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Editorial ......................................................................................................... 4 When you see this symbol,
visit our website at cannabishealth.com
for extended versions of the stories and
links to information and resources.
Feature Story
The Cannabis Health Foundation was formed in the spring
GW Pharmaceuticals of 2002 as a non-profit foundation.
british company produces The foundation is dedicated to:
• Promoting the safe medicinal use of cannabis.
cannabis medicinals • Research into efficacy and genetics of cannabis.
PAGE 5 • Supporting and protecting the rights of the medical cannabis users.
• Educating the public on cannabis issues.
The first initiative of the foundation is this complimentary hard copy
publication of Cannabis Health.
Other activities will include financial and practical support for low
income patients and the establishment of a legal defense fund.
The free hard copy of Cannabis Health is also reproduced in whole on
canadian hemp economy the World Wide Web at cannabishealth.com (the foundation website)
would hemp prosper under a liberal regime? .............................................. 9 with extended stories and hot links to resources and information.
legal eagle If you would like to receive 6 copies per year of the most informative
John Conroy QC says don’t plead guilty to simple possession ................... 12 resource for medical marijuana available, subscribe to Cannabis Health
by sending your name and address and a cheque for CAN$25.00 to
what now? Cannabis Health Foundation, P.O.Box 1481, Grand Forks, B.C., V0H 1H0
or visit the web @ cannabishealth.com (US send CAN$45.00cdn and foreign send
follow-up on Jim Wakeford & Ed Rosenthal................................................ 12 $70.00cdn)
Editor: Brian Taylor Production: Brian McAndrew Sales: Mona Mattei
cannabis growing in the netherlands Office Manager/Accounting & Distribution: Mandy Nordahn
Shipping & Receiving: Gordon Taylor Store Manager: Harvey Mathison
the new dutch regulations .......................................................................... 14 Cannabis Health is published 6 times per year by Cannabis Health Foundation, P.O. Box 1481,
Grand Forks, B.C. Canada V0H 1H0, Phone: 1-250-442-5166 Fax: 1-250-442-5167
No part of this magazine may be reproduced in any form, print or electronic, without written
Library permission of the publisher. For subscription information use phone or fax or e-mail:
Alive’n Raw .................................................................................................. 15 sales@cannabishealth.com. Cannabis Health is also reproduced on the web in downloadable
pdf format at cannabishealth.com/downloadable.
Truly remarcable The following people did not get proper credit for their contribution in Issue
wholesome cannabis ..................................................................................... 15 #3: Kim O’Leary - photo credit for John Conroy’s picture, and Dan
Lorendorf (Rev. Damusy) for his help with the article on Alan Young.
Just’n-tyme website should have been www.justn-tyme.com
Ask Dr.Ethan
Dr. Ethan Russo answers your questions....................................................... 16

Operation pipe dreams American Gothic (1930)

U.S. crack-down on smoking paraphernalia ................................................ 18 by Grant Wood
Grant Wood adopted the precise realism of
Nothing to celebrate 15th century northern European artists, but
his native Iowa provided the artist with his
Interview with Celebration Pipes owner .................................................... 19
subject matter. American Gothic depicts a
farmer and his spinster daughter posing in
Cannabis Clinic front of their house, whose gabled window
More plant deficiencies ................................................................................ 22 and tracery in the American Gothic style
inspired the painting’s title. In fact, the models were Wood’s sister
The cost of compassion and their dentist.
A Vancouver-based company re-did the original painting for a
the high cost of medical marijuana............................................................ 26
poster in 1998, updating it for contemporary times.They added a
satellite dish to the house, gave the “farmer” an earring, a glove
The cannabis condo (#436 “Dura-Bull), and the fruit of his labours to the pitch fork. To
A co-operative growing situation .............................................................. 28 the “daughter” they added a joint and moved one eye to give a
slightly zonked appearance. After all, records show that 1930 was
a bumper crop. The original poster had a caption at the bottom
Canadian cannabis cafés
saying,“Finally, a real cash crop”.
breaking new ground in the cannabis economy ........................................ 30
We saw this poster and felt it the perfect image for issue #4
“The Economics of Cannabis”
cannabis classifieds The original hangs in the Art Institute of Chicago
buy, sell, trade, network, coming events, friendly outlets........................ 32

2 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana journal

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 5
By Barb St.Jean, life & affordable cannabis to all those in need. manufacturing, retail, health & science,
business partner But the question remains, how? Do we food services, agricultural, etc. to invest in
As per Brian Taylor, wish to see the rise of the giants as in the the future of a legal cannabis economy.
Editor-in-Chief pharmaceutical industry, or do we see an Other countries around the world are
inclusive model that brings in from the miles ahead of Canada. The shape of this
I’m writing this cold the small players and establishes new economy will be influenced by many
editorial for Brian, the “Farm Gate” model for production factors. But the most important being
as he has been in and distribution, like the Dutch? Or do who will wake up first? …the race is on.
the hospital now we capitalize and create a multiple level Your comments and letters are appreciat-
for more than 6 environment that will benefit all the ed – keep them coming.
Brian Taylor weeks at the time players: patients, entrepreneurs, corpora- Issue #5 will focus on the new cannabis
Editor-in-Chief of print. He tions and governments? Learning from research required by governments and
underwent emergency surgery and had our past and not repeating the same the massive amounts already done that
subsequent complications, but we all mistakes, like the gun registration, is of governments don’t remember.
expect a full recovery, hopefully in the paramount importance. We need to
near future. We would like to thank all of control the outcome and not fall asleep Keep the faith!
our friends, staff & volunteers for their at the switch, like at the end of alcohol
On March 21, the Drug Enforcement
extraordinary support and dedications to prohibition when, the day after, all the Administration (DEA) published their final
us personally as well as to the magazine, shelves were stacked and the rules and rules on hemp foods. The new “Final Rule”
the business and, most of all, the cause. plans were already in place. essentially bans the sale of all hemp food
Words don’t express our gratitude for A truly Canadian model would make the products by April 21, 2003 and is virtually
having you all share in our lives. medical access program irrelevant and identical to an “Interpretive Rule” issued on
This edition concentrates on the down & October 9, 2001 that never went into effect
unnecessary. It would recognize because of a Stay issued on March 7, 2002 in
dirty of who will get rich from the Cannabis Hemp & Cannabis Marijuana as a U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
tragedies of the chronically ill, when the natural health products and regulate The Hemp Industry Association and several
fortunes are made in the new cannabis them under a model that would incorpo- hemp food and cosmetic manufacturers will
economy? The world is changing and our rate a workable structure. It would petition the Ninth Circuit to once again pre-
vision includes the availability of safe and encourage the business sectors such as vent the DEA from ending the legal sale of
hemp seed and oil in the U.S. and Canada.

LOVE THE MAG er that was purchased by The Muscular ing the full market price for now, (very
Hi, I picked up a copy of your last issue Dystrophy Association Canada (of which inconsistent questionable quality, and
and loved it. Very, very informative. I I am a member). It helps me get out, walk expensive). Can you be of any help?
would love to put Cannabis Health on my dogs, etc. I have been using cannabis Respectfully Yours,
the rack in my hemp shop. Thank you. regularly (smoking, infused oil, cookies, Walt Kusmin
Carol Gwilt, Bogart’s Joint Cafe & Hemp cake, etc.) with very good results to dull
Shop, Maple Ridge, B.C. the pain of very
worked muscle
Ned and the “Beanstalk”
Hello, I just wanted to say I just read system, by doing
your magazine and you and your staff cannabis, I do not
should be proud. I just moved to Salmon need as many
Arm last summer and love the outdoor prescription
growing weather here. Picked up your drugs, with all
mag at J.J’s hemp.I would like to find out their side effects.
how I could help out anyone in my area My wife and I are
with medical needs that do not have the very discrete,
knowledge or space to grow their own. I respectful of the
love this plant and will support anyone law, but in this
with the same positive outlook. Thanks case, we feel that
for your time. the law is “an
Mark and Sherry ass”. I would
CAN YOU HELP? appreciate if
Hi, just had a look at your website, very there was an
interesting. I am on permanent disability inexpensive and
because of muscle loss and weakness easier alternative
caused by muscular dystrophy, affecting for me to get
my whole body. I need to use a cane all cannabis, for
which I am pay- cartoon by Glenn Smith from Osoyoos, B.C.
the time, have a two wheel electric scoot-
4 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
developing cannabis-based medicines

