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The Library of Julio Santo Domingo

Above: Original, very rare, promo poster of the character known as Three-Ball Charlie because of his supposed resemblance
to Charlie Watts for Exile on Main Street, 1972. From a photo by Robert Frank, with design by John Van Hamersveld and
Mick Jagger. Opposite: Mick Jagger on stage, mid-1970s. Bought at auction in a set of four, along with a promo Styrofoam
disc given out at premiere of 1974 concert film, Ladies and Gentlemen: The Rolling Stones.
Following pages: Julios lips.
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HERBARIUM FOR PHARMACEUTICAL STUDENTS BY A. E. LOMAX. This single-volume


collection of 80 specimens dating from around 1880 was the work of Alban Edward Lomax, a 19thcentury pharmacist from Liverpool, and features both cannabis and the opium poppy. It captures an
age before aspirin and penicillin, when plants were still an integral part of a pharmacists armory,
and it is beautifully presented. In the late-Victorian era, cannabis was usually recommended as
an antibiotic or analgesic; extract of hashish in alcohol was sold as Squires Extract and used as an
alternative to opiates, which were known to be addictive and expensive, although it was never as popular.
In 1850, cannabis was being recommended as treatment for neuralgia, tetanus, typhus, cholera, rabies,
dysentery, alcoholism, opiate addiction, anthrax, leprosy, incontinence, snake bite, gout, convulsions,
tonsillitis, insanity, menorrhagia and uterine hemorrhaging. It was rumored that Queen Victoria
was prescribed cannabis to relieve menstrual cramps after her doctor, Sir John Russell Reynolds,
declared cannabis to be one of the most valuable medicines we possess. Other doctors, however,
considered the plant to have no medicinal value and placed it on a parallel with tea and coffee.

Previous page: Silver roach clip, with joint. Roach clips evolved from paperclips and tweezers as a way of getting as
much out of a joint as possible. Many were decorative or disguised as keys or jewelry. Above: A. E. Lomaxs Herbarium for
Pharmaceutical Students. Opposite: Pressed Cannabis sativa cutting. The book also contained an example of Cannabis indica.
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ZULUS SMOKING INSANGO. Cannabis, known as dagga, isangu or intsangu in Southern Africa,
was regularly used by Zulu and Swazi tribesmen. It was smoked daily and frequently used as a stimulant
before battle. In some areas, the plant was mixed with dried herbivore dung and placed in a small hole
in the ground; the men would then communally inhale the fumes through hollowed bones, wood or stone.
Intriguingly, isango is the Zulu word for gate or portsuggesting isangu may relate to a journey or entry to a
new dimension.

POSTER FOR THE PUTTING TOGETHER OF THE HEADS CANNABIS RALLY AT HYDE PARK.
This pro-pot rally took place on July 16, 1967, drawing a crowd of 5,000 hippies to the central London park.
Speakers included Allen Ginsberg, Stokely Carmichael and Adrian Mitchell. Cannabis was smoked openly
and nobody was arrested, although Ginsberg, wearing a psychedelic shirt given to him the day before by
Paul McCartney, was warned for playing his harmonium. The meeting was organized by Stephen Abrams, the
instigator of a pro-marijuana advertisement that later appeared in the Times, and it followed several highprofile arrests for drug offenses, including those of Keith Richards and Mick Jagger.

Above: Photo of Zulus smoking cannabis, c1900.


Opposite: Pro-cannabis rally poster, London, 1967.
134

THE NAKED LUNCH BY WILLIAM BURROUGHS. Burroughs says that Naked Lunch was written more
when I was off than I was on, but the book is laden with drug references and imagery, and in 1959 Life
said it could be described as an effort to communicate the degradation of addiction in epic terms. Junk
permeates every moment . . . is connected to the magical universe . . . is an international subculture, notes
biographer William Morgan, and Burroughs also penned a thoughtful introduction detailing his history with
drugswhether you sniff it, smoke it, eat it or shove it up your ass, the result is the same: addiction
carefully explaining the differences between junk and nonaddictive drugs (including the little-known LSD). The
book established Burroughss literary reputation, even though it was not published in the U.S. for another three
years (by Grove Press as Naked Lunch). When it did, it was subject to an obscenity trial and a review in
Time that was so scathing, Burroughs sued for libel in London, where he was living. He won and was awarded
just compensation for the damage to his reputation, which the court decided was a measly 5 (now about
$640). Pictured above is the Olympia Press first edition in a dust jacket, which Burroughs designed himself
it was unusual for an Olympia Press book to even have a dust jacket.

