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HEAT TRANSFER

For

Mechanical Engineering
By

www.thegateacademy.com

Syllabus

Heat Transfer

Syllabus for Heat Transfer


Modes of heat transfer, one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical analogy,
unsteady heat conduction, fins; dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat
transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes;
thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces,
shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods.

Analysis of GATE Papers


(Heat Transfer)
Year

Percentage of marks

2013

10.00

2012

6.00

2011

4.00

2010

2.00

2009

9.00

2008

6.00

2007

8.00

2006

4.67

2005

6.67

Overall Percentage

6.26%

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Content

Heat Transfer

CONTENTS

#1.

#2.

#3.

Chapters

Page No.

Conduction

1 - 50

12
28
9 11
11 13
13 17
18 30
31 34
34 38
39
39 50

Introduction
One Dimensional Heat Conduction
Unsteady Heat Conduction
Critical Radius of Insulation
Heat Transfer Through Fins
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Convection

51 - 97

51 52
52 56
56 66
67 68
68 71
72 85
86 88
88 90
91
91 97

Introduction
Convection Fundamentals
Forced Convection
Nusselt Numbers
Natural Convection
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Radiation

98-137

98
98 100
100 102
102 104
104 110
111 123

Introduction
Blackbody Radiation
Radiative Properties
The View Factor
Radiation Heat Transfer
Solved Examples

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Page i

Content

#4.

Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Heat Transfer

124 128
128 129
130
130 137

Heat Exchanger

138-168

138
138 139
139 140
140 143
143 147
148 158
159 160
160 161
162
162 168

Introduction
Types of Heat Exchangers
The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Analysis of Heat Exchanger
The Effectiveness NUT Method
Solved Examples
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Answer Keys
Explanations

Module Test

169 184

Test Questions

169 177

Answer Keys

178

Explanations

178 184

Reference Books

185

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Page ii

Chapter 1

Heat Transfer

CHAPTER 1
Conduction
Introduction
Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to the
adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interactions between the particles. Conduction can
take place in solids, liquids, or gases. Conduction is due to the collisions and diffusion of the
molecules during their random motion. In solids, it is due to the combination of vibrations of the
molecules in a lattice and the energy transport by free electrons. The rate of heat conduction
through a medium depends on the geometry of the medium, its thickness and the material of the
medium, as well as the temperature difference across the medium.

Figure 1: Heat conduction through a large plane wall of thickness

and area A

Consider steady heat conduction through a large plane wall of thickness x


and area A, as
shown in Figure 1. The temperature difference across the wall is
. The rate of heat
conduction through a plane layer is proportional to the temperature difference across the layer
and the heat transfer area, but is inversely proportional to the thickness of the layer. That is,

or,

Where the constant of proportionality k is the thermal conductivity of the material, which is a
measure, of the ability of a material to conduct heat in the limiting case of
, the equation
above reduces to the differential form

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Chapter 1

Heat Transfer

Which is called Fourier's law of heat conduction after J. Fourier, who expressed it first in his heat
transfer text in 1822. Here dT/dx is the temperature gradient, which is the slope of the
temperature curve on a T-x diagram (the rate of change of T with x). at location x. The relation
above indicates that the rate of heat conduction in a direction is proportional to the temperature
gradient in that direction. Heat is conducted in the direction of decreasing temperature and the
temperature gradient becomes negative when temperature decreases with increasing x.

Thermal Conductivity
The rate of conduction heat transfer under steady conditions can also be viewed as the defining
equation for thermal conductivity. Thus the thermal conductivity of a material can be defined as
the rate of heat transfer through a unit thickness of the material per unit area per unit
temperature difference. The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of the ability of the
material to conduct heat. A high value for thermal conductivity indicates that the material is a
good heat conductor and a low value indicates that the material is a poor heat conductor or
insulator.

