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THE INFLUENCE OF CONTEXTUAL MEANING MASTERY ON

READING EXPOSITION TEXT AT THE XI GRADE


STUDENTS OF SMA NEGERI 1 MUARASIPONGI
By
Name: Lisa Delvianti
NPM: 0901020066

A. Background of the Research


Reading is one of the English skills that should be mastered by the
students. If the students can not master reading comprehension, they will get
many difficulties in understanding English. Such as, they cannot get information
from written or printed material, they cannot response text well, they cannot
express their ideas or feelings into written forms, or they cannot pass in national
examination because it is sure need the good reading skills, and so fort.
Teaching English subject in SMA/MA is aimed to the students owned
competences as follows: 1) Develop the communication competence both written
and orally to reach informational literature degree, 2) Own convince about the
nature and the importance of nations English skill in globalization societies, and
3) Develop the students understanding of relationship between language and
culture.
It means that one of English skills that should be mastered by students is
reading. If the students cannot master reading, they will get many difficulties in
understanding English text. Such as, they cannot get information from written or
printed material, the can response text well, they cannot express their ideas or

feelings into written forms, or they cannot pass in national examination because it
sure need the good reading skills and so forth.
In fact, the students ability in reading comprehension of exposition text is
still far from the expectation. Due to the DKN of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi,
majority (> 70%) of XI grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi have
mark 60 in English subject, while their minimal target is 75. By paying attention
to this problem, there are many factors that influenced the successfulness of the
students in teaching reading. Such as: contextual meaning mastery, intelligence,
motivation, interest, part of speech, vocabulary, translation mastery, personality of
the teacher, environment, facility of the students, society, library, family, etc
In improving students reading comprehension, the teacher has done many
efforts, such as: trying some methods of teaching, giving some homework, asking
the students to remember some vocabularies, using English as a language in
teaching learning process, etc.
Contextual meaning plays an important role in determining the word
meaning in reading process. Without contextual meaning the information which
writer wants to convey cannot be reach by reader. A good reader should know the
real meaning of words in order to be easier in getting the information from the
text or reading material.
Exposition text is a text that elaborates the writers ideas about the
phenomena surrounding or text that states the introductory of a topic indicating
the writers position in persuading the readers or listeners that something is the

case, gives a point of view and substantiates what is claimed with reference to
relevant authorities (readings).
As mention above, there are many factors that influence in reading. But of
doing some observation, the writer believes that Students contextual meaning
mastery is the most influenced. By good contextual meaning mastery the students
reading comprehension will increase significantly.
Base on the explanation above, the writer would like to conduct this
research about The Influence of Contextual Meaning Mastery on Reading
Exposition Text at the XI Grade Students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi. If this
problem is not finished the students will be nonsense study English.

B. The Identification of the Problem


Related to the expalantion of the background above, the writer tries to
identify the problem of the research that the students weaknesses in reading
exposition text is influenced by two factors. The factors are internal factor; the
factors which influenced students reading exposition text that come from the
students themselves, such as: their contextual meaning mastery, motivation,
intellegence, cognition, pronunciation ability, grammar/structure mastery,
vocabulary mastery, etc.
Thus, the external factors are the factors which influenced students
reading exposition text that come from outside of the students, such as: teaching
methods, school facilities, students environments, students background family,
etc. Based one the writer observation both factors are influenced students reading

comprehension and need to be minimalized in order to increase the students


achievement in reading comprehension.

C. The Limitation of the Problem


Based on the explanation of the background and identification of the
problem previously, the writer sees that there are many factors which influence
students reading exposition text. It also can be stated that in assessing students
reading exposition all the factors should be measured. But in this research, it is
impossible for the writer to see the influence of the factors, because the limited
time and reference and also fund of the writer. In addition, she limits only about
the contextual meaning in reading exposition text.

D. The Formulation of the Problem


Based on the previous background explanation, the problem can be formulated
as follows:
1.

To what extent is the contextual meaning mastery at the XI


grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi?

2.

To what extent is students reading exposition text at the XI


grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi?

3.

Whether there is a significant influence between contextual


meaning mastery and reading exposition text at the XI grade students of SMA
Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi?

E. The Aims of the Research


1. To find out the extent of the contextual meaning mastery at the XI grade
students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi.
2. To find out the extent of the students reading exposition text at the XI grade
students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi.
3. To find out whether there is a significant influence between contextual
meaning mastery and students reading exposition text?

F. The Uses of the Research


In this research, the writer expects the study will be useful for:
1. The students, it is as a tip to effective ways in developing and the students
mastery about contextual meaning of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi.
2. Teacher, it is awareness for English teacher in teaching and explaining the
reading exposition text of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi.
3. The Headmaster, it is as information in giving the input to the teacher in
conducting the process of teaching and learning, particularly in reading
exposition text.
4. The researchers, it is as a resource for the other researchers dealing with this
topic.

G. Theoretical Description
1. Contextual Meaning Mastery
Contextual meaning is making inference or translation of the text
based on the context situation. Contextual meaning is the part of semantic. We
have defined semantics as the study of meaning. Defining the definition, the
students may be tempted to think that once understand the semantics of a
language, completely understand that language. Meaning, however, involves
more than just the semantic interpretation of an utterance. In understand the
meaning of a sentence; the students must also understand the context in which
it was uttered.
Byram and Grundy (2003:1), Context is thus as complex a concept as
culture, the latter being notoriously difficult to define. Culture in language
teaching and learning is usually defined pragmatically as a/the culture
associated with a language being learnt. The quotation means that context is
a complex concepts

as

a culture. In determining the context, it also

understands the culture because culture usually associates with the language
learning.
Then, Anind K. Dey says (2006:3), Context is any information that
can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person,
place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user
and an application, including the user and applications themselves. This
definition makes it easier for an application developer to enumerate the

context for a given application scenario. If a piece of information can be used


to characterize the situation of a participant in an interaction, then that
information is context. Take the canonical context-aware application, an
indoor mobile tour guide, as an example. The obvious entities in this example
are the user, the application and the tour sites. The writer serves two pieces of
information weather and the presence of other people and use the
definition to determine whether either one is context. The weather does not
affect the application because it is being used indoors. Therefore, it is not
context. The presence of other people, however, can be used to characterize
the users situation. If a user is traveling with other people, then the sites they
visit may be of particular interest to her.
According to M.A.K Halliday, (2007:150) To explain the contextual
meaning of what had been identified on formal criteria, and as such they were
not unsuitable: at least there were facts to be explained. But the use of such
concepts as criteria for defining linguistic categories is doomed to failure from
the star. It means that to make contextual meaning it should be identified the
formal criteria. If the criteria unsuitable to text, the process of getting the
meaning will fail.
Similarly, Basil Hatim and Jeremy Munday (2004:264) say, Formal
uniformity is no longer so much emphasized: form is no longer so highly
rated over meaning, nor the language system over communicative context.
Then, Savignon (2002:18) stated, Use of authentic language data has
underscored the importance of contextsetting, roles, genre, and so onin

interpreting the meaning of a text. It means that context is one of the most
important to be master in understanding language learning. The context means
the elements which take role in determining the word meaning, namely;
setting, genre, role and so forth.
Furthermore, Cristina Sanz (2005:78) says, The specific learning
context, including the social setting of the learning and the activities learners
engage in, is also relevant. It points out the context include social setting of
the learning and the activities learner engage in. social; setting indicates where
the language utter or expressed and who express it. It is the basic point in
making meaning based on it context.
Context of situation can be specified though use of the register
variable: field refers to what is going on, including: activity focus (nature of
social activity) and objects focus (subject matter), and context of culture
determines what you can mean though: being who you are, doing what you
do and saying what you say.
Nick Cippolone(2000:234) says, Contexts can be divided into four
subparts, of which reality, they are; 1) physical context, 2) epistemic context,
3) linguistic context, and 4) social context.. The quotation means that context
can be divided into four subparts, they are: 1) physical context, 2) epistemic
context, 3) linguistic context, adn4) social context.

