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Introduction

ManytrumpetplayerswhoareawareofthemusicofAndrJolivetareprimarilyfamiliarwith
eitherhisConcertinoforTrumpet,Strings,andPianoorhisConcertoforTrumpetand
OrchestraNo.2.Whilethoseworksaresomeofhismorepopular,hecomposednumerousother
piecesfortrumpetworthnoting.AndrJolivetmadeanumberofsignificantcontributionstothe
chamberandsolorepertoirefortrumpet.Thispaperdiscussesallrelevantbiographicalcontexts,
aswellasspecificinformationabouthisworksfortrumpet.

PartI:BiographicalInformation

LifeandCareer
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AndrJolivet,famedFrenchcomposer,wasbornonAugust8,1905inParis,France. Hewas
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bornintoanartisticfamilyhisfatherwasapainter,andhismotherapianist. Atayoungage,he
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begancomposingpoems,andatagethirteensetoneofhisownpoemstomusic. Hewentonto
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designandcomposethemusicforaballetatonlyagefifteen. In1928,hebegantakinglessons
withPaulLeFlem,directoroftheChanteursdeSt.Gervais,whoserigoroustrainingin
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counterpoint,harmony,andclassicalformsoftendrewon15thand16thcenturypolyphonists.
WhenJolivetheardEdgardVarsesAmriquesin1929,hewasstruckbythecomposers
overwhelmingorchestration,andLeFlemrespondedtohisenthusiasmbyintroducingJolivetto
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Varse,whothentookJolivetonashisonlyEuropeanstudent.
1

BarbaraL.Kelly."Jolivet,Andr."GroveMusicOnline.AccessedApril8,2014.
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/14433?q=Andre+Jolivet&sear
ch=quick&pos=1&_start=1#firsthit.
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid.
4
Ibid.
5
Ibid.
6
Ibid.

JolivetwroteManaforpianoin1935,whichmarkedthestartofhismagicperiod.
Subsequentworks,Cinqincantationsforsoloflute(1936)andCinqdansesrituelles(1939),are
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concernedwithpaganideassuchasthelifecycleandharvest. Manaspecificallycaught
OlivierMessiaensnotice,leadingthetwocomposerstoformthegroupLaSpiralewiththe
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inclusionofDanielLesur. Soonlater,withtheadditionofYvesBaudrier,theybecameLaJeune
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France,orYoungFrance. Theywereallbroughttogetherintothisavantgardechamber
groupbytheirinterestinspiritualconcernsandadesiretowidentheemotionalrangeof
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music. Thegroupwasknownfortheirpromotionofspiritualvaluesandhumanqualities,as
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wellastheirrejectionofStravinskysneoclassicism,Satiescompositionalstyle,andLesSix.
However,LaJeuneFrancesactivitieswerecompletelyshutdownbytheinvolvementofFrance
13

inWorldWarII.
JolivetwasthemusicaldirectoroftheComdieFranaisfrom1945to1959,andduring
thatperiodhecomposedfourteenscoresforplaysbyMolire,Racine,Sophocles,Shakespeare,
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andClaudel. HisConcertoforPianoandOrchestrawonhimtheGrandPrixdelaVillede
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Parisduringhistenurethere. In1959,JolivetfoundedtheCentreFranaisdHumanisme
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MusicalatAixenProvence. From1961until1970,hetaughtcompositionattheParis
17

Conservatoire. Byagesixtyfive,hehadwrittentenconcertos,threesymphonies,fivesonatas,

Ibid.
Ibid.
9
Ibid.
10
Ibid.
11
Ibid.
12
Ibid.
13
Ibid.
14
Ibid.
15
Ibid.
16
Ibid.
17
"AndrJolivet."TheMusicalTimes116,no.1585.1975:268.
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sevenworksforsoloinstruments,anopera,andmanyotherpianocycles,serenades,suites,and
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19

anoratorio. AndrJolivetdiedinParisatagesixtynineonDecember20,1974.