that have thus far prevented cannabis ments that vapourize cannabis extracts.
from regaining its place in the pharma- The spray technology is being utilized for
by Matt Elrod copoeia. the Group’s lead product, the CBD/THC
Dr. Guy founded GW Pharmaceuticals [5], mixture. Active compounds in the “oro-
In November 1998, still the only company dedicated to mucosal” spray are primarily absorbed by
a year before the developing cannabis-based medicines, in the lining of the mouth and the tongue
Institute of early 1998. A collaboration with and begin to take effect within about 15-
Medicine [1] rekin- HortaPharm BV of the Netherlands gave 20 minutes. Some of the extract may also
dled North GW a commanding “first mover” advan- be swallowed, providing symptomatic
American interest tage. HortaPharm’s medicinal cannabis relief for 4 to 6 hours. The inhaler’s effects
in cannabinoid varieties, known as “chemovars”, had been are felt almost immediately and do not
research and the standardized and stabilized for over 20 last as long.
development of cannabis-based years to consistently express specific Depending on government require-
Pharmaceuticals, the UK House of Lords cannabinoids, however, HortaPharm ments, both the spray and the inhaler
Select Committee on Science and lacked the ability to develop pharmaceu- may be equipped with the company’s
Technology published its report
ticals and sought drug company partners “Advanced Dispensing System (ADS)”, a
“Cannabis: The Scientific and Medical
to take the next step. GW was the only solid-state device resembling a portable
Evidence” [2], which recommended that
company with the vision to take the phone, which measures and monitors use
clinical trials of cannabis “should be
HortaPharm research through the devel- to help ensure optimal dosages and pre-
mounted as a matter of urgency”. The
opment and approval process. vent diversion to the black market. The
committee recognized the deficiencies of
Botanists initially chose 10 Dutch tamper-resistant device can also be con-
existing orally administered cannabis
chemovars bred to express high quanti- nected to the internet, so doctors and cli-
derivatives, such as dronabinol.“Research
ties of either THC (delta-9 tetrahydro- nicians can remotely monitor their
should be promoted into alternative
cannabinol) or CBD (cannabidiol) for their patients’ consumption. As Orwellian as
modes of administration (e.g. inhalation,
first crop of 5,000 plants grown organi- digital drug dispensing systems that
sub-lingual, rectal), which would retain
the benefit of rapid absorption offered cally in secretive and exceedingly secure phone home might appear, currently
by smoking, without the adverse effects”. glasshouses in the south of England. The many controlled subtances must be con-
One expert who provided testimony to computer-controlled glasshouses are sumed under close medical supervision.
the Committee, Dr. Geoffrey W. Guy, was among of the most sophisticated in The ADS promises to grant patients who
uniquely positioned to fulfill the parlia- Europe. No chemicals are used and all need such drugs more freedom and
mentary mandate. Dubbed “the man pest control is biological. autonomy. For example, GW, encouraged
most likely to succeed at going to pot” by A GW contractor uses supercritical fluid by the Home Office, is currently collabo-
the Financial Times, [3] Dr. Guy is an entre- extraction (SFE), a fairly new technique rating with the National Addiction Centre
preneur and physician who specializes in for extracting lipophilic and volatile com- (NAC) to trial the ADS for the administra-
phytopharmaceuticals, plant-based medi- pounds. [6] SFE utilizes carbon dioxide, tion of methadone and diamorphine
cines and their delivery systems. which is Generally Regarded As Safe (heroin) in the treatment of drug addic-
Having founded Phytopharm [4] in 1989 (GRAS), making the extraction process tion. If successful, the program will
to develop botanical extracts and shep- free of organic solvents. Liquid CO2 is extend to other countries in Europe and
herd them to market, Dr. Guy is adept at forced into supercritical state (SC-CO2) by North America.
navigating the cumbersome regulations regulating its temperature and pressure. The ADS was originally developed to
governing both natural health products Supercritical fluid is heavy like a liquid make cannabis-based products more
and controlled substances. Perhaps more but has the penetrating properties of a palatable to U.S. regulatory authorities,
significantly, unlike most medicinal gas. SC-CO2 is inert and does not interact who still classify cannabis at the highest
cannabis enthusiasts, Dr. Guy has a repu- chemically with the botanical material or (most restrictive) level as a Schedule I
tation within Europe’s conservative med- the extraction apparatus. substance. [7] Attempts by various peti-
ical community for playing and winning GW is developing 3 delivery technolo- tioners to have cannabis rescheduled
by their rules. Dr. Guy’s background made gies; an oral spray, a tablet which dis- have been unsuccessful. [8] Despite over-
him distinctly qualified to overcome the solves under the tongue, and a compact whelming evidence to the contrary, U.S.
clinical, social and bureaucratic hurdles inhaler containing miniature heating ele- authorities maintain that cannabis has no
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 5
developing cannabis-based medicines
recognized medicinal value and a high already being cultivated and clinical trials great difficulty accepting the idea of “tok-
potential for abuse, a position they have designed to explore their pharmacologi- ing up”. A prescription oral spray would
not seriously reconsidered since before cal properties are on the drawing board be perfectly acceptable to many such
the discovery of cannabinoid receptors or underway. patients - literally “just what the doctor
over a decade ago. One of the significant medical benefits of ordered”.
GW’s clinical trials have demonstrated using whole-cannabis extracts appears to In previous Phase II trials, there was a
that, once patients are no longer be some attenuation of the sometimes 50% average reduction in the partici-
“cannabis naive“ and have become accus- unpleasant psychoactive effects of pure pant’s use of opiates. The reduction in
tomed to the psychoac- opiate use suggests future
tive effects, they are analgesics may combine opi-
both able and inclined ates and cannabinoids for
to titrate and personally their very different but com-
individualize their dose plementary effects. In fact,
to achieve improvement animal studies have found
in their symptoms with- that opiate/cannabinoid
out experiencing mixtures do not cause the
unwanted effects that severe withdrawal symptoms
might interfere with associated with long-term
their day-to-day activi- opiate use. [9] Perhaps
ties. GW consultant Dr. cannabinoids will eventually
Ethan Russo expects be integrated into GW’s
precautionary labeling methadone and diamor-
will be similar to that phine products.
found on synthetic Try as they might to divorce
cannabinoid packaging, their company and its
advising patients to research from the politically-
avoid driving or operat- charged debate over
ing heavy machinery cannabis law reform,
until they have become research on whole plant
accustomed to the drug. formulated extracts, more than research
Based on their experi- on synthetic analogs, is
ences and the remarkable safety profile THC. CBD in particular seems to “soften” applicable to the forbidden herb. When
of cannabis and cannabis-based prod- the effect of THC and is known to have reporting GW progress, the media tend to
ucts, GW does not anticipate a need for anti-psychotic properties. Another bene- equate their cannabis-based medicine
the ADS outside of the USA. fit is the unusual breadth of effect.“These extracts with cannabis, often exploiting
GW currently has 3 extracts under investi- medicines have unique effectiveness for the “snicker factor” with pot puns and
gation; one derived from CBD-rich a wide range of conditions, and within allusions to stoner stereotypes.
chemovars, one from THC-rich varieties the same condition, can often target mul- Interpretations also seem linked to
and one with an even mixture of these tiple symptoms. For example, GW geopolitical preconceptions. Most British
two most promising cannabinoids. research has found that “patients with papers herald GW’s encouraging findings
Proportions of terpenoids, flavonoids and multiple sclerosis have experienced sub- as further evidence of the medicinal ben-
other therapeutically active cannabi- stantial relief from spasticity, poor sleep, efits of cannabis - more reason to reform
noids, such as CBC, CBG and THC-V, are bladder dysfunction and pain,” says David medicinal cannabis laws - while U.S.
consistent and monitored but left unal- Hadorn, M.D., a GW consultant. Currently, papers tend to characterize cannabis-
tered. Dr. Russo explains “Flavonoids are MS sufferers must orchestrate the careful- based medicines as a socially acceptable,
antioxidants and anti-inflammatory com- ly timed and measured administration of non-psychoactive alternative to smoked
ponents with anti-aging and cell protec- several distinct, interacting, chemical enti- cannabis. A magic prohibitionist bullet
tive responses. Terpenoids are the ties to achieve this broad “shot gun” that will render herbal cannabis, and
essential oils that give cannabis its effect. therefore efforts to reform cannabis laws,
aroma. There are many with important Another advantage of GW’s pharmaceuti- obsolete.
medical benefits that include anti-inflam- cal-grade extracts is that they are likely to
matory, analgesic, bronchodilating and reach many people who would otherwise
memory-enhancing effects. The patient miss out on the benefits of cannabis-
receives the full complement of synergis- based medicines. This is perhaps espe-
tic phytochemicals. Only the cough is cially true for elderly patients, many of
removed. Together this herbal mixture whom have chronic pain and other
produces effects and medical benefits symptoms, for which cannabis-based
unobtainable with synthetic THC such as medicines would likely provide substan-
Marinol”. Plant varieties bred to express tial relief. Most elderly patients are
these less understood compounds are cannabis-naive, however, and would have Matt Elrod, Val, David Hadorn

