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Carbon Steel

Commercial quality sheet steel with an upper temperature limit of approximately 1000º F., particularly if
conditions are oxidizing. Not suitable for handling crude acids or aqueous solutions of salts in the neutral
or acid range. A high rate of failure may be expected in hot water service if the material is highly
stressed, Concentrated acids and most alkalies have little or no action on iron and steel gaskets which
are used regularly for such services. Brinell hardness is approximately 120.

304 Stainless Steel
An 18-8 (Chromium 18-20%, Nickel 8-10%) Stainless with a maximum recommended working
temperature of 1400º F. At least 80% of applications for non-corrosive services can use Type 304
Stainless in the temperature range of -320 F to 1000º F. Excellent corrosion resistance to a wide variety
of chemical. Subject to stress corrosion crackling and to intergranular corrosion at temperatures
between 800º F. to 1500º F. In presence of certain media for prolonged periods of time. Brinell hardness
is approximately 160.

304L Stainless Steel
Carbon content maintained at a maximum of .03% Recommended maximum working temperature of
1400º F. Same excellent corrosion resistance as Type 304. This low carbon content tends to reduce the
precipitation of carbides along grain boundaries. Less subject to intergranular corrosion than Type 304.
Brinell hardness is about 140.

316 Stainless Steel
An 18-12 Chromium-Nickel steel with approximately 2% of Molybdenum added to the straight 18-8 alloy
which increases its strength at elevated temperatures and results in somewhat improved corrosion
resistance. Has the highest creep strength at elevated temperatures of any conventional stainless type.
Not suitable for extended service within the carbide precipitation range of 800º F to 1650º F. when
corrosive conditions are severe. Recommended maximum working temperature of 1400º F. Brinell
hardness is approximately 160.

316-L Stainless Steel
Continuous maximum temperature range of 1400º F -1500º F. Carbon content held at a maximum of
.03%. Subject to a lesser degree of stress corrosion cracking and also to intergranular corrosion then
Type 304. Brinell hardness is about 140.

321 Stainless Steel
An 18-10 Chromium-Nickel steel with a Titanium addition. Type 321 stainless has the same
characteristics as Type 347. The recommended working temperature is 1400º F to 1500º F. and in some
instances 1600º F. Brinell hardness is about 150.

347 Stainless Steel
An 18-10 Chromium-Nickel steel with the addition of Columbium. Not as subject to intergranular
corrosion as is Type 304. Is subject to stress corrosion. recommended working temperature of 1400º F
-1500º F. and in some instances to 1700º F. Brinell hardness is approximately 160.

410 Stainless Steel
A 12% Chromium steel with a maximum temperature range of 1200º F. to 1300º F. Used for applications
requiring good resistance to sealing at elevated temperatures. Is not recommended for use where
severe corrosion in encountered but is still very useful for some chemical application. May be used
where dampness, alone or coupled with chemical pollution, causes steel to fail quickly. Brinell hardness

