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Introduction

&
Failure Resulting from Static
Loading
MEE 311 Machine Design
Kitchanon Ruangjirakit, Ph.D.

Where to download lecture slides?


https://sites.google.com/a/mail.kmutt.ac.th/mee-311-machine-design/home/downloads

Textbook
Shigley's mechanical engineering design 9th edition

Contents
Design?
Stress and Strength
Uncertainty
Reliability
Material Strength and Stiffness
Hardness
Stress and Its Cartesian Components
Morhs Circle

Beam Bending
Torsion
Failure Resulting from Static
Loading
Failure Theories for Ductile
Materials

Design?
Design is an iterative process of creating
something innovative with specified need or
intention to solve a problem.
The products that engineer designs must be
functional, safe, reliable, competitive, usable,
manufacturable, and marketable.
The design process consists of different steps.
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Design?
The first step in the design process is
identification of need, which may be only a
vague discontent, a feeling of uneasiness, or a
sensing that something is not right.

The second step is to set up the definition of


problem, which include all specifications for
the item to be designed.

Design?
Once the specifications are clear, many
schemes connecting possible system elements
are proposed, investigated, and quantified.
This is also called concept design.

The schemes are then analysed and those that


fail to pass are revised, improved, or
discarded.
Those that pass are optimized.
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Design?
The evaluation step is one of the most
important steps in design process as it is the
final proof of a successful design and often
involves the testing of prototype.

The last step in the design process is to sell the


product to the market. This is the presentation
step.

Design?
It is worth noting that the design process discussed earlier is
highly iterative.

Stress and Strength


Stress is a state of property at a specific point and is a function of
various parameters such as load, geometry, temperature, and
manufacturing processing.
Strength is a property of material or of a mechanical element.
Stress is denoted by (sigma) and (tau) for normal and shear
stresses, respectively and the strength is designated by the capital
letter S.
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Uncertainty
There are 2 techniques to address uncertainties: deterministic and
stochastic methods.
The deterministic approach establishes a design factor based on the
absolute uncertainties of a loss-of-function parameter and a
maximum allowable parameter. The design factor, nd, is defined as

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Uncertainty
After the design is completed, the actual elements used may be offthe-shelf and different from those initially designed; therefore, the
actual design factor may change. This factor is then called the factor
of safety or safety factor, n.

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Reliability
Reliability, R, is the statistical approach to determine the probability
that a mechanical component will not fail in service. The range of the
reliability is between 0 and 1 (0 R 1).
For example, a reliability of 0.95 (R = 0.95) means that the chance of a
part will work properly without failure is 95 percent.
The failure of 6 parts from 1,000 parts will result in the reliability of
6
R 1
0.994
1000

or

99.4 percent
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Reliability
Reliability, R, in a series system of n components is the multiplication
of reliability of each component. This can be expressed
mathematically by
n

R Ri
i 1

For example, the reliability of a shaft is 95% while the reliability of


two bearing is 98%. The overall reliability of the shaft system is
R = R1R2 = 0.95(0.98) = 0.93
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Material Strength and Stiffness


Engineering stress

P
A0

A0 14 d 02

Engineering strain

Hooks law

E is called
Youngs modulus
or modulus of
elasticity

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Hardness
The hardness can be defined as the resistance of a material to
penetration by a tool.
Two most common used measuring systems are Rockwell and Brinell.

For steel

For cast iron


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Stress and Its Cartesian Components

Source: http://classes.mst.edu/ide110/concepts/13/strain/plane_stress_vs_strain.gif

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Morhs Circle
The two principal stresses can be expressed as

Similarly, the two extreme-value shear stresses are expressed as

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Morhs Circle

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Beam Bending
The bending stress varies linearly with the distance from the neutral
axis, y, and can be expressed as
where I is the second moment of area about the z-axis

The maximum magnitude is often written as

where

Z=

I
c

is called the section modulus

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Torsion
The angle of twist (radians) of a solid round tube is
given by
where T = torque, l = length, G = modulus of
rigidity, J = polar second moment of area

Also, the shear stresses induced throughout the


cross section is expressed as

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Stress Concentration
In many cases, the machine element contains discontinuity, which
affects stress field near the vicinity of the discontinuity. Therefore, the
elementary stress equations can no longer be used to represent the
state of stress in the part at these locations
These discontinuities are also called stress raisers and the areas which
they occur are called areas of stress concentration.
Stress concentrations can also arise from tool marks, holes, notches,
etc.
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Stress Concentration

Stress distribution in a rectangular filleted bar in pure bending obtained through photoelastic procedures. (By
permission of S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier; the figure was included in, "Theory of Elasticity," Third Edition,
McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1969.)

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Stress Concentration
The maximum normal and shear stresses
near the discontinuity need to be
modified by a factor defined by the
equations

Kt and Kts are called theoretical or


geometric stress-concentration factor
where subscript t and ts refer to normal
and shear stress, respectively.
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Stress Concentration
If the load is static and the material is considered ductile, the element
can carry loads with no general yielding. In these cases the engineer
who design the part can set the geometric stress concentration factor,
Kt, to unity (this is to set Kt = 1).
However be careful when using this rule for ductile materials with
static loads such that the material must not be susceptible to brittle
fracture in the environment of use.

