Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

CE591 Lecture 13: Composite Columns

Composite Action, Composite


Components, History
Introduction Encased and Filled
Composite Columns
Behavior of Composite Columns
AISC Limitations

Benefits of Structural
Steel
Concrete
High Strength
High Stiffness
(Modulus of
Elasticity)
High Ductility

Excellent Fire
Resistance
Low Cost
Ability to Be Cast
into Any Shape

+ speed of construction

Very good for floor framing

Very good for floor slabs

Composite Action

Developed when two load carrying


structural members are integrally
connected and deflect as a single unit.

Benefits (floor beam example)


Reduced weight of steel
Increased stiffness for composite floor
beams/girders
Or shallower beams
for the same stiffness
increased floor-to-floor height

Composite Elements
Concrete
Beams
Columns
Floor slabs
Metal
Deck
Shear Walls
Beam-to-Column Connections (?)

Composite Columns considered to have a toughness; good


choice for designs where blast-loading is a concern

History
Early 1900s steel
beams encased in
concrete for
fireproofing
1931 Empire State
Buildings entire steel
frame was encased in
concrete

Composite sections were not considered in


capacity calculations, but lateral stiffness was
doubled for drift calculations

History
1988 Bank of China
megatruss of
composite columns

History
Late 1990s Pacific First Center

Supercolumns
(lateral system)

Floor
beams

Gravity columns

Composite Columns
Encased Composite Columns
SRC Steel Reinforced Concrete

Filled Composite Columns


CFT Concrete Filled Tubes

Encased Composite Columns


Lateral Ties/
Stirrups

Longitudinal Bars

Structural shapes
surrounded by
concrete
Vertical and
horizontal
reinforcement to
sustain encasement
Shear connectors
can be used to help
transfer forces

Encased Composite Columns


Concrete provides stiffening,
strengthening, fire protection
Steel carries construction load
Might use when exposed
concrete finish desired
Might use for transitions
(concrete to steel columns)

Encased Composite Columns


Difficult to
place?

Might use U-ties instead

Filled Composite Columns


Steel shell (pipe, tube, or
hollow section built-up from
plate)
Shell provides formwork for
concrete
Shell provides confinement to
concrete

Filled Composite Columns


Concrete adds strength,
stiffness
Might use when exposed steel
is desired
Steel can buckle outwards
Shear connectors might be
needed near beam-to-column
connections

Shear bond between concrete & steel


Friction
Coefficient of sliding friction ~0.5

Encased Columns
Pressure/friction only if concrete confined
laterally to bear against steel shape
lateral ties

Filled Columns
Pressure normal to interface exists

Behavior of Encased Columns


Flexural stiffness governed by
concrete encasement
Encasement prevents buckling of
steel bars and steel shape
Concrete outside ties cracks and
spalls, followed by rest of
encasement
After spalling, post-yield buckling of
steel, overall failure

Behavior of Filled Columns


Flexural stiffness governed by steel
shell
Initial compressive strain steel
expands more than concrete, causes
microcracking
Expansion of concrete then
restrained by steel
Steel reaches yield, inelastic
outward buckling may occur,
concrete crushes

Elephant-Foot Buckling

Confinement
Confinement from steel shell can
increase effective strength of concrete
However, stiffness reduced by
microcracking

AISC I1.3,I2.1a and C-I1, I2

AISC Limitations
To qualify as a composite column:

As 0.01
Ag
Concrete strength:

Supercolumns 12 ksi

3ksi f ' c 10ksi Normal weight


3ksi f ' c 6ksi Lightweight

AISC I1.3 and C-I1

AISC Limitations, contd


Steel strength (used in calculations):

Fy and Fyr 75ksi


Corresponds roughly to 0.003 strain limit for concrete

AISC I2.1 and C-I2.1

AISC Limitations, contd


Min. 1.5 db, 1-1/2 clear (between
steel core and longitudinal reinf. bars)

Min. No.3 @ 12" max


or No.4 @ 16" max

Asr
sr
Ag

sr 0.004

Area of reinf. bars (in2)


Gross area of composite
member (in2)

AISC Limitations, contd

AISC I2.1and C-I2.1

Str 0.5d
Least column
dimension

d
provisions of ACI 318 shall apply with exceptions and limitations
(as listed in AISC I1.1); see ACI 318 Sections 7.10 and 10.9.3 for
additional tie reinforcement provisions

Local Buckling
lp for Axial Compression

AISC I1.4 and C-I1.4

D
t

b
E
2.26
t
Fy

D
E
0.15
t
Fy

Nominal Section Strength

AISC Limitations, contd

b is for longer
side / dimension

w b
AISC B4.1
b = clear distance

t
t = design wall thickness
(0.93 x nominal wall thickness
(AISC B4.2))

between webs less inside


corner radius
Radius not known?
Use b = w 3t

Load Transfer
AISC I6
Transfer of load to concrete by
direct bearing requires bearing
check, etc.
Load applied to steel or
concrete only shear
connectors required
Good reference on Load Transfer is PowerPoint by
W. Jacobs posted to CE591 website.