Above: The 1959 Olympia Press edition of Naked Lunch, in dust jacket.
Opposite: Illustration in similar style to cover of Naked Lunch by William Burroughs
on the wall of Julios office in Geneva.
206

JACK KEROUAC REEL-TO-REEL RECORDINGS. Julio wrote in 2006 that he had acquired 12
hours of reel-to-reel assembled by J. K.s shrink with amazing, unpublished, unheard material ending
with the last 10 minutes of his memorial mass in Lowell, Massachusetts. The tapes featured Kerouac
singing, chanting, ranting, swearing and improvising along with his wife Stella and her brother [Tony
Sampas], Ginsberg, Corso and Ferlinghetti spanning the years from pre-On the Road to death. Kerouac
was known to use tape to describe his writing technique and read extracts from his books, and would
also record his stoned conversations with Neal Cassady.

Opposite: Tapes of readings recorded by Jack Kerouac and Dylan Thomas.


Above: The Kerouac tapes.
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245

THE VELVET UNDERGROUND AND NICO ALBUM, SIGNED BY ANDY WARHOL.


The Velvet Undergrounds banana album is one of the most distinctive LP covers of all time, and this
vinyl copy in Julios collection, although not a first pressing, is signed in thick black felt tip by Warhol on
the right-hand side. Warhol adorned the sleeve with the instruction Peel slowly and seeif you did
so, the yellow banana sticker gave way to reveal a phallic pink one underneath. A special machine had to
be made to manufacture the sleeve.
The band already had connections to the New York artistic avant-garde through Tony Conrad and La Monte
Young before they came to Warhols attention in 1965. Warhol quickly adopted them into his Exploding
Plastic Inevitable, a touring barrage to the senses that featured up to five film projectors, slide projections,
a light show by Danny Williams, mirror balls on the ceiling and floors, three or four pop songs played
simultaneously, S&M dancing by Warhol assistant Gerard Malanga, as well as one or two sets by the Velvet
Underground and Nico. In May 1966, they played The Trip, a club on L.A.s Sunset Strip (see poster
opposite). John Phillips of The Mamas & the Papas, Ryan ONeal, Jim Morrison (then a film student) and
Cher were among those who saw the band get booed by the audience on opening nightCher later
commented that the Velvets music would replace nothing, except possibly suicide. The reviews were awful
and after three nights the club was closed by the sheriffs office for disturbing the peace. The band stayed in
L.A. to finish recording their debut album, which came out in March 1967, and was promptly ignored.

Above: Copy of the Velvet Undergrounds debut album, signed by Andy Warhol.
Opposite: Rare poster advertising forthcoming Exploding Plastic Inevitable appearances at The Trip, May 1966.
258

Above and Opposite: Poster advertising the joint show featuring Andy Warhol and Jean-Michel Basquiat, from a photograph by Michael Halsband. It was
like some crazy art-world marriage and they were the odd couple, said Pop artist Ronnie Cutrone. Jean-Michel gave Andy a rebellious image again.
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Above: First edition of Valley of the Dolls, Jacqueline Susanns novel


