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Define biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function,
growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of many branches
and sub disciplines. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain general and unifying concepts within it
that govern all study and research, consolidating it into single, coherent fields. In general, biology recognizes the cell as
the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the synthesis and
creation of new species. It is also understood today that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and
by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable and vital condition.
Subdisciplines of biology are defined by the scale at which organisms are studied, the kinds of organisms studied, and the
methods used to study them: Biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the
complex interactions among biological molecules; botany studies the biology of plants; cellular biology examines the basic
building-block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of tissues, organs, and organ
systems of an organism; evolutionary biology examines the processes that produced the diversity of life; and ecology
examines how organisms interact in their environment.

3. Give 10 scientist that contributed in Biology.

Charles Darwin (18091882)
Famous For: Theory of Evolution
After attending the University of Cambridge and taking up medicine at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, Darwin
was considered a naturalist. As a biologist, he proposed the concept that all species of life came from a single source. His
theory of evolution marked the beginning of the discussion on natural selection.
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
Famous For: Modern Genetics
When he wrote Experiments on Plant Hybridization, he paved the way for biology students to study genetic traits in
peas. During his experiments, Gregor found that a specific trait would be dominant over other traits in the same species.
This became to be recognized as the Mendelian inheritance.
Aristotle (384322 BC)
Famous For: Classified organisms into a Ladder of Life
Aristotle is forever linked with philosophy and logic. Few associate him with biology and medicine. His work on the
classification of living things was still in use up to the 19th century. He differentiated them by calling animals and plants
as he saw them, with blood, without blood, and so on.
Claude Bernard (18131878)
Famous For: Blind experimental method for objective results
Born in Saint Julien, France in 1813, Claude Bernard has been considered one of the greatest of all men of science. He
fostered the use of blind experiments in order to produce objective results. He also believed that vivisection, the use of
surgery on a living thing for knowledge, was useful in the study and practice of medicine.

Louis Pasteur (18221895)

Famous For: Created the process of pasteurization for treating milk and wine
As one of the founders of medical microbiology, Louis Pasteurs education in the field of chemistry and microbiology may
be credited with his success. His germ theory of disease became the catalyst to his process we know as pasteurization
Robert Hooke (16351703)
Famous For: Coined the term cell
Born on 1635 in the Isle of Wight, England, Robert Hooke received his higher education at Oxford University where he
studied physics and chemistry. His work included the application what is known today as Hookes law, his use of
microscopy, and for the discovery of the cell in 1665 using cork and a microscope
Hippocrates (c.460370 BC)
Famous For: The Father of Western Medicine
Considered the father of western medicine, he is the first person to attribute diseases to natural causes rather than
caused by the superstition that it is caused by gods. More importantly was his professional approach and discipline in the
practice of medicine during his time, which has been carried over to this day.
Edward Jenner (17491823)
Famous For: Creating the first effective vaccine for smallpox
Edward Jenner is considered as the father of immunology mainly because of his pioneering work on the smallpox
vaccine and the use of vaccination. Born in Berkeley, England in 1749, he specialized in microbiology at the University of
St. Andrews and the University of London
Antoine Lavoisier (17431794)
Famous For: Observing metabolism
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier was a French biologist and chemist born in 1743 in Paris. He is credited with the naming of
hydrogen, oxygen, and silicon. This has led him to be considered the father of modern chemistry. As a biologist, Lavoisier
identified that living things generated heat, leading to the concept of metabolism.
Rachel Carson (19071964)
Famous For: Movement against using pesticides
Rachel Louise Carson was a marine biologist born in Springdale, Pennsylvania in 1907. Carson is credited with creating
awareness for the preservation of the environment. She led the crusade against the use of DDT in the United States of
America, which resulted in the creation of the EPA, Environmental Protection Agency.

4. How important is Biology?

- Biology is the study of living things, thus we learn about who we are, what were are made of and how we function.
Biology helps us understand the world in which we live in and how we can respond to it.

2. Give 10 branches of Biology and define.

Botany is the study of plants.

Zoology is the study of animals.
Anatomy is the study of internal structures of living
Biochemistry is the use of chemistry in the study of
living things.
Biological Earth Science is the use of earth sciences,
such as geography in the study of living things.
Biological Psychology is the use of biology in
psychological studies.
Biomathematics is the use of mathematics in the study
of living things.
Biophysics is the use of physics in the study of living
Ecology is the study of the relationships of living things
to each other and to their environment.
Pathology is the study if diseases, generally in animals.
Phytopathology is the study of diseases in plants.
Physiology is the study of normal functions of living
Taxonomy is the classification and naming of living

Pharmacology is the study of the actions of chemicals

on and in living things.
Endocrinology is the study of hormones and their
Cytology is the study of cells.
Protozoology is the study of one celled organisms
Bacteriology is the study of bacteria.
Virology is the study of viruses.
Mammalogy is the study of mammals.
Ornithology is the study of birds.
Herpetology is the study of reptiles and amphibians,
Ichthyology is the study of fishes.
Entomology is the study of insects.
Helminthology is the study of worms.
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms.
Mycology is the study of fungi.
Phycology is the study of algae.
Liehenology is the study of lichens.
Paleontology is the study of fossils.

Genetics is the science of heredity and the lifelong

development of living things

Biogeography is the study of geographical distribution

of living things.

Embryology is the study of the formation and

development of living things from fertilization to birth
as independent organisms.

Phytogeography is the study of the land and its plants.

Zoogeography is the study of the land and its animal