Thermal Diffusivity
The product
, which is frequently encountered in heat transfer analysis, is called the heat
capacity of a material.
Another material property that appears in the transient heat conduction analysis is the thermal
diffusivity. Which represents how fast heat diffuses through a material and is defined as

Note that the thermal conductivity k represents how well a material conducts heat, and the heat
capacity
represents how much energy a material stores per unit volume. Therefore, the
thermal diffusivity of a material can be viewed as the ratio of the heat conducted through the
material to the heat stored per unit volume. A material that has a high thermal conductivity or a
low heal capacity will obviously have a large thermal diffusivity. The larger the thermal
diffusivity. The faster the propagation of heat into the medium. A small value of thermal
diffusivity means that heat is mostly absorbed by the material and a small amount of heat will be
conducted further.

One Dimensional Heat Conduction


Heat transfer has direction as well as magnitude. The rate of heat conduction in a specified
direction is proportional to the temperature gradient, which is the change in temperature per
unit length in that direction. Heat conduction in a medium, in general, is three-dimensional and
time dependent. That is,
and the temperature in a medium varies with position
as well as time. Heat conduction in a medium is said to be steady when the temperature does not
vary with time, and unsteady or transient when it does. Heat conduction in a medium is said to
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Chapter 1

Heat Transfer

be one-dimensional when conduction is significant in one dimension only and negligible in the
other two dimensions, two-dimensional when conduction in the third dimension is negligible
and three-dimensional when conduction in all dimensions is significant. The governing
differential equation in such systems in rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate
systems is derived in below section.
Rectangular Coordinates
Consider a small rectangular element of length , width
and height , as shown in Figure 2.
Assume the density of the body is and the specific heat is C, an energy balance on this element
during a small time interval can be expressed as

Figure 2: Three-dimensional heat conduction through a rectangular volume element

+
xy

,
y

xy
z
z

Noting that the volume of the element is


the change in the energy content of
the element and the rate of heat generation within the element can be expressed as
x y z

x y z

Substituting into equation we get

x y z

x y z

Dividing by x y z gives

y z

x z

x y

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Chapter 1

Heat Transfer

Nothing that the heat transfer area of the element for heat conduction in the
directions are
respectively and taking the limit as
and
yields
(

In the constant case of constant thermal conductivity

Where the property


is again the thermal diffusivity of the materials and above
equation is known as the Fourier-Biot equation and it reduces to these forms under specified
conditions:
1.

Steady-State: (called Poisson equation)

2.

Transient, no heat generation: (called the Diffusion equation)

3.

Steady state, no heat generation: (called the Laplace equation)

Note that in the special case of one dimensional heat transfer in the
derivatives with respect to y and z drop out.

direction, the

Cylindrical Coordinates
The general heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates can be obtained from an energy
balance on a volume element in cylindrical coordinates, shown in Figure 3, by following the
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Chapter 1

Heat Transfer

steps just outlined. It can also be obtained directly by coordinate transformation using the
following relations between the coordinates of a point in rectangular and cylindrical coordinate
systems

Figure 3: A differential volume element in cylindrical coordinates.

After lengthy manipulations we obtain


(

Spherical Coordinates
The general heat conduction equations in spherical coordinates can be obtained from an energy
balance on a volume element in spherical coordinates, shown in Figure 4, by following the steps
outlined above. It can also be obtained directly by coordinate transformation using the following
relations between the coordinates of a point in rectangular and spherical coordinate systems

Again after lengthy manipulations, we obtain


(

Conduction through a cylindrical wall


For a cylinder at steady state, with no internal heat generation, the equation becomes

B.

equation as

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Chapter 1

Q=(

Heat Transfer

where

Comparing the above equation to that of heat transfer through a wall


Q = KA (T1 T2
Where

(T1 T2) / (r2 r1)

is the logarithmic mean area = (A2 A1) / log (A2 / A1)

The above equations are applicable to any general heat conduction problem. The one
dimensional heat conduction is out particular area of interest as they result in ordinary
differential equations.

Figure 4: A differential volume element in spherical coordinates.


Conduction through sphere
Steady state, one dimensional with no heat generation equation in spherical co-ordinates is
(

b
[

B. w

equation as

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