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1.

TITLE
Deflection of Curved Bars.
2. INTRODUCTION
Castiglianos Theorem is a method for determining the displacements
of a linear-elastic system based on the partial derivatives of the Energy
principle structures. Curved bar are usually part of a mechanical
member which has a combination of straight and curved elements.
Deflection will occur when a force is applied on an elastic object
because work is done. The study of how curved bars deflect is thus,
important so as to estimate the total mechanical displacement of
structures that incorporate curved sections. One of the more effective
methods used to estimate deflections in curved bars comes from
3. OBJECTIVE
To validate the formula of deflection of curved bars based on Castiglianos
Theorem.
4. APPARATUS
TECQUIPMENT curved bar apparatus, quarter circle and circular bars.
5. THEORY
Castiglianos first theorem.
If the strain energy of an elastic structure can be expressed as a function of
generalised displacement qi; then the partial derivative of the strain energy
with respect to generalised displacement gives the generalised force Q i.
In equation form,
Where U = strain energy

A. Quarter Circle Bar

For conservation of energy, the total strain energy which is caused by bending
moment M is,
U = M2/2EI ds

(1)

The bending moment for a quarter circle bar, at any section d is,
M = PvRsin

(2)

So, the strain energy stored due to a load Pv is,


U = Pv2R3/8EI

(3)

The vertical deflection is then,


v = dU/dPV = PR3/4EI

(4)

The horizontal deflection can be calculated by applying an imaginary force P H


in the
horizontal direction. From Castiglianos Theorem, the horizontal is given by,
H = dU/dPH = PR3/2EI
With

(5)

R = radius of quarter circle bar = 150mm


E = elastic modulus of bar material = 200GN/m2
I = second moment of area of the cross section I = bh3 / 12
b = width of the cross section = 25mm
d = thickness of the cross section = 3mm

Figure 2(a) Quarter Circle Bar

Figure 2(b) Circular Bar

B. Circular Bar
The deflection which is caused by force PV is,
=

3 2
=

= 0.149

with the values of R, E and I the as above. The cross section of the bar is 25 x
3 mm.

6. PROCEDURE
A. Quarter Circle Bar
I.
A hanger is attached to a free end of the bar
II. Two dial gauge is clamped at their allocated points
III. 0.2 kg load is applied and the value of vertical and horizontal
deflection is recorded.
IV. Loads are added increment of 0.2 kg until maximum load of 1.6 kg.
V. The deflection of each loading is recorded.
B. Circular Bar
I.
The above method is performed for this circular bar experiment with
a load increment of 0.5 kg until maximum load is 4 kg.
II. The vertical displacement is recorded

8. CALCULATIONS
Quarter circle bar
(experimental)
Example : W = 0.8 kg
i. Vertical deflection, v

Test 1 = 1.78 mm

Test 2 = 1.77 mm

Average =
=

= 1.775 mm
ii. Horizontal deflection, H

Test 1 = 1.05 mm

Test 2 = 1.04 mm

Average =
=

= 1.045 mm

(theoretical)
i.

Vertical Deflection, v

v =

R = radius of quarter circle bar

E = Elasticity Modulus
b = width of the cross section

Given;

d = Thickness of the cross section

W = 0.8 x 9.81

I = second moment of area

= 7.848 N
E = 200 kN/mm2
R = 150 mm
I=(

for squared shaped bar

b = 25 mm

d = 3 mm

I=(

= 56.25 mm4

v =

v =

v = 1.849 mm

ii.

Horizontal deflection, H
H =

H =

H = 1.177 mm

Circular bar
(experimental)
Example : W = 2.0 kg
Vertical deflection, v

i.