6 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal page 9
developing cannabis-based medicines
Cannabis law reforms are also changing scription medicine that will help with END NOTES
the environment for cannabis-based their condition, it is the ticket. Not every- 1) Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A
pharmaceuticals. Some British papers one grows grapes when there is Cabernet Benson Jr., "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing
have attributed gains in GW stock value Sauvignon on the shelf. Similarly, some the Science Base," <http://www.nap.edu/html
to last year’s indications Parliament may will toke on ‘homegrown’, while others /marimed/> Division of Neuroscience and
reclassify cannabis from Class B to the will reach for the vapourizer, and others Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine
less restrictive Class C this summer. for the standardized prescription product. (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999),
Others cited plans for cannabis reclassifi- Nothing will advance the acceptance of http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/marimed
cation as having the opposite, negative cannabis faster than good quality 2) House of Lords Select Committee on Science
effect on GW’s financial outlook. Some research of this type.” and Technology, "Ninth Report," London: United
activists, such as Richard Cowan, the for- Noted cannabis expert Dr. Lester Kingdom (1998): Cannabis: The Scientific and
mer national director of the National Grinspoon has a similar vision “... we are Medical Evidence.
Organization for the Reform of Marijuana going to have two distribution systems
Laws, expect cannabis law reforms to for medical cannabis. One will be the con- 99798/ldselect/ldsctech/151/15101.htm>
reduce the market viability of cannabis- ventional model of pharmacy-filled pre-
based pharmaceuticals. scriptions for FDA-approved medicines 3) The Man Most Likely To Succeed At Going To
“GW Pharmaceuticals is making excellent derived from cannabis as isolated or syn- Pot, Nicholas Timmins, The Financial Times, June
progress and I wish them well, but I think thetic cannabinoids and cannabinoid 15, 1998, <http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews
that their business will suffer when mari- analogs. The other will have more in com-
juana is legalized,” wrote Cowan in his mon with some of the means of distribu- 4) Phytopharm plc. http://www.phytopharm.co.uk
online magazine. [10] Dr. Russo thinks the tion and use of alternative and herbal 5) GW Pharmaceuticals plc, http://gwpharm.com
tent is big enough,“the decriminalization medicines. The only difference, an enor- 6) Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE),
or legalization of cannabis will likely mous one, will be the continued illegality http://elchem.kaist.ac.kr/vt/chemed/sep/sf/sfe.htm
occur in many nations, but represents no of whole smoked or ingested cannabis. In
7) High Court Upholds Marijuana As Dangerous
real threat to this company’s viability or any case, increasing medical use by either
Drug, Drug Enforcement Administration, June 6,
ultimate profitability.” distribution pathway will inevitably make
2002, http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/pressrel
GW is walking a fine line between alarm- growing numbers of people familiar with
ing cannabis prohibitionists, who see cannabis and its derivatives. As they learn
medicinal cannabis as a “stalking horse” that its harmfulness has been greatly 8) Petitions to reschedule marijuana in the
for broader liberalization, and whole exaggerated and its usefulness underesti- United States, http://www.druglibrary.org/
cannabis advocates, who suspect GW of mated, the pressure will increase for dras- olsen/NORML/PETITIONS/petitions.html
trying to “monopolize” cannabis thera- tic change in the way we as a society deal 9) Notes on the International Cannabinoid
peutics and introduce products that with this drug.”[12] Research Society 1998 Symposium on Cannabin-
would replace, rather than offer alterna- GW is now capable of producing medi- oids, La Grande Motte, France, 23-25 July 1998,
tives to, herbal cannabis. Writing for cine for 20,000 patients per annum. They Professor Leslie Iversen FRS, Specialist Adviser,
Cannabis Culture Magazine, Canadian expect to have their first product, for http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199
activist David Malmo-Levine went so far treating multiple sclerosis and neuro- 798/ldselect/ldsctech/151/151a05.htm
as to accuse GW of conspiring to corner pathic pain, on the UK market by the end 10) UK Firm hopes to have "a cannabis-based
the world-wide market for both cannabis of 2003. The company plans to price its medicine ready to be prescribed by doctors with-
pharmaceuticals and cannabis plants. [11] products competitively with other medi- in three to four years." How Time Flies When You
Others believe GW’s ultimate goal is to cines used for similar conditions and at Are Not In Pain!,1999. http://www.marijua-
create, on behalf of vested interests, levels that allow provision under govern- nanews.com/marijuananews/cowan/uk_firm_
medicinal cannabis products that do not mental health insurance plans. hopes_to_have_.htm
produce the illicitly sought “side-effect” of Based on discussions with national regu- 11) Will Pot Be Patented?, David Malmo-Levine,
euphoria.“This is simply untrue,” insists latory authorities, GW anticipates gaining Cannabis Culture Magazine #41, Mar 2003,
Dr. Russo,“GW Pharmaceuticals extracts approval for their first line of extracts in <http://www.cannabisculture.com/arti-
contain predominantly THC, predomi- Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand cles/2780.html>
nantly CBD or a 1:1 THC/CBD mix, as well and Canada within months of UK 12) On the Pharmaceuticalization of Marijuana,
as the essential oil terpenoids and approval. The timing of approval of GW Lester Grinspoon, MD, International Journal of
flavonoids of the natural herb. If someone products in the United States is less cer- Drug Policy, 12 (5-6) (2001) pp. 377 - 383.,
used a sufficient dose of the extracts con- tain because the company has yet to http://rxmarijuana.com/Pharmaceuticalization.htm
taining THC, they would become ‘high’.” receive final guidance from the FDA con- LINKS
“GW does not expect cannabis as a plant cerning how much additional research, if
Cannabis from the Chemist, BBC Panorama,
to disappear,” continued Russo,“However, any, will be required for approval in the
November 2001
cannabis the plant can never be accepted US. They will also need a development
by the FDA as a smoked prescription partner to handle promotion and distri- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panora-
medicine as the rules stand. Standardized bution in North America. Dr. Hadorn pre- ma/1625124.stm
cannabis-based medicine extracts can. dicts that it will probably be “at least two http://www.pottv.net/archive/shows/pottvshows
For the person who wishes HMO reim- years following UK approval” before GW’s e-1628.html
bursement or coverage under a national medicines are available in the United
health service policy for a defined pre- States.
8 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
Would hemp prosper under a liberal regulatory regime?
“Industrial hemp” - sometimes maligned, sometimes ignored, hemp cultivation in Canada labors under a license system
sometimes hyped, wonder plant administered by Health Canada. Hemp, because it is cannabis
overloaded with hyperbole - has sativa, still falls under the definition of a controlled substance.
been grown in Canada commer- It’s a challenging situation leading to obstacles faced by few
cially since 1998. While it is legal other industries. 5 years old, Canada’s hemp industry is having
to grow hemp for fibre and seed, an interesting time of it.
By Arthur
For those
with this
c o u n t r y ’s
hemp regu-
licenses are
required for
each step in the value chain. Growers are
licensed, fields are licensed, cleaners are
licensed, processors are licensed. While a
criminal record check is required for your
application, none of the other require-
ments are especially onerous (GPS your
crop, use only certified seed, fill out all the Saskachewan hemp field near maturity July 31st 2002
forms completely), provided one is grow-
regulations bring and demand of the health food store shelf include Hempola,
ing hemp legitimately for seed or fibre on
industry. The fact that a full paper trail is Manitoba Harvest, Ruth’s Hemp Foods,
an agricultural basis.
kept for hemp seed products,creates a fully MUMS Original, Hemp Oil Canada, Cool
The hemp regulations do not allow for
accountable industry; there is a level of Hemp, Fast Fuel, Ancient Harvest.
hemp to be grown for horticultural purpos-
control that is exceptional among much of Interestingly, these are all start-ups.
es. Field scale only, folks. Don’t call me
the food industry. Nature’s Path, Omega Nutrition and
about hemp bonsai or decorating your
Is this industry growing? On a field scale Honeybar are some established Canadian
backyard. It’ll never happen.
production has ranged wildly, from 2,700 companies that have developed new
The industry’s fortunes rest in part on tight
inaugural hectares in 1998 to a sky high products that include hemp. The big guys
seed controls. As stated, there is a require-
14,000 h in 1999 to 2002’s level of 1,530 h. (like McCain’s, President’s Choice, Tim
ment to use only certified seed.This means
Much action is off the field. In the last 5 Horton’s) don’t bother with hemp. So the
that there is no “common”hemp seed … no
years, several sharp entrepreneurs have field is wide open.There is certainly a lot of
seed saving is allowed, and every year
started up hemp seed food companies or diversification: at one point this author
farmers must purchase their planting seeds
developed hemp bodycare lines: some of counted 12 varieties of hemp oil on the
from a licensed seed seller. All seeds that
the Canadian brands you may see on a market, including regional brands. But
are sold are on an approved list of cultivars.
All hemp seed is evaluated according to
THC: only strains that are under a 0.3% THC
threshold are allowed to be grown. In food
processing, only trace amounts of THC (10
parts per million, 10 ppm, is the ceiling) are
allowed in finished products such as food
or cosmetics.
For fibre, most of the regulations are on the
field level and less stringent. Once the
hemp fibre is off the field, it is out of the
regulations. So lets keep most of the dis-
cussion focused on seeds.
The intent of the regulations is to head off
unwanted cannabis proliferation. Of
course, by keeping a tight lid on industrial
hemp, Health Canada has unwittingly done
its part to protect the black market. Ironies
in politics will never cease.
Most people working in the industry are
comfortable with the existing standards.
Being business people, they tend to be reg-
ulation liberals, and would like less; howev-
er, they also see the quality control that the
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 9
w o u l d h e m p p r o s p e r. . .
there are also increasingly diverse prod- trade, nor does Health Canada keep track laws. Liberalization is anticipated, though
ucts: where once you may expect to see on what everyday shoppers are buying. So, its anyone’s guess on how the law will be
hemp only in oil, seed and dehulled seed no help from the feds. How about the written.To the matter at hand, will the busi-
forms, increasingly shoppers will find industry itself: almost all companies are pri- ness of hemp become more attractive with
things like bars, cereals, pasta, chips and vately held, and the sector is competitive, the marijuana laws changing? That’s a
baked goods made with hemp.Hemp has a so financials are kept private, which is good question, but as marijuana, whether
lot of potential as a healthy ingredient: in understandable. Based on estimates and for medicinal or personal use, is covered
the future, you may find yourself eating extrapolations of what self-disclosed data under a different part of the CDSA than
hemp more and more, but you will only is available, the market for hemp food & hemp is, the short-term effect on hemp
know if you read the ingredient label. bodycare products is in the $40 million dol- that a reform of the marijuana laws will
After 5 years, with a fresh, secure domestic lar range (USD). The hemp seed food busi- bring will be negligible.
supply of seed, customers are finding out ness is in the $5-10 million USD range. Consider this: John’s and Mary’s right to
for the first time, how flexible, tasty and There is considerable value added here, as have a legal stash will not likely affect the
nutritious hemp foods are. the farm gate value of current level of seed hemp regulations regarding allowable THC
And there’s science to back it up; a small (grain) production is only about $2 million in the field or in finished hemp products.
amount of research studies are under- dollars maximum. Similarly, John and Mary may have a hand-
way that are testing the efficacy of hemp Considering that Canada’s french fry ful of plants at home under lights, but that
seed nutrition. This work takes place in a export to the U.S. is over $200 million CDN will not compete with the farmer who has
larger context regarding the roles of a year, Canada’s hemp industry is small 200 acres seeded. Nor will John and Mary
healthy oils and fats in the diet. A grow- potatoes indeed. be able to create much in the way of value-
ing understanding of essential fatty acids Many of hemp’s specific problem are agri- added industry with the handful of stalks
in the nutritional business community culture problems. The sector on the whole they harvest. Maybe a few cottage indus-
and in the health press is helping to cre- is changing, with fewer farmers at work, tries could do hemp weaving and spinning
ate a positive commercial climate for consolidation happening on all levels, high from stalks pulled from a backyard plot,but
hemp seed products. debt loads and a high risk and failure rate lets not dress that up more than we need
On these terms hemp sounds like a success for new age ventures. It’s a challenging to.Few people are doping it with (legal) flax
story. But just how much of a success is it? time on the farm and rural communities right now. And maybe with hemp bonsais,
Because it is such a new, and hence still and the ability and capability to embrace landscape architecture could take off
small industry, it is challenging to come up new industries promised by hemp is limit- under the right hustling horticultural
with an estimated worth of the sector. The ed.The sector is stressed. entrepreneur. But these would be new
government’s official measuring arm, Stats Now in 2003, Canada seems to be on the industries, and wouldn’t have an effect on
Canada keeps no data on the hempseed verge on reforming the nation’s marijuana what we have in place right now.