1) Physical context
Physical context refers to the setting where is happened. To determine
the author purpose in reading material of course needs to be known the setting
or place of information is being made. Jamila Penivova and Jirka Hana
(2012:6), Physical context refers objects surrounding the communication,
place and time of the communication, what is going on around, etc. It means
that physical context refers to the whole object surrounding the
communication, place and time of the communication. It also includes the
phenomenon that is going on the surrounding the communication happened.
According to Jacqualine Crammer(2006:2), Physical context reflects
the setting of conversation takes place. The quotation indicates that physical
context describes the conversation is happened. It determines the location,
setting, place, more over the time in which conversation takes place. Words
meaning of course will depend on the setting of the information. For example,
the words solution is used in daily conversation will have different meaning
when it is used in chemistry laboratory. In daily conversation the term
solution may be defined as solving a problem while in the chemistry term it
will be defined as a liquid material.
Based on the explanation above, the writer sees that physical context is
the context in which conversation takes place. It also reflects the time or
setting of information is happened. Different setting of words appear will give
different meaning of the words.

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2) Epistemic context
Epistemic context is the context in which meaning determined by the
background knowledge of the reader. A reader who has background
knowledge about the information will be able to determine the meaning of the
word easily. Jamila Penivova and Jirka Hana (2012:11) says that Epistemic
context refers to the background knowledge shared by a speaker and his or her
audience. It means that epistemic context is the context which refers to the
background knowledge share by the speaker and hearer. In reading
comprehension it refers to the schemata of the reader.
In line to the opinion above, Judi Moreilon (2007:19) says, Background
knowledge is what the reader brings to the reading event. Background
knowledge is the reader experience which is brought is reading process. The
experience will affect the reader in understanding the information from the
text.
Furthermore, Anderson & Pearson in Ellen McIntyre, et.al, (2011:120)
Activating prior knowledge strategy is designed to elicit information from
children about the topic on which they will soon read. At times it means
bringing knowledge children already have to the surface, and at other times it
means providing new knowledge they can apply to the reading act. It mean
that in which the teacher asks children what they know about a topic, what
they want to know, and then later what new information they learned is one
example of how teachers activate prior knowledge.

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Based on the explanation above, the writer concludes that epistemic


context is the background knowledge of the speaker and the hearer in a text. A
case which has been known well by someone will be easier to determine the
meaning than without knowing the case.
3) Linguistic context
Linguistic context refers to the information about the reading material
before discussion such as topic, theme or intonation which is used. According
Jamila Penivova and Jirka Hana (2012:24), The information that has already
been shared in the discussion is known as linguistic context, including all
antecedents, topics of conversation, and intonations. It means that linguistic
context refers to the information that has already been shared in the
discussion, including all antecedents, topic of conversation, and intonation.
Similarly, Cristina Sanz (2005:4) says, Linguistic context, is the result
of learners interaction with their social context, and acquisition is thus both
social and cognitive. It means that linguistic context refers to the interaction
which ahs been made before getting the meaning of the reading material. The
interaction involves the social context of the information. Determining the
topic before doing the reading process is an important factor in order to get
the accurate information from the reading material. The topic will guide the
reader to get close meaning among the words in reading material.
Based on the explanation above, the writer concludes that linguistic
context is knowing the topic before doing conversation or reading process. A

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reader who has known well about the topic of reading material of course will
be easier to get the meaning or the information of the reading material.
4) Social context
Social context refer to the social status of information is being made. It
means the to whom the information is aimed. The object of information will
affect in determining words choice. According Jamila Penivova and Jirka
Hana (2012:26), Social context is the term for the relationship between a
speaker and an audience. It means that social context is the relationship
between speaker and hearer. In reading comprehension it means that the
relation ship between writer and to whom the reading material is aimed. The
words choice for scholar will be different for the common society.
Then, Cynthia Hudley and Adele Eskeles Gottfried (2008:124) say,
Social context makes an additional contribution to student outcomes,
whether directly through culturally responsive teaching practices or indirectly
through some motivational or other social contextual process. It means that
social context helps the students to make words definition close to the author
meant. By seeing social context, of course the reader will consider all of
factor which is assumed affect the words meaning.
Furthermore they stated, Social contextual dimensions of cultural
continuity as they relate to students motivation and achievement. Cynthia
Hudley and Adele Eskeles Gottfried (2008:125). The quotation means that

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social context also assume there is a connection between reader motivation to


the his/her achievement in reading comprehension.
Based on the explanation, the writer concludes that contextual meaning
is the making inference or meaning of the text based on the context situation.
So the students contextual meaning mastery is the ability of the students to
determine the meaning of the text based on the physical context, epistemic
context, linguistic context, and social context. If the students are able to
determine the meaning of the text base on the four aspect it will be the close
meaning of the text.

2. The Nature of Reading Comprehension


Reading is a process of getting information from reading material or
printed material. The definition of reading comprehension is very crucial to
understand. Mark Edmundson (2009:3) says, Reading is to submit one text
to the terms of another; to allow one text to interrogate another then often to
try, sentence, and summarily execute it.. The quotation indicates that reading
in is process of understanding text, that may be understanding of the terms
where some techniques are used in order to be easy in understanding the text.
In line with Edmundson, Judi Moreilon (2007:10) says, Reading is
making meaning from print and from visual information. But reading is not
simple. Reading is an active process that requires a great deal of practice and
skill. The quotation means that in reading comprehension there is also
inferring the meaning process. The reader reads the material while his/her

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brain tries to understand or perceive the meaning of whole text which are
being read.
Furthermore, Randi Stone (2009:42), Reading is a complex process that
must be modeled, taught, practiced and evaluated on daily basis. It indicates
that reading includes a complex process that should be modeled or designed
by the teacher. The process is aimed to make reading process work well and
comfortable.
Jennifer Serravalo (2010:43) says, Comprehension is at the hearth of
what it means to really read. Te quotations mean that comprehension is the
process of trying to understand reading material deeply, both of explicit and
implicit information of the reading material which want to be conveyed by the
writer. Similarly, Linda J.Dorn and Carla Soffos (2005:14) Comprehension is
a complex process regulated by cognitive, emotional, perceptual and social
experiences. It means that when individuals read, they apply a range of
comprehending strategies to monitor and sustain their meaning. So,
comprehension is student ability to understand a language.
Furthermore, Serravalo explains that
It is often so challenging to assess comprehension because
it is invisible-without a students down what is going through
her/his head, or talking to another about what she/he is
thinking, it becomes challenging to see the readers
processing. Comprehension skill assessment is also so
complicated because none of these seven skills is static.
(Jennifer Serravalo, 2010:44)
The quotation points out that the process of assessing comprehension is
very challenging because it is invisible and also it is the process of mental for