CompositionalInspiration
AndrJolivetwasinspiredbythemusicofDebussy,Dukas,andRavelwhenhesawworksof
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theirsperformedatthePasdeloupconcertsin1919(whenhewasonlyfourteenyearsold).
EightyearsafterhisdiscoveryoftheirmusiccameJolivetsfirstexperiencewiththemusicof
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ArnoldSchoenberg,atthreeconcertsattheSallePleyelinParis.
Inaninterview,Jolivethimselfcitesamajorinfluenceonhiscompositionalstyle:
Imustsay,thatitwas[Edgard]Varse,whoseonlypupilIwas,andforwhomIhavethe
deepestadmiration,whosetmeonmyway.Hehelpedmetodiscoveroneofmusics
mostsignificantaspectsmusicasamagicalandritualexpressionofhumansociety.I
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havelearnedtoattachgreatimportancetothebalancebetweenmanandthecosmos.

WhilestudyingwithVarse,Jolivetbecameawareoftherelevanceofastronomicallawsfor
musicalstructures,committedhimselftoanontonalmethoddistinctfromdodecaphonic
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serialism,andwasdeeplyinvolvedintheapplicationofmetaphysicalthoughttomusic.
JolivetwasmobilizedatFontainebleauduringWorldWarII,wherehewrotesomeofhis
importantwarinspiredworks:Messepourlejourdelapaixforvoice,organ,andtambourine,
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andTroiscomplaintesdusoldatforvoiceandpianoororchestra. Generallyspeaking,Jolivet

18

BrigitteSchiffer."AndrJolivet(19051974)."Tempo3,no.112.1975:15.
Kelly,Ibid.
20
Ibid.
21
Schiffer,Ibid.,13.
22
MartineCadieu."AConversationwithAndrJolivet."Tempo3,no.59.1961:2.
23
Schiffer,Ibid.,1314.
24
Kelly,Ibid.
19

simplifiedhiscompositionalstyleduringthewar,abandoningatonalityinfavouroflyricism
25

andstrivingforamusicforevasionandrelaxation.
WhileJolivetwasthemusicaldirectoroftheComdieFranais,hehadtheopportunityto
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traveltoexoticlocales,includingtheMiddleEast,EastAsia,andAfrica. HisvisittoEgypt
rekindledhisinterestinritualinworks,resultingincompositionsbasedonsacredEgyptian,
27

Hindu,Chinese,andGreektexts,suchashisEpithalamefor12voicevocalorchestra.
AttheheartofJolivetscompositionalstyleistheinfluenceofprimitivism,insistingthat
techniqueshouldbeputattheserviceofmelodyandmelodiccontinuity,andalways
28

attemptingtointegrateEuropeanandprimitivetropicaltradition. Athoroughunderstanding
ofAndrJolivetslifeandcompositionalcareerisessentialforaninformedinterpretationofhis
worksfortrumpet.

Ibid.
Ibid.
27
Ibid.
28
Schiffer,Ibid.,15.
25
26

PartII:JolivetsTrumpetMusic

ConcertinoforTrumpet(ConcertoforTrumpetNo.1)
29

AndrJolivetsConcertinoforTrumpetwascomposedin1948. Thisworkwaspremieredon
June10,1950,atLAbbayedeRoyaumontdirectedbythecomposerhimself,withArthur
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Haneuseasthetrumpetsoloist. ConcertinoforTrumpetisinthreemovements,allplayed
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attacca,andthetotaldurationisapproximatelynineminutesandthirtyseconds. Thisworkis
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publishedbyditionsDurand. PopularrecordingsofthisworkarethosebytrumpetersEric
Aubier,ReinholdFriedrich,OleEdvardAntonsen,WyntonMarsalis,andMauriceAndr.
Jolivethimselfdubbedthisconcertoasoneofhisballetsfortrumpet,andhasinfact
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beenchoreographedassuch. RoviStaffsaysthefollowingaboutConcertino:
Thistenminuteworkisinfoursectionsthepropulsivevigorofitsopeningminutes,
withitsdarkcomedyandjazzysyncopations,leadsintoamorelanguorouscentral
section.Theenergybuildsonceagain,withlivelyrhythmsandaslighthintofjazz,and
theworkconcludeswithabrilliantcoda.[...]HeaddedBartksmotoricrhythmstoaset
ofstylisticinfluencesthatincludedMessiaenandVarse,cultivatedabasicallytonal
harmonicframework,andcontinuedtopursueexoticsounds.ThepresentConcertino
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neatlyencapsulatesallthesetraits.

