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Anele O. Amos1, 2, Hamam Ykandar1, 2, 3, Alayli Yasser 2 and Djouani Karim1, 4

Dept. of Electrical Engineering

Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa

2

LISV Laboratory, UVSQ, Paris, France

3

ESIEE Paris Est University, Paris, France

4

LISSI Laboratory Paris Est University, Paris, France

anelea@tut.ac.za, hamama@tut.ac.za, yasser.alayli@lisv.uvsq.fr, djouanik@tut.ac.za

1

solution for a greener energy, they require sufficient battery

storage on board in order to provide sufficient driving autonomy.

Plug-in connectors have been commonly proposed for EV battery

charging. However, these are inherently unsafe due to the

exposed electrical terminals.

Contactless inductive power

transfer (CIPT) systems provide a modern technology suitable

for wireless transfer of electric power for EV battery charging.

However, coil misalignment is its inherent problem since the

mutual inductance depends on the shapes and orientations of the

two coils in the CIPT transformer. In this paper the authors

analyse the impact of coil misalignment on the mutual inductance

between circular filaments. This investigation is achieved by

computing relevant and advanced models formulated in the

literature for computing circular filaments with coil

misalignments. Detailed results obtained using SCILAB

application software are given.

Keywordsangular

misalignment;

coil

misalignment;

contactless inductive power transfer system; electric vehicle;

filamentary circular coils; lateral misalignment; mutual inductance

I.

INTRODUCTION

of major concern to developed societies. As a result, their

great priority is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases

such as carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous oxide and methane.

Amongst several sectors, this paper focuses on the aspect of

reducing the amount of air-borne pollution which is caused by

the transportation system. To successfully achieve this aim,

many of the big automobile companies are compelled to move

from the manufacturing of internal combustion engine

vehicles (ICEVs) to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), hydrogen

fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) [1].

Amongst these eco-friendly vehicles, EVs are a favoured

solution for a greener energy. However, since EVs require

sufficient battery storage on board to maintain its driving

range, users and owners of EVs are faced with the challenge

of limited range travel distance per charge.

To tackle this issue, the plug-in connector has been

the charging of EV battery [1-3]. However, plug-in connectors

are inherently unsafe because of their exposed electrical

terminals which could cause electrocution especially in wet

and hostile environment. One way to overcome this hurdle is

to employ contactless inductive power transfer (CIPT)

systems.

A contactless inductive power transfer (CIPT) system allows

electrical energy to be transferred over a relatively large air

gap using high frequency magnetic fields [2, 3]. The major

component of CIPT system is the CIPT transformer, which

consists of two coils. Electric power may be transferred

wirelessly when the magnetic field generated by the primary

coil is partly picked up by the secondary coil (see Figs. 1 and

2). However, CIPT systems have the problem of coil

misalignment. This implies that a minimal amount of electric

power transfer is guaranteed due to certain limits of coil

separation distance and coil misalignment (e.g. lateral and

angular misalignments) [4-6]. Therefore, since the mutual

inductance depends on the shapes and orientations of the two

coils in the CIPT transformer [6, 7], the impact of coil

misalignment on the mutual inductance between circular

filaments is investigated in this paper.

Circular coils with air-core are widely used in various

electromagnetic applications. Coils of rectangular crosssection, thin wall solenoids, thin disk coils and filamentary

circular coils are examples of air-core circular coils [8, 9].

However, to achieve the aim of this paper, filamentary circular

coils with both lateral and angular misalignments are

considered since in several electromagnetic applications

regarding coil misalignments, the optimal magnetic coupling

between circular filamentary coils is required [10].

This paper is organised as follows. Section 2 presents the

computation of the mutual inductance between circular

filaments with coil misalignments. Section 3 presents the

results obtained using SCILAB application software. Section 4

presents discussion of the results obtained while section 5

concludes the paper.

made by Babic [11], it was shown that the mathematical

approach used by Kim [20] led to misleading results.

Based on this information, Babic in [11] showed the right way

to retrieve Grovers formula from magnetic vector potential. It

was argued that the proposed method is very simple, accurate

and practical for engineering applications since all the results

obtained were verified by previously published data and the

software Fast Henry. Finally, it was also concluded that the

approach could be a good alternative to modern numerical

methods such as FEM and BEM.

B. Formula for Computing Mutual Inductance between

Circular Filaments with Coil Misalignment

Using magnetic vector potential approach, the formulated

model for computing the mutual inductance between

filamentary coils with both lateral and angular misalignments

(see Fig. 3) was obtained by Babic [11] as:

II.

formulated models for computing mutual inductance between

circular filaments. In addition, the final part of this section

presents relevant and advanced models formulated by Babic in

[11] for computing the mutual inductance between circular

filaments with coil misalignment.

A. Brief Literature Review

Babic in [12] states that the mutual inductance computation

between coaxial circular filaments has been thoroughly treated

by [13-17] and that an accuracy exceeding anything required

in practice is nowadays possible. Several contributions to the

issue of mutual inductance computation have been based on

the application of Maxwells formula, Neumanns formula and

the Biot-Savart law. Maxwell [16] was the first to give the

formula for two circles whose axes intersect. Butterworth [13]

and Snow [17] gave formulas for circular loops with parallel

axes. However, these formulas were slowly convergent and

not useable with a wide range of parameters [11]. Based on

Butterworths formula [13], Grover [14, 15] formulated a

model for computing the mutual inductance between circular

filaments located at any position with respect to each other.

