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CALCULATING LIGHT LOSS FACTORS

FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING SYSTEMS


CONTACT INFORMATION
J. Chad Stalker III, LC
Regional Marketing Manager, Americas
Philips Lumileds Lighting
Wilmington, MA
+1 (978) 807-3434
chad.stalker@philips.com
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Outline
What is Light Loss Factor (LLF)?
Elements of LLF
How is LLF Different with SSL?
LLF Maintenance Factors
LLF Equipment Factors
L70 vs. LAL

What is Light Loss Factor (LLF)


Light Loss Factor (LLF) Allows the forecasting of luminaire and system
performance over time.
Luminaires age over time resulting in reduced lumen output
US standards identify minimum requirements to be maintained for roadway and area
lighting
IESNA RP-8-00
AASHTO

Helps Minimize Liability System installation is planned and designed for


future operation/performance, not just for the day it is installed
Done rightContributes to maintenance plans and system lifetime
characterization

Elements of LLF
LLF = LLD x LDD x ATF x HE x VE x BF x CD
LLD:
LDD:
ATF:
HE:
VE:
BF:
CD:

Lamp Lumen Depreciation


Luminaire Dirt Depreciation
Ambient Temperature Effects
Heat Extraction
Voltage Effects
Driver and Lamp Factors
Component Depreciation

Maintenance
Factors
Equipment
Factors

How is LLF Different with SSL?


LLF Elements

Traditional

Lamp Lumen Depreciation

LLD
Lamp Lifetime

LM-80, TM-21
LM-79

Luminaire Dirt Depreciation

Thermally
radiant source

Thermally
conductive source

Lumen output depreciates over time resulting in a gradual reduction in light levels
Dirt accumulates on the inside and outside of refractors, reflectors, lenses, and
lamps, resulting in reduction of lumen output

vs.

SSL

Ambient Temperature Effects

Historic ambient temperature data for a region and luminaire performance data from
the manufacturer

Heat Extraction

Luminaire thermal capacitance based on mass, specific heat of materials, and rate of
dissipation

Voltage Effects

Efficiencies can vary with changes in input voltages, voltage dips, or power line
transients

Ballast/Driver Factor

Power supply output varies with operating temperature, current type and driver
loading effects

Component Depreciation

Components can be affected by heat and environmental aging

Rated Lamp Life


HID Sources
Time in hours at which 50%
of a large sample group of
initially installed lamps fail
Lumen Depreciation = Time
in hours to which the lumen
output has degraded to a
percent x of initial
lumens
Note: Incandescent and fluorescent
lamps are rated the same

LED Sources
Lumen Depreciation = time
in hours to which the lumen
output has degraded to a
percent x of initial
lumens
L70 commonly used
Use LM-80 report to help
determine Lx
Note: LED devices do not typically
catastrophically fail. There lumen
output degrades over time. This can
be maintained through drive current
control.

Traditional Lamp Metrics

LED Device Lumen Maintenance


IESNA LM-80-08/TM-21

Reference: Philips Lumileds LM-80 Report, DR05-2


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LED Luminaire Lumen Maintenance


IESNA LM-79-08

Sources for LDD Data


Historical site data
Field measurements
RP-8-05, Fig. 5 LDD curves based on ambient environmental
conditions and exposure time (cleaning frequency)

10

Why LDD Is Important with SSL


Traditional lamp
(MV, HPS, etc.)
Luminaire

Heat (Conductive)

LED Luminaire
Heat (Radiant)

Light

11

LED Lumen Maintenance (Tj/Ta)


LEDs do not radiate heat
Conduction and
Convection are needed
to keep LEDs cool.

12

How is LLF Different with SSL?


LLF Elements

Traditional

Lamp Lumen Depreciation

LLD
Lamp Lifetime

LM-80, TM-21
Options?
LM-79

Luminaire Dirt Depreciation

Thermally
radiant source

Thermally
conductive source

Lumen output depreciates over time resulting in a gradual reduction in light levels
Dirt accumulates on the inside and outside of refractors, reflectors, lenses, and
lamps, resulting in reduction of lumen output

vs.

SSL

Ambient Temperature Effects

Historic ambient temperature data for a region and luminaire performance data from
the manufacturer

Heat Extraction

Luminaire thermal capacitance based on mass, specific heat of materials, and rate of
dissipation

Voltage Effects

Efficiencies can vary with changes in input voltages, voltage dips, or power line
transients

Ballast/Driver Factor

Power supply output varies with operating temperature, current type and driver
loading effects

Component Depreciation

Components can be affected by heat and environmental aging

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Methods for Calculating SSL LLD


L70 Life of system is based on luminaire
retaining 70% of original lumen output . This
can vary by manufacturer
Application Life (AL) Life of system is based
on a chosen number of operating hours equal
to or greater than the pay back period of the
luminaire. System is planned within a known
horizon year.
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Where Did L70 Come From?