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Failure Resulting from Static Loading


A static load is a stationary force or couple applied to a component.
The stationary force or couple must be constant in magnitude, point
or points of application, and direction.

The static load can be in a form of axial tension or compression, a


shear load, a bending load, a torsional load, or any combination of
these. However, the load cannot change in any manner to be
qualified as static.
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Failure Resulting from Static Loading


Failure can mean a part

has separated into two or more pieces


has become permanently distorted
has had its reliability downgraded
has had its function compromised.

Impact failure of a lawn mower blade


driver hub. The blade impacted a surveying
pipe marker.

Failure of a truck drive shaft spline due to corrosion fatigue

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Failure Resulting from Static Loading


Failure of an overhead-pulley
retaining bolt on a weightlifting
machine. A manufacturing error
caused a gap that forced the bolt to
take the entire moment load.

Chain test fixture that failed in one cycle. To


alleviate complaints of excessive wear, the
manufacturer decided to case-harden the
material.
(a) Two halves showing fracture; this is an
excellent example of brittle fracture initiated
by stress concentration.
(b) Enlarged view of one portion to show cracks
induced by stress concentration at the
support-pin holes.

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Failure Resulting from Static Loading


In the design process, the engineer should appreciate the following
design categories:
1. Failure of the part would endanger human life, or the part is made in
extremely large quantities; consequently, an elaborate testing program is
justified during design.
2. The part is made in large enough quantities that a moderate series of tests
is feasible.
3. The part is made in such small quantities that testing is not justified at all; or
the design must be completed so rapidly that there is not enough time for
testing.
4. The part has already been designed, manufactured, and tested and found to
be unsatisfactory. Analysis is required to understand why the part is
unsatisfactory and what to do to improve it.

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Failure Theories for Ductile Materials


There is no universal theory of failure to describe all material failure
phenomenon for the general case of material properties and stress
state.
To be able to explain different failure mechanisms for each type of
material, various hypotheses have been formulated and tested
leading to accepted practices today and these practices become
theories.

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Failure Theories for Ductile Materials


Structural metal behavior is typically classified as being ductile or
brittle.
Ductile : f 0.05
have an identifiable yield strength (often Syt = Syc = Sy)
Brittle : f < 0.05
do not exhibit an identifiable yield strength
classified by Sut, Suc
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Failure Theories for Ductile Materials


Ductile materials (yield criteria)
- Maximum Shear Stress (MSS)
- Distortion Energy (DE)
- Ductile Coulomb-Mohr (DCM)
Brittle materials (fracture criteria)
- Maximum Normal Stress (MNS)
- Brittle Coulomb-Mohr (BCM)
- Modified Mohr (MM)
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Maximum Shear Stress (MSS)


The maximum-shear-stress theory predicts that yielding begins
whenever the maximum shear stress in any element equals or
exceeds the maximum shear stress in a tension test specimen of the
same material when that specimen begins to yield.
The MSS theory is also referred to as the Tresca or Guest theory.

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Maximum Shear Stress (MSS)


In the tensile test, the maximum shear stress at yield is
max

Sy
2

For a general state of stress, three principal stresses can be ordered


that 1 2 3
max

1 3

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Maximum Shear Stress (MSS)


From the definition of MMS theory, yielding occurs when
max

1 3 S y

This also implies that

The design equation

1 3 S y

or

S sy 0.5S y

max

Sy
2n

or

1 3

Sy
n
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Maximum Shear Stress (MSS)


For plane stress (one of the principal stresses is zero and AB)
Case 1: A B 0 1 A

3 0

A Sy
Case 2: A 0 B

1 A 3 B

A B Sy
Case 3: 0 A B

1 0

3 B

B S y
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Distortion Energy (DE)


The distortion-energy theory predicts that yielding occurs when the
distortion strain energy per unit volume reaches or exceeds the
distortion strain energy per unit volume for yield in simple tension or
compression of the same material.
The distortion energy theory was derived based on the observation
that the of yielding of ductile materials was not a simple tensile or
compressive phenomenon, but, rather, that it was related somehow
to the angular distortion of the stressed element.

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Distortion Energy (DE)


For distortion energy theory, the stress tensor can be divided into 2
components.
1. Hydrostatic component
2. Angular distortion component

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Distortion Energy (DE)

Due to the stress sav acting


in each of the same
principal direction.

av

This element subjected to pure


angular distortion, no volume
change.

1 2 3
3

The element undergoes


pure volume change, no
angular distortion.

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Distortion Energy (DE)


For simple tension, the strain energy per unit volume is

1
u
2
As for the cubic element, the strain energy per unit volume is

1
u 11 2 2 3 3
2
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Distortion Energy (DE)


For general state of stress, the strain energy per unit volume can be
found from

1 2
2
2
u
1 2 3 21 2 2 3 31
2E

The strain energy required to only change the volume of the cubic
element (uv) can be derived by substituting 1 = 2 = 3 = av

1 2 2
2
2
uv
1 2 3 21 2 2 2 3 2 31
6E

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Distortion Energy (DE)


Hence, the distortion energy is obtained by
2
2
2
1 1 2 2 3 3 1
u d u uv

3E
2

Note that the distortion energy is zero if 1 = 2 = 3.


