2N, 4N, 6N, 8N, and 10N. Dial readings
are then inserted in the formula to get the value of E that magnitude will be
compared with ELiteratur-Steel = 200.000MPa, then proceed with the calculation of
the relative error.
Experiment 2 Practical Calculation Result
A. Calculation of the value of E from (Bending)
L

= 900 mm

= 100 mm

B Beam

= 25 mm

H Beam

= 2.3 mm

I Beam

= 25.34792 mm4

E Steel

= 200000 N/mm2

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(Ei-)2

No

P (N)

Dial A (mm)

(mm)

E Due

0.7

0.7

427972.6 402914.8

25057.87

1.456

1.456

411512.1 402914.8

8597.381

2.24

2.24

401224.3 402914.8

1690.422

3.09

3.09

387806.9 402914.8

15107.85

10

3.88

3.88

386057.8 402914.8

16856.98

2014574

67310.5

E Average

= 402914.8

( (Ei-)2 ) / n-1

= 33655.25

E Maximum

= 436570 MPa

E Minimum

= 369259.5 MPa

E Average

Therefore, Its obtained that E1 = 436570 MPa and E2 = 369259.5 Mpa


B. Theoritical Calculation
L

= 900 mm

= 100 mm

B Beam

= 25 mm

H Beam

= 2.3 mm

I Beam

= 25.34792 mm4

E Steel

= 200000 N/mm2
No

P (N)

(mm)

E Due

1.497904 200000

2.995808 200000

4.493713 200000

5.991617 200000

10

7.489521 200000

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C. Relatives Error Calculation (RE%)


L

= 900 mm

= 100 mm

B Beam

= 25 mm

H Beam

= 2.3 mm

I Beam

= 25.34792 mm4

E Steel

= 200000 N/mm2

E Average

No

P (N)

Theo (mm)

Prac (mm)

Relative Error

1.497904

0.7

53.26804

2.995808

1.456

51.39876

4.493713

2.24

50.15257

5.991617

3.09

48.42794

10

7.489521

3.88

48.19428

= 50.28832

Relatives Error Average for E

=|

=|

= 101.4574%

Relatives Error Average for = 50.28832 %

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VI.

Experiment 3. Moment On Load Central Placement Landscape With


Pinch-Joints
M
A
D

C
L/2

L/2

Figure B.4 Experiment 3 Condition

A. How it Works
1. Setting spans two buffers at 0.9 m thick iron rod and insert the tip of the
tool . Measure the dimensions of the steel plate.
2. Locking arm drive at point C to produce a state -flops placement and
attract key mover arm at point D to produce a joint placement conditions.
3. Putting the burden on both the load chain ( thus forming the coupling
moment).
4. Adding loads one by one from 5N to 25N ( load variation can be
determined ). Noted timepiece measuring readout ( A and D )

B. Observations and Data Processing


Determining the value of constants kMiddle and kright of lab results of Middle and
Right by the general equation = ML / ( KEI ) , followed by calculation of the
relative experimental error . Round the corner at point D at trial that ( DGI
readings on D ) / x .

C. Data Processing
From the results of the lab experiments Certain Static Theory of bending beam
with moment load at the middle span perletakkan Pinch - Joints , obtained some
of the data such as the reading of a dial and dial D by loading each 2N , 4N , 6N ,

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8N , and 10N . Dial readings are then inserted in the formula to get the value of
constants which will be compared with the magnitude of K literature followed by
a calculation of the relative error .
General Formula:

A
D

Dial A -Dial A
1
2
X
Dial D
=
X
L
M
EI
=

M
K

L
EI

n
2
Ki-K

K Rltf = i=1
K

Experiment 3 Practical Calculation Result


A. Calculation of the value of K from Middle (Rotation Angle A)
L

= 900 mm

= 100 mm

B Beam

= 25 mm

H Beam

= 2.3 mm

I Beam

= 25.34792 mm4

E Steel

= 200000 N/mm2

L/EI

= 0.00017753 N/mm

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KA Average (Ki-)2

No P (N)

Moment's Arm

M (Nmm)

Dial A (mm)

80

160

0.19

0.0019 14.94984 14.25891

0.690937

80

320

0.41

0.0041 13.85595 14.25891

0.402954

80

480

0.61

0.0061 13.96953 14.25891

0.28938

80

640

0.81

0.0081 14.02701 14.25891

0.231892

10

80

800

0.98

0.0098 14.49219 14.25891

0.233289

KA

71.29453

K Average

= 67.40480691

( (Ei-)2 ) / n-1

= 26.57295073

K Maximum

= 93.97775764

K Minimum

= 40.83185618

0.369691

Therefore, Its obtained that K1 14.44375 and K2 = 14.07406

B. Calculation of the value of K from Right (Rotation Angle D)


(Ki-)2

No P (N) Moment's Arm

M (Nmm)

Dial D (mm)

80

160

0.43

0.0043 6.605744 5.582061

1.023684

80

320

0.01

5.68094

5.582061

0.098879

80

480

1.5

0.015

5.68094

5.582061

0.098879

80

640

2.08

0.0208 5.462443 5.582061

0.119618

10

80

800

3.17

0.0317 4.480237 5.582061

1.101824

KD

KD Average

27.9103

K Average

= 5.582061

( (Ei-)2 ) / n-1

= 1.221442

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2.442885

16

K Maximum

= 6.803503

K Minimum

= 4.360618

Therefore, Its obtained that K1 6.803503 and K2 = 4.360618


C. Relatives error Value of K at Middle (Rotation Angle A)
Relatives Error = (14.25891 - 0.184845/14.25891) x 100% = 98.70365033 %
D. Relatives error Value of K at Right (Rotation Angle D)
Relatives Error = (5.582061 - 1.221442/5.582061) x 100% = 78.118433%
VII.