Brinell hardness is approximately 230. Aluminum Alloy 110 is commercially pure (99% minimum). and water containing sulfides. and small amounts of Molybdenum and Copper. If severe corrosion is anticipated. ammonia. Maximum recommended temperature limit of 500 F. Its excellent resistance and workability makes it ideal for double jacketed gaskets. but is not suitable for such materials as acetic acid. 24% Nickel. Offers excellent to good corrosion resistance in moist environments. acetylene. Recommended maximum continuous working temperature of 500º F. 28% Zinc. holds up extremely well against salt and brackish waters. and salt. Brinell hardness is about 160. Becomes extremely hard welded. resistant to hot. stronger alloys like 5052 and 3003 are used. Hastelloy B® 26-30% Molybdenum. Maximum continuous service temperature of 800º F. Brinell hardness is 58. Also resists the corrosive effects of wet hydrogen chlorine gas. a better grade of stainless steel would probably be a better choice. Ideal for carrying corrosive cooling waters at relatively high temperatures.is around 155. concentrated hydrochloric acid. recommended maximum working temperature of 500º F. Useful for high temperature strength. The Brinell hardness is approximately 35. Hastelloy C-276® . Maximum recommended temperature limit 500º F Brinell hardness is about 70. Copper Nearly pure copper with trace amounts of silver added to increase its working temperature. Developed specifically for applications requiring resistance to corrosion by sulfuric acid. Brinell hardness is about 80. Cupro Nickel Contains 69% Copper. sulfuric and phosphoric acids and reducing salt solutions. 1% Tin and trace amounts of Arsenic. 502/501(F5) 4-5% Chromium and 1/2 Molybdenum alloyed for mild corrosive resistance and elevated service. 20% chromium. Maximum temperature range of 2000º F. 30% Nickel and small amounts of Manganese and Iron. 62% Nickel and 4-6% Iron. designed to handle high stresses. and has a Brinell hardness of around 130. Alloy 20 45% Iron. Brinell hardness is about 64. Maximum working temperature is 1200º F. High corrosive resistance. Maximum temperature range of 1400º F -1500º F. Brass Yellow brass 268 has 66% Copper and 34% Zinc. it finds its greatest application in areas where high temperatures and pressures combined with high velocity and destructive turbulence would rapidly deteriorate many less resistant alloys. Admiralty Arsenical Admiralty 443 has 71% Copper. For solid gaskets.

With PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene). Most alkaline solutions have little if any effect upon it. recommended maximum temperature of 1600º F. Frequently used to overcome the problem of stress corrosion. Excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking. cracking when exposed to fluorosilic acid. chromic acid. Brinell hardness is about 215. 46% Iron. Inconel 600® Recommended working temperatures of 2000º F.7-5. Known as the "Best solution" to chloride ion attack. Excellent high temperature strength. Excellent cold working capacity.3% Tungsten. 3. Is a nickel base alloy containing 77% Nickel. Monel® Maximum temperature range of 1500º F. except strong oxidizing acids. Incoloy 800® 32. resistant to elevated temperatures. Excellent corrosion resistance even at high temperatures. ammonia. Load 100 241 95 210 90 183 . Very good in handling corrosives. Brinell hardness is about 120. mercuric chloride and mercury. Brinell hardness is about 110.5-7% Iron and the balance is Nickel. Brinell hardness is about 150. Maximum temperature range of 500º F. 5-10% Tin and trace amounts of phosphorus. Nickel 200® Recommended maximum working temperature is 1400º F. High resistance to cold nitric acid of varying concentrations as well as boiling nitric acid up to 70% concentration. Brinell hardness is approximately 65. 4. and is some instances 2150º F. Resistant to nitric acid in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. Brinell hardness is about 210. 21% Chromium. Limited to low temperature steam applications. Contains 67% Nickel and 30% Copper. Maximum temperature range of 2000º F. oxidation and carburization. Has excellent mechanical properties at the cryogenic temperature range. 15% Chromium and 7% Iron. Does not have the all around excellent resistance of Monel.16-18% Molybdenum. Excellent resistance to most acids and alkalies. 13-17. Good resistance to hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. Phosphor Bronze 90-95% Copper. it is widely used for hydrofluoric acid service. Note: Maximum temperature ratings are based upon hot air constant temperatures.5% Chromium. Corrosion resistance makes it useful in caustic alkalies and where resistance in structural applications to corrosion is a prime consideration. Outstanding in oxidizing environments. but not suitable for acetylene. Excellent corrosion resistance. Brinell hardness is about 150. and should not be used with these media. and even higher under controlled conditions. mercury and potassium cyanide. The presence of contaminating fluids and cyclic conditions may drastically affect the maximum temperature range Material Hardness Conversion Scale Rockwell "B" Brinell3000 Kg. Titanium Maximum temperature range of 2000ºF.5% Nickel. Subject to stress corrosion.

85 163 80 146 75 134 70 122 65 108 60 95 55 89 50 83 40 75 30 67 20 62 10 57 .