about pill-popping starlets in New York, published by Bernard Geis Associates, 1966.
Opposite: Beat Girl by Bonnie Golightly, published by Avon Books, 1959. Golightly was a genuine
member of the counterculture, later writing a book about LSD with Peter Stafford. She also attempted to
sue Truman Capote, claiming she was the inspiration for the main character in Breakfast at Tiffanys.
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Selection of presumably undipped LSD blotter art. These sorts of elaborate designs occupying entire sheets were conceived in
the 1990s, although decorated acid tabs can be dated back to the 1970s. The sheet at bottom right features Timothy Leary.
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TIMOTHY LEARYS ESCAPE NOTICE. Leary was first busted for marijuana smuggling in 1965 after
being caught in Laredo on the Mexican border with three partially smoked joints, for which he received
an extraordinary sentence of 30 years. Although he avoided prison through deft exploitation of the legal
system, he was busted again at Millbrook in 1966 (his chief prosecutor was G. Gordon Liddy, later a
Watergate plumber) and in California in 1968. In March 1969, he was sentenced to 10 years in prison in
Texas for the 1965 bust and another one to 10 years in California (at the latter trial, the judge used Learys
Playboy interview as evidence of his insidious and detrimental influence on society). Leary began his
sentence on March 18, 1970, in Chino State Prison, California, and was later transferred to California
Mens Colony in San Luis Obispo.
Leary escaped in September 1970 and was taken out of the country to Algiers thanks to an unusual
alliance between the Weathermen, who were enthusiastic users of LSD, and the Black Panthers, who were
not. After two years in exile, he returned to the United States and to prison in April 1973, before being
released in April 1976. His first days in solitary confinement at Folsom Prison were spent in the cell
between Charles Manson and Black Panther Geronimo Pratt. Manson had used LSD extensively with his
murderous Family before the Tate-LaBianca slayings in 1969 and his massacres were celebrated by the
Weather Underground, as they became known, who even developed the fork salutea reference to the
fork that was stuck into the stomach of one Manson victim.

Above: Escape notice after Timothy Leary absconded from prison in California in 1970.
Opposite: Timothy Learys letter to Playboy to arrange a famous 1966 interview in which he promised, in a
carefully presented, loving LSD session, a woman will inevitably have several hundred orgasms.
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THE STORY OF O ORIGINAL HANDWRITTEN MANUSCRIPT. When The Story of O was published in
Paris in 1954 it was among the last of its kind. This was one of the final major works of erotica to be published
pseudonymously and to face obscenity charges; however, it was also published simultaneously and openly
in French and English, won a French literature prize and was praised by Graham Greene as a rare thing: a
pornographic book well written and without a trace of obscenity.
This is the working manuscript of the book, as well as the sequel Return to Roissy, handwritten by Anne
Desclos. Desclos, a translator and critic who used the writing name Dominique Aury, was the mistress of
publisher Jean Paulhan. She wrote The Story of O, a sadomasochistic celebration of total submission, when
he told her no woman could write a book like Sade. It was published by Jean-Jacques Pauvert and Desclos
took the new pseudonym Pauline Rage. Her identity remained a secret until 1994, with many believing
Paulhan to be the real writer. This manuscript consists of 625 pages, written mainly in pencil with the final
part in blue biro and divided by blue card into five sections. There are a few strong deletions, but one
of the most significant occurs on the opening page, where Paulhans pen has changed the first line and
introduced the name by which the protagonist will thereafter be known: O. It is an exceptional object, the
handwritten history of one of the great works of modern erotica, although Desclos herself has been coy.
It was a love letter and nothing else, she said when finally revealing her identity in 1994. Julio also had
a rare 1962 copy of the book, one of 350 copies illustrated by Lonor Fini.

Above, Opposite and Following pages: Handwritten manuscript for The Story of O, 1953.
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DIE PUPPE BY HANS BELLMER. Bellmers dolls first appeared in the French Surrealist magazine
Minotaure in 1934. In 18 photographs a doll made of wood, flax fibre, plaster and glue was arranged
in a variety of poses, sometimes naked, sometimes with props, sometimes armless. Bellmer, a German
artist, wrote of his desire to construct an artificial girl with anatomical possibilities . . . capable of
re-creating the heights of passion even to inventing new desires, and these unsettling images were the
result. In an accompanying essay, Memories of the Doll Theme, he revelled in the erotic possibilities
of young maidens and the casual quiver of their pink pleats. In 1936, Bellmer published 10 of these
photographs in Die Puppe, dedicated to his cousin Ursula, a young maiden whose arrival into his life
in 1932 had stoked his desire. The book traced the development of the doll, republished his 1934 essay,
and included a drawing of Bellmers plan to introduce a peep show into the body of the doll, viewed
through the belly and operated by pressing the left nipple. The very rare German edition from 1936 is
shown here. It has the photographs in a different sequence to other copies of the book and is signed by
Bellmer. Julio also had the first French edition, La Poupe, also published in 1936.