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the reader. The way in which a reader uses each of skill depends upon so
many variables including but not limited to genre, text level/difficulty, the
readers prior experience with the topic, and the text structure. For example, a
child may have really thoughtful ideas about character when reading realistic
fiction story about a child is school because the topic and genre are familiar.
According to Jeremy Harmer (2003:202), A term commonly used in
discussion about reading is skimming (which means running your eyes over a
text to get quick idea of the gist of a text). It means that the reader uses
skimming in finding contents of the texts generally. By encouraging students
to have a quick look at the text before plunging into idea for detail, will help
them to get the general understanding of what it is all about. This will help
them when and if they read to more specific information.
Then Carrol, et.al. (2001:f18) say, The reading assessment measures
the following skills: vocabulary, main idea, organization pattern, authors
purpose and point of view, locating, organization, and interpreting
information. The quotation points out that reading comprehension involves
complex process to acquire vocabulary, main idea, organization pattern,
authors purpose and so forth.
Reflecting to the syllabus, the aims of reading comprehension in senior
high school are: 1) To respond the meaning and rhetoric scheme in essay
which use oral language feature accurately, fluently, and acceptable in daily
life context and for accessing science and knowledge. 2) To respond the

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functional short monolog text (such as; banner, pamphlet, poster, etc.) legally
and illegally accurately, fluently, and acceptable in daily life context.
The quotation means that basically reading is aimed to respond the text.
The students can be said success in reading comprehension if they are able to
respond or get information from the text or reading material. The reading
comprehension is treated in eleventh grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara
Sipongi. It is done in order to asses their reading comprehension and also to
take the data needed in this research.
Based on the explanation previously, the writer concludes that reading
comprehension is the process of finding or determining information, ideas
from the texts or reading material. So the indicators are1) identifying main
idea, 2) responding to the text, and 3) identifying word meaning in the text.
a) Identifying main idea
Main idea is the main point which is discussed in a paragraph.
Beatrice S. Milkilecky and Linda Jeffries (2006:91) say, Main idea is the
authors idea about the topic. It means that main idea is the author point
of view about the topic which is being discussed in the paragraph.
Similarly, Judi Moreilon says, Main ideas are always dependent on the
purpose of a reading. The quotation indicates that main idea is always
depend on the purpose of reading. It means that main idea ha a connection
among the sentence in a paragraph.

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Kathleen T. Mc Whorter,1992:79) Skimming means reading


selectively to get a general idea of what an article is about. Both
quotations mean that skimming is a technique to read the text fastly to get
general information. In skimming, the reader purpose should be to read
only those parts of an article or selection that contain the most important
information. The goal is to read what is most important a skip what is least
information. Kathleen T. Mc Whorter (1992:80) adds, The basic task of
skimming, then, is to identify those parts of any reading material that
contain the main idea. The quotation pointed out the in skimming process
a reader must identify the part of reading material. Because the reading
material that is read will determine how reader should adapt a reading
technique.
According to Peter Kump (2008:76), But if you just had a limited
amount of time, or if your purpose were only to know the main idea,
would you have spent your time better reading the whole passage - as far
as your time would permitor reading the beginning and ending
paragraphs? It means that if a readers purpose to find main idea of the
paragraph; if she/he read the entire paragraph it will waste time. Main idea
of paragraph commonly occurs at the beginning and the end of the
paragraph.

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e.g;
RECYCLING
Much of what we throw away could be used again. Recycling puts
"garbage" to good use. Recycling helps preserve precious resources
because it saves on the use of raw materials and energy. It also reduces the
pollution caused when the waste is dumped.
Glass can be remelted. This is better than making fresh glass from
raw materials, but it is even better to reuse the bottle whole. Metals can be
recycled by being remelted and then used to make other new items. The
metals to recycle from an ordinary household are aluminum and steel from
cans. Scrap from cars gives several different metals for recycling.
Paper is easy to recycle. Every home and office should have a paper
reclining routine. Plastics are the worst problem because they do not
biodegrade (breakdown) easily. They are also hard to recycle and cause
harmful pollution when burned. It is important to use as little plastics as
possible, and then only ones that are recyclable or biodegradable.
From the example above, the main idea is place at the beginning of
the paragraph and at the end of the paragraph. It means the sentences after
the first sentence are the supporting sentence to prove or support the main
idea. While if the main idea is put at the end of the paragraph the
sentences before the main idea are the supporting details.
Based on the explanation above, the writer concludes that
identifying main idea is determining the main idea of a text or paragraph.
The main idea can appear in the beginning of the paragraph and also can
appear in the end of the paragraph.

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b) Responding to the text


Responding to the text means trying to get the information that will
be conveyed by the author. Judi Moreilon (2007:58-59) stated, Teacher
initiated questions are usually asked after students are exposed to new
information; they are less often used before or during students encounters
with texts. It means that sometime teacher makes question in order to
expose new information from the reader.
According

to

Debbie

Miller

(2006:115),

Readers

create

interpretations to enrich and deepen their experience in a text. It means


that in order to enrich reader knowledge about the information the reading
material, she/he needs to make interpretation of the text. The, Judi
Moreilon 2007:76) stated, Readers often find themselves answering their
own questions with predictions about what will happen next or with
inferences drawn from the authors or illustrators creations. The
quotation points out that in order to respond or infer the information from
the reading material a reader can make some question. The question is
guided to explore the author information.
Then on the line strategy of predicting and the between the lines
strategy of inferring prompt readers to turn the page to find out if their
hypotheses are correct. Predictions are educated guesses about what will
happen next based on what is known from reading the text; prediction can
also involve readers background knowledge. Inferences require that
readers go beyond literal meaning; they use the print and illustrations plus

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their prior knowledge and experience to interpret the text. Through these
processes, readers find clues or connecting points, make predictions or
inferences, and draw conclusions. These conclusions or interpretations are
a critical part of reading comprehension. Readers who make predictions
and inferences before, during, and after they read are actively engaged in
the meaning-making process.
Based on the explanation above, the writer can conclude that
responding the text is trying to infer the paragraph. Inferring means
looking for some information from the text. The information can be
general and specific. Responding can be done by asking some question
about the content of the text.
c) Identifying word meaning in the text
Identifying word meaning is trying to find out the word meaning
the text. Word meaning can be literal (explicit meaning) or contextual
(implicit meaning). It means the students should be able to decide: a)
reference words, b) antonym, c) synonym, d) definition that kind in the
sentence or paragraph. Proficient readers are able to effortlessly identify
virtually every printed word they encounter. Donna M. Scanlon, et.al.
(2010:76) say, Readers determine meanings of unknown words by using
their schema, paying attention to textual and picture clues, rereading, and
engaging in conversations with others.
The quotation means that the process of identifying word meaning,
reader can use her/his schema, attention to textual and picture clues