For yielding in simple tension; 1 = Sy, 2 = 3 = 0
1 2
ud
Sy
3E

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Distortion Energy (DE)


From the definition of distortion energy, yielding occurs when
1 2 2 3 3 1

1/ 2

Sy

The LHS of the above equation can be considered as a single,


equivalent, or effective stress for the entire general state of stress
given by 1, 2, and 3. This effective stress is usually called the von
Mises stress denoted as or it can be written as

S y
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Distortion Energy (DE)


Therefore, the von Mises stress is
1 2 2 3 3 1

1/ 2

For the case of plane stress (1 = A, 2 = B, 3 = 0)

A B
2
A

2 1/ 2
B

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Distortion Energy (DE)


The graphical
representation of the
distortion energy
theory can be shown
as an inclined ellipse as
follows.

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Distortion Energy (DE)


Using the Cartesian coordinate (xyz components) of 3D stress, the von
Mises stress can be written as

1
2
2
2

x y y z z x 6 xy2 yz2 zx2



2

1/ 2

For the case of plane stress (z = 0)

x y 3
2
x

2
y

2 1/ 2
xy
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Distortion Energy (DE)


The failure surface for
DE is a circular cylinder
with an axis inclined at
45 from each principal
stress axis, whereas
the surface for MSS is
a hexagon inscribed
within the cylinder.

The DE theory for plane stress states.

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Distortion Energy (DE)


For pure shear (xy) in plane stress case (x = y = 0), the principal
stresses are 1 = xy and 2 = -xy , then

2 1/ 2
xy

Sy

or

xy

Sy
3

0.577S y

Hence, the shear yield strength predicted by DE theory is

S sy 0.577 S y
which is approximately 15 % greater than 0.5Sy predicted by MSS theory.

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Coloumb Mohr (CM)


For some materials, the yield
strength in tension is not equal
to the strength in compression.
For example, magnesium (Syc
0.5Syt), gray cast iron (Suc 34Syt)
Mohrs hypothesis was to use
the results of tensile,
compression and torsion shear
test to construct the three
Mohrs circles.
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Coloumb Mohr (CM)


The three Mohr circles describe
the stress state in a body
growing during loading until one
of them became tangent to the
failure envelope, thereby
defining failure. (yielding occurs)

Compression
Failure envelope

Tension
Pure shear
49

Coloumb Mohr (CM)


Failure envelope

A variation of Mohrs theory,


called the Coulomb-Mohr theory
or Internal-friction theory was
developed by using only tension
and compression tests.
Consider the conventional
ordering of the principal stresses
1 2 3. The largest Mohrs
circle connects 1 and 3.

Tension

General state of stress


Compression

50

Coloumb Mohr (CM)


Failure envelope

If the center of three circles are C1,


C2 and C3 respectively, the triangle
OBiCi are similar, therefore
B2C2 B1C1 B3C3 B1C1

OC 2 OC1
OC 3 OC1

Note: B2C2 is a radius of the second


circle and OC2-OC1 is the distance
between C1 and C2 (= av1 - av2)

Tension

General state of stress


Compression

51

Coloumb Mohr (CM)


Failure envelope

1 3 S t
Sc St

2
2 2 2
St 1 3 S c St

2
2
2 2

Simplify the above equation gives

1 3
1
St Sc

Tension

General state of stress


Compression

52

Coloumb Mohr (CM)


For plane stress (A B) the Coulomb-Mohr theory provides the
hexagon as shown
Case 1:

A B 0 1 A

3 0

Case 1

A St
Case 2:

A 0 B

1 A 3 B

A B

1
St S c
Case 3:

0 A B
B Sc

1 0

Case 2

3 B
Case 3

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Coloumb Mohr (CM)


Failure envelope

For pure shear , 1 = -3 = . The


torsional yield strength occurs when
max = Ssy. It can be obtained by
substituting 1 = -3 = Ssy

S sy

S yt S yc
S yt S yc

The design equation is

1 3 1

St Sc n

Tension

General state of stress


Compression

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Failure Theories for Ductile Materials Summary


For ductile materials which the tensile yield
strength and compressive yield strength are
identical, there are 2 theories that could be
used to predict yielding: Maximum Shear
Stress (MSS) or Tresca and Distortion Energy
(DE) or von Mises.
von Mises theory passes closer to the
central area of the data. It is the most
precise criteria to predict yielding of ductile
materials. While the Tresca theory is the
simplest to be used.
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Failure Theories for Ductile Materials Summary


If the tensile yield strength (Syt) and the compressive yield strength
(Syc) of the ductile materials are not identical, the Mohr theory is the
best option available. However, the theory requires the results from
three separate modes of tests. The alternative to this is to use the
Coulomb-Mohr theory, which requires only the tensile and
compressive yield strengths and is easily to be dealt with.

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