Above, Opposite and Following pages: Disturbing but compelling images from Die Puppe by German Surrealist Hans Bellmer.
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Above and Opposite: Two copies of The Cocaine Papers, published by Afghani Oil Press in 1972 / 1973.
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Opposite: Glass bottle of cocaine hydrochlorate, c1910. This came from an apothecary located in the Masonic Temple in Memphis.
Above: Small box of eight vials manufactured by Parke, Davis & Co., including solutions of cocaine hydrochlorate, and homatropine and
cocaine. The company sold cocaine in many forms, including a kit that came with its own needle. Parke Davis aggressively
promoted cocaine, boasting that it would supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and . . . render the
sufferer insensitive to pain. They even paid Freud to endorse Parke Davis cocaine in 1885.
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SPUR. The Gruppe SPUR (meaning track or trace) was a collaboration of German avant-garde
artists Heimrad Prem, Helmut Sturm, Hans-Peter Zimmer and Lothar Fischer, who formed in 1957
in Munich and were briefly affiliated with Debords Situationist International until Debord ejected
them over doctrinal differences. SPUR celebrated play and wanted to produce poly-dimensional art.
They also embraced movement and dynamism as well as kitsch, dirt and junk, while rejecting
aestheticism, abstraction and technique. As the German art establishment attempted to reassert itself
after Nazism, SPUR were natural troublemakersespecially after writer Dieter Kunzelmann joined
in 1960working with the German left wing to form a minor but lively presence in the European
countercultures long march toward 1968.
SPUR produced seven issues of Spur between 1960 and 1961 in editions of around 1,000 copies
filled with stunning art and provocative articles that compared taking communion with eating
excrement, demanded that cinemas become temples for orgies and featured a hymn called The
Virgin Marys Abortion Inspires Me. In 1961, an Italian tourist bought a copy of issue four and
alerted the authorities. All issues were confiscated and issue four was declared obscene, pornographic
and blasphemous, cementing SPURs reputation among the avant-garde left. After a chaotic trial,
Kunzelmann, Sturm, Prem and Zimmer were given jail sentences and all confiscated copies of Spur
were ordered to be destroyed. These sentences were reduced upon appeal, during which Kunzelmann
stated, Yes, I acknowledge writing pornographic texts and blaspheming God with pleasure. What is
the crime here? His counsel quit in despair. Kunzelmann next formed the activist-hippie commune
Kommune 1, whose number included model Uschi Obermaier, who later had flings with Keith
Richards, Mick Jagger and Jimi Hendrix. After leaving Kommune 1, Kunzelmann formed anarchist
guerrilla cell Tupamaros West-Berlin, before serving five years in prison after his capture in 1970.

Above: Book compiling SPUR material, featuring all seven issues of Spur and
the groups four manifestos, as well as original signed drawings. This is No. 26 of 270 published.
Opposite: Covers of the first three editions of Spur and some of the contents, including
a photograph of Sturm, Prem, Zimmer and Fischer (top right).
Issue three contained 29 lithographs, including this print (bottom right) signed by Asger Jorn.
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HITLER BEHIND MASK OF DE GAULLE. Central to public memory of the events in Paris
of 1968 are the posters produced by student protesters that decorated the walls of the city. Many
were witty, earnest and provocative, but few were as willfully shocking as this image of Hitler
brandishing a mask of French President Charles de Gaulle. It was produced in June 1968 by the
Arts-Dcoratifs, one of six collectives set up by art students in Paris in May and June. The best
known is the Atelier Populaire, which occupied the lithography room of Ecole National Suprieure
des Beaux-Arts and produced the first poster of the revolt on May 14. Even the Atelier Populaire,
however, condemned the Hitler poster arguing it was not correct, politically or historically. As
Arts-Dco artist Pierre Bernard later recalled, The image was incredibly violent and not politically
correct, but it was very, very effective. There was an unwholesome jubilation in the printing of it.
Some really violent things happened after an image like that one was posted.
Around 500 different posters appeared during the uprising, made on silkscreen in batches of up
to 2,000. The designer and artist of each poster remained anonymous, but the distinctive overall
style, with slogans inspired by the Situationists, would later influence punk graphic art. The posters
were placed on walls under cover of night or distributed at factories and universities. They were
as common as popcorn, says Atelier Populaire cofounder Philippe Verms, who helped collate
them in 1969 for Posters from the Revolution, the first visual record of the posters, which sternly
warned that to use the posters for decorative purposes, to display them in bourgeois places of
culture or to consider them as objects of aesthetic interest is to impair both their function and their
effect. Needless to say, a healthy market in the posters soon emerged and Julio acquired around 80.