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rereading, and so forth. It is done in order to determine the close idea to


the authors message. Kristie S. Fleckenstein, et.al say,
Most of those words are learned through effective word
solving. It focuses on the development of effective wordsolving skills that will enable readers to accurately identify
unfamiliar words encountered while reading. Accurate
identification of words in context, over time, helps readers
learn the words so well that they become part of their sight
vocabulary.
(Kristie S. Fleckenstein, et.al, 2008:134)
The quotation means that word to word meaning needs to be
determined to make the real meaning of the word in the text. Without
determining word to word meaning the accurate meaning cannot be
reached. After knowing the word meaning reader will try to make
perception by considering to the situation of the context. Thus, effective
word-solving skills allow readers to teach themselves to read the vast
number of words they must ultimately be able to identify without effort.
Then, Share in Donna M. Scanlon, et.al (2010:199) says,
Effective word solving as a self-teaching mechanism. According to
Share, the ability to translate printed words independently into their
spoken equivalents assumes a central role in reading acquisition. It means
that credits the use of lettersound relationships to identify unfamiliar
words as the primary path toward the attainment of reading proficiency.
However, he argues that beginning readers need to develop a variety of
word identification strategies that can be used to build their sight
vocabularies. While he places primary importance on decoding, his

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acknowledges the significance of context in the word identification


process. Indeed, he asserts that it is the individuals sensitivity to the
constraints of the text, used in combination with a willingness to test
multiple alternative pronunciations for goodness of fit.
From the explanation before, the writer concludes that identifying
word meaning is trying to determine word meaning of whole word in the
text. Sometime word meaning cannot be determined without deep
comprehending to the context which influenced to the text.
Furthermore, based on the explanation previously, the writer can
concludes that reading comprehension is students ability to comprehend the
process of finding or determining information, ideas from the texts or reading
material. The information or the idea of the text can be as main idea, text
responding and word meaning. So the indicators are1) identifying main idea,
2) responding to the text, and 3) identifying word meaning in the text.
3. Exposition Text
Expositions text is kind of text that show the peoples arguments about
something in the case like are opinions, idea, topic or a sight phenomenon in
daily life which is need to be attended, criticized or explain that writer is
given.
Exposition text is also text is given idea, opinion argument in one
problem, topic or phenomenon that the reader should pay attention then or
will not about the problem, topic or phenomenon.

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Similarly, Otong Setiawan Djurie (2008:31), There are two kinds of


exposition texts they are analytical exposition and hortatory exposition which
is the writer gives opinion, explanation, data without the reader is influenced
to some opinions with the writer, It means that exposition text is divided
into two kinds, the are analytical exposition a text that gives opinion and
explanation without influences the reader, means will hortatory exposition
influences the reader.
Analytical exposition is a text that elaborates the writers idea about
the surrounding phenomenon. Its social function is to persuade the reader that
the idea is important matter. Otong Setiawan Djuharie (2008:31) says that
analytical exposition text is a text which proposes the writer perceptions,
ideas, opinions or assumptions about a topic or phenomenon in which the
phenomenon needs to be evaluated without proposing an effort to persuade
the reader. It means that in analytical exposition text, the writer proposes his
or her opinion about something which is needed to be paid attention or
evaluated but he/she does not persuade or ask the reader to follow or avoid the
phenomenon.
Similarly, Enny, M. Thamrin (2008:14) , Analytical exposition is a
text in function to persuade the readers or listeners that something is the case,
It means that this kind of text has the aims to give the writer opinion and idea
of something also persuade the reader indirectly. Analytical exposition text.
According Pardiono (2007:215) analytical exposition is a text which is used to
give argumentation that something is the case. The quotation means that

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analytical exposition is a text which proposes the writer argument but the
argument just proposes a case as it is. It does not try to persuade the reader to
follow or avoid something. It only elaborates the case.
Furtheremore,

Joyce Amstrong

Carrel,

et.al.

(2001:195)

say

Exposition is writing that informs or explains. The quotation points out that
exposition is also a writing which informs or explains because exposition text
tries to elaborate something or phenomenon which is the case.
In addition, Otong Setiawan Djuharie (2008:31) says that the generic
structure of analytical exposition text are thesis and arguments. It means that
analytical exposition consists of two elements they are thesis and argument.
Thesis usually proposes the writer statement and argument is the point of
phenomenon.
1) Social Function
Social Function refers to the aim of the text. Generic structure is the
stage that must be followed in arranging the text. Pardiyono (2007:216),
The social function of analytical exposition is to argue the something is
the case, It means the analytical exposition has the function to give
argument of something to the reader.

Similarly, Arni Ferra Sinatra,

(2007:37) et.al. say that analytical exposition has a purpose to persuade


the readers or listeners that something is the case. It means that the social
faction of analytical exposition is to influenza the reader of what
something is being discussed.

25

Linda Gerot and peter Wignell (1994:197), The social function of


analytical exposition is to persuade the reader or listener that something is
the case. It means that the function of analytical exposition is to give the
view to the reader about something.
Furthermore Joyce Amstrong Carrol, et.al. (2001:195) say The
social function of analytical exposition is to identify a problem and
presents one or more potential solution. It means that the analytical
exposition aims to give arguments and solution to the reader about
something.
From above definition, it is clear that the social function of analytical
exposition text is to argue something is the case whether by giving
solution or just argument.
2) Generic Structure
The special characteristic of genre is differed from one another by
its generic structure. According to Arni Ferra Sinatra, (2007:37) et.al.,
The generic structure of analytical exposition

text are : thesis :

introduces topic and indicates writers position, arguments : states the


arguments and elaborates then, reiteration/summing up : restate the
writers position, it means that generic structure of analytical exposition
text are, thesis arguments and reiteration.
On occasion of statement above, Pardiyono (2007:215), There are
three generic

structure of analytical exposition, they are thesis :

containing topic and brief statement of the writers position related to the

26

topic, arguments : states the arguments and elaborates then , reiteration :


contains of conclusion in thesis, it means that the generic structure of
analytical exposition texts are thesis that contains brief statement,
arguments that is elaborations of writers opinion and reiteration, the
conclusion of writers opinion.
Pardiyono (2007:126) adds, Generic structure dari exposisi teks
adalah : perkenalan terhadap topic yang akan dibahas dan bagaimana
pandangan si penulis mengenai topic tersebut, arguments. Berisi
serangkaian pendapat atau opini yang dibuat berdasarkan analisis dan
alasan yang kuat, reteration : merupakan penguat dan pembenaran
thesis. From the above theory we know that exposition, argument and
reiteration.
Furthermore, Otong Setiawan Djuharie (2008:31) states that Text
analytical exposition memiliki struktur: Thesis: pernyataan pendapat
penulis akan suatu kasus/penomena. Argument: terdiri dari point atau
inti masalah/perbincangan atau hal yang menjadi concern,

dan

elaboration, penjelasan, atau pemaparan dari point. Reiteration:


penguatan pernyataan. It means that the generic structure: thesis:
writers opinion of a case. Arguments: the point of main case/ is being
talked of something to be concerned by giving elaboration. Reiteration:
statement reinforcement.

27

3) Lexicogrammartical Features
Each types of text has certain characteristic. Pardiyono (2007:126)
state that, Analytical exposition text has characteristic it is the
lexicogrammartical features, they are, the use of declarative sentence and
conjunctions

(to

show

cause

effect).

It

means

that

the

lexicogrammartyical feature of analytical exposition text are the use of


declarative sentence and conjunction.
Arni Ferra Sinatra (2007:37), et.al. say Focus on human and non
human participants, few temporal conjunctive relation, reasoning
expressed as verbs and nouns, use of material, relation and mental
process. It means that analytical exposition mostly uses conjunction,
material and mental process with the text. Gerot and Wignell (1994: 198)
say, The significant lexicogrammartical features: focus on generic human
and non human participants, use of simple present tense, use of external
temporal conjunction to state argument, reasoning through causal
conjunction on nominalization.
In order to be clear about analytical exposition text can be seen on
the following example (page 28):

28

The Important of Reading


Thesis

Argument

Reiteration

I Personally thinks that reading is a very important activity in our life.