Test 1 = 0.88 mm

Test 2 = 0.84 mm

Average =
=

= 0.86 mm

(Theoritical)
Vertical deflection, v


v = 0.149

R = radius of quarter circle bar


E = Elasticity Modulus
b = width of the cross section

W = 2.0 x 9.81

d = Thickness of the cross section

= 19.62 N

I = second moment of area

From previous calculation, I = 56.25 mm4


3

19.62 150
v = 0.149 (
)
200000 56.25
v = 0.877 mm

9. DISCUSSION

For this experiment deflection of curved bar, we performed this


experiment two times for each increment of load to get accurate value by
finding its average for quarter and circular bar. After the average value is
determined and also the theoretical value is found, graph of load, W against
deflection for theoretical and experimental deflection is plotted. For graph
quarter circle bar, we can see that the values of theoretical and experimental
vertical and horizontal deflection are almost the same against Load. This also
same goes to circular bar which it is also found that it has same pattern. So
based on these three graph, we can say that they are directly proportional
which mean as the load increases, the deflection will be increased.
Based on these findings, we can determined their percentage of error by
using a formula that is
Percentage of Error =

100

After calculation is made, all the data is tabulated as below

Load,
W
(kg)
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6

Table 1: Percentage error analysis of the theoretical and experimental vertical and
horizontal deflection of quarter circle bar.
% Error in
Experimental
Theoretical
Experimental
Theoretical
% Error in
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Horizontal
Horizontal
Horizontal
deflection,
deflection, v
deflection, v
deflection, v
deflection, v deflection, v
v
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
(%)
(%)
0.43
0.462
6.93
0.21
0.294
0.4
0.88
0.925
4.86
0.51
0.589
0.13
1.32
1.387
4.83
0.78
0.883
0.12
1.78
1.849
3.73
1.05
1.177
0.11
2.28
2.311
1.34
1.41
1.472
0.042
2.76
2.774
0.005
1.71
1.766
0.032
3.27
3.236
0.011
2.03
2.06
0.014
3.82
3.698
0.035
2.37
2.354
0.0068

Table 2: Percentage error analysis of the theoretical and experimental vertical and
horizontal deflection of circular bar.
Load, W
(kg)
0.500
1.000
1.500
2.000
2.500
3.000
3.500
4.000

Experimental Vertical
deflection, v
(mm)
0.2
0.42
0.64
0.85
1.08
1.29
1.51
1.72

Theoretical Vertical
deflection, v
(mm)
0.219
0.439
0.658
0.877
1.096
1.316
1.535
1.757

% Error in Vertical
deflection, v
(%)
8.68
4.33
2.73
3.08
1.46
1.98
1.63
2.11

From the calculation percentage of error, we can see that in table 1,


almost all the percentage of error are less than 5%. This shows that the
experiment is conducted correctly and almost accurate. In table 2, the
percentage can be saying less than 10% and can also be considered as
correct.
However, these errors were happened due to some factors that had affected
the data. Some of the factors (errors) are
i.
ii.

iii.

Vibration of table by people will affecting the dial gauge reading hence
cause the reading to be less accurate
The error when taking the reading. The position of eyes of the
observer must be parallel to the dial gauge and the observer should be
the same person so that the consideration (rounding) of values is
constant.
When placing the load, it should be slowly so that there has not much
of movement load hanger because data will be different if there has
much movement.

There are several advantages of using Castiglianos Theorem. Firstly,


this theorem can measured deflection of the bar that bends. Next is the value
of young Modulus E is fixed according to the material been used since in this
theorem, we can apply the fixed value. In addition, calculation that is to get
the value of beam deflection is more simple if the differences between load is
solve first before we integrate or other solution. Other advantage is this
method is using the dummy where it function is to take the point that is not
mentioned the actual load.

Other methods that can be used to calculate beam deflection are


superposition method, finite element method, moment distribution method,
Macaulay method and also Double Integration method.

10. CONCLUSION
In conclusion, Castiglioanos Theorem is a simple method to
determined deflections of beam where the beam is bending. From this
experiment we can say that the theorem is correct and it is proven when the
value of experimental is almost the same with the value calculated using
Castiglianos formula. This also can be supported by referring to the table of
percentage of error since the error is very small. We have found that the error
is less than 10% and we can consider that this experiment is succeed. So
after conducting this research, we are able validate the Castiglianos Theorem
and we are able to determine the deflection experimentally and theretically.

11. REFERENCES

1. http://www.me.ust.hk/~meqpsun/Notes/Chapter8(202).pdf
2. https://www.scribd.com/doc/109317003/Deflection-ofCurved-Bars#download
3. https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/castiglianostheorem-on-curved-beams.169688/
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castigliano's_method