10 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal

w o u l d h e m p p r o s p e r. . .
One could even make the case that liberal- found above the 0.3% allowable limit. So Hemp industry has made a good case to
ization will have a negative effect on the you know, the issue is not necessarily date with its management of THC levels.
hemp industry. Given concerns about genetic, as THC levels fluctuate according For example, the Industry standard Test
genetic pollution as with GMO’s and, in to environmental variables, like heat and Pledge regulates levels beyond what gov-
some quarters, the shift in the food system stress such as hail, as well as being affected ernment requires).
towards identity preserved (IP) production, by latitude (levels rise closer to the equa- Outside of such proposals, there are some
and considering cannabis being as pollen tor). No matter that hemp with 0.4% THC, upcoming changes in the regulatory front.
prolific as it is,there is very real concern that while exceeding regulations, is still not These considerations may all become
genetic pollution could occur. Allegedly even close to being marijuana, and this extremely relevant ones.
this has already happened, however, with- higher level won’t change the THC levels on Coming down the pipeline for 2003 is
out land-use plans in place, the scenario the valued seed, once the seed is cleaned another hemp risks and benefits study
could lead to some unhappy situations. and processed. Outrageous! Why should from Health Canada. An earlier version was
There is also the question of U.S. market we almost lose one of our top cultivars over leaked to the press in the summer of 1999;
access. As American officials are some- what is essentially a technicality? This this draft caused a small storm of outrage
times willfully obtuse about the differ- species has an attractive fatty acid profile, in the industry. The report, slammed by
ences between hemp and marijuana, produces a pleasant oil and was reported- independent researchers, causing a re-
would such liberalization on Canada’s part ly chosen to be grown for 40% of last year’s think on Health Canada’s part. The study
complicate access further? Would there 1,500h national commercial hemp crop. was never released, but had a half life on
be some sort of blow-back? Would Anyhow, it seems that Finola will be given a the web. The 2003 version is highly antici-
Canadian hemp products be treated with second chance, with a revived breeding pated; whatever its findings, its contents
even more scrutiny at the border? You program.This is good news, and a relief. will set the tone for a subsequent stake-
know how they get, post 9-11…. Further to seed, what also needs to be holders meeting between industry and
More significant than the law changing reconsidered is our over-reliance on certi- government in 2004. This meeting will be
fied stock. Prices are usually around $2/lb an opportunity to recraft the regulations,
and under, depending on cultivar availabil- It will be interesting to see if there is indeed
ity. (Seeding rate is typically 30 lbs/acre). a regulatory climate change coming. Is it
Now certified seed delivers quality for a too early? Massive wholesale reform of
higher price, which is an excellent deal, but Canada’s hemp rules is unrealistic to
having more on farm flexibility and choice expect; these regulations will not be
could also expand the market for all seed. dumped in some prairie slough. But it is
Common seed would certainly make ambi- desirous that they are reformed.The indus-
tious large scale hemp biomass plantations try needs regulations that encourage qual-
more economically attractive. ity and de-emphasizes control.
You also have to ask yourself whether As stated, many of hemp’s challenges are
sampling and testing of hemp field crops due to other factors, principally economic
should even be necessary when the issues, and not just the fault of existing reg-
grower is using certified seed. And if ulations. However, a liberalization of the
Health Canada is not as worried about nation’s marijuana laws would improve the
the illegality of marijuana as much, and regulatory climate and lead to a lighter reg-
therefore is less concerned about ulatory touch that would bring benefits to
cannabis proliferation, what kind of pur- the industry. The business of hemp will
pose do these regulations have? grow more attractive in a liberal regulatory
(If you ask me, THC-free hemp is not the environment that reinforces and rewards
answer, as the compound has a biological good business practices.
Hemp in flower
role in the plant’s life. There are no zeros in Arthur Hanks is a Saskatchewan writer who
nature. However, we need low THC varieties never grows tired of hemp for some reason.
would be the regulatory climate change for everyday food consumption and cos- He can be reached at hcfr@sk.sympatico.ca.
that would come with it. Canada’s hemp metic use. So, what’s needed are bound- Pictures courtesy of Arthur from his website:
industry does not need really wholesale aries, and that’s what we have.The question http://www.industrialhemp.net/mydomain/hem
regulatory reform, but it would benefit is, what should those boundaries be? The preport/gallery/
from a lighter touch. Some deft touches
could be placed around seed issues. I will
bring up one relevant current issue.
Currently, one of the favoured cultivars
(Finola, which is a shorter/earlier grain vari-
ety of hemp), is being taken off the List of
Approved Cultivars because it has relative-
ly high THC.
Finola is not a high THC cultivar, and usual-
ly tests at the lower limit of the testing scale
(0.05). But consistently, somewhere in
Canada, year after year, some fields are

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 11

Legal Eagle
[18] What then of the position of the Crown essentially had two options: it could
On March 14th in P.E.I. Federal Crown in other jurisdictions across have appealed or it could have elected not
court, the judge read out Canada? Is the Federal Crown bound to appeal and accept Parker as a final judg-
the decision on the throughout Canada, as the prosecutor ment. It chose the latter approach.
Ronald Barry Stavert throughout Canada, of all CDSA offences [42] The decision in Parker was not a judg-
case, who was charged by the decision of the Ontario Court of ment in personam which applied only to
with simple marijuana Appeal in Parker which it chose not to Mr. Parker. The Ontario Court of Appeal’s
possession and made
appeal? Put another way, is the Crown ruling struck down that part of s4 of the
John Conroy, Q.C., application to quash the
photo by Kim O'Leary information arguing
estopped from arguing that its marijuana CDSA which prohibited marijuana posses-
that it does not disclose an offence known to law. possession law is valid in Prince Edward sion. Clearly, that ruling became the law in
The accused based his application, essentially, Island, when it has been declared invalid in Ontario as of July 31st, 2000, subject to the
on the Ontario Court of Appeal decision in R. v. a decision which, as a final judgement, one year suspension of the operation of
Parker (2000) 146 CCC (3d) 193, which binds it in Ontario? the declaration, which afforded Parliament
declared the prohibition against possession of [20] There is no question that the applicant what should have been an ample opportu-
marijuana in s. 4 of the CDSA invalid due to its here raises the same issue as was involved nity to pass remedial legislation, if it had
failure to provide for legal possession of marijua- chosen to do so.
in Parker. He challenges the validity of the
na for medical uses. Below are some excerpts
law prohibiting simple possession of mari- [52] A stay of proceedings is therefore
from the decision, with the full document on the
juana by virtue of this application, as did entered in this matter.
web at http://cannabislink.ca/legal/stavert.htm
Mr. Parker. Question: What is your view on this case?
[3] The applicant submits that the Federal
Crown is estopped from arguing that s4 of [21] Secondly, there is no question that the Answer: No one should plead guilty or
the CDSA is valid legislation on the basis decision of the Ontario Court of Appeal in take diversion for a simple possession case.
that the Parker decision is binding on the Parker is a final judgement since the Crown They should plead not guilty, file a consti-
Federal Crown throughout Canada. made no attempt to appeal to the tutional challenge to the effect that the
Supreme Court of Canada. federal government failed to comply with
[14] What the Ontario Court of Appeal
clearly did in Parker was declare the mari- [24] Clearly, any person charged in Ontario Parker in the Ontario Court of Appeal as
juana possession prohibition in s4 of the with simple possession of marijuana could evidenced by Hitzig and argue the P.E.I.
CDSA to be invalid without exception. It rely on the Parker decision in an applica- case to the effect that Parker is binding on
also suspended the declaration of invalidi- tion such as the accused has brought the federal Crown in B.C. as in Ontario and
ty for a period of twelve months “...to pro- before this Court.Since the Crown is bound P.E.I. because they didn’t appeal Parker and
vide Parliament with the opportunity to fill in relation to all simple possession of mari- the MMAR do not comply with the Parker
the void”. (Parker at page 40) juana charges arising in Ontario due to the declaration, so simple possession is legal.
[15] The Federal Crown did not appeal the operation of stare decisis, all persons in the As you all know, we are back in the
Province of Ontario, all 12 million of them, Supreme Court of Canada May 6th at 9:30
Ontario Court of Appeal decision in Parker,
have acquired an immunity from prosecu- a.m. on Caine, Malmo-Levine and Clay.
and there has been nothing presented to
tion for marijuana possession, which may Hopefully, we will get a good decision in
the court in the instant application to indi-
be anything from short term to permanent our favour this year or early next.
cate that Parliament did anything to avail
and in fact counsel indicated on this appli- John Conroy, Q.C., CONROY& COMPANY
itself of the opportunity to pass remedial Barrister and Solicitor
legislation to cure the defect in s4.The fore- cation that all simple possession charges
were being adjourned in Ontario pending 2459 Pauline Street, Abbotsford, BC V2S 3S1
going preceded the Ontario Court of Telephone: (604) 852-5110
Justice decision in R. v. J.P. [2003] O.J. 1 of the outcome of the appeal in the J.P. case.
Fax: (604) 859-3361
January 2nd,2003,which in turn appears to [41] When the Ontario Court of Appeal ren- Website: www.johnconroy.com
have prompted this application. dered its judgment in Parker, the Federal

What Now?
We are following the stories of the people we Jim Wakeford ple now allowed by Health Canada to
covered in our last issue who have been “The Crown has dropped or stayed all use and grow it. Officials in the
prosecuted in the U.S.A. and Canada for charges. I am a free man. It is hard to get Insurance Bureau of Canada said that
their support of medicinal marijuana used to the reality that for me it’s all underwriters will not provide even basic
patients. Where are they now? over, the constitutional challenge and all homeowner’s or tenant’s insurance to
the criminal charges from 4 arrests in people who they know grow marijuana,
two provinces over a period of two even if legally allowed to do so.
CONROY & COMPANY “The sad reality, however, remains that I
Barristers and Solicitors years,” said Jim in a recent e-mail to our
journal. have no grower, no real space to grow
Barrister and Solicitor Jim is still challenging laws, though. He and hence no regular supply of marijua-
2459 Pauline Street has just been refused an insurance claim na. That has been the case since I start-
Abbotsford, B.C.
for stolen marijuana. This refusal ed using marijuana therapeutically in
Canada V2S 3S1
Ph: 604-852-5110 demonstrates that the insurance indus- 1996. That has to change.” Jim
E-mail: jconroy@johnconroy.com Toll Free:1-877-852-5110
try wants absolutely nothing to do with Wakeford closed.
Website: www.johnconroy.com Fax: 604-859-3361
either medical marijuana or the 900 peo-
12 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal page 13
What Now?
Ed Rosenthal time the jury members read a letter of “The other victims of today’s decision
Despite the best efforts of the U.S. apology to Mr. Rosenthal, and then read are patients… because I am only one of
Attorney’s Office to incarcerate him a statement endorsed by 8 of the 12 many people that they are trying to put
immediately, Ed Rosenthal was allowed jurors demanding a new trial for Mr. in jail for helping sick people.
to remain free on $200,000 bail, pending Rosenthal. My case clearly demonstrates that it is
his sentencing on three federal counts of “Federal prosecutors made extraordi- time for a national debate on the issue of
marijuana cultivation, which is sched- nary efforts to block the truth, the whole medical marijuana… The federal gov-
uled for June 4th, 2003. The sentencing truth and nothing but the truth. Because ernment is choosing to prosecute and
range is from a minimum of 5 years to the truth is that I was deputized by the imprison individuals instead of work-
more than 80, with possible fines of sev- City of Oakland to legally grow marijua- ing… to resolve the conflicts in medical
eral million dollars. na for medicinal use by sick or dying marijuana law. Because helping sick
After the hearing, six jurors met with patients. Had the jury known about the people should never be a crime.” - Ed
Mr. Rosenthal, his family, defense attor- City’s attempts to give immunity to their Rosenthal.
neys and selected supporters before people, including me, it would have *Excerpts for this article are from the
holding an unprecedented press confer- acquitted me today,” stated Ed in his Green Aid website “Rosenthal Trial
ence outside the federal building. At this interview of January 31st, 2003. Diary” and “Statement on the Verdict”.