Why do I say so?
Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many think in
the world such as science, technology, sport, art, culture, written in other
books, magazine, newspaper, etc.
Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about
something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly.
Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read
books, newspaper or magazine on the entertain column such as comedy, short
story, quiz, etc, to make us relax.
The last, reading can also take us to other parts of world. By reading a
book about Papua we may feel we are really sitting in the jungle not at home
in our rooms.
From the facts above, it is obvious that everyone needs to read to get
knowledge, information, and also entertainment or in summary we can say
reading is truly important in our life.
a. Social function is to give an information of the importance of reading
b. Generic structure is thesis, argument and reiteration
c. Lexico grammatical text
1. The use of, simple present text (according to the text)
e.g
- I personally thinks that reading is a very important activity in our life.
- By reading, we can get a lot of knowledge about many think in the
worried such as science, technology, sport, art, culture, written in other
books, magazine, news paper, etc.
- Reading can also take us to other parts of world.
- When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the
entertain column such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc, to make us
relax.
2. The use of conjunction
e.g
-

It is obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge,


information, and also entertainment or the summary.

29

When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the


entertain column such as comedy, short story, quiz, ect, to make us
relax.

3. The use of mental and material process


e.g
-

Think

Feel

smell

Sit

Read

do

Mental process

Material process

From the above, theories and example, we know that so, the researcher
opinion analytical exposition text is the text that contains opinion, idea, topic
or phenomenon that is given by the writer to influence the reader or no.
Based on the explanation previously, the writer concludes that analytical
exposition is a text which proposes the writer opinion about phenomenon. It is
pure argument. There is no persuasion. Then, the generic structure are thesis and
argument.

H. Conceptual Framework
Based on the previous explanation can be concluded that reading
comprehension is reading comprehension is the process of finding or determining
information, ideas from the texts or reading material, while contextual meaning is
the making inference or meaning of the text based on the context situation.

30

It means that the contextual meaning is very important to be mastered,


because it is the part of reading comprehension process, without master
contextual meaning student will feel difficult in inferring the meaning reading
material English text.
In addition, it is very assumed that there is an influence between
contextual meaning mastery and reading exposition text at the XI grade students
of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi.
In order to clear the framework of thinking can be illustrated on the
following figure:

Students
Problem

Students reading
exposition text
increase

The lack of
students reading
exposition text

Contextual
meaning mastery

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework

I. The Hypothesis
Carrying out a research, the writer should formulate the hypothesis. It is
an essential element in a research it is a tentative answer, therefore, it needs
testing. It establishes the nature of the problem and gives direction to the data
gathering process. It will be accepted if the data findings can be relevant with the

31

hypothesis. Unless, it will be rejected. Suharsismi Arikunto (2006:71) says,


Hipotesis adalah suatu jawab yang bersifat sementara terhadap permasalah
penelitian, sampai terbukti melalui data yang terkumpul. It means that
hypothesis is tentative answer for the research question until it is proved by data
collection. Similarly, Muij (2004:8) says, A hypothesis is a tentative explanation
that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation. The
quotation also indicates that hypothesis is a tentative answer which needs further
investigation.
According Daniel R. Tomal, (2010:12) A hypothesis is can be described
as simply an educated guess. A more scientific definition of a hypothesis might
be the description of the relationship among two variables. It means

that

hypothesis can be said the description of the variables in a research. Then, avid
Scott and Robin Usher (2011:52) give addition that the hypothesis is
operationalized, so that the relations between the variables and their applications
can be construed as observational data and can be measured.
Furthermore, Sumadi Suryabrata (2009:76) says, Ciri-ciri hipotesis
adalah; 1. Menyatakan hubungan kedua variabel, 2. Dinyatakan dengan kalimat
deklaratif, 3. Dirumuskan dengan jelas, 4. Dapat diuji. It means that the
characteristic of hypothesis are: 1)stated the relation ship of both variable, 2)
states in imperative sentence, 3)formulated clearly, and 4) testable.
It is also supported by Brog and gall in Suharsimi Arikunto (2007:44) that
hypothesis can be said good if completed 4 characteristics, they are; 1)
formulating of 2 or more variables, 2) followed by some reason or scientific

32

theory and result of investigation before, 3) must be testable, 4) brief and


accurate.
As a continuation to the previous explanation, the writer makes a
hypothesis of this research. There is A Significant Influence of Contextual
Meaning Mastery and Reading Exposition Text at the XI Grade SMA Negeri 1
Muara Sipongi.

J.

Research Methodology
1. Method of The Research
Method of the research is a part of a research that has information about
the research design. In another way, it also gives information about how the
researcher analysis the data in order to get finding. Cargill and Connor
(2009:35) say that methods section is relate to establishes credibility for the
results and should therefore provide enough information about how the work
was done for readers to evaluate the results. It points out that method should
contain with clear credibility information about the data. Then, in another side,
it should provide information how readers evaluate the research finding
Similarly, Peat stated (2002:54) that the method has the purpose to
describe how the researcher obtain the result. Thus, the researcher need to give
precise details of the study design, the method that it is used, and how the
writer analysed the data. Then, Fulwiler (2002:94) says, Methods consist of
information about how you set up your experiment that would allow another

33

experimenter to replicate your work. The quotation point out that method
refers to information about how the researcher design his/her research. Then, in
his/her method, the reader know how the researcher analysis the data and get
the research finding.
Furthermore, Sudarwan Danim (2002:41) statement that descriptive
research which is purpose to describe the phenomenon or individual
characteristic, situation or certain groups accurately. Similarly Arief Furchan
(2002:41) says,Metode descriptive merupakan suatu strategi yag dianut dalam
mengumpulkan dan menganalisis data yang diperlukan untuk menggambarkan,
menginterpretasikan, melihat hubungan atau pengaruh yang bertujuan untuk
pemecahan masalah secara sistematis dan factual mengenai factor-faktor dan
sifats-sifat populasi. It means that descriptive method is a strategy for
collecting and analyzing the data and aims to see the relations between
variables.
The method of this research is descriptive method because this research
is about the influence the both variables, X and Y. the variables of this research
are the contextual meaning mastery as variable X and writing reading
exposition text as variable Y.
The variables mentioned are shown on the following figure:
X

Where:
X: Independent variable (the contextual meaning mastery)

34

Y: Dependent variable (Reading Exposition Text)


In conclusion the writer uses descriptive method in this research. Method
is all of the sharing data or information will be correlated one to another. The
method of this research is descriptive method. Descriptive method is the way
to find out the relationship between two factors and it is happened by
researcher with eliminate or unless or avoid other factor that can be influenced.

2. Types of Research
The writer classifies this research the correlation type. Donald Ary said
that:
Correlation studies are concerned with determining the extent of
relationship between variables. They enable one to measure the
extent to which variations in one variable are associated with
variation undetermined through the use of use coefficient of
correlation
(Donald Ary, 1985:327)
In this case, the writer wants to see the influence of contextual
meaning mastery and reading exposition text.