Opposite: Poster of Hitler Behind Mask of de Gaulle, produced by the Arts-Dcoratifs in June 1968.
Above: 1945/1968, produced by Atelier Populaire in 1968.
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Opposite: Victor Moscosos explosive Avalon Ballroom poster for the Siegel-Schwall Band, July 1967.
Above: Script of Fuck Nam by Tuli Kupferberg, a Beat poet (referenced in Ginsbergs Howl) who formed anti-folk protest band The Fugs with
writer and publisher Ed Sanders. The Fugs performed at the 1967 levitation of the Pentagon with the Yippies and Kenneth Anger. Fuck Nam
was published in 1966 by Birth Press and included characters like Colonel Texaco, naked with stars on his dick in gold and red.
569

THE EQUINOX BY ALEISTER CROWLEY. This periodical has been described as Crowleys grandest
publishing achievement by biographer Lawrence Sutin. The first volume of 10 was published twice a year
in the spring and autumn equinoxbetween 1909 and 1913, in lavishly bound editions of 1,050 copies
that sold for less than they cost to produce. Within them, Crowley included the teachings and beliefs of his
magical order, A A , in the form of essays, poems and fiction, much of it written by himself. A further three
volumes followed intermittently, although the second volume was one of silence, as Crowley could not
afford to produce any copies.
The set of volumes owned by Julio had been presented by Crowley to Charles Stansfield Jones, who Crowley
at one time believed to be his magical son. No. 8 includes annotations in ink in the chapter on Tarot cards,
presumably made by Crowley himself, and there are also some annotations in Vol. 6. Stansfield Jones gave
the volumes to Mildred Burlingame, who later helped found the Second Agap Lodge of Crowleys religious
system, Thelema. It was with this lodge that Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard became involved: some
claim he took part in sexual magick (magick was a term favored by Crowley) with a couple called Jack
and Betty Parsons, in an attempt to create a magical child, thus fulfilling a prophecy from Crowleys
The Book of the Law. Crowley was not impressed, writing: Apparently Parsons or Hubbard or somebody is
producing a Moonchild. I get fairly frantic when I contemplate the idiocy of these louts.

Opening spread: Crimson collotype of a glowering


Aleister Crowley, entitled The Student, from The Equinox, Vol. 1, No. 3.
Previous pages: Books by and about Crowley.
Opposite: Front of The Equinox (Vol. 1, No. 4) from September 1910,
including the motto: The method of science, the aim of religion.
612

THE DIARY OF A DRUG FIEND BY ALEISTER CROWLEY. In 1922, Crowley proposed to


write a shocker . . . catering to the hysteria and prurience of the sex-crazed public that drew on
his considerable experience with drugs. The book was written in 27 and a half days so publisher
William Collins would have it ready for the summers holiday reading. The Diary of a Drug Fiend
sold modestly, until it was noticed by the tabloid press, who described it as a book for burning,
with disagreeable financial consequences for Crowley. Julio had numerous copies and this is
the finest, a first edition still in the dust jacket. The plot follows a couple who experiment with
heroin and cocaine, gleefully at first (Its the finest stuff there is!), and has been described as one
of the most accurate and detailed accounts of drug-taking and addiction ever written (Cannabis:
A History by Martin Booth).
Crowley discussed his own use of hashish, cocaine and heroin in great detail in his numerous
writings and diaries. At first, drugs informed his visions and enhanced his already prodigious
and uninhibited sexual stamina, but eventually he became dependent on heroin, which he was
prescribed to combat asthma in 1919 and continued to take on prescription for the rest of his
life. The writer Christopher Isherwood met Crowley in 1931 and later noted: The truly awful
thing about Crowley is that one suspects he didnt really believe in anything. Even his wickedness.
Perhaps the only thing that wasnt fake was his addiction to heroin and cocaine.
More light-hearted were Crowleys experiments with peyote, which he often doled out at parties.
On one occasion in New York he gave some to the novelist Theodore Dreiser, who became
uncomfortable and asked if there was a doctor in the area. I dont know about a doctor, said
Crowley. But theres a first-class undertaker on the corner of 33rd and 6th. Dreiser paused for
thought, and then responded, I dont like that kind of joke, Crowley.