Cannabis Growing
Licensing in the Netherlands manufacturing med-
ical cannabis prod-
welcomed the announcement of
Scholten’s new agency, hoping they
by Allen Town ucts. They will stimulate high quality trials would be able to sell pot to the govern-
A change of the Dutch law on controlled that can be done with several dosage ment instead of just to coffeeshops.
substances (Opium Act) will take effect on forms of varying composition for multiple “We’ll order cannabis from private grow-
March 17th, 2003. It includes regulations indications. ers,” Scholten said. “The Office will have
for applications regarding the cultivation “We are guided by a scientific advisory the sole responsibility for importing,
of cannabis for medicinal purposes and board,” said Dutch official Willem exporting, selling and storing cannabis,
guidelines for cultivating cannabis. Scholten.“The board members are health cannabis resin and their preparations. It
Applications for an Opium Act exemption care inspectors specialized in clinical trials will also be the licensing authority for
regarding cannabis will be handled by the and narcotics, a neurologist, a pharmacog- these substances. Dutch law requires
Office of Medicinal Cannabis (BMC) of the nosist, a lawyer and representatives of the licenses of those who grow cannabis.
Health Ministry. All cannabis cultivated by Multiple Sclerosis Patients Association Our Office will give these licenses to grow-
applicants has to be sold to the BMC. and the HIV Patients Association.” ers who have contracts with the Office.
The Office will act as a regulator for (Scholten said a “pharmacognosist” is a Growers will be screened before they are
cannabis horticulture, cannabis resin and pharmacologist who specializes in herbal contracted. The contract conditions will
related substances for clinical trials. medicines). require that contractors sell their entire
Private companies will be in charge of Dutch marijuana growers enthusiastically crops to the government.
Medicinal cannabis must be organically
grown, free of contaminants and proper-
ly processed. Growers will be subject to
grow room inspections, quality controls,
and will be required to sell their entire
crop to our agency. The need for medici-
nal cannabis depends on the number
and size of the clinical trials that will be
done. We don’t expect that a large
amount of cannabis will be needed in the
next few years.”
The guidelines for cannabis cultivation
have been derived from the general rules
for Good Agricultural Practice of the
Working Group on Herbal Medicinal
Products of the European Medicines
Evaluation Agency (EMEA).
They describe requirements for cultiva-
tion, harvesting and primary processing,
ensuring that the cannabis is produced
under conditions that ensure that the
therapeutic properties of the end product
are constant and reproducible.

14 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal

According to homogenized, pasteurized, preserved range from sassy soups to apple pie, to
the World or had chemicals added, this always almond milk and cheese. The extensive
H e a l t h causes a rise in the number of white collection of tried and tasteful recipes,
Organization, cells in the blood. This is a phenome- tested and tasted by the author, Elyse
toxins in the non called “digestive leukocytosis”. Nuff S.T., R.F., will make living a
air we Eating unaltered, raw and low temper- lifestyle of raw foods easy and appealing
breathe, the ature heated food did not cause the for families of all ages.
water we reaction in the blood. The book offers readers more than just
drink, and the Diet improvement is a major weapon recipes. It has comprehensive explana-
food we eat, cause nearly 80% of can- against disease, from the common cold tions, in layman’s terms, which explain
cers. We cook, process and radiate our to cancer. Whole, raw food nutrition how our bodies work and what they
food until it is altered into chemical sub- allows the body to use its built-in require. This book provides all the
stances that the body cannot digest, and, restorative and repairing abilities. A research and facts needed to make life-
in fact, treats as poison. In 1930, studies healthy diet can intervene in the disease changing decisions about our diets. The
by Dr. Paul Kouchakoff, at the Swiss process at many stages, from its incep- book outlines all the necessary vitamins,
Institute of Chemistry, studied human tion to its growth and spread. Fresh minerals and essential nutrients that
blood and documented the effects of fruits and vegetables top the list of heal- human beings require daily. Alive’n Raw
cooked and processed food versus raw ing foods. takes the difficulty and confusion out of
and natural food on the immune system. Alive’n Raw is a raw foodist book that a raw food lifestyle and makes it easy
If a food had been heated beyond a cer- will be essential for a natural lifestyle and practical for readers to begin to
tain temperature, as low as 110˚F, or kitchen. This easy to read book contains change their life.
even worse, was processed, refined, recipes for your eating delight, that

Truly remarcable!
From cookies and lollypops to gourmet across Canada. If you have a license and ting,” says Marc,“I can’t do it alone, and I
specialties and concentrates, remarcable are interested, you can start a Remarcable don’t have the resources to do it all.” If
foods is making access to medication sim- Foods cottage industry in your own com- you are interested in Marc’s products,
pler for many people. Marc has created a munity by baking/cooking fresh food to a starting your own cottage industry, or to
line of strong medical cannabis food - local customer base of individuals with a join his company contact Marc through
which can be delivered across Canada to prescription. There are literally hundreds his website.
prescription holders. His new website: of great tasting recipes for breakfast,
www.bake-n-shake.com will have all lunch, supper, and every snack in Available Now! New Book!
kinds of recipes for foods that use the between. Marc’s dream is to have “Alive’n Raw” As Nature Intended,
concentrate he makes. The site tells peo- enough of a customer base to support a by Elyse Nyff S.T.,R.F., CHC
Information on raw food and its effects on your
ple how to use the concentrates and Remarcable Foods restaurant/catering
health. Supporting recipes to give you great
effectively manage dose control. service in every town in Canada.“Within tasting meals. A must read for all wanting to
A sample is a smoothie shake with con- a couple of months the rules are chang- improve their health and/or health issues.
centrate and Tropicana Orange ing, and there will be opportunities to To get yours, call: 1-250-878-2659
Strawberry Banana juice. It is the best respond from the exposure we are get- or check your local book store.
tasting smoothie you’ve ever had and it
has the same dose as a strong cookie.
Take this smoothie, add equal parts of
ice cream, run it through a blender till it
starts to whip, pour it into popsicle
molds and freeze - now you have the
best tasting creamsicle you’ve ever had!
You can buy the concentrates, use the
recipes, create your own, or buy the fin-
ished product all through this website.
Marc is interested in sharing his knowl-
edge with other enterprising people

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 15

Ask Dr. Ethan for HCV:
Medicine is was without having the cough myself. I ery.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&
an ever- then gave it to my kids, the youngest
being about 8 years old when I started Interferons are natural or synthetic sub-
science. using it. I noticed that by the second
While sug- stances based on substances secreted in
time my kids would cough, it would be tiny amounts by white blood cells. In
gestions for
weaker and usually subside quickly. large amounts, they have antiviral prop-
use of Since then I have suggested it to other erties. Fortunately, cannabis has rela-
cannabis people and everyone is amazed that it tively few drug interactions, notably an
or other works so quickly, in less than a minute. increase in sleepiness if combined with
Dr. Ethan Russo
drugs may be We later tried to see if there were any of sedative medications. I am not aware of
made herein, this forum is designed solely for the “stoned” effects and there were none specific problems with cannabis and
educational purposes, and neither the author, for my wife (who is very sensitive to PegIntron.
publisher, nor other parties, will assume any cannabis) or myself. I, being a chronic
liability whatever for application or misappli- It is distinctly possible that cannabis
cannabis smoker, also had far less itself has beneficial effects on the course
cation of any information imparted. We cannot instances of colds and recovered quicker
claim scientific proof or accuracy of the materi- of HCV. In a recent experiment designed
when I did get them over the 20 years to assess the effects of “drug of abuse”on
al discussed, and no warranty, expressed or
implied is advanced with regard to the infor- than anyone else in our family. What is HCV patients, clinical cannabis patients
mation. Cannabis is illegal in most jurisdic- the connection? actually had an improved response to
tions, and the reader must apply awareness of A 1: interferon treatment! It is likely that the
this fact when considering its usage. Medical What you describe is interesting. immunomodulatory effects of cannabis
use of cannabis may or may not be a viable Cannabis is a known bronchodilator via are helpful in reducing autoimmune
legal defense where you reside. Canadian clini- THC itself, and pinene, a terpenoid damage in this and other diseases.
cal cannabis patients are encouraged to seek essential oil component.
exemptions under existing law from Health
A more focused research project on HCV
The tincture might work so fast because and cannabis usage is now underway
Canada. The proper forms and procedures are of sublingual absorption, or actual fumes
available on their web site. Full disclosure and with the University of California, San
being inhaled. Asthma increases suscep- Francisco and Philippe Lucas of
discussion of medical issues with your health
care providers is encouraged, as is proper edu-
tibility to colds and other respiratory ill- Vancouver Island Compassion Club
cation with respect to effects and side effects of nesses, so prevention of it might lead to Society (http://www.thevics.com/) to
existing medication. better overall health. It is unfortunate more closely examine the issue.
that it remains illegal and unavailable for
Q 1:
prescription. Q 3:
Shortly after I had started smoking
cannabis 30 years ago, a friend who had Hello, I have a question that needs a pro-
Q 2: fessional to answer. Is it more potent
asthma started smoking also. I don’t
My Husband has hep-C and is taking and will you get more of a “buzz” if you
remember exactly how long after he
PegIntron and others, he is having lots of hold in the smoke after you inhale a drag
started, that he noticed a reduction in
nausea and has lost weight from loss of of a marijuana joint? I keep having the
his asthma attacks and the need for
appetite, we would like to find out more same debate, with this question.
using his inhaler. I was only in contact
about medical marijuana as a treatment A 3:
with him for about another year or so,
for him. This is an important issue. As you know,
but I seemed to remember him saying
A 2: I do not recommend smoking of
that he didn’t have problems any more.
You are wise to be cautious. Hepatitis C cannabis, but rather favour vapouriza-
Some years later when I had children of
is an increasingly prevalent and disturb- tion, use of sublingual tinctures and sim-
my own, they were having the dry hack-
ing affliction in our society. The answer ilar alternative delivery systems. If
ing kind of cough that started when they
to your question is still in evolution. It is people are going to smoke, however, the
would lay down to go to sleep. We could
clear from various surveys that cannabis great efficiency of the lungs as an
find no off-the-shelf or prescribed reme-
is a very frequently employed remedy by absorbtion system for drugs permits
dy that was effective.
HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) patients to good results with a short exposure.
It was then that I remembered my friend
combat nausea and weight loss. You may According to results of a 1995 study,
from my teenage years. Knowing that
access patient testimonials at Lester subjective high and serum THC levels do
some extracts of the plant dissolve in
Grinspoon’s Marihuana: The Forbidden not increase beyond a maximum 10-sec-
water and others dissolve in alcohol, I
Medicine website by plugging ond inhalation, or “toke”:
put about a quarter ounce of sifted bud
“Hepatitis C” into the search engine http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/qu
and hash-like powder in 16oz of vodka,
http://www.rxmarihuana.com/_vti_bin ery.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&
let it sit for a day and then tried a tea-
/shtml.exe/search.htm list_uids=7853169&dopt=Abstract
spoon of it myself first. Almost immedi-
Peginterferon alfa-2b or PegIntron is a This shorter toke duration will help
ately I noticed a relaxation in my lungs
relatively new immunological treatment avoid needless pulmonary irritation and
and opening of my breathing, and that
16 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
a s k d r. e t h a n
risk of damage in chronic usage. rather, is minimal. The heat of smoking tences in the courts.
While we’re at it, another myth con- has pretty much destroyed available For more information on clinical
cerns “roaches”. These are much prized THC. Should a person be apprehended cannabis delivery systems, see:
and hoarded by some, but should be dis- for alleged cannabis crimes, this useless http://www.montananorml.org/docs/R
carded. Contrary to popular belief, their material will be added to the weight of usso-AAPM_chapter.pdf
THC content is not enhanced, but seized material and lead to longer sen-