LM-80-08 lists a couple of examples, one indicates L70 (hours) = time to
70% lumen maintenance.
The Design Guide for Roadway Lighting Maintenance (DG-4-03) indicates
the best time schedule for relamping of HID luminaires is when the cost
of installation, energy use, and relamping is minimal. This occurs at
approximately 70% of rated lamp life.
Independent Studies

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How Does the L70 Method


Impact Installation Design?
Design for worst case
Increase in system hardware for new installations
FROM

TO

Increases maintenance
needs & higher capital
costs

Higher initial lumen output diminishing to


designed level in 20-30 years
Wasted energy costs until end
of life when design minimum
light levels are met
Large change in lumen output
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LLD Based on Application life (AL)


Life of system is based on a chosen number of
operating hours equal to or greater than the
pay back period of the luminaire. Payback
determined by a cost/benefit analysis
Lets make some basic assumptions to
illustrate:

12 year luminaire life (50,000 hours)


Retain L70 as an absolute minimum light level
Maintenance will occur once during lifetime of fixture
Failure rate of 10%
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Table 8-5 Payback Calculator


Decription
Number of Luminaires
Number of Lamps per Luminaire
Cost per Luminaire
Installation Cost
Initial Cost

Base System
1
1
$
133.00
$
63.91
$
196.91

Luminaire A2
1
1
$
428.00
$
63.91
$
491.91

Luminaire A2
1
1
$
250.00
$
63.91
$
313.91

Annual Operations Cost per Fixture


Watts per Fixture (luminaire and
ballast/driver)
142
109
109
kW per Fixture
0.142
0.109
0.109
Annual Hours of Operation (12 hrs per day)
4,380 hrs
4,380 hrs
4,380 hrs
kW Hours per Year
622.0 kWh
477.4 kWh
477.4 kWh
Electric Rate ($/kWH)
$
0.0530 $
0.0530 $
0.0530
Annual Energy Cost
$
32.96 $
25.30 $
25.30
Annual Maintenance Cost
Fixture Life (yrs)
Lamp Life (hrs)*
Lamp Life (yrs)
Theoretical Relamps/Cleanings Over Life
of Fixture
Scheduled Relamps/Cleaning Over Life of
Fixture
Cost per Relamp/Cleaning (maintenance +
parts)**
Annualized Relamp/Cleaning Cost
Other Annulized Costs (Catastrophic
Failure/Damage)***
Annual Maintenance Cost

15 yrs
50,000 hrs
11.4 yrs

15 yrs
50,000 hrs
11.4 yrs

2.2

1.3

1.3

3.0

1.0

1.0

$
$

102.43 $
20.49 $

35.00 $
2.33 $

35.00
2.33

$
$

29.25 $
49.74 $

11.70 $
14.03 $

11.70
14.03

Conservation Rebate
kWh Saved Compared to Base System****
Adjustments (Conservation Rebate
$0.23/kWh)
Payback (Compared to Base HPS System)
Adjusted Initial Cost per Fixture
Rebate Adjusted
Annual Operations Cost
Annual Operations Savings
Annual Maintenance Cost
Annual Maintenance Savings
Total Annual O&M Savings

15 yrs
30,000 hrs
6.8 yrs

NA
NA

$
$
$

144.54 kWh
31.80 $

31.80

196.91 $

460.12 $

282.12

Payback Period

$
$
$
$
$

25.30
7.66
14.03
35.70
43.36
6.1 yrs

Currently pay back is achievable within 2 to


6 years of installation when compared to
existing HID installations of 100W HPS
luminaires in residential areas (Re: Seattle).

144.54 kWh

32.96
NA
49.74
NA
NA

LED LUMINAIRE
COST/BENEFIT

$
$
$
$
$

25.30
7.66
14.03
35.70
43.36

Payback Period

6.1 yrs

2.0 yrs

2.0 yrs

* Current Manufacturer Claims for life of LED is 50,000 hrs to 100,000 hrs.
Low end of projected life used for comparison purposes.
** LED fixtures to be cleaned only, no relamp required.
***Assumes a 25% failure rate for HPS luminaires and theoretical 10% failure for LED fixtur
****Savings shown as a positive number.

Energy Demand and Savings


Watts per Fixture
Base kWh
Savings in kWh
(Compared to Base System)

142
621.96

109
477.42

109
477.42

NA

144.54

144.54

18

0.93 LLD factor with no


additional adjustment

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How Does the LAL Method


Impact Installation Design?
Less hardware for new installations
Less maintenance needs
and less capital cost

LED fixtures can be used for more upgrades of


existing systems because light levels are more easily
met
Initial lumen output less than with L70
Less variation in lumen levels over life of system
compared to L70
Less wasted energy
costs due to lower
initial lumens

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Benefits of Application Lifetime


Design Approach
Planned Replacement - Allows funding allocations to be
developed.
Reduced Lumen Depreciation - Better lighting with less
variability in lumen levels over planned life of the fixture
More Replacement Options - Once LAL is reached, Agency is
free to replace lighting or reassess if lighting can be replaced
at a later date
Reduced Wasted Energy - Lower initial lumen levels are
needed to meet required light levels since system is designed
for near future and not distant future (i.e. 12 years not 34
years) performance levels
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CALCULATING LIGHT LOSS FACTORS


FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING SYSTEMS
THANK YOU
QUESTIONS?
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