Previous pages, Left: Detail of Julios office; Right: Painting on wall in occult section of library of cover art by Earle K. Bergey.
Opposite: The dramatic cover of the first edition of Crowleys The Diary of a Drug Fiend, 1922.
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OPIUM BY JEAN COCTEAU. Cocteau became addicted to opium in the 1920s, and wrote
Les enfants terribles during a 17-day stupor at the clinic in Saint-Cloud where he was being treated
for addiction. Cocteau wrote about his experience in the clinic in OpiumThe Diary of an Addict
(often subtitled The Diary of His Cure), which described his addiction to opium, his obsession
with the drug and his subsequent stay in Saint-Cloud between December 1928 and April 1929.
It features vivid descriptions of opium dreams, fascinating reflections on the use of the drug
(Everything one does in life, even love, occurs in an express train racing toward death. To smoke
opium is to get out of the train while it is still moving. It is to concern oneself with something other
than life or death) and the agony of withdrawal (Now that I am cured, he writes, I feel poor,
empty, broken-hearted and ill. The doctors may as well hand you over to suicide), as well as
reminiscences about his artistic friends of the period. The book featured a number of illustrations
depicting Cocteaus obsession, including the cover in which the opium-smoking man is composed
entirely of opium pipes.

Opposite: Jean Cocteaus original illustration for the jacket of Opium c1930.
Above: Cover of Opium by Cocteau with some subtle differences from the draft drawing opposite.
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Above: Pressed opium poppy from A. E. Lomaxs Herbarium for Pharmaceutical Students of c1890.
Opposite: Signed poster, one of 400, by Robert Maguire for his iconic 1958 cover of Black Opium. This collection of
17 short stories by Claude Farrre (pseudonym of Frdric-Charles Bargone, himself an opium smoker), was first
published in 1904 as Fume dopium with a preface by Pierre Lous. The U.S. edition was translated by Samuel Putnam
in 1929 and featured illustrations by Alexander King, an editor, artist, playwright and morphine addict.
652

JEAN COCTEAU SKETCHBOOK. The following pages are from a notebook that belonged
to Jean Cocteau, which he filled with original drawings and text. The book consists of 34
pages, many of which featured the same face in profile, sometimes several times on a single
page, as well as pictures of guitar players and swimmers. It is dedicated to Andr Grange,
Cocteaus friend, who had recently died.
Cocteau smoked opium for much of his life, and this notebook appears to date from 1925/1926,
around the time his habit intensified and began to inform his writing. He later discussed
his search for a cure in his beautiful memoir Opium. In The Road of Excess, Marcus Boons
meditation on writers and drugs, the author notes: Opium was a regulator for Cocteau,
producing an artificial calm in which he could work . . . Opium is an attempt to find value
or meaning in a period of time that has been wasted. It is tempting to speculate that these
drawings were also a result of Cocteaus opium-induced reveries. Some of the passages were
revised and appeared in his 1927 book Opera.

Above: Cover of Cocteaus notebook.


Opposite: Sketches from the notebook.
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Above: The striking floral patterned binding for the


deluxe edition of Prousts lombre des jeunes filles en fleurs.
Following page: Prousts handwritten additions to a printed galley proof,
including scraps of paper on which he has written new sections
and pasted to the top and bottom of the galley in the desired places.
808

LEADBELLY BY WOODY GUTHRIE. This seven-sided, typewritten essay by Woody Guthrie


not finished, w.g., hes scrawled across the final page of the manuscriptwas written by Guthrie for
the 1947 pamphlet American Folksong and published under the title Leadbelly Is a Hard Name.
That book was published by Moe Asch, founder of Guthrie and Leadbellys label, Folkways. This
essay is accompanied by a watercolor of Leadbelly by York Cunningham Jr., who illustrated the book.
Its a typically evocative piece of writing, as Guthrie recalls staying at Leadbellys apartment of three
little rooms painted a sooty sky blue and then smoked over with the stains from cigarets (sic), cigars,
of the rich and of the poor. The two singers were friends and kindred spirits in the 1940s as they
simultaneously explored the American folk canonone of the many songs they both recorded was
Take a Whiff on Me, which makes explicit reference to cocaine.

Above: Original watercolor of American blues singer Leadbelly by York Cunningham Jr.
Opposite: First page of Woody Guthries typewritten manuscript of his essay
about Leadbelly, with Guthries marks in pencil, c1947.
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