Canna – Biz
What other plant, anywhere in the Canna – food: chocolate, coffee, jel-
world, can possibly do what cannabis lies, sour gums, lollypops, chewing
does? Cannabis, and its cousin hemp, gum, flour, seeds, salsa, tortilla chips,
is capable of producing a wide variety oil, pasta, tortilla wraps, hemp milk,
of products virtually unheard of in any salad dressing, snack bars, hulled
other single plant. All of the products seeds.
listed below are in production across Canna-medicine: essential oil,
the world. lozenges, massage oil, smoke.
Canna – drinks: wine, beer, vodka, Canna – stuff: cat litter, small animal
pop. litter, clothing, jewellery, bed linen, pil-
Canna – beauty: seed oils, soaps, lip lows, diapers, paper, envelopes, jour-
balm, body products, shampoo, condi- nals, rope, dog and cat leashes and
tioner, perfume, after-shave. collars, string.
Pictured to the right: B.C.’s home-made cannabis wine

Marinol is an FDA-approved drug containing the principal
active ingredient (THC) found naturally in the marijuana
plant and most drug stores. Despite Federal Drug
Administration approval of synthetic THC, marijuana is clas-
sified as a Schedule 1 drug. Physicians cannot prescribe
Schedule 1 drugs, including marijuana, because such drugs
are generally thought to have no medicinal value.
Marinol costs the average AIDS or cancer patient $6,000 a
year (e.g. lOOmg b.i.d. @$400 for 30 tablets, $9,600) and
comes in dosages of 2.5, 5 and 10 milligrams. The marijua-
na plant grows naturally and abundantly in much of the
U.S., making the drug very affordable and nearly without
cost to those who grow their own, except for the economic
impact of prohibition that dramatically increases the cost of
marijuana on the black market.

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 17

Operation Pipe Dreams
By Arlene Smith sell their weapons to criminals or encour- Drug paraphernalia is any equipment,
Attorney General John Ashcroft and age customers to commit murder. product or material that is employed for
Acting DEA Administrator John Brown This war on illicit sites is equally misguid- making, using, or concealing illegal drugs
announced the indictment of over 50 ed.The sites are no more harmful than the and generally falls into two categories:
individuals and companies on charges of retail shops are. Consumers can safely • User-specific products are marketed to
trafficking in illegal drug paraphernalia on shop from their home or at a local store drug users to assist them in taking or con-
February 24th, 2003. The charges are the without being exposed to criminal ele- cealing illegal drugs. Pipes, smoking
culmination of two nationwide investiga- ments. In contrast, take for example the masks, bongs, marijuana grow kits, roach
tions code-named “Operation Pipe site <www.revelationarms.com>. Not only clips, and items such as hollowed out cos-
Dreams” and “Operation Headhunter” and do they offer gun silencers, there are metic cases or fake pagers used to con-
include indictments against national dis- explicit directions on how to obtain the ceal drugs can be included in this
tributors of drug paraphernalia and busi- necessary paperwork and background category.
nesses - freezing their assets and closing check in order to purchase a silencer • Dealer-specific products are used by
the businesses down. online. It seems that obtaining a gun with drug traffickers for preparing drugs for
Because of these closures, many people a silencer is less harmful to society than distribution at the street level. Scales,
are now out of work, and the local the fellow taking his medicine in the com- vials, and even sandwich bags fall into
economies of every city where business- fort of his own home. this category.
es like these were targeted has slowed. Sentencing for these crimes seems a little Under the Federal Drug Paraphernalia
And worse, since these operations do stiff when compared to those received by Statute, which is part of the Controlled
nothing to reduce the drug supply, there violent offenders. In a recent conviction, Substances Act, it is illegal to possess, sell,
will be absolutely no effect on the reduc- Chris Hill of Chills Pipes was sentenced to transport, import, or export drug para-
tion of drug sales. The whole notion that one year at the Eglin prison facility. But phernalia. Paraphernalia is subject to
putting a purveyor of glass pipes out of Federal law allows for a maximum sen- seizure and forfeiture upon conviction.
business will prevent even a single per- tence of 3 years in prison, and/or a fine of Seized paraphernalia is delivered to the
son from using drugs is simply ludicrous. $250,000. General Services Administration, who may
Nor will it, as John Walters (Director of In an era where hospitals, schools, lunch order it destroyed or authorize its use for
the National Drug Control Policy) states, programs, seniors and disability pro- law enforcement or educational purposes
“protect our young people from the grams, homeless shelters, parks, and a by Federal, State, or local authorities.
harms of illegal drugs.” slew of other endeavours are hungry for According to Eric Chase of the Chase Law
According to John Brown, “people selling aid, the use of federal money for these Group, (www.thebestdefense.com) there
drug paraphernalia are in essence no dif- operations seems wasteful. The cost of are 3 important points to remember for
ferent than drug dealers, they are as much policing and court processes couldn’t those who believe they may be contacted
a part of drug trafficking as silencers are a likely be recovered in crime reduction by the DEA:
part of criminal homicide. These criminals when targeting paraphernalia suppliers • Do not talk to the investigators for any
operate a multi-million dollar enterprise, and manufacturers. It seems no one told reason without an attorney present.
selling their paraphernalia in head shops, these lawmakers that pot could be • Do not consent to any search of your
distributing out of huge warehouses, and smoked in a corncob pipe too! Ah, but property. Of course, if they have a warrant
using the worldwide web as a worldwide tobacco pipes are not targeted. Sure they your consent is not necessary for them to
paraphernalia market. With Operations can be used for pot, and though tobacco conduct the search.
Pipe Dreams and Headhunter, these crimi- is just as harmful - possibly more harmful • Consult an attorney now - steps you take
nals are out of business and 11 illicit - than pot, it is not illegal. before being contacted may be the best
dot.coms are dot.gone.” One can also argue that medical marijua- protection you have.
The Federal operations are sadly misguid- na is now legalized for patients. Yet those
patients are not allowed legal access to Resources:
ed and are an example of bureaucracy run http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=15254
amuck.While it is likely that producers and either their medicine or smoking aides. In http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v03/n388/a11.html
suppliers were aware the products were this light, these Federal operations can be http://www.thebestdefense.com/operation_pipe_dreams_dru
used as drug paraphernalia, the products seen as an infringement on the medical http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/paraphernaliafact.html
are not usually sold as such, nor do suppli- user’s rights. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/csa.html#863
ers usually facilitate such activities. In a What exactly is considered drug para- http://www.internetnews.com/bus-news/article.php/1598131

similar vein, the firearm companies do not phernalia?

18 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal

Brother’, big time! CH: Well, just from the internet and chat
CH: I heard they were taking assets. lines where people are discussing, the
Steve: Yes, they are confiscating the pos- next round will be early April and they
session of the URL’s and literally taking are looking to expand their target to
Nothing to over the domain name, (which is some- include more portions of the network
Celebrate about! body’s private property) without due that they feel supports the illegal activity.
Celebration Pipes advertised in our first issue process. They pick the biggest ones. We So, one wonders where they will attack
and was one of the businesses affected by are strictly a home-based business. I do next. Will it be the print media, or the
“Operation Pipe Dreams”. Cannabis Health about 4,000 pieces a year & that’s it. Now hydroponic stores…?
contacted owner Steve Lach to find out first- these guys have factories, you know, they Steve: It is hard to say, because I don’t see
hand what happened. have some major operations. And they did how they could have the manpower. As far
CH: Catch you at a bad time? that to send a message, in my opinion.The as I know, there are approx. 10,000 hydro
Steve: No, I was just busy in the little shop thing that bugs me though, is that the shops around the country.
trying to get things out of here.That’s basi- web is supposed to be free and is sup- The print media, for me, and in America,
cally what we have been doing the last posed to be the ultimate tool for mankind well, that would probably be the last thing
10 days. to communicate, and now it has become they would attack. It is against the first
CH: So, tell me what happened. the ultimate enemy. amendment. But if they go to war and too
Steve: On Monday they raided 55-60 dif- Now, I am 50 years old, and I grew up on many nasty things happen here, they can
ferent people and businesses all across the Constitution. And I grew up as a always call martial law, which would be a
the US.,closed down various peoples’web- Republican, okay? (chuckles) And I have to sad state of affairs.
sites and then they redirected the sites of say that something is wrong in ‘Bean CH: Have you thought of relocating to
the biggest people, like Tommy Chong Town’, something’s really wrong. Canada with your business?
and all these big glass pipe guys, directly CH: Well, it certainly has been the enemy to Steve: I have a window where I can come
to the DEA, so they can capture anybody the government, shutting down 55 sites. up in a couple of days. I have a friend in
web surfing. Steve: More! I heard, many more. Well, I’m Washington who may be willing to split
CH: Isn’t that entrapment? one of them. They didn’t physically shut the cost of moving with me, and we could
Steve: Well, actually they are just building me down, but I did. Because the penalty get a house with a garage that could be
a catalogue of people to go and run down for carrying on is 3 years in jail and converted into a studio ....
to where all the computers are. It’s ‘Big $250,000.

The SOS co-op is made up of medical
users and growers. The seeds you will
receive will be of the finest quality un-
named indoor and outdoor strains
available earning the fine reputation of
BC Bud.
Many of the strains selectively bred by the
same growers for up to 20 years!
When ordering indicate preference for indoor, outdoor, sati-
va, or indica. If you have a favorite strain, we will make
every effort to match it as close as possible.
$25 for 10 indoor or outdoor seeds.
(specify indoor or outdoor) Taxes and shipping (for Canada) included


Send cheque or money order to S0S c/o
P.O. Box 2320 Grand Forks BC V0H 1H0

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 19

Cannabis Clinic
Letter to Michael. Potato Bugs: For those who have access to
Thank you for your informative article on hemp leaves; make a strong tea of these
Compost Tea in issue 2, page 24. Shortly leaves and spray it on potato plants that
after, we came across the following excerpt have been visited by Colorado Potato bugs.
published in “Eco Farm and Garden - I do not know why, but it seems to kill off
Canada’s National Organic Magazine” the bugs. Second and third applications
(winter 2000, vol. 3, No. 1, pg. 29) in it’s col- deter/discourage/destroy new arrival. I saw
umn “Organic tips”, reader’s tips are sent in this in a hemp network on uses of hemp in
& chosen for the column.The following is a Europe. A friend of mine has actually used it
direct quote:“Hemp Leaf Tea Discourages and says it worked.