3. Population and Sample


a. Population
The population is a group of unit or parts what to be made as a subject
of research. As Suharsimi Arikunto (2006:130) states that Population is all of
subjects research. It means that all of subjects in the researching area become

35

population of the research. Mustofa Djaelani (2010:152) says, Populasi


adalah keseluruhan objek penelitian yang dapat terdiri dari manusia,
benda-benda, hewan, tumbuhan, gejala-gejala, nilai atau test atau
peristiwa-peristiwa sebagai sumber sumber data yang memiliki karakteristik
tertentu di dalam suatu penelitian. It means that population is all of the
research object that consist of people, nouns, animals, plants, symptoms,
value or events as data source when has characteristic in research.
Furthermore, Sedarmayanti dan Syarifuddin Hidayat (2002:121) said
that population was whole characteristic of research objects. The quotation
points out that all characteristic of the research object becomes a popolation
of the reseacrh. The object should be in certain place and time.
Deeply, L.R. Gay and Peter Airasian (2000:122) say, The population
is the group of interest to the researcher, the group to which she or he would
like the results of the study to be generalizable. Generalizability is the
extent to which the results of one study can be applied to other populations
or situations. The population may be virtually any size and may cover almost
any geographical area. The entire groups the researcher would really like to
generalize are rarely available. The population that the researcher would
ideally like to generalize to is referred to as the target of population.
Based on the explanation above, the writer get conclusion that the
population is the research objects which want to generalise to with their
characteristic. Therefor, in this research, the writer choose the eleventh grade

36

students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi as the population. They consist of


three class with 160 students.
In order to be clear and brief of the population can be seen on the
following table:
Table 1
The population of the XI grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara
Sipongi
No.
1
2
3
7
8

b.

Class
XI IPA1
XI IPA2
XI IPA3
XI IPS1
XI IPS2
TOTAL

Amount
32
30
35
33
30
160

Sample

A sample is subgroup taken from a population and it is according to


Anas Sudijono (2008:280), Sample is a small proposition of population
which should be research chosen or determined for the analysis need. On
other word sample is part of piece of the population furthermore Suharsimi
Arikunto (2006:130) says, Sample adalah sebagian atau wakil dari
populasi yang diteliti. It means that sample is a part of population.
According to Norris and Ortega (2006:67), say that samples that is,
studies can contain more than one distinct group of participants or
population. The quotation indicates that samples can be one or more distinct
group of participants or population. The point here is the samples should be
the object or the subject which is being studying.

37

Furthermore, L.R. Gay and Peter Airasian say,


Sampling is the process of selecting a number of individuals for a
study in such way that the represent the larger group from which
they were selected. A sample comprises the individuals, items, or
events selected from a larger group referred to as a population. The
purpose of sampling is to gained information about the population
by using the sample.
(L.R. Gay and Peter Airasian, 2000:121)
The quotation means that Studying of gathering the data from entire
population, in fact, not only is it generally not feasible to study the whole
population, it is also not necessary. If the population of the interest is large
or geographically scattered, study of it would not feasible or would be
prohibitively costly and time consuming. If a sample is well-selected,
research result based on it will be generalizable to the population. The
degree to which sample represents the population is the degree to which
results for one are applicable to the other.
There are many kinds of sample as Suharsimi Arikunto (2006:95)
says, There are some sampling techniques that usually known, they are:
random sampling, cluster sampling, stratified sampling, purposive sampling,
double sampling and so on. The quotation means there are some technique
of sample that usually uses by researcher, they are random, cluster,
stratified, purposive, double sampling and so on.
Sumadi Suryabrata (201035) says that random sampling is one of
tehnique for getting sample. Here, the member of population hav the same
oppurtunity to be sample by doing random. It means that random sampling
is one of method which is used to take the sample of a research. Random

38

sampling uses when the population have the same characteristic and
opportunities (homogenous) to become a sample in a research.
Similarly, Tomal says,
Random sampling provides a process in which each subject has
an equal and independent chance of being selected. Simple
random sampling is picking names from a hat. Random sampling
is considered one of the best ways to select subjects from a
defined population for a study because it provides a high
probability that the subjects will represent the entire population.
(Daniel R. Tomal, 2010:28)
The quotation means that random sampling provides a process in
which subject has an equal and independent chance selected of being
selected. All of populations are supposed have the same chance and
opportunity for being selected the sample of the research because they
provide a high probability that the subjects will represent the entire
population.
Then Suharsimi Arikunto (2006:171) says, Apabila subjeknya
kurang dari 100 lebih baik diambil semua, sehingga penelitiannya
merupakan penelitian populasi, tetapi bila jumlah subjeknya besar atau
lebih dari 100 dapat diambil antara 10 15 % atau 20 25 % dari
populasi. It means that if the subject is less than 100, it is better to take all
so that it is total sampling, if the population, in this case, the writer takes
20% x 160 = 32 students. The writer uses random sampling for this research
because the data is homogenous and it wants to get various data.

4. Instrument of the Research

39

The instrument of this research is test. A research must have a good


instrument because a good instrument can guarantee the valid data. Suharsismi
Arikunto (2006:148) says that instrument of the research is a tool or facility
which is used by the researcher in collecting the data in order to get the easier
process and the better result, in brief definition, complete and systematic so it
will be easier to be analyzed. It means that instrument is used by the researcher
in collecting or gathering the data in a research.
Similarly, Muijs (2004:8) says, Research instruments aimed specifically
at converting phenomena that dont naturally exist in quantitative form into
quantitative data, which we can analyze statistically. It means that research
instrument is aimed to convert phenomena of the research variable. It is
usually described in quantitative form into quantitative data and finally will be
analyzed statiscally.
Based on definition previously, in doing the research must use a tool.
Tool means here can object or facility and it is function to collect the data at
the field. In this research, the instrument is the collection of many questions. In
making the instrument, of course, it is based on the variables. In this case,
contextual meaning mastery (X variable) and reading exposition text (Y
variable).
Collecting data is needed in this research, as the first step, the writer
specifies the operation of all definition. It means to give the scope of the both
variables of the research. So that is easier to measure. According L.R. Gay and
Peter Airasian (2000:152) there are three major ways to collect research data:

40

1) administer a standardized instrument, 2) administer a self-developed


instrument, and 3) record naturally occurring or already available data (such as
observing or using existing grade point averages).
Students contextual meaning mastery is the students ability to master the
meaning of the wor through considering the context. In contextual meaning
can be seen by some indicators, namely; a) physical context, b) epistemic
context, c) linguistic context and d) social context.
In order to be clear and brief it can be seen on the table follow:
Table 2
Indicator of Contextual Meaning Mastery
No.

Indicator

Items

Number of test

Physical context

1, 6, 11, 16, 17

Epistemic context

2, 7, 8, 12, 18,

3
4

Linguistic context
Social context
Total

5
5
20

3, 9, 13, 14, 20
4, 5, 10,15, 19
20

While the students reading exposition text is an ability in reading


exposition is the process of finding or determining information, ideas from the
texts or reading material. So the indicators are1) identifying main idea, 2)
responding to the text, and 3) identifying word meaning in the text. In order to
be clear and brief it can be seen on the table below:
Table 3
Indicator of Reading Exposition Text
No.