The authors in [18, 19] considered that it is possible to

accurately and rapidly compute the mutual inductance

between circular coils with powerful numerical methods such

as the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Boundary

Element Method (BEM). Nevertheless, Kim in [20] used a

semi-analytical

method

magnetic

vector

potential

mathematical approach to compute the mutual inductance

between circular filaments with lateral misalignment only. It

was discussed that the method simplifies the mathematical

procedures for computing the mutual inductance, its

associated programming and significantly reduces its

2 0

R P RS

d

cos

cos k

RS

(1)

d

1

R cos k

S

(2)

k V3

2 0

R P RS

k V3

where

k2

k 1

2

K k

1

2

1 k sin 2

E k

K k E k

1 k 2 sin 2 d

k2

4V

1 V 2

cos sin

RS

RP

c

RP

V 1 sin 2 cos 2

d2

RS

d

cos cos

RS

where

0 : magnetic permeabili ty of vacuum

RS : radius of the secondary coil

: angular misalignment

d : lateral misalignment

: shape factor of the coil' s physical geometry

c : separation distance between coils

k : is a variable and not indices

E k : complete elleptic integral of the second kind

Fig. 7: Mutual inductance versus coil misalignment for c 0.1 m

III.

RESULTS OBTAINED

[11], the following results were obtained using SCILAB

application software. The data used for the simulation is

shown in Table I [10-12].

IV.

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

inductance between filamentary circular coils with both lateral

and angular misalignments while equation (2) is used in the

case of lateral misalignment only, i.e. when 0 . The mutual

inductance between filamentary circular coils with both lateral

and angular misalignments is analysed based on Equation (1).

This analysis is achieved via SCILAB application software by

using the data given in Table I. The lateral and angular

misalignments were varied based on their values whereas the

values for the separation distance between circular coils were

fixed for each simulation. The results obtained in Figs. 7-11

show that as the distance between coils as well as lateral and

angular misalignments increase, the mutual inductance

decreases. In other words, at d 0 m and 0 the value of

the mutual inductance is high but as d increases from

of the mutual inductance begins to drop from its high value.

Furthermore, it is observed that at 800 and 850 , the

values of the mutual inductance at any fixed separation

distance keeps decreasing towards zero but at 90 0 , it is

clearly seen in all plots as shown in Figs. 4-13 that the value

of the mutual inductance was either almost zero or zero.

Finally, this investigation therefore shows that in order to

compute the mutual inductance of magnetically coupled coils,

coil misalignments such as lateral and angular must be

considered in the formula for computing the mutual

inductance between circular coils with air-core.

TABLE I

(degree)

0

30

50

75

90

d

(m)

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

RS

0.02m

RP

0.05m

4 107 H m

V.

c

(m)

0.00

0.01

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

CONCLUSION

energy. However, since EVs require sufficient battery storage

on board to maintain its driving range, users and owners of

EVs are faced with the challenge of limited range travel

distance per charge. To overcome this problem, plug-in

connectors have been commonly proposed for EV battery

charging. However, it is inherently unsafe because of its

exposed electrical terminals, which could cause electrocution

especially in wet and hostile environment. Notwithstanding, a

modern way to avoid the disadvantages caused by plug-in

connector is to employ a contactless inductive power transfer

(CIPT) systems. Nevertheless, CIPT systems are faced with

the challenge of coil misalignment. As a result, at certain

limits of coil separation distance and coil misalignment (e.g.

lateral and angular misalignments), a minimal amount of

electric power would be transferred to the on board battery

the shapes and orientations of the coils in the CIPT

transformer, the impact of coil misalignment on the mutual

inductance between circular filaments was investigated in this

paper. This investigation was achieved by computing relevant

and advanced models formulated in the literature for

computing circular filaments with coil misalignments. The

results obtained using SCILAB application software show that

as the coil misalignment between circular filaments increase

the mutual inductance between them decreases (see Figs. 413). Finally, this analysis shows that in order to compute the

mutual inductance of magnetically coupled coils, coil

misalignment (e.g. lateral and angular misalignments) must be

considered in its formulated model.

[10]

[11]

[12]

REFERENCE

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

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C.-S. Wang, O. H. Stielau, and G. A. Covic, "Design

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X. Huang, H. Qiang, and L. Tan, "The Coil

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[20]

Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 20, pp.

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S. I. Babic and C. Akyel, "Calculating mutual

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S. I. Babic, C. Akyel, and M. M. Mahmoudi, "Mutual

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S. Butterworth, "LIII. On the coefficients of mutual

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F. W. Grover, "Inductance calculations," vol. chs. 2

and 13, 1964.

J. C. Maxwell, A treatise on electricity and

magnetism vol. 1: Clarendon Press, 1881.

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A. Benhama, A. Williamson, and A. Reece, "Force

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constant current density," Magnetics, IEEE

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