Michael Straumietis

Macronutrient and Micronutrient

Deficiencies and Identification
garden a few times a week and pick patches that are a dull, dark green to
off these nutrient-deficient leaves. bluish green, in severe cases older
Nitrogen excess will turn the foliage a leaves and petioles turning reddish
very dark green, which may make the purple caused by accumulations of
plant susceptible to drought, disease anthocyanin. Younger leaves may be
and insect invasion, with a lowering of yellowish green with purplish veins
bud and THC production. Cannabis when nitrogen is also deficient, and
loves nitrogen, it is primary for its darker green veins when phosphorus
plant growth, photosynthesis and is deficient. Necrotic (dead areas)
reproduction. Cannabis converts spots occur on the leaves’ margins in
nitrogen to make proteins and is the advanced stages. Leaf tips can
essential to new cell growth. Nitrogen look burned as well. Phosphorus defi-
is mainly for leaf and stem growth, as ciency is most common when pH is
Nitrogen well as overall size and vigour. above 7 or below 5.5. Phosphorus will
Nitrogen moves easily to active young bind with soil very easily. Excess phos-
(N) (mobile in plant) (mobile in soil)
buds, shoots and leaves and slower to phorus could cause micro nutrient
Nitrogen deficiency in cannabis will older leaves. Nitrogen is incorporated deficiencies in zinc and iron. Cannabis
show first in older leaves as a light into molecules and is involved in the uses phosphorus for photosynthesis,
green overall appearance. As symp- structure of all amino acids, multiple respiration, storing carbohydrates, cell
toms progress, leaves turn to a yellow enzymes (which are specialized pro-
colour and stems become weak and teins and serve to lower energy
lower leaves drop off, necrosis (dead requirements that perform many
leaf areas) of the older leaves, new duties inside the plants), proteins and
growth becomes weak and spindly, nucleic acid which are needed for all
and restricted growth of tops and cell division and reproduction.
roots, especially lateral shoots. When
plants are in the mid to later flowering
stages, older growth and fan leaves (P) (mobile in plant, immobile in soil)
will show nitrogen deficiency. This is Phosphorous deficiency in cannabis
normal during that stage of bud will show up in older growth first, with
development (they are using up their the leaf tips possibly curling down-
nutrient and carbohydrate reserves to wards. When phosphorus is deficient,
produce buds). As the leaves turn slow and spindly reduced growth will
completely yellow, go through your be noticed. Leaf damage is usually
22 C A N N A B I S H E A LT H t h e m e d i c a l m a r i j u a n a j o u r n a l
division, it is also involved in energy chlorosis starting at the base of the
transportation (ATP, ADP), nucleic leaf. Older leaves may show red pig-
acids, enzymes and phospholipids mentation and leaves could curl
that are important for membrane upwards. Excess potassium can cause
structure. Phosphorus helps build deficiencies in calcium and magne-
strong roots, is vital for seed and sium uptake. Potassium maintains
flower production. Highest levels of water regulation in cells (ionic bal-
phosphorus are used during germina- ance), cell strength, transpiration, pho-
tion, seedling growth and flowering. tosynthesis and activates the
However, that does not mean that manufacture and movement of carbo-
cannabis is a phosphorus hog. It is not. hydrate (energy) and starches, potassi-
It consumes more potassium and um is very important in quality bud
nitrogen and magnesium than phos- development. Enzyme activity and
phorus. It will use more phosphorus in sugar translocation regulates the young leaves. Molybdenum is very
flowering than in its vegetative opening and closing of the stomata. rarely deficient in cannabis. Chlorosis
(growth) stage. Also, excess phospho- Adequate potassium increases a symptoms similar to nitrogen with
rus can cause a decrease in uptake of plant’s resistance to disease, drought marginal scorching and strapping.
zinc, iron and copper, which will start a and frost. Potassium encourages Generally occurs when sulfur and
chain reaction of other macro and strong root growth and water uptake phosphorus are deficient, interveinal
micro nutrient deficiencies. Cold tem- that triggers enzymes that fight dis- yellow spotting and mottling of older
peratures of 55 degrees Fahrenheit or eases. Cannabis consumes a very large leaves. Deficiency shows as pale
12 degrees Celsius will have a nega- amount of potassium both in the veg- leaves like nitrogen deficiency with
tive effect on phosphorus uptake. etative and flowering stages. some marginal leaf chlorosis. New
leaves may twist and leaves may cup
Molybdenum (Mb)
and thicken. Excessive molybdenum
(mobile in plant, immobile in low pH soils)
in cannabis will look like iron or cop-
Molybendum deficiency in cannabis per deficiency. Molybdenum is need-
will show up in older and middle-aged ed for the reduction of absorbed
leaves first, then progressing to the nitrates into ammonia prior to incor-

Potassium (K)
(mobile in plant, immobile in soil)
Potassium deficiency in cannabis
will show first in older leaves with
yellowing, singed or scorching of leaf
margins with small necrotic (dead)
areas (they can start small and grow
big), stems can become brittle with
withering leaf tips. Growth slows
down, especially in the vegetative
stage and slows growth of flowers in
bloom with possible interveinal

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 23

Cannabis Clinic
poration into an amino acid. It per- Boron margins discolour and die back in
forms this function as part of the (B) (immobile in plant, mobile in soil) spots. Necrotic spots develop
enzyme nitrate reductase. In addition between leaf veins. Deficient leaves
to direct plant functions, molybde- Boron deficiencies in cannabis will become thick, wilt with necrotic and
num is also essential for nitrogen fixa- show up first in younger leaves (they chlorotic spotting. Boron is poorly
tion by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. will turn yellow), then moves upwards. absorbed with low potassium content.
Boron deficiency can resemble calci- Excessive boron is similar to calcium
um deficiency. Stunting, discoloura- deficiency and boron deficiency. This
tion, possible death of the growing is not a misprint! Excessive boron can
tips, bud abortion and development. resemble boron deficiency. Cannabis
Roots are stunted with swollen stubby uses boron for sugar transport within
secondary roots, leaves distorted, the plant. It has a role in cell division
sometimes bronzed or scorched.Tip of and is required for the production of
the shoot dies; stems and petioles are certain amino acids, although it is not
brittle. Boron deficiency symptoms a part of any amino acid, it also affects
first appear at the growing points.This pollination, seed production, carbohy-
results in short internodes (rosetting) drate synthesis and transportation,
and stunted appearance. Both the pith (division, differentiation, maturation,
and epidermis of stems may be affect- respiration and growth) and it regu-
ed as exhibited by hollow stems to lates water uptake.
roughened and cracked stems. Leaf
Join me in issue #5 to find out about other macro and micro
nutrient deficiencies that can affect your cannabis plants.

This Medical Marijuana was grown with

Advanced Nutrients 2+ Program!

24 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 25
The Cost of Compassion
By Don Appleby free medicine to our legitimately sick and your senate has spoken and I hear your cit-
Is it just me or is anyone else alarmed by dying people. I am an aids survivor and on izens calling and you can’t avoid this issue
the current state of our medical marijuana a cocktail of drugs totalling some $1,800 any longer. Action must be taken - and
movement? Apparently, if you live in B.C., per month and I am a licensed medical taken now, not later. The sick must be
life is much different than in the rest of the marijuana grower going broke trying to allowed their medication and it can’t be on
country. In B.C., compassion prices are fill a 10g/day prescription. After I pay my a paid for basis. Because there is no money
cheaper than if you live in Montreal and rent, hydro, telephone, internet and cable, to be made in compassion, just a heck of a
pay $12 - $15/gram. The tendency is now I am busted and can’t afford food and lot of sick people that require medicine.
towards buyers’ clubs and each major city depend on hand-outs from the food But they do need corporate Canada to
has one, but the farther you get from the banks. Some sick people are losing their step up and foot some of the cost associat-
cities, the more you pay. Ask someone in homes and others are being forced into a ed with growing and running operations
Sudbury or Timmin’s what they are paying life of crime to pay for their medicine. We like the compassion clubs so that we the
for their medicine. The real question is: need to put politics aside and do the right sick can get our medicine. And we need to
who can afford the medicine and who thing for the sake of our sick and terminal- get criminals away from the growing of
cannot, and how are they supposed to pay ly ill citizens. At least the senate did its our medicine.The sick need closure on this
for it once they get their doctors to pre- homework when they interviewed every- issue so that they can get on with whatev-
scribe it? Sick people are having to defend one from Holland before they recom- er life they have left and not have to worry
compassion clubs because they are forced mended total legalization. Way to go, constantly about going broke. Time is run-
to deal with the black market and a gov- senator Nolan! The Dutch would love to ning out for a lot of us.
ernment that refuses to take action on help us out if we could stop playing poli- Rev Don Appleby - Aids survivor and federal
behalf of its sick and dying citizens. tics with the lives of our sick, but no, that medical marijuana exemptee and grower of first
Something is radically wrong with this would be illegal and why is that illegal? Ask generation Dutch medicine. www.themarijua-
country when we can’t give away enough George W. to the South. Well, Mr. Chretien, namission.com

The Cost of Growing

Much debate has been held over the cost $200/oz. At 1oz per week, that ads up to Knowledge gained through growing will
of medical grade marijuana. Some say it $10,400 per year to buy off the street. result in larger crops as time goes by.
grows by itself and should be free and Equipment costs for growing are average The end cost of growing $10,400 worth of
some hold the opposite opinion. and prices may vary depending on where medical grade marijuana is about $5,000.
Cannabis Health Journal decided to find you shop. The chart below does not take It would take 6 to 8 months of successful
out, did their research and produced this into consideration the possibility of crop growing to break even on the cost of
chart on the cost of growing enough problems due to molds, insects or a vari- growing to fill a 4g/day (1oz per week)
marijuana to fulfill a 4g/day prescription, ety of other things that modify the prescription.
compared to buying it at a cost of amount your harvest.