Experiment 4. Load Moment In Central Landscape With Fixed Ends


Placement.
M

L/2

L/2

Figure B.5 Experimet 4 Condition

A. How it Works
1. Preparing spans two buffers at 0.9 m thick iron rod and insert the tip of the
tool. Measure the dimensions of the steel plate.
2. Lock the drive arm at point C to produce a condition of placement flops.
3. Put a strain on both the load chain (thus forming the coupling moment).
4. Adding loads one by one from 2N to 10N (load variation can be
determined). Noted timepiece measuring readout (A)

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B. Observations and Data Processing


Determining the value of constants kMiddle and kright of lab results of Middle and
Right by the general equation = ML / ( KEI ) , followed by calculation of the
relative experimental error . Round the corner at point D at trial that ( DGI
readings on D ) / x .

C. Data Processing
From the results of the lab experiments Certain Static Theory of bending beam
with moment load at the middle span perletakkan Pinch - Joints , obtained some
of the data such as the reading of a dial and dial D by loading each 2N , 4N , 6N ,
8N , and 10N . Dial readings are then inserted in the formula to get the value of
constants which will be compared with the magnitude of K literature followed by
a calculation of the relative error .
General Formula:

Dial A -Dial A
1
2
X
L
M
EI
=

n
2
Ki-K
i=1

K
=
Rltf
K

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Experiment 4 Practical Calculation Result

A. Calculation of the value of K from Middle (Rotation Angle A)


L

= 900 mm

= 100 mm

B Beam

= 25 mm

H Beam

= 2.3 mm

I Beam

= 25.34792 mm4

E Steel

= 200000 N/mm2

L/EI

= 0.00017753 N/mm

No P (N)

Moment's Arm

M (Nmm)

Dial A (mm)

KA

80

160

0.07

0.0007

40.57814 14.25891

26.31924

80

320

0.04

0.0004

142.0235 14.25891

127.7646

80

480

0.14

0.0014

60.86722 14.25891

46.60831

80

640

0.21

0.0021

54.10419 14.25891

39.84529

10

80

800

0.36

0.0036

39.45097 14.25891

25.19207

337.024

53.1459

K Average

= 14.25891

( (Ei-)2 ) / n-1

= 26.57295

K Maximum

= 40.83186

K Minimum

= -12.314

KA Average

Therefore, Its obtained that K1 = 40.83186 and K2 = -12.314

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(Ki-)2

19

C. Relatives error Value of K at Middle (Rotation Angle A)


Relatives Error = (67.40480691 - 26.57295073/67.40480691) x 100% =
60.57706869%
VIII.

Pratical Analysis

A. Experimental Analysis
Experiments on the theory of beam deflection in statically indeterminate aims to
determine the accuracy of the deflection theory by finding the value of the
modulus of elasticity (E). E values were calculated from lab results will then be
compared with standard E value is 200,000 MPa. Besides this lab also conducted
to determine the constant rotation angle of rotation angles that occur in the joint
placement and at midspan moment due to the coupling rod that works.
At the first experiment, external force is applied on the mid span of the beam, this
beam is placed in structurally indeterminate support reaction which is fixed ends
and fixed pin ends. There is adjustments on the laboratory equipment, there is a
locker at the support reation, therefore during the experiments of fixed ends,
locker/ key are locked but during fixed pin support reation we need to unlock
one of the supports can fuction as pin support.
During the second experiment at the fixed ends conditions, dial gauge is set 0
and variations of load is applied at the middle of the beam. Load variations consist
of 2N , 4N, 6N, 8N and 10N. Only one reading can be taken out from the fixed
ends experiments because there is no rotating angle at the fixed ends. Then
experiments is repeated using a fixed pin ends support. Variations of load that is
applied here is the same as the experiment before but the only differences is that
in this experiment there is two readings that need to be taken down. First one is
the bendings form the middle gauge and secondly is the angle of rotation at the
gauge that is located at the pin support. After readings of both experiments has
been taken down, need not to forget to measure the beam properties that is latter
use to measure Inertia of the beam.