Indicator

Items

Number of test

41

Identifying the main idea

1, 3, 9,10, 15,17

Responding to the text

2, 6, 7, 12, 13, 18,19

Identifying word meaning from

4, 5, 8, 11, 14, 16, 20

20

20

the text
Total

5. Definition of the Operational Variable


To avoid miscommunication between writer and reader in the title of this
study, researcher gave the definition of the operational variable as follows:
1. Reading is a process of getting information from reading material or
printed material.
2. Comprehension the process of trying to understand reading material
deeply, both of explicit and implicit information of the reading material
which want to be conveyed by the writer.
3. Reading comprehension is the process of finding or determining
information, ideas from the texts or reading material.
4. Exposition is a text which proposes the writer opinion about phenomenon.
5. Reading exposition is process of finding or determining information, ideas
from the a text which proposes the writer opinion about phenomenon.
6. Contextual meaning is making inference or translation of the text based on
the context situation

6. Technique of Collecting The Data

42

The technique of collecting data, the writer used some steps collecting
the students in the classroom, giving the test items to the students, reading the
instruction and explaining how to do the test and avoid cheating or pepping,
and the writer looked at the students while they were doing the test. Collecting
the data in this research is done by giving written test about variable X and Y
that are answer by the participants. After that, the writer gave score for their
answer, the score rating is given 0 100 for procedure text ability test, while
the score of 5 is given for each item.

7. Technique of Analysis The Data


In correlation of research, the most suitable analysis in being used is
the statistical process. It means that all the data will be collected will be
analyzed by using r Product Moment formulation. The writer uses this
research to see the correlation between two variables.
In addition to know the criteria of the score the writer takes the
Muhibbin Syah opinion as follow (page 43):

Table 4
The criteria of score
No.

Class of score

Predicate

80 100

Very good

70 79

Good

43

60 69

Enough

50 59

Bad

0 - 49

Fail
(Muhibbin Syah, 2000:15)

Furthermore, the data collected will be analyzed by using r Product


Moment by Pearson. The formulation can be seen as follows:

rxy

N X

N XY X Y
2

N Y

Where:
rxy
: Pearson
X
: The sum of scores in X distribution.
Y
: The sum of scores in Y distribution.
XY : The sum of the Product Paired X and Y scores.
X2 : The sum of squared in X distribution.
Y2 : The sum of squared in Y distribution.
N
: The number paired X and Y scores.
(Suharsimi Arikunto,2010:213)

8. Time and Location of The Research


In order to get a clear description about where the research takes place,
it is necessary to mention the location and the time of the research as detail as
possible. This research takes place in SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi. It locates

44

on Jl. Medan Padang, Muara Sipongi. The writer chooses SMA Negeri 1
Muara Sipongi as the location of the research due to consideration that this
school has a large number of students so the writer thinks that she can take the
valid data.
The researcher conducts this research about three months from
February 2014 to March 2014.

CHAPTER IV
THE RESULT OF RESEARCH

45

A. Description of the Data


After the data were collected, the score of the variables were calculated
by applying statistical analysis which can be illustrated into description of data. In
order to describe the correlation between contextual meaning mastery and reading
comprehension, it can be seen on the table below:
Table 5
The Data of Contextual Meaning Mastery and Students Reading
Comprehension at the XI Grade Students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30

Students Code
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Variable X
50
70
95
70
55
95
80
65
75
60
75
60
75
65
60
75
65
75
70
45
65
70
70
65
38 80
85
65
85
80
80

Variable Y
40
70
50
75
45
90
55
65
85
90
45
75
95
70
40
65
65
50
70
30
65
65
70
35
65
80
60
85
55
80

46

31
32
33

31
32
33

85
80
50

75
55
60

1. Contextual Meaning Mastery


The data of the research for the contextual meaning mastery is the
score of the students in doing the test. The data were collected by the
researcher from the field and it is analyzed in order to make the description of
the data. The writer described as follows: the lowest score is 45 and the
highest score is 95, it is concluded in order to know the description of the
data, from the calculation. The mean score is 70.90, the median is 70, and the
mode is 75 while the distance score theoretic is 0 100 where the mean of
theoretic is 50. The mean of using punctuation mastery are higher than the
mean of theoretic score. From the calculation, it is known that the mean of
punctuation mastery at the grade XI students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi
is categorized good. It means that contextual meaning mastery at the XI
Grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi has satisfied.
It shows in the score of each indicator in the table 2 chapter III and can
be seen by explanation below:
a. Contextual meaning mastery at the grade XI students of SMA Negeri 1
Muara Sipongi in identifying physical context is categorized enough. It
can be shown by the answer of students 540 from 825. So the score in
determining physical context is 65.45.

47

b. Contextual meaning mastery at the grade XI students of SMA Negeri 1


Muara Sipongi in identifying epistemic context is categorized enough. It
can be shown by the answer of students 515 from 825. So the score in
determining epistemic context is 62.
c. Contextual meaning mastery at the grade XI students of SMA Negeri 1
Muara Sipongi in identifying linguistic context is categorized enouigh.
It can be shown by the answer of students 520 from 825. So the score in
determining linguistic context is 63.05.
d. Contextual meaning mastery at the grade XI students of SMA Negeri 1
Muara Sipongi in identifying social context is categorized enough. It
can be shown by the answer of students 520 from 825. So the score in
determining linguistic context is 63.05
Table 6
Mean, Median and Mode Scores of Contextual Meaning Mastery
at the Grade XI Students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi
No.
1
2
3

Items
Mean
Median
Mode

Scores
70.90
70
75

From the above calculation, the position of the mean for the contextual
meaning mastery can be drawn as follows :
70.90
0

50

100

Figure 1 : The Position of Mean Score of Contextual Meaning Mastery at the


Grade XI Students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi

48

The following table shows the data distribution for the students in
contextual meaning mastery:
Table 7
The Distribution Frequency of Contextual Meaning Mastery at the XI Grade
Students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi

No

Class Interval

Frequency

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

45 52
53 60
61 - 68
69 76
77 84
85 92
93 - 100
Total

3
4
6
10
5
3
2
33

Cumulative

Relative

Frequency
3
7
13
23
28
31
33
-

Frequency
9.09%
12.12%
18.18%
30.30%
15.15%
9.09%
6.06%
100%

Based on the frequency distribution above, the writer has found that
the students who get the score 93 100, they are 2 students or 6.06%, the
students who get the score 85 - 92, they are 3 students or 9.09%, the students
15
who get score 77-84 are 5 students or 15.159%, the students who get score 69
-10
76 are 10 students or 30.30%, the score 61 -68 are 6 students or 18.18%, the
9
score
of 53-60 is 4 student of 4.76% and the score 45 52 are 3 students or
8
9.09%.
7
6

In order to get the data description clearly and completely, the writer

5
presents
them in histogram on the following figure:
4
f
3
2
1
0

49

48.5

56.5

64.5

72.5

80.5

88.5

96.5

Figure 2 : The Histogram of X Variable (Contextual meaning Mastery) at


the XI Grade Students of SMA Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan.
2. Students Reading Comprehension
Based on the data analysis, the score of respondent can be described as
the lowest score is 30 and the highest score is 90. The means of reading
comprehension is 64.24, the median is 65 and the mode is 65. From the
calculation, it is know that the mean of students reading comprehension at the
grade XI students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi is categorized enough. It
means the writing business letter ability has satisfied.
It shows in the score of each indicator can be seen by explanation
follows:
a. Students reading comprehension at the grade XI students of SMA Negeri
1 Muara Sipongi in identifying main idea is categorized bad. It can be
shown by the answer of students 583 from 990. So the score in
determining main idea is 59.