page 26 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 27
“Shared Risk” Models for Medicinal Commercialization
A revolutionary Building on opportunities created by products compounded by these people.
idea for cannabis shared storage and ownership, the Licences like those used for industrial
production is the Weyburn Inland Terminal has added hemp with a mandatory inventory audit
“Cannabis other services such as specialty crops trail in place would be satisfactory in
Condo”. This is processing and livestock feed pellet meeting regulatory concerns. As for
not a piece of manufacture. The model is now the cannabis production, it is best regulated
leaky West Coast industry standard. by Agriculture Canada with variety spe-
Morris Johnson Real Estate Cannabis cific regulations. The Natural Health
equipped with as a Natural Health Product Product regulations take effect post-har-
grow lights, but a production model that Currently cannabis is regulated by the vest. All cannabis should be immediate-
preserves identity and allows for tailored Health Canada’s Office of Controlled ly “grand-fathered” into the NHP
production to meet user needs. The model Substances. Ideally, it should be regulated pharmacopia.
adapts a storage system designed for the as a Natural Health Product (NHP) under Health Care: who pays?
grain industry. In 1992, the Weyburn the specific direction of users under the Health Canada/Medicare funds random-
Inland Terminal created a legal and busi- supervision of their health care practition- ized trials and criteria based rationing for
ness template through their “Grain er. The proposed NHP regulations (see high cost Rx drugs, partial coverage for
Condominium” concept. Spaces in grain http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpfb-dgpsa/nhpd- most older low-cost drugs and forces users
condos are owned directly by farmers; the dpsn) seem workable. to pay for everything else themselves. The
condos allow for off-farm storage near the These regulations place requirements on question is, who pays how much and how
elevator, giving farmers much more mar- persons who sell NHPs, namely manu- all parties can work together to minimize
ket flexibility. facturers, distributors, importers, pack- total costs.
To copy this model for medicinal cannabis, agers and labelers. The regulations also Medicare coverage triggers must include
cannabis users would own their own grow considers that growers who handle improvements in psychological and physi-
chambers or grow plots and maintain and/or treat a product in order to pre- cal health, financial analysis (pharmaco-
them either personally or on a mainte- serve the integrity of the raw material, economics), reduced social support costs
nance contract. Each user would choose are not considered manufacturers. and increased earning power for the
specific seeds, grow conditions, nutrients, Heath care practitioners (for example, patient. The social, medical and economic
primary or finished product processing pharmacists, Aboriginal healers, tradi- and political aspects must focus on indi-
methods. Similar to grain condos, excess tional Chinese medicine (TCM) practi- vidual patient satisfaction. Unfortunately,
production can be bartered/traded to avoid tioners, herbalists, naturopathic doctors, patients cannot pro-rate payment for 3rd
crop failure, and to allow for uninterrupt- etc.) who compound products at the party or public funded services to ensure
ed supply; as well the condo could also pro- request of a patient, are not included satisfactory service. Pharmaco-economics
vide opportunities to create blends from within the manufacturer definition and analyze all costs to access cannabis for a
more than one variety. therefore the regulations do not apply to user as well as society over a lifetime vs
the costs if none is used.
Price must be based not only on cost to
grow, process, distribute, research and
provide social and technical support, but
also on medical efficiency. Health Canada
is responsible to see to it that patients are
benefitted in a way that maximizes results
and fund portions of NHP medication
costs for large scale studies. Fees or taxes
on cannabis sales must be used only to
subsidize Rx’s to users based upon indi-
vidual ability to pay.
Legal (local, regional and national, civil
and criminal) and regulatory compliance
(narcotic, pharmaceutical, Natural Health
Product, food), social (compassion club,
disease support group, community/cultur-
al group) and ethical (legal, civil, medical
professional, cultural) values must place
the user health status above all else.
For every activity in the chain, there is a
proven model to copy or adapt to cannabis.
For more detailed/updated information
contact myself or the people with
Cannabis Health Foundation.

28 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 29
hotels, nightclubs and events listed. Readers of One may have thought that the (tourist
CANNABIS HEALTH will be interested in the sec- attracting) “Cannabis Café” was some-
tion on medical marijuana, which discusses the thing only found in Amsterdam, where
Dutch view. There is a list of Coffee Shops the hip smokers go. Well, Canada has a
offering discounts for certified patients, there
few of its own. Vancouver has the Blunt
are contact numbers for the Medical
Marijuana Foundations. New this year is a spe-
Bros. Café (in business for 4 years) and
cial section on the emerging cannabis scene in the New Amsterdam Café. Toronto has
The latest edition of THE SMOKERS their cannabis café as well and, by the
GUIDE TO AMSTERDAM is now available. the United Kingdom, especially London.
Finally, page 33 is a pull-out section with time you read this article, there will be
(Advertorial) another one opening, this time in New
coupons good for discounts on your first pur-
This is the same publication sold exclusively in
chase. For anyone planning (or just hoping) to Brunswick by Jim and Lynn Wood of
the coffee shops of that city for the last 13
visit Amsterdam, THE SMOKERS GUIDE TO AMS- Hemp NB.
years. The handy sized format is divided into
TERDAM contains everything you need to plan In the cannabis cafés in Amsterdam you
many sections dealing with the products sold
your dream vacation. The smokers guide is can buy, smoke and ingest marijuana in
in the Coffee Shops (both marijuana and
available in North America through Triple its many forms without fear of breaking
hashish), tips on quality control and coffee
Play, 423 King West #326, Hamilton, Ontario,
shop etiquette. Another section covers “Smart any laws. In Canada it is a different story.
L8P 4Y1, Retail $15.95 incl. taxes and shipping.
Shop” and the variety of goods available there,
Wholesale orders available at There are no marijuana sales, but there
such as 8 types of mushrooms, salvia and vari- is a nice atmosphere, tasty munchies
ous cacti. As well, there are smoke-friendly and non-alcoholic drinks. (no tobacco

F r i e n d l y Director y

Central Hydroponics
Great products
Sold by People that Care
3444 River Rd., Chemainus BC
Ph/Fa x: 250-246-1379
30 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal
smoking allowed) and a safe place to places operate in is - the bottom line is, guished cannabis-based soft drugs
smoke cannabis. they have legitimate business licenses from “hard drugs” such as heroin or
Or is it safe? According to local police, and are busy places, with some having cocaine. Cannabis was still officially
the situation is that the people who are 500 plus customers a day. Most of the illegal, but the possession of up to 30g
“toking” are still breaking the law and customers seem to be the American was no longer to be prosecuted as a
can be charged with possession. tourist coming up to see just what is criminal offence.
Whether or not the owners of the cafés going on and experience our more tol- The liberal Dutch approach laid the
are in violation is still under evaluation erant situation. foundation for a multi-billion Dollar
under the Criminal Code of Canada.The Now that Ronald Barry Stavert, who economy, attracting millions of visitors
view of the St. John, New Brunswick was charged with simple marijuana each year and generating substantial
police is that it’s very shocking that possession in P.E.I. won his case on con- tax income for the Dutch government.
they’re openly condoning and support- stitutional grounds, the ability of the Contrary to claims how soft drugs open
ing people breaking the law, as it police to arrest “tokers” anywhere in the way toward hard-drug addiction,
stands. These cafés are public place’s so Canada for simple possession is severe- coffee shops are a safe place for experi-
they will be dropping by once in a ly hampered. mentation that keep potential users
while, just to see what is going on. It looks like the entrepreneurial efforts away from criminal pushers. The gov-
The general concensus is that it seems of those pushing the envelope will pay ernment insists that, while it tolerates
to be OK to operate as long as the com- off big time! soft drugs, it is tough on hard-drug
munity is tolerant and there are no THE DUTCH EXPERIENCE dealers.
complaints. Holland now has more than 800 coffee A 2002 report from the European
The RCMP have shut down 2 cannabis shops, found in 105 of the country’s 500 Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug
cafés in the past and owners were cities and towns. Addiction said, so-called “problem drug
charged with possession for the pur- The Dutch government passed ground- use” in the Netherlands is the lowest
pose of trafficking. breaking legislation in 1976 that distin- among countries in the European
No matter how grey the area that these Union and candidate states.

Pot Prescription Denied to Prisoner

A Halifax area man who holds a federal you can help by writing to Honourable would ensure that he could exercise his
license to use marijuana for medicinal Wayne Easter, Solicitor General of constitutional right to use medicinal
purposes has been denied access to his Canada, House of Commons, Ottawa, marijuana, while maintaining restricted
prescription since September of last On., K1A 0A6. The only solution to this freedom.
year. Michael Patriquen was sentenced dire situation is to release Michael to “If they don’t want to do it voluntarily,
to 6 years in prison for conspiring to supervised house arrest, so that he can we’ll do it in court. But I’m not going to
traffic the drug in Nova Scotia and begin to rebuild his health and access his die waiting for it,” Patriquen said.
Newfoundland, and he has lost 37 medication, if Correction Services Visit www.med-marijuana.com for
pounds since being jailed last fall. Canada cannot provide him with it. This more information.
“When I’m in pain, which is most of the
time…I’m nauseous…my stomach is
upset,” said Patriquen. Michael’s pain
stems from a car accident. He suffers
from chronic/debilitating pain causing a
loss of weight, sleep, strength and over-
all health. The father of two is taking his
case to court to win the right to access
what he needs. Michael is not new to
activism, he founded the Nova Scotia
Marijuana Party and has been active in
the movement for years.
Two specialists have agreed marijuana
would help his situation and Health
Canada gave him the OK to legally
smoke the drug. But prison officials say
they cannot break the law to provide an
inmate with his drugs, even if that pris-
oner is legally entitled to it. The argu-
ment that Michael gives is that inmates
are given morphine, methadone, and
other drugs – so why not marijuana?
Today, Michael remains in prison, and

CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal 31

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Number of Applications S TAT I S T I C S

under the Marihuana Medical Since the MMAR came into force on July under s56 of the Controlled Drugs and
Access Regulations (MMAR) 30, 2001, Health Canada has received 976 Substances Act (CDSA) - Since the initia-
applications. Many of these applications tion of the exemption program for mari-
Province Total Authorizations
were incomplete and the applicants had juana for medical purposes, in 1999 and as
Alberta 68
to be contacted for further information. of March 7, 2003, 666 exemptions have
British Columbia 102
However, as of March 7, 2003, Health been granted, of which 351 are still active.
Manitoba 14
Canada has issued 574 authorizations to A large number of these current exemp-
New Brunswick 12
possess, of which 570 are still active, 375 tions to possess also include exemptions
Newfoundland & Labrador 9
personal production licences and 36 des- to cultivate. A total of 269 holders of
Nova Scotia 42
ignated person licences. No requests for exemptions have transitioned to the
Ontario 267
authorizations to possess have been MMAR at this point. Since June 1999 a
Quebec 41
refused, however, 2 designated persons total of 336 s56 refusals have been
Saskatchewan 14
have been refused, as the designated per- issued.
Yukon Territory, P.E.I., Nunavut
sons already were the holders of licences. S ourcehttp://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hecs-
and North West Territories 5 sesc/ocma/stats/2003/mar/stats_mar-03.htm
The table to the left is a breakdown of the
Total 574
authorization per province Exemption

32 CANNABIS HEALTH the medical marijuana jour nal