ConcertoforTrumpetandOrchestraNo.2

29

CristineJolivet."Catalogue."AssociationlesAmisd'AndrJolivet.AccessedMarch26,2014.
http://www.jolivet.asso.fr/.
30
Ibid.
31
Ibid.
32
Ibid.
33
RoviStaff."ConcertinoforTrumpet,Strings,andPiano."AllMusic.AccessedApril7,2014.
http://www.allmusic.com/composition/concertinofortrumpetstringspianomc0002369874.
34
Ibid.

35

AndrJolivetsConcertoforTrumpetandOrchestraNo.2wascomposedin1954. Itwas
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premieredonSeptember5,1956,inVichy,France. ThepremierewasdirectedbyLouisde
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Froment,andthetrumpetsoloistwasRaymondTournesac. Thisconcertoisinthree
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movements,labelledMestoConcitato,Grave,andGiocoso. Thetotaldurationoftheworkis
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approximatelythirteenminutesandthirtyseconds,andispublishedbyditionsHeugel.
PopularrecordingsarebyMauriceAndr,ReinholdFriedrich,WyntonMarsalis,PierreThibaud,
andOleEdvardAntonsen.ThisworkisanotherthatJolivetdescribesasbeingaballetfor
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trumpet. ChristopherMorrisonsaysthefollowingaboutJolivetsclearincorporationofjazz
elementsintothiswork:
Jolivet'sscoringhereisquiteunusualandhintsatthejazzinspiration:twoflutes,clarinet,
Englishhorn,twosaxophones,piano,doublebass,andnofewerthan14different
percussioninstruments.Theconcertoopensquietlywithasubgroupofthosepercussion
instruments,joinedbythetrumpetsoloistplayingwithamute.Thatmusicalternateswith
livelierdancelikematerialinthefirstmovement.Thebluesysecondmovement,Grave,
onceagainfeaturesmutedtrumpet.Asimpletuneworksagainstaharsher,
percussionladenaccompanimentinthefinalmovement,markedGiocoso.Thereiseven
apassageforjustthepercussioninthemiddleofthemovement,whichisheavily
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syncopatedandmakesforalivelyconclusion.

AirdeBravoure
AndrJolivetsAirdeBravoure(Bravura,inEnglish)isaworkfortrumpetorcornetwith
42

43

piano. Itwascomposedin1952,andispublishedbyGrardBillaudot. Thisisashortwork,

35

Jolivet,Ibid.
Ibid.
37
Ibid.
38
Ibid.
39
Ibid.
40
ChristopherMorrison."TrumpetConcertoNo.2."AllMusic.AccessedApril7,2014.
http://www.allmusic.com/composition/trumpetconcertono2mc0002370382.
41
Ibid.
42
Jolivet,Ibid.
43
Ibid.
36

44

onlyoneminuteandtensecondsintotalduration. PopularrecordingsarebyEricAubier,
JamesDarling,andOleEdvardAntonsen.Theworkwasoriginallycomposedasan
unaccompaniedsolo,butJolivetlateraddedanoptionalpianopart.

Rhapsodiesept
AndrJolivetsRhapsodieseptisaworkforasevenpiecechambergroup,consistingof
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clarinet,bassoon,cornet,trombone,percussion,violin,anddoublebass. Theworkisinthree
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movements,titledResolu.Hieratique,andIncisif. Thedurationoftheworkisnineteen
47

minutes,anditispublishedbyditionsPathMarconi. Rhapsodiewascomposedin1957,and
premieredattheFestivalBraunschweigunderthedirectionofHeinzZeebeonNovember13,
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1959. PopularrecordingsofthisworkarethosebytheMontrealChamberOrchestraandthe
OrchestraColonne.

AriosoBarocco
49

AndrJolivetsAriosoBaroccoisaonemovementworkfortrumpetandorgan. Itwas
composedin1968,andpremieredinMunich,Germany,byMauriceAndrandHedwigBilgram
50

51

in1971. Thetotaldurationoftheworkisapproximatelysevenminutes. Itispublishedby


52

GrardBillaudot. PopularrecordingsarebyReinholdFriedrich,MauriceAndrandRen
Perinelli.