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At the third experiments, we have the same set ups as the first one, but the only
different thing is that there is a moment that is located in the middle of the beam.
With moment arms up to 80 mm. Variations of loads is the same where 2N, 4N,
6N, 8N and 10N of loads is place to produce moment in the middle of the span. At
the fixed pin end support set up there is two readings that need to be taken out,
first one is the deflection in shown in the middle gauge and the second reading is
taken out from the other gauge that is place on the pin support. Things to note is
that we need to always reset the gauge reading to 0 before load is place and
moment act on the middle of the span. There is a slight different for the forth
experiment, reading from the last set up (fixed ends support) is only taken at one
gauge which is the middle gauge.
A brief explanation for the first experiment is that reading are taken down in roder
to find the modulus of elasticity (E) obtain in the pratical. This modulus of
elasticity value are later compared with the theoretical value of mudulus of
elasticity which is 200000 Mpa, unfortunately in this experiment there is no
perfect result and therefore there is always a relatives error for this experiment.
At the second experiment, we obtained the value of k (constant) which is also
later compared to the theoretical value of k, the same situation happened here,
where we could not expect a perfect value of k where later we found out that our
reading is slightly different from the theoretical value, therefore there is also a
relatives error for this test.
Therefore in total we have 4 experiment that is carried out from the laboratory.

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B. Calculation Analysis
At the first experiment with fixed pin end condition, value of modulus of
elasticity is compared between the result obtain from the experiment (laboratory
experiment) with its ideal value. There is two value of E that is obtained from the
first experiment as two reading is taken out from the gauge. First one is the E due
to rotation angle and the second is E due to deflection.
At the first experiment, value of E due to deflection obtained is 352826 MPa and
Value of E due to rotation angle obtained from the pin support is 277299.7 MPa.
If we compared these results with the standard value of E which is 200000 MPa
therefore there is a relative error of both of the result. Relatives error obtained
from the E value due to deflection and the relatives error of E due to rotation
angle at the pin support is 43.22734% and 24.54791001 %
Secondly, is observation on experiment with fixed ends set up. The modulus of
elasticity (E) obtained from deflection formula and with the help of the readings
taken during the laboratory experiment is 402914.8 MPa. Therefore if we
compare this result with the standard value of E (Modulus of elasticity) that is
200000 Mpa, there is relative error for this experiment. Relatives error that is
obtained from the calculation when we compare our reading with the standard
reading is about 101.4574%
At the third experiment which is the fixed pin end support, calculation result
that is obtained is the value of constant (K). There is two K value of obtained in
this experiment: KMiddle and KRight. After calculation is carried out, Kmiddle obtained
is 14.25841 and KRight obtained is 5.582061. Of course there is also relatives error
of K for both KMiddle and KRight. Both relatives error are: 98.70365033% and
78.118433% respectively.
Finally at the last experiment which is in Fixed ends condition, value of K
obtained at the middle of the span is 67.40480691. and the relatives error obtained
in this experiment is 60.57706869%.

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C. Error Analysis
Relatives error is obtained in all of the experiment we took in the laboratory. The
highest relative error percentage obtained is from the last experiment of the fixed
ends set up. From the first experiment for both E due to deflection and E due to
rotation are: 43.22734% and 24.54791001% respectively. From the third
experiment relatives error of k (constant) from the middle and right gauge are:
98.70365033% and 78.118433% respectively. And from the last experiment the
relative error obtained are: 60.57706869%.
Relatvies error could be obtained from several mistakes taken in lab. Firstly in can
be human error. This error cause by us, the practitioners as we have lacked of
experienced to carry out this experiment. Faultness that can be done from human
error are the in accurate reading of the gauge itself.
Secondly error can be obtained from instrumental error. The instrument such as
gauge used in laboratory are too old that some of them do not function well. Some
dial gauge are very sensitive, not to mention during the unloading process of the
load, dial gauge didnt go back to zero. This show that the dial gauge reading is
not consistent. During our experiment, we tried applying the same load but all of
them produce different readings. The same thing happen when we accidentally
shake off the set ups or apply a little shock to be set ups, dial gauge can straight
away changes its value.
Third, may be the parallex error, Parallax error occur when practitioners did not
take reading from the dial gauge properly. Meaning to say during the process of
reading the instrument, the eye of the practitioners is not parallel with dial gauge
and therefore error can occur.

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IX.

Conclusion

1. In this experiment we could straightaway tell that there is deflection on the


beam when load is applied on to it.
2. Also there is rotation in the pin when load is applied to structure that is
equipped with pin support.
3. Deflection due to fixed ends set up is smaller than the deflections due in
the fixed and pin ends support.
4. Relatives error is obtained because there is human, instrumental and
parallax error done during the practical.
5. At the first experiment E due and E due are 277299.7 MPa and 352826
MPa.
6. At the second experiment E due is 402914.8 Mpa.
7. At the third experiment Ka is 14.25891 and Kd is 5.582061
8. At the last experiment Ka is 14.25891.
X.

References
1. Tim Penyusun Pedoman Praktikum Analisa Struktur, Pedoman praktikum
Analisa Struktur, Jurusan Sipil FT UI Depok.
2. Hibbeler, R.C. Mechanics Of Materials, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2003
3. Hibbeler, R.C. Structural Analysis, 6th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2006

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XI. Attachment

Pitcure XI.1 Side Gauge

Pitcure XI.2 Experimental Gauge

Pitcure XI.3 Middle Gauge


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