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2.1 11. Let A and B be 2 2 matrices.

a. Does det(A + B) = det(A) + det(B)?


b. Does det(AB) = det(A)det(B)?
c. Does det(AB) = det(BA)?
Justify your answers.
Solution:(Joe) 



a b
e f
a. No: Let A =
and B =
.
c d
g h
Then,




a b
e f
det(
) + det(
) = ad bc + eh f g
c d
g h
and

 
a b
e
det(
+
c d
g




f
a+e b+f
) = det(
) = (a + e)(d + h) (b + f )(c + g)
h
c+g d+h
= ad + eh + ah + ed bc f g bg f c

It is NOT true that for all values of a, b, c, d, e, f , g, h that det(A) + det(B)


equals det(A + B). 



a b
e f
b. Yes: Let A =
and B =
.
c d
g h
Then,





a b
e f
ae + bg af + bh
det(
) = det(
) = (ae+bg)(cf +dh)(af +bh)(ce+dg)
c d
g h
ce + dg cf + dh
= adeh + bcf g adf g bceh
and



a b
e
det(
)det(
c d
g


f
) = (ad bc)(eh f g) = adeh + bcf g adf g bceh
h

It IS true that for allvaluesof a, b, c, d,e, f , g,


 h that det(AB) = det(A)det(B).
a b
e f
c. Yes: Let A =
and B =
. Then, from part (b), we have
c d
g h
det(AB) = adeh + bcf g adf g bceh
and

e
det(
g

f
h



a b
) = (eh f g)(ad bc) = adeh + bcf g adf g bceh
c d

It IS true that det(AB) = det(BA).


2.2 5.

Let A be an n n matrix and a scalar. Show that

det(A) = n det(A)
Solution: (Jeff)
For this particular problem there are two case. Specifically:
Case 1: A is singular.
Case 2: A is nonsingular.
In case 1 if A is singular then it is not row equivalent to I and det(A) = 0.
Clearly, A is not row equivalent to I because dividing each row in A by
1/ would get us back to A and A is singular. Thus, A is singular and
det(A) = 0. Also, n det(A) = n (0) = 0. Therefore, det(A) = n det(A)
when A is singular.
In case 2 if A is nonsingular it can be reduced to strictly triangular form by
using only the first and third row operations. We will call the matrix to which
A is reduced T . Since we only used the first and third row operations to obtain
T we know:
det(A) = det(T ) = (t11 t22 tnn ) where tii are diagonal entries in T .
Thus,
n det(A) = n (t11 t22 tnn )
= ((t11 )(t22 ) (tnn ))
= det(T )
= det(A)
Now we have shown what was desired.
Remark:(Li) It can proved without dividing into two cases. Each time we
multiply a row by . Repeat n times.




a11 a12 ... a1n
a11 a12 ... a1n




a21 a22 ... a2n
a21
a22 ... a2n



a32 ... a3n
a32 ... a3n = n2 a31
n det(A) = n1 a31
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...




an1
an2 ... ann
an2 ... ann
an1



a11
a12
...
a1n

a11 a12 ... a1n

a21

a
...
a
22
2n

a21 a22 ... a2n
= det(A)
=
...
...
...
...
= ... =

...
...
...
an1,1 an1,2 ... an1,n ...

an1 an2 ... ann
an1

an2
...
ann
2.2 6. Let A be a nonsingular matrix. Show that
det(A1 ) =

1
det(A)

Solution:(Joe)
We know that AA1 = I. If we take the determinant of each side, we get:
det(AA1 ) = det(I)
det(A)det(A1 ) = 1
2

det(A1 ) =

1
det(A)

as desired.
2.2 14. Let A and B be n n matricies. Prove that the product AB is
nonsingular if and only if A and B are both nonsingular.
Solution:(Jeff)
I will first prove that if AB is nonsingular then A and B are both nonsingular.
If AB is nonsingular then det(AB) 6= 0 by theorem 2.2.2. We also know
that det(AB) = det(A) det(B) 6= 0 by theorem 2.2.3. Clearly the only way
det(A) det(B) = 0 is if one or both of the determinants of A and B are zero. If
one or both of the determinats of A and B equal zero then at least one of the
matricies is singular by theorem 2.2.2. Therefore, the determinants of A and B
must both be nonzero in order to make the determinant of AB nonzero, and
both A and B are nonsingular when AB is nonsingular.
Now, I will prove that if A and B are both nonsingular then AB is nonsingular.
If A and B are both nonsingular then we have det(A) 6= 0 and det(B) 6= 0
by theorem 2.2.2. We know from theorem 2.2.3 that det(A) det(B) = det(AB).
Thus, it must be the case that det(AB) 6= 0 and AB is nonsingular when both
A and B are nonsingular.
We have clearly shown that the product AB is nonsingular if and only if A
and B are both nonsingular.