44

Ibid.
Ibid.
46
Ibid.
47
Ibid.
48
Ibid.
49
Ibid.
50
Ibid.
51
Ibid.
52
Ibid.
45

ThewordBaroquetypicallyreferstothehighlyornamented,grandiosestyleofthe
musicaleraofthesamename,butawidermeaningofthewordisappropriatewhenconsidering
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thiswork. JosephStevensonstatesthefollowingasanelaborationonthisclaim:
Thetrumpetpartisproclamatory,tendingtobespeechlikeinitsmelodicphrasingrather
thansonglike.Itsmelodicstructuresarefree,nottendingtofallintoacademicpatterns.
ThesearequalitiesthatarecommoninJolivet'smusic.Whatisparticularlystrikingabout
thisworkisthehighdegreeofornamentationintheplayers'parts,anditisthis
ornamentationthatjustifiestheuseoftheterm"Baroque"inthetitle.Theseornaments
aremomentaryflightsofecstasyinthemelody,givingthefeelingthatthemusicis
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soaringverycloselytothehighpointofaritual.

Heptade
55

AndrJolivetsHeptadeisaworkfortrumpetandpercussion,whichwascomposedin1970. It
isinsevenmovements,namedAllegro,Vivo,Cantante,Veemente,Maestoso,Sempre
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Stringendo,andVivoeritmico. Thetotaldurationoftheworkisapproximatelysixteenminutes
57

andfiveseconds. ItwaspremieredonMay25,1972,inThtredelaVilleinParisbyFrances
58

59

HardyandFrancisDupin. ThisworkispublishedbyGrardBillaudot, andpopularrecordings


arebyEricAubierandMauriceAndr.

Conclusion
Inhislifetime,AndrJolivetcomposedanumberofsignificantworksfortrumpet,writingmore
fortrumpetthananyothersoloinstrument.Jolivetscompositionswereinfluencedbyseveralof
53

JosephStevenson."AriosoBarocco,forTrumpet&Organ."AllMusic.AccessedApril7,2014.
http://www.allmusic.com/composition/ariosobaroccofortrumpetorganmc0002398490.
54
Ibid.
55
Jolivet,Ibid.
56
Ibid.
57
Ibid.
58
Ibid.
59
Ibid.

hismentorsandcontemporaries,suchasArnoldSchoenberg,PaulLeFlem,EdgardVarse,and
OlivierMessiaen.Ultimately,inhiscompositions,hevaluedunityindiversityandlyricism,
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andthatmusicshouldbespiritual,beingareligiousart. Overall,Jolivetsunique
compositionalvoiceandnumerousadditionstothetrumpetrepertoiremakehimacomposer
worthyofnotebyanytrumpetplayer.

Cadieu,Ibid.,4.

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Bibliography

"AndreJolivet."TheMusicalTimes116,no.1585(1975):268.

Cadieu,Martine."AConversationwithAndrJolivet."Tempo3,no.59(1961):2.

Jolivet,Cristine."Catalogue."AssociationlesAmisd'AndrJolivet.AccessedMarch26,2014.
http://www.jolivet.asso.fr/.

Kelly,BarbaraL."Jolivet,Andre."GroveMusicOnline.AccessedApril8,2014.
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music
14433q=Andre+Jolivet&search=quick&pos=1&_start=1#firsthit.

Morrison,Christopher."TrumpetConcertoNo.2."AllMusic.AccessedApril7,2014.
http://www.allmusic.com/composition/trumpetconcertono2mc0002370382.

Schiffer,Brigitte."AndrJolivet(19051974)."Tempo3,no.112(1975):1316.

Staff,Rovi."ConcertinoforTrumpet,Strings,andPiano."AllMusic.AccessedApril7,2014.
http://www.allmusic.com/composition/concertinofortrumpetstringspiano
mc0002369874.

Stevenson,Joseph."AriosoBarocco,forTrumpet&Organ."AllMusic.AccessedApril7,2014.
http://www.allmusic.com/composition/ariosobaroccofortrumpetorganmc0002398490.

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