50

b. Students reading comprehension at the grade XI students of SMA Negeri


1 Muara Sipongi in responding the text is categorized good. It can be
shown by the answer of students 835 from 1155. So the score in
responding the text is 72.
c. Students reading comprehension at the grade XI students of SMA Negeri
1 Muara Sipongi in identifying word meaning is categorized good. It
can be shown by the answer of students 820 from 1155. So the score in
determining word meaning is 71.
Table 8
Mean, Median and Mode Scores of Students Reading Comprehension at the
XI Grade Students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi
No.
1
2
3

Items
Mean
Median
Mode

Scores
64.24
65
65

From the above calculation, the position of the mean for reading
comprehension can be drawn as follow:
64.24
0

50

100

Figure 3 : The Position of Mean Score of Students Reading Comprehension


at the Grade XI Students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi.
Furthermore, in order to get the score clear and brief of the reading
comprehension, the writer preserves the frequency distribution in table below.
Table 9

51

The Distribution Frequency of Students Reading Comprehension


at the XI Grade SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi
Class Interval

Frequency

Cumulative Frequency

Relative Frequency

90 99

6.06%

80 89

12.12%

70 79

14

21.21%

60 69

22

24.24%

50 59

27

15.15%

40 49

31

12.12%

30 - 39

33

6.06%

33

100%

Based on the frequency distribution above, the writer has found that
the student who gets the score 90 99, they are 3 students or 9.09%, while the
students who get the score 80 - 89, they are 4 students or 12.12%, who get the
10 score 70-79 are 7 students or 21.21%, the score 60 - 69 are 8 students or
9

24.24%, the score 50 59 are 5 students or 15.15%, the score 40 49 are 4

students or 12.12% and the score of 30-39 are 2 students or 6.06%.


In order to get a description of the data clearly and completely, the

7
6

writer presents them in histogram in the following figure:

4
3
2
1

52

scores
0

34.5
Figure 4

44.5

54.5

64.5

74.5

84.5

94.5 100

: Histogram Frequency of Students Reading comprehension at the


XI Grade Students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi

B. The Hypothesis Testing


To prove the hypothesis which has been formulated in this research was
analyzed by using r Product Moment by Pearson. This technique was used to
see the correlation between two variables, where the hypothesis is There is a
significant correlation between Contextual Meaning Mastery and Students
Reading Comprehension at the XI Grade Students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara
Sipongi..
To test hypothesis, it can be done through presenting the value, X, Y, X2,
Y2, and XY which is presented in the tabulation of the data in the following table:
Table 10
The List Index Correlation between Contextual Meaning Mastery (Variable X)
and Reading Comprehension (Variable Y) at the XI Grade Students of SMA
Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi

53

No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30
31
32
33
Total
means

Variable X
50
70
95
70
55
95
80
65
75
60
75
60
75
65
60
75
65
75
70
45
65
70
70
65
80
85
65
85
80
80
85
80
50
2340
70.90

Variable Y
40
70
50
75
45
90
55
65
85
90
45
75
95
70
40
65
65
50
70
30
65
65
70
35
65
80
60
85
55
80
75
55
60
2120
64.24

X2
2500
4900
9025
4900
3025
9025
6400
4225
5625
3600
5625
3600
5625
4225
3600
5625
4225
5625
4900
2025
4225
4900
4900
4225
6400
7225
4225
7225
6400
6400
7225
6400
2500
170550

Y2
1600
4900
2500
5625
2025
8100
3025
4225
7225
8100
2025
5625
9025
4900
1600
4225
4225
2500
4900
900
4225
4225
4900
1225
4225
6400
3600
7225
3025
6400
5625
3025
3600
144950

XY
2000
4900
4750
5250
2475
8550
4400
4225
6375
5400
3375
4500
7125
4875
2400
4875
4225
3750
4900
1350
4225
4875
4900
2275
5200
6800
3900
7225
4400
6400
6375
4400
3000
153675

From the table of list score in contextual meaning mastery (X) and
students reading comprehension (Y), it can be seen that:
N

= 33

54

X = 2330
Y = 2120
X2 = 170550
y2 = 144950
XY= 153675
For knowing correlation between contextual meaning mastery and
reading comprehension it can be calculated by using the formula of statistic r
product moment. The aim of this calculation is to know the calculation between
the X variable and Y variable.

rxy

N X

N XY X Y
2

X N Y Y
2

43.153675 2340 2120

33.170550 (2340) 33.144950 (2120)


2

5071275 4960800

5628150 5475600 4783350 4494400


110475

152550 288950

110475
44078322

110475
209950.76

0.5261
0.526

After getting the data by using the formula, it is obtained that the value of
r calculation, is related to the table influence of r Product Moment or the
degree of freedom (df) at the level of significant 5% the value and r table is (N-

55

nr), where N is the total sample and nr is total variable (N=33 and nr = 2, So, 33
2 = 31). From this explanation, the value of r table = 0.355.
From the explanation above, the value of r calculation is greater than the
value of r table 0.561 > 0.355. So, the hypothesis is accepted, it can be conducted
there is a significant correlation between contextual meaning mastery and
students reading comprehension at the XI Grade students of SMA Negeri 1
Muara Sipongi

C. The Limitation of the Research


The writer conducts the research caused by many aspects. In here, the
writer shares some of her limitations, they are:
1. The writer had lack of books to support her theoretical description for both
variables.
2. The writer, during the research, sometimes made a pause because of the lack
of time.
3. The writer in collecting the data from the respondents found some of them
were not serious to answer the tests given.
In short, the writer conducted this research with some negative aspects
such as lack of books, instruments without test of validity, time and the
respondents readiness. It can be said this research; certainly, has some
weaknesses and still far from the perfectness.

56

CHAPTER V
THE CONCLUSIONS AND THE SUGGESTIONS

A. Conclusions
Based on the result of this research, the conclusion can be formulated as
follows:
1. The result of the data description shows that the mean scores of students in
contextual meaning mastery is 70.90, it can be said that the criteria is good.
2. The result of the data description shows that the mean score of reading
comprehension is 64.24, it can be said that the criteria is enough.
3. There

is

correlation

between

contextual

meaning

and

reading

comprehension. It can be seen from the calculation and explanation that value

57

of r calculation is greater than the value of r table namely, 0.561 > 0.355. So,
there is a correlation between contextual meaning mastery and reading
comprehension at the XI grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Muara Sipongi.

B. Implication of the Result Research


Based on the previous conclusion, it can be said that the students weakness
in reading comprehension is determined by their contextual meaning mastery.
While contextual meaning is main point in making word meaning accurately, the
writer proposes one solution for this problem that is mastering contextual
meaning.
.
To develop the students ability in reading comprehension the teacher
should stimulate the students through the treatments below:
1. The teachers should give more exercise for the students.
2. The teachers should give specific teaching about reading comprehension.
3. Use some media such as tape recorder, cassettes, picture and so on
4. In learning and teaching process, the teacher is expected to provide the
complete and relevant book.
C. Suggestions
1. The teacher must give stimulation or support for students who get difficulties
to make contextual meaning mastery.

58

2. Before going to read students are expected to master the contextual meaning
because by contextual meaning they will be easier to get information from the
reading material.
3. Further, research applies the result of this study as ground to make other
research, to improvement of teaching English.